•One of the most important and dangerous type of pollution is nuclear pollution.

•Nuclear pollution is produced by nuclear explosion which are carried out for performing nuclear tests and for the generation of energy by nuclear fission or nuclear fussion

•In Nuclear fussion the heavy nucleus splits

into two nuclei and it releases a huge energy . Nuclear fission two light nuclei of hydrogen fuse to form a helium nucleus and they release a large amount of energy
Approximately 17% of the electrical energy generated in the world comes from nuclear power plants

Nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releasing a very large amount ofenergy, even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.

•Due to this explosion about 15 to 20% of the radioactive particles enter into the stratosphere. •Once they entered into the air they continue to fall on the earth after about every 6 month up to several years. • Almost 5% of the radioactive material entered into the troposphere, which is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.

•the nuclear waste is much larger in size than the thermal waste.These waste materials ar e radioactive and they are harmful to human beings Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material. Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. •Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment.

•The most common naturally occuring radioactive elements in nature are potassium,uranium, and thorium. •But the elements that are radioactive in their most common form are Technetium and Promethium. •Or any elements with an atomic number greater than 82.

Nuclear Power is a long term alternative to the conventional consumption of hydrocarbon fuels i.e coal and oil. Nuclear energy is also been used for the naval ships and submarines. The production cost per unit of power is much lesser than thermal power. The area required for the radioactive fuel like uranium is smaller than the coal mines to generate energy. The energy in the nuclear power plant is much higher than the energy generation in any thermal power plant

•There are various effects of Nuclear pollution which is because of the production of uncontrolled radioactive material. • First of all, it leaves contaminated waste which cannot be disposed off. •The miners and the workers engaged in the nuclear power plants are exposed to the radioactive material to cause long term health problems.

•When the radioactive material is shipped via water then it can also cause toxicity in water and we use the same water for various purposes. • Nuclear pollution is another major cause of earth warming. •In the world war ,the impact of nuclear pollution in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is very visible. •Today in a number of regions of both of these cities of Japan, disabled babies are born. •The reason for this abnormality is the effect of nuclear pollution, even after so many years.

The medical effects of a nuclear blast upon humans can be put into four categories: •Initial stage—the first 1–9 weeks, in which are the greatest number of deaths, with 90% due to thermal injury and/or blast effects and 10% due to super-lethal radiation exposure •Intermediate stage—from 10–12 weeks. The deaths in this period are from ionization radiation in the median lethal range

•Late period—lasting from 13–20 weeks. This period has some improvement in survivors' condition. •Delayed period—from 20+ weeks. Characterized by “numerous complications, mostly related to healing of thermal and mechanical injuries coupled with infertility, sub-fertility and blood disorders caused by radiation.” Also, ionizing radiation from fallout can cause genetic effects, birth defects, cancer, cataracts and other effects in organs and tissue. Main diseases caused due to radiations are •Genetic disorders. •Skin diseases. •Cancer.

Three Mile Island – March 28, 1979

Goiania Accident – September 13, 1987

Chernobyl Disaster – April 26, 1986

Fukushima Disaster – March 11, 2011

Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – World War II, 1945

Basically, there are only few options for radiation waste treatment involving: •Containment of the waste in radiation-shielded containers usually buried under ground •Isolation of radiation waste in remote locations such as remote caves or abandoned mines - which may also involve the use of some kind of barriers (shields), •When the first two alternatives are not possible, the waste may be diluted till background values are achieved.

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