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Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey Lea gue, see Oil Change (TV Series). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help im prove this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material m ay be challenged and removed. (March 2009) This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifyi ng the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (September 2010) Motor oil sample Motor oil or engine oil is an oil used for lubrication of various internal combu stion engines. The main function is to lubricate moving parts; it also cleans, i nhibits corrosion, improves sealing, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. Motor oils are derived from petroleum-based and non-petroleum-synthesized chemic al compounds. Motor oils today are mainly blended by using base oils composed of hydrocarbons, polyalphaolefins (PAO), and polyinternal olefins (PIO), thus o rganic compounds consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen. The base oils of so me high-performance motor oils however contain up to 20% by weight of esters. Contents 1 2 3 4 Use Non-vehicle motor oils Properties Grades 4.1 Single-grade 4.2 Multi-grade 5 Standards 5.1 American Petroleum Institute 5.2 ILSAC 5.3 ACEA 5.4 JASO 5.5 OEM standards divergence 6 Other additives 7 Synthetic oils 8 Bio-based oils 9 Maintenance 10 Future 11 Re-refined motor oil 12 Packaging 13 See also 14 References 15 External links Use Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines. These include moto r or road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles, heavier vehicles such as buses and commercial vehicles, non-road vehicles such as go-karts, snowmobiles, boats (fixed engine installations and outboards), lawn mowers, large agricultural and construction equipment, locomotives and aircraft and static engines such as elec trical generators. In engines, there are parts which move against each other cau sing friction which wastes otherwise useful power by converting the energy to he at. Contact between moving surfaces also wears away those parts, which could lea d to lower efficiency and degradation of the engine. This increases fuel consump tion, decreases power output and can lead to engine failure.
from which the oil lubricates th e main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bear ings operating the valves. An oil pump. In some small engines such as lawn mower engines. decreasing heat caused by friction and reducing wear. Oil filters can be a full flow or bypass type. The oil then drips back down into the oil pan. and some singeing that turns used oil black after some running. In diesel engines the top ring can expose the oil to temperatures over 315 °C (600 °F). Some simpler designs relied on these rapidly moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. and rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft. Corrosion inhibitors may also be added to the motor oil. i. The oil is able to trap soot from combustion in itself.water or mixtures there of . in modern designs. a vane or gear pump powered by the engine. an oil cooler and through the build up of oil gases evac uated by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) system. Rubbing of metal engine parts inevitably produces some microscopic metallic part icles from the wearing of the surfaces. From these holes in the main journals. motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding s urfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings (main bearings and big-end beari ngs). including the oil filter. there are al so passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod -piston connections and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rin gs and interior surfaces of the cylinders. In some constructions oil is spraye d through a nozzle inside the crankcase on the piston to provide cooling of spec ific parts that underly high temperature strain. In the crankcase of a vehicle engine. In petrol (gasoline) engines. or sump. Motor oils with higher viscosity indices thin les s at these higher temperatures.Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of adjacent moving pa rts to minimize direct contact between them. oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the cra nkshaft. at the bottom of the crankcase. Motor oil may also serve as a cooling agent. This oil film also serves as a seal b etween the piston rings and cylinder walls to separate the combustion chamber in the cylinder head from the crankcase. In typical modern vehicles. it is typically circulated through an oil filter to remove harmful part icles. Many motor oils also h ave detergents and dispersants added to help keep the engine clean and minimize oil sludge build-up. On the other hand the thermal c apacity of the oil pool has to be filled up. rat her than leaving it deposited on the internal surfaces. motor oil transfers heat through convection as it flows through the engine by means of air flow over the surface of the oil pan. It is a combination of t his. the oil has to reach its desig ned temperature range until it can protect the engine under high load. In order to inform the driver about the oi l temperature. dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil a t the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts ins ide. This typi cally takes longer than heating the main cooling agent . the oil moves through passageway s inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod b earings and connecting rods. Because particles accumulate in the oil. thus protecting the engine. inhib iting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion. Coating metal parts with oil also keeps them from being exposed to oxygen. some older and most high performance as well as racing engines fe . the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and send s it through the oil filter into oil galleries. the top piston ring can expose the motor oil to te mperatures of 160 °C (320 °F). However. In use.up to its operating temperature. pumps the oil thr oughout the engine. The oil collects in an oil pan. Such particles could circulate in the oi l and grind against moving parts. In modern vehicle engines. causing wear.e.
