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SCOTTCONSIGNY Iowa State University
Nietzsche's Reading of the Sophists1
Until recently, scholars have tended to credit two nineteenth-century thinkers, G. F. Hegel and George Grote, for initiating the modem of "rehabilitation" the sophists.2 But in the past several years, an increasing numberof scholars have begun to draw inspirationfrom the writings of another nineteenth-century figure, Friedrich Nietzsche. Among those taking this "Nietzschean turn," Mario Untersteinerutilizes Nietzsche's conception of the "tragic"in his account of Gorgias's epistemology (101-205), a reading Eric White supplements with Nietzsche's notion of the "dionysian"(38). Victor Vitanza, characterizing Nietzsche as a "dionysian Sophist," draws from Nietzsche's tropological model of language to illuminate the sophists' own rhetoric("Sub/Versions"112; "Notes"131); and David Roochnik contends that Nietzsche's critique of reason illuminates the sophists' own "misology" ("Tragedy" 155, 162). In the sphere of ethics, E. R. Dodds maintains that 50, is Nietzsche's "immoralism" similar to the egoism of Gorgias'sstudentCallicles (387-91), and Daniel Shaw contends that Nietzsche's critique of morality iterates the sophists' notion that "moralvaluations remain matters of opinion" (339). Concerning methodology, John Poulakos argues that Nietzsche's "genealogical" approach is most suited for interpreting the sophists ("Interpreting"219-21); and Susan Jarratt credits Nietzsche's method as of authorizing her own "re-reading" the sophists (xix). But whereas they have drawn on a variety of Nietzsche's ideas and interpretivestrategies to advance of what Jacqueline de Romilly characterizesas a "Nietzscheaninterpretation" the sophists ("Sophists"xi), none of these scholars has systematicallyexamined Nietzsche's own quite specific and extensive writings about the sophists. The untoward result is that we possess a variety of "Nietzscheanreadings"of the sophists that tend to silence Nietzsche's own distinctive voice. This tendency to overlook Nietzsche's own specific remarks about the for sophists is quite understandable, Nietzsche never wrote a systematictreatise on the sophists and instead discussed them in a ratherfragmentarymannerin a varietyof texts over a periodof almost two decades. Further,with the exception of three quite brief passages-in Human,All-Too-Human221, Dawn 168, and the "Ancients,"Twilight of the Idols 2-Nietzsche did not publish any of his remarksabout the sophists, confining his discussions to his 1872-1873 lecture notes in the history of Greek rhetoric ("Descriptionof Ancient Rhetoric"and
RhetoricReview, Vol. 13, No. 1, Fall 1994
Nietzsche's Genealogical Method Perhapsthe first striking featureof Nietzsche's discussion of the sophists is his method.4 But whereas this scholarly neglect is not surprising.5 Nietzsche's genealogical method is explicitly "partial"in two significant ways. nothing that "The most valuable insights are arrived at last. one with which he situates the sophists as pivotal figures in the agonistic and creative culture of fifth-centuryGreece. but the most valuable insights are methods"(WP 469). it is understandable that scholars have tended to marginalize Nietzsche's own comments about the sophists. whom he champions as the principal adversaries of the "Socratic schools. It is in this context of articulatingthe genealogy of the Westernculturalmalaise that Nietzsche discusses the sophists.3Because many of these unpublishedremarks are even more fragmentaryand enigmatic than his published writings and because some scholars have questioned the use of the Nachlass as a reliable source of his views." I conclude with a discussion of how a "neoNietzschean" reading of the sophists may provide a direction for the "Nietzscheanturn"in sophistic criticism and generate new perspectiveson the sophists. In this essay I examine Nietzsche's diverse writings on the sophists and attempt to reconstructhis own account of them. whom he identifies as among the principalenemies of that culture.Nietzsche situates his reading within a projectof cultural renewal designed to affirm "Life"and provide an alternativeto what he saw as the "motley"and "merely decorative" culture of his own time ("UH" 10). one that suggests avenues of inquiry that scholars have not yet pursued. Nietzsche uses a method that he labels genealogical. I next examine what Nietzsche delineates as three features of the sophists' teachings: their rhetorical model of language. First. to be a source of the modem culturalmalaise. and their "immoralism. in that it undertakesto situate an object of study from a particular perspective. the 1872 essay "Homer'sContest.6 Nietzsche portraysthe tragic culture of Greece as a model for such a cultural renewal. Nietzsche himself stresses the importanceof method. their critique of epistemology." As Werner Dannhauser observes.6 RhetoricReview "The History of Greek Eloquence"). In his examinationof the sophists in particular. To this end I first discuss Nietzsche's "genealogical"method of reading. it is nevertheless unfortunate. for Nietzsche advances a complex and provocativereading of the sophists. his genealogy is interested or partisan in that it is anchoredin his own interests as a thinker and writer." and several passages collected posthumouslyin The Will To Power. one that may be seen as an application of his more general "perspectivist" epistemology. and he depicts Socrates and Plato. Nietzsche's "quarrelwith Socrates is part of a vast historical drama which he recounts and which features Socrates as the first villain and Nietzsche himself .
