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BY MURTAZA HUSSAIN SR ENGR, SWE
BHEL Manufacture Switchgear as per IEC:62271-1002001, IS:3427:1997/IEC:298:1990, IS:13118:1991/ IEC:56:1987
IEC:62271-100-2001 – High voltage alternating current circuit breaker.
IS:3427:1997/IEC:298:1990 – AC Metal enclosed switchgear and Controlgear for rated voltage above 1 kV & upto & including 52 kV.
IS:13118:1991/IEC:56:1987 – Specification for High Voltage Alternating current circuit breaker.
A GENERAL TERM COVERING SWITCHING DEVICES AND THEIR COMBONATION WITH ASSOCIATED CONTROL, MEASUREING, PROTECTIVE AND REGULATING EQUIPMENT, ALSO ASSEMBLIES OF SUCH DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT WITH ASSOCIATED INTERCONNECTIONS, ACCESSORIES, ENCLOSURE AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES.
A MECHANICAL SWITCHING DEVICE CAPABLE OF MAKING, CARRYING, AND BREAKING CURRENTS UNDER NORMAL CIRCUIT CONDITIONS AND ALSO MAKING, CARRYING FOR A SPECIFIED TIME AND BREAKING CURRENTS UNDER SPECIFIED ABNORMAL CIRCUIT CONDITIONS SUCH AS THOSE OF SHORT CIRCUIT.
CHAMBERS IN SWITCHGEAR
Instrument Chamber (Relay/meters/switches etc.)
LOCATION OF VARIOUS MAJOR COMPONENTS IN SWITCHGEAR Circuit Breaker Current Transformer Instruments Potential Transformer Surge Suppressor Busbar INSERT PICTURE .
SWITCHGEAR IN POWER SYSTEM CAN ACT AS : Incomer Feeder TIE Feeder Transformer Feeder Motor Feeder Bus Coupler Plant Feeder / Outgoing feeder Bus PT Line PT .
TIE Feeder: Switchgear panel which connects the two same voltage level switchboard. Feeder/Line PT: Switchgear panel having voltage transformer and used for the detection of feeder/line side voltage. Transformer Feeder: Switchgear panel employed for feeding the transformer. Motor Feeder: Switchgear panel employed for feeding the motor. Plant / Outgoing Feeder: Switchgear panel employed for supply power to other switchboard. . Bus PT: Switchgear panel having voltage transformer and used for the detection of bus voltage.Incomer Feeder: Switchgear Panel intended for supply power to the Switchboard. Power can flow in either direction TIE feeder.
TIE INCOMER LINE PT OUTGOING/ PLANT FDR MOTOR FDR BUS PT Typical Power Plant Single Line Diagram (SLD) (PART) TRAFO FDR .
The switching operation involves a variety of control and inter-locking schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME The major functions of switchgears are protection. control and facilitating the maintenance of the electrical network including the switchgear itself. . Alarm schemes. Closing Scheme. Control and inter-locking schemes constitute a very important aspect of medium voltage switchgears. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Voltage selection schemes. Tripping schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Following are the variety of schemes which are being used: Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches.
Alarm schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Closing Scheme. Tripping schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. . Voltage selection schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches.
SAFETY INTERLOCKS: i) The VCB truck cannot be racked in or out unless circuit breaker is in 'Open' condition. The VCB truck can not be racked in unless secondary Plug & socket are engaged. The circuit breaker closing operation is not possible unless the truck is in 'Service' or 'Test' position. The interlock mechanism cannot be operated unless the circuit breaker is in 'Open' condition. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) . The secondary plug and socket can not be disengaged When the VCB truck is in 'Service‘ or any Intermediate position between these two positions. The circuit breaker closing operation is not possible Unless secondary plug & socket are engaged.
VIII) Provision for Earthing Earthing feature & Interlock (operation of Earthing module) a) FEB – Feeder Earthing Breaker b) BEB – Bus Bar Earthing Breaker IX) Earthing Truck (Test to Service) Limit Switch .VII) Inter changeability of trucks of different current ratings are not possible.
SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Closing Scheme. Alarm schemes. . Tripping schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Voltage selection schemes.
Tripping schemes. Voltage selection schemes. . Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Closing Scheme.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Alarm schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes.
. control switch. NO contact closes and NC contact opens. All auxiliary switch contacts position changes i. anti pumping device.e. The CB can be closed manually by green coloured manual close knob provided in the mechanism box. Closing command is executed by control switch through breaker NC contact when spring is charged. spring charged limit switch & closing coil.CLOSING CIRCUIT : The closing circuit consists of fuses.
.ANTI PUMPING : Anti pumping device prevent the CB from getting repeated closing and tripping impulses when a continuous closing command is given before the tripping impulse is withdrawn.
Alarm schemes. . Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Voltage selection schemes. Closing Scheme. Tripping schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches.