see ASTM D5293-08) and "Mini-Rotary Viscometer" (MRV. but the "cold cranking simulator" (CCS . model a irplanes. an index of the lowest temperature of its utility . Motor oil must be able to flow adequately at the lowest temperature it is expect ed to experience in order to minimize metal to metal contact between moving part s upon starting up the engine. thicker petroleum hydrocarbon base stoc k derived from crude oil. A higher viscosity index indicates the viscosity changes less with temperature than a lower viscosity index. The oil injection system is not used on small engines used in appli cations like snowblowers and trolling motors as the oil injection system is too expensive for small engines and would take up too much room on the equipment. Some applications make use of lighter products such as WD-40. and burned in use alo ng with the gasoline.ature an oil thermometer. Still another important property of motor oil is its flash point. Properties Most motor oils are made from a heavier. meaning its ability to neu . these motors are not exposed to as wide service te mperature ranges as in vehicles. whe n a lighter oil is desired. ASTM D4684-08) are today the properties required in motor oil specs and define the SAE classifications. but lo w enough that the oil can flow around the engine parts under all conditions. removing the more volatile components. especially in Europe. N on-smoking two-stroke oils are composed of esters or polyglycols. chain saws. encouraged th e use of ester-based two cycle oil. and therefore increasing t he oil's flash point (reducing its tendency to burn). fractional distillation separates a motor oil fraction from other crude oil fractions. see ASTM D3829-02(2007). 40:1 or 50:1. w ill have a more economical oil injection system rather than oil pre-mixed into t he gasoline. gasoline powered gardening equipment like hedge trimmers." for a given application. Th e oil properties will vary according to the individual needs of these devices. The bulk of a typical motor oil consists of hydrocarbons with between 18 and 34 carbon a toms per molecule. The viscosity must be high enough to maintain a lubricating film. which is a measurement of the reserve alkalinity of an oil. One of the most important properties of motor oil in maint aining a lubricating film between moving parts is its viscosity. Environmental legislation for leisure marine applications. often in a rich gasoline:oil ratio of 25:1. Another example is two-stroke oil for lubrication of two-stroke or two-cycle internal combustion engines found in snow blowers. The viscosity index is a measure of how much the oil's viscosity changes as tempera ture changes. so these oils may be single viscosity oils. the lowest temperature at w hich the oil gives off vapors which can ignite.. Due to its high viscosity. In small two-stroke engines. Oil is largely composed of hydrocarbons which can burn if ignited... At a petroleum re finery.. the oil may be pre-mixed with the gasoline or fuel. Larger two-stroke engines used in boats and motorcycles. The pour point defined first this property of mot or oil. Often. leaf blowers and soil cultivators. so a high flash point is desirable. as defined by ASTM D97 as ". Another manipulated property of motor oil is its Total Base Number (TBN). It is dangerous for the oil in a motor to ignite and burn. motor oil is not always the preferred oil for certain applications. with additives to improve certain properties. or honing oil if the desired viscosity needs to be m id-range. The viscosity o f a liquid can be thought of as its "thickness" or a measure of its resistance t o flow. Non-vehicle motor oils An example is lubricating oil for four-stroke or four-cycle internal combustion engines such as those used in portable electricity generators and "walk behind" lawn mowers.
40. that oil is graded as SAE viscosity grade 0W. which should not be confused with engine oil viscosity. such as when the temperature ranges in use are not very w . The NOACK volatility (ASTM D-5800) Test determines the physical evaporation loss of lubricants in high temperature service. designating their "winter" (not "weight") or cold-start viscosity. the lower the temperature the oil can pass. 10. in units of mPa·s. at l ower temperature.g. and testing for exces sive foaming. Some automotive OEM oil specifications require lower than 10%. The lower the viscosity grade. of which six are considered Winter-grade s and given a W designation. The 11 viscosity grades are 0W. but fails fo r 0W. For example. A maximum of 15% evaporation loss is allowable to meet API SL and ILSAC GF-3 specifications. 40. 15. SAE J306. cannot use a polymeric Viscos ity Index Improver (also referred to as Viscosity Modifier) additive. the oil is graded as SAE visc osity grade 20. Based on the range of viscosity the oil falls in at that temperature. 50 or 60. The SAE has a separate viscosity rating system for gear. 30. For single non-winter grade oils. centipoise (abbreviated cP). the kinematic viscosity is measured at a tempe rature of 100 °C (212 °F) in units of mm2/s (millimeter squared per second) or the e quivalent older non-SI units. Total Acid Number (TAN) is the measure of a lubricant's acidity . a minimum viscosity measured at 150 °C (302 °F) and at a high-shear rate is also re quired. 30. the dynamic viscosity is measured at different col d temperatures. These numbers are often referred to as the "weight" of a motor oil. 20. 20W. and 1000. 50. 30. 5W. axle. as defined by SAE J300. 10W. 75W-140) do not mean that it has higher v iscosity than an engine oil. and 60. or the equivalent older non-SI units. 40.tralize acids. The long er it takes. and single-grade motor oils are often called "straight-weight" oils. 5. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has established a numerical code syste m for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. or sulfur content. or 25W. 25. They are the Cold Cranking Simulator (ASTMD5293) and t he Mini-Rotary Viscometer (ASTM D4684). Analogously. Other tests include zinc. T he higher numbers of a gear oil (e. 15 and 25 are suffixed with the l etter W. 15W. The resulting quantity is determined as mg KOH/ (gram of lubrican t). depending on whether it is being used to denote a cold or hot viscosity grade. 2 0. or 60. centistokes (abbreviated cSt). 15W. using tw o different test methods. In addition. SAE J300 h as established eleven viscosity grades. 50. 10. 5. 30. 25W. For some applications. Single-grade A single-grade engine oil. Kinematic viscosity is graded by measuring the time it takes for a standard amou nt of oil to flow through a standard orifice. for SAE grades 20. SAE visco sity gradings include the following. specified in J300 depending on the viscosity grade. The document SAE J300 defines the viscometrics related to these grades. 5W. Based on the coldest temperature the oil passes at. That oil cannot be labeled as either 0W or 10W. The higher the viscosity. 20W. the higher the viscosity and thus higher SAE code. then that oil must be labeled as an SAE 5W. phosphorus. Grades Range of motor oils on display in Kuwait in now-obsolete cardboard cans with ste el lids. and manual transm ission oils. at standard temperatures. the higher the SAE viscosity grade is. For single winter grade oils. if an oil passes at the specifications for 10W and 5W.. The number 20 comes with or without a W. from low to high viscosity: 0. 10W. The numbers 0.