and in his quarrel. he never mentions Hippias or Prodicus. and instead confining his attentionto Gorgias'spoetic style. Nietzsche lauds the sophists as seminal thinkers who have influenced every subsequentadversaryof the Socratic schools. and that he is unable to know whetherthe gods exist (D80. he is simply more "honest"than those scholars who mistakenly think that they are able to be disinterestedand complete in their readings. completely ignoring the arguments of On Nature or Not Being. Nietzsche never claims otherwise.Nietzsche'sReading of the Sophists 7 as the final hero"(272). Many especially in regardto classical philology.and he explicitly excludes Critias from his list of sophists ("DAR" 169). 171. Nietzsche presents a "genealogy"in which he delineates one pattern of placement and interconnection. Indeed. and he contends that individuals who construct "systems"betray a lack of integrity in . He contends that we are "not to assume several kinds of causality until the experimentof making do with a single one has been pushed to its utmost limit (to the point of nonsense. He mentions Agathon and Thrasymachusonly in passing. Concerning Protagoras. 91. precisely because of its "unscholarly" partisanship and partiality. one Arthur Danto labels "methodologicalmonism" (216). his use of rhetoricalfigures. HA 221).B 1). by focusing his attention almost exclusively on Protagorasand Gorgias. Nietzsche thus advances an overtly partisan defense of the sophists. and in so doing he ignores Protagoras's famous assertions that the human being is the measure of all things (D80. Stated another way.Nietzsche is highly selective in his accounts of Protagoras and Gorgias themselves. Nietzsche discusses only one extant fragment. Moreover.Nietzsche suggests that the sophists may be seen as his own "co-workers and precursors" (WP 464). that two opposed accounts are present about everything (D80.possibly one error with another"(GM Pr 4). 43.8But whereas his account of the sophists may be aggressively partisan and egregiously selective. He insists that "the 'disinterested' action is an exceedingly interesting and interested action" (BGE 220). 81. and The Defense of Palamedes. and he never pretendsthat his account is in any sense a "disinterested" inquiry. and his putative ("DAR"25. if I may say so)-that is a moral of method" (BGE 36).B4). In respect to his treatment of the sophists. and he suggests that in his effort "toreplace the improbablewith the more probable.7 Equally striking is the fact that Nietzsche does not mention any of Gorgias's extant texts. Nietzsche uses this principle of selectiveness. asserting that "everyadvance in epistemological and moral knowledge has reinstated the Sophists" (WP 428). namely the claim to "make the weaker argument the stronger"(HGE 215). The Encomium of Helen. and in which he deliberately ignores or suppresses other possible modes of placement. without addressing their epistemological or ethical views.B6a). the Epitaphios. Nietzsche's genealogical method is partial in a second sense in that he attends to a limited selection of material. "extemporaneity" scholars have challenged Nietzsche's genealogical method.