Alarm schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Closing Scheme. Tripping schemes. . Voltage selection schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes.
Tripping Schemes Shunt Tripping Schemes Series Tripping Schemes .
All aux. Breaker can be opened intentionally by control switch & on fault. Note : The tripping spring gets charged while the closing spring is discharged. NO will open and NC will close. switches will restore their original positions i. control switch. protective relay & tripping coil. .e. breaker gets tripping command from relay.SHUNT TRIPPING CIRCUIT : The tripping circuit consists of fuses.
Series Tripping Schemes Using Relays Using Summation CT Using Motor Protection Circuit Breaker (MPCB) Using Time Limit Fuses .
PANEL ILLUMINATION :
40W filament lamp is provided inside the instrument panel. The door operated panel illumination lamp gets automatically lighted on opening the door.
3 PIN SOCKET& SWITCH:
5/15 Amps, 240 V, 5 Pin socket with piano switch is also provided on the panel for hand lamp.
ANTI CONDENSATION :
Two tubular heaters with thermostat and piano switch are provided for anti condensation in breaker chamber and CT chamber.
SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME
Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches; Closing Scheme; Tripping schemes; Trip circuit supervision schemes; Voltage selection schemes; Alarm schemes,
Synchronizing schemes and
Automatic supply transfer schemes.
. Voltage selection schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Alarm schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Tripping schemes. Closing Scheme.
results in the requirement to monitor the integrity of the circuit . switches etc requires considerable amount of circuit breaker wiring with intermediate terminal boards. . These interconnections coupled with the importance of the circuit. relay contacts.Trip Circuit Supervision Schemes The Trip circuit extends beyond the protection relay and other components such as fuses.
Alarm schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Tripping schemes. Voltage selection schemes. Closing Scheme. .SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Trip circuit supervision schemes.
Trip circuit supervision schemes. . Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Tripping schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Voltage selection schemes. Alarm schemes. Closing Scheme.
Incase of fault any source feeder. These PTs are either Bus connected or Feeder connected.Voltage Selection Schemes Need for Voltage Selection scheme ? Voltage signals to instruments and meters mounted on switchgear panels are derived from the potential transformer (PTs). arrangement should be made in such a way that PT signal should be available to meters and instruments .
. Voltage selection schemes. Alarm schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Tripping schemes. Closing Scheme.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes.
Alarm schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Tripping schemes. . Voltage selection schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Closing Scheme.
Alarm Schemes Alarm Cancellation Scheme Alarm Annunciation Scheme .
Voltage selection schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. .SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Closing Scheme. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Tripping schemes. Alarm schemes.
Trip circuit supervision schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Voltage selection schemes. Closing Scheme. Alarm schemes. . Tripping schemes. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes.
b) The frequencies of the two supplies must be within acceptable limits.Synchronizing Schemes To bring new bus (source) into the switchboard when old one is running and shifting to new one. a) The voltages of the two supplies must be within acceptable limits. Its dual purpose is to Safeguard manual synchronizing. c) The phase difference of the two supplies must be within acceptable limits. . Methods adopted for synchronization are : • Manual Synchronization • By Check Synchronizing Relays A check synchronizing relay is used to prevent inter-connection of two badly synchronized supplied. To meet synchronizism that means two AC supplies are correctly paralleled following condition should be satisfied.
AUTO SYNCHRONIZING .
. Alarm schemes. Trip circuit supervision schemes. Voltage selection schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Closing Scheme. Tripping schemes.
Trip circuit supervision schemes. Alarm schemes.SWITCHGEAR INTERLOCK SCHEME Safety Interlocks & schemes using position limit switches. Voltage selection schemes. Closing Scheme. Synchronizing schemes and Automatic supply transfer schemes. Tripping schemes. .
Automatic Supply Transfer Schemes Requirement of Automatic Bus Transfer Scheme ? • Unit Switchgear • Station Switchgear .
Modes of Bus Transfer A. Manual Bus Transfer i) Without Voltage Interruption ii) With Voltage Interruption a) Slow changeover b) Fast changeover B. Automatic Bus Transfer (under fault condition) with Voltage Interruption a) Slow changeover b) Fast changeover .
Electrical Interlock in Closing Circuit Electrical Interlock in Tripping Circuit Electrical Interlocking scheme is guided by the logic diagram. .
. which causes reduction in the basic insulation level strength of system.Protection Schemes for Medium Voltage Switchgear Importance of Protection System in Electrical System ? 5-S Principles Security : Protective system should be reliable so that security of supply is ensured. Stability : Protective system should not operate for external faults. Selectivity : Protective system should be able to select and trip only the nearest circuit breaker. FAULT : It is defined as any abnormal condition. thereby reducing the consequent damage. NEGATIVE & ZERO Phase sequence component of system. FAULT DETECTION : POSITIVE. Sensitivity : Protective system should be able to sense minimum value of fault current. Speed : Protective system should be able to isolate fault in the shortest possible time.