for exam ple. These additives are used to make th e oil a multi-grade motor oil. if any VIIs are used however. bu t the slope representing the change is lessened. then that oil canno t be labeled as a single grade. This enables one type of oil to be used all year. To bring the differen ce in viscosities closer together. This slope representing the change with temperature depends on the nature and amount of the additives to the base oil. extreme pressure performance. polyalkylene glycols (PAG) . Note. a very simple multi-grade oil that can be easil y made with modern base oils without any VII is a 20W-20. or VIIs are added to the oil. cooling. The idea is to cause the multi-grade oil to have the vis cosity of the base grade when cold and the viscosity of the second grade when ho t. single-grade motor oil is satisfactory. lawn mower engines. a 10W-30 oil must fail the J300 requirements at 5W). Exampl es of group V base stocks include polyolesters (POE). The real-world ability of an oil to crank or pump when cold is potentially dimin ished soon after it is put into service. Group III base stocks have similar characteri stics to Group II base stocks. In fact. a nd can pass as a multi-grade. Group I base stocks are composed of fractionally distilled pe troleum which is further refined with solvent extraction processes to improve ce rtain properties such as oxidation resistance and to remove wax. in dustrial applications. Group III base stocks are produced by further hydrocracking of e ither Group II base stocks or hydroisomerized slack wax (a Group I and II dewaxi ng process by-product). 20W. This oil can be labele d as 20W-20. Motor oil may be composed of a lubricant base stock o nly in the case of non-detergent oil. The SAE designation for multi-grade oils includes two viscosity grades. or a lubricant base stock plus additives t o improve the oil's detergency. and vintage or classic cars. for example. an oil labeled as 1 0W-30 must pass the SAE J300 viscosity grade requirement for both 10W and 30. rangin g from cold temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up. The difference in viscosities for most single-g rade oil is too large between the extremes of temperature. if an oil does not contain any VIIs. Group II base s tocks are composed of fractionally distilled petroleum that has been hydrocracke d to further refine and purify it. Also. Standards American Petroleum Institute The American Petroleum Institute (API) sets minimum for performance standards fo r lubricants. Multi-grade The temperature range the oil is exposed to in most vehicles can be wide. For example.ide. The two numbers used are indivi dually defined by SAE J300 for single-grade oils. but can vary fr om country to country when climatic or fuel efficiency constraints come into pla y. Therefore. Group V is a catch-all group for any base stock not described by Groups I to IV. when multi-grades were initially developed. and ability to inh ibit corrosion of engine parts. A specific oil will have high viscosity when cold and a lower viscosity at the engine's operating temperature. Motor oil is used for the lubrication. or 20. and cleaning of in ternal combustion engines. though it is possible to have a multi-grade oil w ithout the use of VIIs. Lubricant base stocks are categorized into five groups by the API. except that Group III base stocks have higher vis cosity indexes. Group IV base stock are polyalphaolefins (PAOs). 10W-30 designates a common multi-grade oil. that oil can be labelled with either of the two SA E viscosity grades. The viscosity of a multi-grade oil still varies logarithmically with temperature. to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather . an d all limitations placed on the viscosity grades (for example. The motor oil grade and viscosity to be used in a given vehicle is specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle (althou gh some modern European cars now have no viscosity requirement). they were frequently described as all-season oil. special polymer additives called viscosity in dex improvers.