a surplus or plenitude of force. In order to understand Nietzsche's account of the sophists. and he repudiatesthe dogmatist'sassumptionthat "thereshould be a 'truth' which one could somehow approach" (WP451). repudiating what he saw as the misguided "Enlightenment" account of Johann Winckelmann. he praises those "philosophers of the future" who. Nietzsche does not deny that the Greeks produced great art and writing. Greek culture was exemplary because of its "noble simplicity" and "quietgrandeur. He observes: "I saw their strongest instinct. it is explicable only in terms of an excess of force" (TI 560). depicting them as its "advancedteachers" and perhaps most eloquent advocates. Nietzsche rejects this reading. Nietzsche insists that "factsis precisely what there is not.." their "calm in greatness.' 'golden means. In place of this reading. 45). Nietzsche presents his view of Greek culture in an explicitly polemical manner. and ridiculing the notion of "'beautifulsouls. the writings from the Socratic school" (27. Nietzsche insists that Greek culture emerged from a ferocious and often violent energy. their noble simplicity .. Consequently." (BGE 43) Unlike the positivist who claims knowledge of the "facts" in themselves. The Genealogy of the Sophists Using his genealogical method. the will to power. "("Ancients. then."TI 3). their ideal cast of mind. considering it a "comedy"to be "exposed"(WP 830). also their taste. that wonderfulphenomenonwhich bears the name of Dionysus. Nietzsche situates the sophists as central figures in fifth-centuryGreek culture." qualities manifested not only in its art but in its "writing from the best periods. have no intention to that articulatea "truth" is for everyone. it is useful first to sketch his view of the culture in which he situates them..' and other perfection in the Greeks.8 Rhetoric Review that they tend to be oblivious of their own interests. He notes that It must offend their pride. I saw them tremble before the indomitable force of this drive-I saw how all their institutions grew out of preventive measures taken to protecteach other against their inner explosives" ("Ancients. if their truth is supposed to be a truth for everyman-which has so far been the secret wish and hidden meaning of all dogmatic aspirations. but unlike Winckelmann he insists that this art emerged from the Greeks' ability to channel their "rich and even overflowing Hellenic instinct. like himself. According to Winckelmann. only interpretations" (WP481). and he maintains that "one does not ."TI 3). 'My judgment is my judgment':no one else is easily entitled to it-that is what such a philosopherof the futuremay perhapssay of himself.
was that the Greeks fostered a plurality of competitors and geniuses and refused to countenancethe authorityof any one voice. and sought through the institution of the agon to proliferatefurtherperspectives. and that "withfestivals and the arts they also aimed at nothing other than to feel on top."Nietzsche observes that prior to the classical age. One consequence of this correlation of creativity and competition.9But whereas he admires Greek culture for its distinctive individuals. Instead. and death"("HC"34). their whole art cannot be imagined without competition"(HA 170). the Greeks lived in a world of violence and destruction. the Greeks sanctioned a diversity of competing perspectives. He notes thatearly Greek mythology portraysa world of "cruelty. old age. according to Nietzsche. theognic myths reflect? A life ruled only by the children of Night: strife. deceit. in the institution of the agon or contest. Rather than seeking a single authority. In his mature works. every great virtue kindles a new greatness" ("HC" 36). they encourageda multiplicity or of competing voices. for example. that "Everygreat Hellene hands on the torch of the contest. and whose artistic works were in turn framed within and conditionedby the protocols of the contests. the tragedians. Nietzsche depicts competition and creativity as correlativefactors in Greek culture. to direct and harmonize diverse forces within himself in a productive and creative manner.and that it was only through the agon that they were able to channel their drive toward annihilation and violence in creative ways. wrote in order to triumph. Rather than seeking the "unconditional" the absolute. Nietzsche characterizesas "dionysian" ability of the an individual to establish unity from diversity. then. Nietzsche observes: "Thatis the core of the Hellenic notion of the contest: it abominates the rule of one and fears its dangers. terrible. it desires. What kind of earthly existence do these revolting. Nietzsche insists that individual Greeks did not mastertheir explosive energy in isolation. according to Nietzsche. the Greeks joyfully embraced the "terriblepresence of this [violent] urge and considered it justified" ("HC" 35) because it spurredthem into creative agons. wherein individuals competed and attainedglory by means of their ingenuity and creativity. as a protection against the genius. lust. that the pre-Homericworld is one in which "only night and terror and an imagination accustomed to the horrible.A further .he argues that the Greeks were able to master their violent instincts through competition. each of which was recognized as emerging from and rendered discernible by the specific constraints of the agon itself. that the very "soul" of the ancient Greeks was the "personalcontest"(D 175).Nietzsche'sReadingof the Sophists 9 know the Greeks as long as this hidden subterraneanentrance lies blocked" (WP 1051). Despite its horrors. Thus Nietzsche argues that all "Greek artists. another genius" ("HC" 37). In effect."TI 3). a tigerish lust to annihilate"("HC"32). to show themselves on top ("Ancients.10In the essay "Homer's Contest.