PROTECTION SCHEMES IN MV SWITCHGEAR • • Non Directional Over Current for Phase Faults (50/51) Non Directional Over Current for Earth Fault (50N/51N) • • Directional Over Current for Phase Faults (67) Directional Over Current for Earth Fault (67N) .
UNIT PROTECTION SCHEME In ‘Unit Protection’ sections of power system are protected individually as a complete unit without reference to other section. Some of the Unit scheme which MV Switchgear employed Pilot Wire Protection Scheme For the protection of CABLE connecting two Feeder Bus Differential Protection Scheme For the protection of BUSBAR Motor/ Transformer Differential Protection Scheme For the protection of MOTOR/ TRANSFORMER WINDINGS Restricted Earth Protection Scheme For the protection of TRANSFORMER WINDINGS .
Directional Over Current and Earth Fault Protection (50/51/50N/51N) • Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (50N/2) • Differential Protection (87T) • Restricted Earth Fault Protection (64R) • Incipient Faults (49/63TX) .TRANSFORMER PROTECTION • Non.
.C Motors Motor characteristics due to various duties All Motor needs protection and choice should be independent of a type of motor & load connected.MOTOR PROTECTION Wide range of A.
. Quick isolation from supply under abnormal conditions. Averting damage to the motor & driven mechanism. Enhancement of life of motor.NEED FOR PROTECTION Allowing operation under normal conditions.
HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 2. JOGGING . MECHANICAL FAILURE 4. LOSS OF FIELD (SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR) B. LOAD INDUCED 1. HIGH CONTAMINATED LEVEL-BLOCKED VENTILATION 3. SOURCE OR SYSTEM INDUCED 1. OVER VOLTAGE/UNDER VOLTAGE 3. SYNCHRONIZING. CLOSING OR RECLOSING OUT OF PHASE 2. BEARING FAILURE 3. COLD. PHASE FAILURE 2. DAMP AMBIENT TEMPERATURE C. OVERLOAD/ UNDERLOAD 2. HIGH DUTY CYCLE 3. ENVIRONMENT INDUCED D. JAMMING 3. INSULATION FAILURE 2.MOTOR PROTECTION A. HIGH INERTIA 1. OPERATION AND APPLICATION INDUCED 1. MOTOR INDUCED 1. OUT-OF-STEP E. PHASE REVERSAL 4.
(50/51) • • Partial or complete collapse of voltage (27) Locked rotor (51S) • Start or Stall Protection(48/51LR) • Earth Fault Protection (50N) • Loss-Of-Load Protection (37) • Out of Step Protection (46) • RTD/BTD Protection (26) • Limitation of the number of start. Time between start (66) .MOTOR PROTECTION • Thermal Over Load protection (49) • Single phasing/ Negative Phase Sequence Protection (46) • Short-circuits between phases or between phase and earth in the motor winding or its connections.
3. . EXPECTATIONS FROM MODERN MOTOR PROTECTION RELAYS: 1. a wide range of relay adjustment id desirable together with good accuracy & low thermal overshoot. The relay should ideally be matched with the motor characteristics and be capable of close sustained overload protection. 2. Relay curves should take into account the extremes of zero prefault current known as the ‘COLD’ condition & full rated current pre-fault known as ‘HOT’ condition. The design of a modern motor protection relay must be adequate to cater for the protection needs of any one of the vast range of motor designs in service and many of designs having no permissible allowance for overload.
Normal switching ‘Off’ of a stationary motor. Switching a ‘Stalled motor’ or one running upto speed. . PROTECTION AGAINST SWITCHING SURGES: What is an Electrical Surge ? External surge & Internal surge Atmospheric Lightning cause External surge Switching action of devices cause internal surge CAUSES OF SURGE GENERATION: Normal Switching ‘On’ of a stationary motor.
b/ ZnO type surge arrestors. principally lower than the withstand voltage of equipment. a/ C-R type surge suppressors.PROTECTION AGAINST SWITCHING SURGES: SURGE PROTECTION DEVICES: These devices limits the over voltages in electrical system to the specified protection level. .
IOCL SPECIFIC SCHEMES BUS DIFFERENTIAL PILOT WIRE PROTECTION MOTOR RE-ACCELERATION MOTOR DIFFERENTIAL TWO OUT OF THREE BREAKER SCHEME .
THANK YOU .