Because of this. which is se nsitive to reducing zinc and phosphorus. API. Groups I and II are commonly referred t o as mineral oils. it is the norm for all diesel rated engine oils to carry the "correspon ding" gasoline specification. and it is noted that one of the engine tests required for API SM . and API SJ and newer oils are referred to be specific to automobile and light truck use. CG-4.. this was at the 1200-1300 ppm level for zinc and phosphorus. Group V base oils are so diverse that there is no catch-all descripti on. there are special situations. In fact. where they must not be called synthetic) and group IV is a synt hetic oil. and ILSAC. and thus has created a controversi al issue of obsolescent oils needed for older engines. API created a separated CI-4 PLUS designation in conjunction with CJ-4 and CI-4 for oils that meet certain extra requirements. For example. API CJ-4 will almost always list eith er SL or SM. group III is typically referred to as synthetic (except in Ge rmany and Japan. a nd C for "commercial/compression ignition" (typical diesel equipment). In addition. Phosphorus is a key anti-wear component in motor oil and is usually found in m otor oil in the form of zinc dithiophosphate. there are specialty oils out in the mar ket place with higher than API allowed phosphorus levels. CF-2. where the current SM is und er 600 ppm. Curre nt API service categories include SN. CI-4. Accordingly. which represents most of the world s major automobile/engine manufactures. Each new API category has placed s uccessively lower phosphorus and zinc limits. Example. in API SG rated oils. The SN standard refers to a group of laboratory and engine te sts. API CH-4 with SJ. API CI-4 with SL. especially engines with s liding (flat/cleave) tappets. xW-30) due to the chemical poisoning that phosphorus has on catalytic converters . This reduction in anti-wear chemicals in oil has caused premature fa ilures of camshafts and other high pressure bearings in many older automobiles a nd has been blamed for pre-mature failure of the oil pump drive/cam position sen sor gear that is meshed with camshaft gear in some modern engines. is a sliding tappet design to test specifically for cam wear protection. and in a ddition. There are six diesel engine service designations which are current: CJ-4. and so on. Some manufacturers continue to use obsolete designatio ns such as CC for small or stationary diesel engines. The API service classes have two general classifications: S for "service/spa rk ignition" (typical passenger cars and light trucks using gasoline engines). The API oil classification structure has eliminated specific support for wet-clu tch motorcycle applications in their descriptors. and this marking is located in the lower porti on of the API Service Symbol "Donut". All pr evious service designations are obsolete. Most engines built bef ore 1985 have the flat/cleave bearing style systems of construction. Not everyone is in agreement with backwards compatibility. SM. such as "performance" engines or fully ra ce built engines. states API SM/ILSAC GF-4 is fully backwa rds compatible. CH-4. and perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs). although motorcycle oils commonly stil l use the SF/SG standard. The latest API service standard designation is SN for gasoline automobile and li ght-truck engines. motorcyc le oils are subject to their own unique standards. the Sequence IVA. have placed lim itations on the phosphorus content for certain SAE viscosity grades (the xW-20. SL and SJ for gasoline engines. It is possible for an oil to conform to both the gasoline and diesel standards. . All the current gasoline categories (including the obsolete SH). and CF. where the engine protection requirements are above and beyond API/ILSAC requirements. including the latest series for control of high-temperature deposits. Engine oi l which has been tested and meets the API standards may display the API Service Symbol (also known as the "Donut") with the service designation on containers so ld to oil users.
 To help consumers recognize that an oil meets the ILSAC requirements.ILSAC The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) also has standards for motor oil. GF-5. A key new test for GF-4. FC) standard is used. ILSAC works wi th API in creating the newest gasoline oil specification. ATC and CONCAWE. The industry has one year to convert their oils to GF-5 and in September 2011. many of the European original equipment manufacturer (OEM) c ar manufacturers resigned on the lacklustre direction of the American API oil st .8 L V-6 at 125 hp (93 kW). 5W-30. which both expert and novice can appreciate. an d this refers particularly to low ash. and the JASO T90 4-MB standard is not suitable for wet clutch use. and 150 °C (300 °F) oil temperature for 100 hours. 5W-20. along with most engines of European or Japanese origin. are designed to address oil-req uirement issues not addressed by the API service categories. detergency. For two-stroke gasoline engines. 3. GM 3. the JASO M345 (FA. with ILSAC adding an e xtra requirement of fuel economy testing to their specification. high power output. setting the st andards via their European Industry groups. FB. especially JASO-MA and JASO-FC. which involves running a 3. particularly smal l capacity. The JASO T904-MA and MA2 standards are des igned to distinguish oils that are approved for wet clutch use. 0W-30. These standards. a supplier of additives to nearly all motor oil companies. CEC (The Co-ordinating European Council) is the deve lopment body for fuel and lubricant testing in Europe and beyond. and 10W-30 viscosity grade oils. GF-4 applies to SAE 0W-20. the JASO T904 standard is used.8 L (232 in3). The IIIG test is about 50% more difficult than the previous IIIF test. hosts a Rel ative Performance Tool which directly compares the manufacturer and industry spe cs. A new set of specifications.60 0 rpm. JASO The Japanese Automotive Standards Organization (JASO) has created their own set of performance and quality standards for petrol engines of Japanese origin. which is also required for API SM. ACEA The ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles) performance/quali ty classifications A3/A5 tests used in Europe are arguably more stringent than t he API and ILSAC standards. In general. Introduced in 2004. ACEA. took effect in October 2010. Lubrizol. a Seq uence VIB Fuel Economy Test (ASTM D6837) is required that is not required in API service category SM. used in GF-3 and API SL oils. low smoke and exha ust blocking. For GF-4. lubricity. ATIEL. Differences in their performance is apparent in the form of interactive spid er graphs. ILSAC will no longer offer licensing for GF-4. These are much more severe conditions than any API-specified oil was designed for: cars which typically pu sh their oil temperature consistently above 100 °C (212 °F) are most turbocharged en gines. and is particu larly relevant to motorcycle engines. For four-stroke gasoline engines. OEM standards divergence By the early 1990s. Engine oils bearing the API starburst symbol since 2005 are ILSAC GF-4 compliant. is the Sequence IIIG . API develo ped a "starburst" certification mark.
very little in terms of surface protection in corrosion or mechanical resistance. Reason for this is that the small los s of the oil during engine life — that ends burned. with 10000 km in s tandard car use as the typical value in the 1990. Another trend of today represent midSAP (sulfated ash <0.5 – 45000 km. in Europe longer service intervals became the norm. Porsche.xx) Oil certified for the long est change interval also had the best antioxidative properties and stability. BMW S pecial Oils and BMW Longlife standards.**. the Ford "WSS" standards.5 standard had sulfated ash content ar ound 2%. GM. exhaust valve stem cleanliness is improved and much less gypsum ends up plugging the catalyst and/or particula .1 – 15000 km. when the API SC. and the MB228.000 mi) — before requiring an oil change.) In recent years similar happened in the North American diesel engine market in the high performance segment. Cumm ins. 22 8. John Deere. FORD WSS-M2C934-A). Those had r eserve alkalinity and buffering ability only sourced from the bulk mass of the f resh base stock and offered very. Other Europea n OEM standards are from General Motors (dexos).xx. In personal vehicles is a general oi l change interval given by oil specification: 228.5 wt. Many service technicians still recommend 3000 or 5000 miles service intervals in the conservative North Americ an market. "extended drain". thus ACEA specification on the back label completely or nearly conforms to many OEM specifications. taking Volkswagen Group vehicles. thus providing superior piston ring protection as a side-effect.00). with names such as Caterpillar. The ACEA specifications C1 to C4 reflect the m idSAP and lowSAP needs of automotive OEMs.** series from Volkswagen Group. with a "Use Mobil 1 only" sticker was usually placed on those cars. as it suits them as a source of revenue and also there is less of a n eed to provide top quality lubricants.8 wt. General Motors used the 4718M standard that is used for high-performance engines. More recently.* and MB229. Prior to the development of the dexos standard.-%) engine oil (see specifications: MB 229.** from Mercedes-Benz. MB 22x. 228.-%) and lowSAP (su lfated ash <0. (No te that the ACEA class of standards is co-developed with all European engine mak ers to better suit the legislative and technical needs. Merced es and PSA all have their own similar longlife oil standards.3 – 30000 km.000 km ( ~31.x1. Ford appearing on the back of the oil cans in lists of certifications. Ce rtain BP Vanellus oil certified for MB228. With better lubricants in the beginning of t he 1980s. and the PSA Group of Peugeot an d Citroën. (Similar rule applies to the MB 229. the standard applies to oils used in trucks and personal cars alike . (In case of MB cer tified oils. and a diesel engine can go up to 2 years or 50. Some of the of widely used OEM standards are the VW500. a petrol engine can go up to 2 years or 30. Such o ils were originally marketed for heavy trucking use (100000 miles change interva l) and other "long life" oils are likely to be of similar grade. The North American habit of having oil changed in the engine every 3000 miles ha s its roots if past far ago.000 km (~18. a standard that is us ed in North America for selected North American performance engines. Volkswagen (504. As a resul t many leading European motor manufacturers created and developed their own "OEM " oil standards which were no longer directly compatible with the plain API. while other small c ar makers were satisfied with the generic — and thus least performing lubricants a vailable and caught up recently when the legislation from the European Council m andated them to improve fuel consumption and improve emissions. Mack. "BMW longlife" and similar oils have arisen. VW505. CB oils were the norm. so every Mercedes engine was expected to use the same oil.600 mi). and yet it failed to fulfi ll the needs of the main commercial engine producers. BMW.) This should be not surprising as Mercedes was among the first to differentiate o ils according to longevity (1980s to 1990).andards as it did not perform to the needs of a motor oil to be used in their mo tors and seriously lagged in development of the previous generations. wh ereby. Ren ault RN 0720. It i s irony that the standard "API C" means "Commercial".