The CT is no more a current source with high impedance shunt. also known as TRIZ (a Russian acronym). The coupling between the primary and secondary winding is negligible. if we increase the impedance of the relay element which was to carry the differential current significantly. differential current would be negligible and hence protection system will not operate (See fig 38. It is based upon the following ingenious and innovative thinking. that one innovative way to problem solving is to exploit the harm: “If you cannot undo the harm. sum of CT secondary current is not equal to sum of primary currents even though primary CT currents sum to zero. leading to maloperation of bus protection scheme.e. Recall that when a CT core saturates. it is not adequate to handle severe CT saturation problem. Therefore. This causes a differential relay to operate on even external faults. its secondary current is not scaled replica of primary current. Therefore. i. Thus. Rather. exploit it! In fact this is now a well accepted principle in theory of systematic innovation. 2. in the era prior to numerical relays? (2)How do numerical relays cope with this problem? High Impedance Bus Differential Relay This approach has been the most successful with traditional electro mechanical and solid state relay. The impedance now offered by the CT as seen from the CT secondary terminals is very low and it equals the impedance of the CT secondary winding. then sum of all the CT secondary currents (except for the saturated CT) will be diverted into the low impedance path of saturated CT's secondary.6). it behaves more like an air core device. now saturation of CT itself is responsible for saving a false operation.Comparison of current phasors. . While the percentage differential can provide security against normal CT errors due to mismatch of CT turns ratio and magnetization current. So the relevant questions to be asked now are: (1)How was this problem handled in the past. stretch the harm to the extreme and then exploit it to your advantage". The main difficulty in bus differential protection is that significant differential current may appear due to saturation of CT on external fault.Thus.High impedance bus differential relay. This compromises security and is not acceptable. If you cannot beat CT saturation. it is a plain low impedance path. 3.Sample by sample comparison. When a CT saturates.Differential relay for bus bar protection can be implemented in one of the following three ways: 1.
the magnetizing impedance itself is nonlinear. Hence. However. then it would be reliable. then we could use constant % differential characteristic for bus bar differential protection. Therefore. We model a CT as scaled current source due to transformation ratio in parallel with magnetizing impedance (Norton's equivalent). this scheme of differential bus bar protection cannot be emulated with numerical relays. It is large when CT core is not saturated and small when CT core is saturated. The time for CT core saturation also depends upon time constant (L/R) of transmission line. In contrast. numerical relays offer a low impedance path.e preferably decision making has to be completed before the CT saturates. with numerical relays the busbar protection has to be very fast. Development of such protection scheme requires ingenuity because of the well known speed vs accuracy conflict. Recall that saturation of CT is primarily a consequence of DC offset current. If the protection system could reach trip decision before the onset of CT core saturation. Non linear % Differential Characteristics If the CT core saturation factor could be discounted for. i. . numerical relaying based bus bar protection is expected to operate in quarter of a cycle. The current in this branch directly contributes to the differential current. Hence.
A change much beyond the expected change in sinusoidal model indicates CT core saturation. This scheme will not trip on transient. 3 sample window). A transient counter is initialized to zero. In contrast. However. If the counter crosses a preset threshold value. One way to detect CT core saturation is based on measuring current change in consecutive samples with the expected sinusoidal signal model. . One way out of this imbroglio is to use a smaller data window (e. the differential protection relay also has to have an inbuilt feature to detect CT saturation. Conversely. it is necessary that consistent differential current should be obtained. On the other hand.g. if counter is greater than zero. A transient monitor function can be used to check that. a phasor summation scheme will be inherently slower as correct phasor estimates will have to wait until the moving window is totally populated with post fault current samples. the comparison scheme based computation of instantaneous samples can be error prone due to noise transient related problem. For this purpose. it will also trip on external fault. trip decision is implemented. This suggests that % differential characteristics should be modified to have higher slopes to take care of CT saturation. To obtain reliability. Many more innovative schemes can be thought out to detect CT saturation which is beyond the scope of this lecture. A fast protection scheme can be devised by instantaneous sample based differential protection scheme. then counter is incremented. and no fault is detected (small enough differential current magnitude) then counter is decremented. If a fault is detected due to presence of differential current. in addition to internal faults.
NEED OF STABILIZING RESISTOR & METROSIL IN HIGH IMPEDENCE CIRCUIT • Stabilizing resistor are used to Limit the heavy fault current to safe value for relays • Metrosil are used to limit voltage drop across the relays .
but the CT requirement is less as it can be used with difference CT ratios with 5P class of CT's and comparatively less Vk requirement. Apart from that high impedance protection is faster that of low impedance protection. . When compared to high impedance low impedance will be bit slower. Here the thro fault stability is achieved thro biasing technique. Another alternative to high impendence differential protection is using low impedance protection.HIGH & LOW IMPEDENCE CIRCUITS The high impedance protection is "more sensitive" compared to low impedance protection. It involves comparatively less complexity than that of High impedance protection as it does not require any external component like stabilising resistor / metrosil. we need to consider stabilising resistor and metrosil. More over to make the protection stable for thro fault. But this is at the cost of high CT requirements like same CT ratio and high CT knee point voltage requirement.
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