etc.. Thus engines requiring S AE 0W-20 oil do so because their operating temperatures are far lower than those using SAE-40 viscosity oil. High Shear ) at around 3. This improves emissions as the emission regulating system has longer service life then. API tests are performed on engines subjected to far lighter loads and shears.te filter. Required minimum HTHS viscosity is given by SAE oi l grade.000 km and up HTHS viscosity is maintained (High Temperature. Wear protection and HTHS viscosity are important paramet ers and are not specified in the SAE viscosity standard. many modern cars for t he European market will demand a specific OEM-only oil standard. A too low HTHS viscosity and protection o f piston rings and journal bearings may be compromised..5cSt. because 'some products would be looking bad even if they were completely OK' Quote from ASTM report on the matter: "The rapid growth of non-Newtonian multigr aded oils has rendered kinematic viscosity as a nearly useless parameter for cha racterising "real" viscosity in critical zones of an engine. The reason for current development of new OEM standards is that in the 1970s to 1980s when the SAE and API refused to develop standards for characterising oils by their HT HS viscosity or by their lubricating properties.. As a result. Which number marks suitability for a turbocharged engine. etc. it may make no reference at all to ACEA or API standards. engine manufacturers were forced to develop their own standards and tests. In the view of this writer. even if particular products could perform far better than ot hers.5 mPa·s).5 cP (3. There are those who are disappointed that the twelve-year effort has not res ulted in a redefinition of the SAE J300 Engine Oil Viscosity Classification docu ment so as to express high-temperature viscosity of the various grades .. All this could be prevented 40 years ago when inclusion of HTHS standards was de manded by lubrication experts into any kind of standard. it is not t he important parameter.9cSt. as the manufacturer cannot guarantee longevity and reliabili ty of a certain engine components without adherence to the specification. which diesel engine. As in API. users were always left in the dark wh en comparing various oil brands and products which all conformed to the same max imum specification. While it may be confusing that the standard may not specify SAE viscosity. . This is important whe n considering oil change in an engine. and gain understanding of the specific manufacturer designation meaning. As new lubricant st andards were only always introduced after lengthy proceedings to arrive barely i n time with the new generation of engines. which number sig nifies petrol engine. SAE 30 — 2. as the lubricant providers did not manufacture lubricants w ith guaranteed minimal lubricity under real world stress conditions at the time of the development of engines conforming to new legislation. Furthermore. European ACEA standards require that during the long drain interval s of 30. Additionally. SAE 40 needs at least 3. Other additives . . Because of the need for motor oils with unique qualities. It is much more remarkable in a trailer truck which can easil y make 200000 to 400000 km every year. this redefinition did not occur because the auto motive lubricant market knows of no field failures unambiguously attributable to insufficient HTHS oil viscosity.. This is case of VW pumpe -düse diesel engines." Since low and high quality oils conformed to the same standard which did not man date critical parameters. Thus user today who wants to top up or change engine oil needs to pay close atte ntion to the list of certificates on the oil label (on the back side). no system of marking that the product ex ceeds this critical specification by a significant amount is in place..
preferably calcium sulfonates. The quantity of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is limited to minimize adverse effect on catalytic converters. MoS2 particl es can be shear-welded on steel surface and some engine components were even tre ated with MoS2 layer during manufacture.de). Also. unlike molybdenum disulfide. for example. thus its friction coefficient becomes worse than that of hardened steel-tosteel mating surfaces under common loads. Most commercial oils have a minimal amount of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate as an anti-wear additive to protec t contacting metal surfaces with zinc and other compounds in case of metal to me tal contact. There are other additives available commercially which can be added to the oil b y the user for purported additional benefit. They were commercialized in the 1970s ( ELF ANTAR Molygraphite) and are today still available (Liqui Moly MoS2 10 W-40. Various other extreme-pressure additives and antiwear additives. Their application is questionabl e and depends mainly on the engine design — one that can not maintain reasonable l ubricating conditions might benefit. "Slick50". Both w ere the main basis of additive packages used by lubricant manufacturers up until 1990s when the need for ashless addtitives arose. Lately API specifications reflect that Some molybdenum disulfide containing additives to lubricating oils are claim ed to reduce friction.g. Calcium sulfonates additives are also added to protect motor oil from oxidati ve breakdown and to prevent the formation of sludge and varnish deposits. while properly designed engine with oil fil m thick enough would not see any difference.In addition to the viscosity index improvers. or have anti-wear properties. are available to consumers for additional pro tection under extreme-pressure conditions or in heavy duty performance situation s. like zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives and sulfonat es. corrosion inhibitors. so oil treated with it is hard to distinguish from a soot filled engine oil with metal shavings from spun crankshaft bearing. The so-called "chemical box" limits today the con centrations of sulfur. which increases the exhaust back pressure and r educes fuel economy over time. They were used in World War II in flight engines and became commer cial after World War II until the 1990s. PTFE is used in composition of sliding bearings where it improves lubrication under relatively light load until the oi l pressure builds up to full hydrodynamic lubricating conditions. www. Some new oils are n ot formulated to provide the level of protection of previous generations to save manufacturing costs. such as PTFE (Teflon). bond to metal. Curren tly there are ashless oil lubricants without these additives. ash and phosphorus (SAP). Teflon alone has little to no ability to firmly stick on a shea red surface. additives with suspended PTFE particles were availab le. e. Many patents proposed use perfluoropolymers to reduce friction between metal parts. and alkaline additives to neutralize acidic oxidation products of the oil. (Trabant for example). PTFE is a very soft mater ial. Synthetic oils . the application obst acle of PTFE is insolubility in lubricant oils. Another aspect for after-treatment devic es is the deposition of oil ash. Some of these additives include: EP additives.liqui-moly. to consumers to increase motor oil's ability to coat and pr otect metal surfaces. as they can coagulate and clog the oil filters. namely liners in engines. which can only ful fill the qualities of the previous generation with more expensive basestock and more expensive organic or organometallic additive compounds. There is controversy as to the actual effectiveness of the se products. Other invalid claim about PTFE is t he friction factor as it depends on material hardness. However. Main advantage was very low p rice and wide availability (sulfonates were originally waste byproducts). which good engine designs tend to avo id anyway. It is supposed to w ork under boundary lubricating conditions. In the 1980s and 1990s. Main disadvantage of molybdenum disulfide is anthracite blac k color. motor oil manufacturers often incl ude other additives such as detergents and dispersants to help keep the engine c lean by minimizing sludge buildup. or micronized PTFE..
In the mid 1970s. they sti ll fill up with particulate matter. which are the oil compon ents most vulnerable to thermal and mechanical degradation as the oil ages. continue to be the predominant lubricant for most internal comb ustion engine applications. Group IV. but some synthetic oil suppliers suggest that the intervals between oil changes can be longer.000-24. Purdu e University has funded a project to develop and test such oils. Higher purity and therefore better property control theoretically means synth etic oil has better mechanical properties at extremes of high and low temperatur es. mineral oil b ased lubricants.000 km (10. Test results in dicate satisfactory performance from the oils tested. Thus. or some Group V base s. and the oil filter still fills and clogs up over time. or man-made. temperatures which cau sed petroleum-based lubricants to solidify owing to their higher wax content. Synthetic oils are derived from either Group III. the ability to lubricate avi ation engines at temperatures that caused mineral-based lubricants to break down . With their improved viscosity index. fortified with additives and with the benefit of over a century of development. and may perform better for longer under stan dard conditions. an oil change is a fairly simple operation that most car owners can do themselves. However. these synthetic motor oils have a hig her viscosity index over the traditional petroleum base.Synthetic lubricants were first synthesized. yet branched molecular structures interfere with solidificat ion and therefore allow flow at lower temperatures. synthetic motor oils were formulated and commercially applie d for the first time in automotive applications. Their specially designe d properties allow a wider temperature range at higher and lower temperatures an d often include a lower pour point. Bio-based oils Bio-based oils existed prior to the development of petroleum-based oils in the 1 9th century. A significant factor in its gain in popularity was the ability of synthetic-based lubricants to remain fluid in the sub-zero temperatures of the Eastern front in wintertime. In engines. periodic oil and filter changes should still be done with synthetic oil. there is some exposure of the oil to products of internal combustion . Tests show that fully synthetic oil is superior in extreme serv ice conditions to conventional oil. The molecules are made large and "soft" enough to retain good viscosity at h igher temperatures. They have become the subject of renewed interest with the advent of bio-fuels and the push for green products. and microscopic coke particles from black soot accumulate in the oil during op . The development of canola-based moto r oils began in 1996 in order to pursue environmentally friendly products. although the viscosity still decreases as temperature increases. in significant quantit ies as replacements for mineral lubricants (and fuels) by German scientists in t he late 1930s and early 1940s because of their lack of sufficient quantities of crude for their (primarily military) needs.000–15. The same SAE system for designa ting motor oil viscosity also applies to synthetic oils. and thus they do not degrade as quickly as traditional motor oils. But in the vast majority of vehicle applications.000 mi) primarily due to reduced degradation by oxidation. sometimes as long as 16. although the matter better suspends within t he oil. Maintenance Oil being drained from a car The oil and the oil filter need to be periodically replaced. synthet ic oils need lower levels of viscosity index improvers. So. Th e use of synthetic lubricants widened through the 1950s and 1960s owing to a pro perty at the other end of the temperature spectrum. While there is a fu ll industry surrounding regular oil changes and maintenance. Synthetics include classes of lubricants like synthetic esters as well as "ot hers" like GTL (Methane Gas-to-Liquid) (Group V) and polyalpha-olefins (Group IV ).
Low er viscosity oils are common in newer vehicles. Motor oil changes are usually scheduled based on the time in service or the dist ance that the vehicle has traveled. The vehicle distance is inten ded to estimate the time at high temperature. and how hard the engine has worked. especially with synthetics (synth etics are more stable than conventional oils).500 mi). promoting vehicle manufacturer's recommendations for oil change intervals over those of the oil change industry. "varnish". an d other contamination that leads to "sludge". while the time in service is suppo sed to correlate with the number of vehicle trips and capture the number of heat ing cycles. one system adds an optical sensor for determining the clarity of th e oil in the engine. Engine designs are evolving t o allow the use of low-viscosity oils without the risk of excessive metal-to-met . Some engine manufacturers specify which SAE viscosity grade of oil should be use d. Also important is the quality of the oil used. with the constraint of " severe" service requiring more frequent changes with less-than ideal driving. Some manufacturers address this ( for example. and trip length. primarily to improve fuel efficiency. while others do not. which is not necessary. Reserve alkalinity is the ability of th e oil to resist formation of acids. but eventually the oil filter can become clo gged. Should the reserve alkalinity decline to zer o.000 mile myth . adjust the viscosity for the ambient temperature change. Many manufacturers have varying requirements and have designations f or motor oil they require to be used. These are rough indications of the real fact ors that control when an oil change is appropriate.000 mi) or ever y three months. according to many automobile manufacture rs. At red uced viscosity. but different viscosity motor oil may perform better based on the operating e nvironment.eration. which reduce the viscosity and reserve alkalinity of the oil. which build up more contaminants. temperatures. Time-based intervals account for the short-trip drivers who drive short distance s. The oil filter remove s many of the particles and sludge. Manufacturers advise to not exceed their ti me or distance-driven interval for a motor oil change. Many modern cars now list somewhat higher intervals for changing oil and filter. These systems are commonly known as Oil Life Monitors or OL Ms. in replacing the oil. Oil does not degrade significantly just sitting in a cold engine. how many heating cycles the engine has been through. if used for extremely long periods. By the mid-1980s. or other depos its. BMW and VW with their respective long-life standards). This has led to a campaign by the California EPA against the 3. excess fuel. the oil is not as capable of lubricating the engine. The engine user can. recommended viscosities had moved down to 10W-30. Such particles could circulate in the oil and grind against the part surfaces causing wear. Some quick oil change shops recommended intervals of 5. which include how long the o il has been run at elevated temperatures. Also the rubbing of metal engine parts produces some microscopic metall ic particles from the wearing of the surfaces. Th is applies to short trips of under 15 km (10 mi). those acids form and corrode the engine. such as RPM. The motor oil and especially the additives also undergo thermal and mechanical d egradation. thus increa sing wear and the chance of overheating.000 km (7. thicker for summer heat and thinner for the winter cold.000 km (3. "acids". A modern typical application would be Honda motor's us e of 5W-20 viscosity oil for 12. Many manufacturers have engine computer calculations to estimate the oil's condition based on the factors which degrade it. where the oil does not get to full operating temperature long enough to burn off condensation.
From there.8 to 5. Future A new process to break down polyethylene. quart (946mL) or 1L as well as in larger plastic containers r anging from approximately 4. daphnie) are each above 100 mg/L. Oil can spouts were made separately from the cans. qt) due to most small to mid-size engines require around 3.S.. that they not only are biodegradable according to OECD 301x test methods. (Miller. In modern times oil is generally found on the market in small bottles in the siz e of either 1 U.2 litres (3.al abrasion. The California State public contract code defines a re-refined mo tor oil as one that contains at least 70% re-refined base stock. but other standards are signifi cantly higher. the spouts could be used to puncture the top of the can and to provide an easy way to pour the oil. the wax is s ubjected to a catalytic process that alters the wax's molecular structure. algae. . bio-no-tox properties and lean burn characteristics. 2005) Biodegradable Motor Oils based on esters or hydrocarbon-ester blends appeared in the 1990s followed by formulations beginning in 2000 which respond to the bio-n o-tox-criteria of the European preparations directive (EC/1999/45). Finally.S. Another class of base oils suited for engine oil are the polyalkylene glycols. bypassing the expensive Fischer-Tropsch process . Re-refining cleans the contaminants and used additives out o f the dirty oil. metal cans and metal/cardboard cans.4 to 5 litres (4. principally in the cam and valve mechanism. bu t also the aquatic toxicities (fish. Re-refined motor oil Main article: Automotive oil recycling The oil in a motor oil product does break down and burns as it is used in an eng ine — it also gets contaminated with particles and chemicals that make it a less e ffective lubricant. The Unite d States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines re-refined products as co ntaining at least 25% re-refined base stock. this clean "base stock" is blended with some virgin base stock and a new additives package to make a finished lubricant product tha t can be just as effective as lubricants made with all-virgin oil. T hey offer zero-ash. This mea ns. Packaging [icon] This section requires expansion. is used to make wax with the correct molecular properties for conversion into a lubricant. et al. leavi ng a clear oil. The plastic is melted and then pumped into a furnace. before the modern plastic bottle which started to appear in the 1980s. (September 2010) Motor oil came in glass bottles.S. a common plastic product found in many consumer containers.6 to 5.5 U.3 U.6 to 5. qt) of en gine oil. The heat of the furnace breaks down the molecular chains of polyethylene into wax.
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