their educators were also engaged in contests with each other. Nietzsche remarks that .the Sophists"(D 168). "which had in Sophocles its poet. Nietzsche characterizestheir adversaries. In this respect Nietzsche depicts the Greeks as using the agon to "refine"violence. . .. deserves to be baptizedwith the name of its teachers. "No one of mortals before discovered a finer art than Gorgias to arm the soul for contests of excellence" (D80. one adumbrated the escapism of the Orphic mystics who expressed a "disgust with existence . in the spirit of the contest. the "advanced teachers"of Greek culture.. transforming the potential destructivenessof physical combat into a creatively "playful"activity that encouraged contestants to overcome not only their adversaries but their own prior achievements and limits. . in Pericles its statesman. Nietzsche thus denigrates the socratic schools as articulating what he characterizes as a "non-Hellenic" in response.. meets another sophist. the sophist. Nietzsche's sophist is himself a competitive artist..Plato and the "Socraticschools.." as the enemies of the sophists' positive. . in Hippocratesits physician. . In the words of one sophist's nephew. of necessities." ("HC" 37) In effect. of life's seriousness. And just as the youths were engaged through contests. their tendency and ability to encompass all of life within the horizon of playful competition. the Greek knows the artist only as engaged in a personal fight. . a conception of existence as a punishment and guilt" ("HC"34). even of danger.. He observes that "Whatis unique to Hellenistic life is thus characterized:to perceive all matters of the intellect. Nietzsche asserts that fifth-centuryGreek culture. in Democritus its natural philosopher . It is in the context of this integral relationship between creativity and competition that Nietzsche situates the fifth-century sophists. as play" ("DAR" 3). Because he sees the sophists as the principal teachers of Greek culture. He points out that underthe tutelage of the sophists. Every talent must unfold itself in fighting: that is the command of Hellenic popular pedagogy.10 RhetoricReview consequence Nietzsche sees in the institutionof agon is the Greek emphasis on play. and his "teaching"is one that encourages creativity through competition.A8). life-affirming virtues. Commenting on The Birth of Tragedy.." Nietzsche depicts the contentious sophists as the very embodimentof Greekculture.. . Rather than portraying them as marginal figures in a culture whose highest achievement is the "quietgrandeur"and "noble simplicity. the advanced teacher of antiquity. Insofar as he depicts the sophists as central to Greek culture.
. "Rationality" "Rationality"at any price as a dangerous force that undermines life. . while he praises the sophists for fostering and embodying the best Hellenic instincts. the high cultureof Thucydides. (the philosophy of Plato. insisting that the socratic philosophers exemplify a "non-Hellenic"withdrawal from the Greek affirmationof "Life.Nietzsche notes: The Greek culture of the Sophists had developed out of all the Greek instincts. there is the understanding of Socratism: Socrates is recognized for the first time as an instrument of Greek against instinct. its understandingof the Dionysian phenomenonamong the Greeks. .g. .and what may be termedtheir "rhetorical" model of language. . titled . even to guilt. Nietzsche condemns the socratic schools which.EH 2) Iteratingthis pivotal antithesis. In his lecture notes on rhetoric. Nietzsche delineates three interrelated contributionsthe sophists made to their agonistic and creative culture."He claims: I Wasthe first to see the real opposition: the degenerating instinct that turns against life . . it finds expression in. in the tradition of Orpheus. (WP428) Thus. it belongs to the culture of the Periclean age as necessarily as Plato does not: it has its predecessorsin Heraclitus.Nietzsche'sReadingof the Sophists 11 The two decisive innovations of the book are.bom of fullness. ("BT". attempts to repress or escape those very instincts. and all idealism as typical forms) versus a formula for the highest affirmation. circumscribed and diminished life.even to suffering." ("BT"EH 1) That is. Nietzsche thus vehemently repudiatesthe notion that Plato represents one of the great achievements of the culture. Secondly. e. a Yes-saying without reservation. in the scientific types of the old philosophy.as a typical decadent. even to everything that is questionable and strangein existence. disintegration. first. Democritus. The "Rhetorical" Model of Language In his genealogy of the sophists. while Plato. the sophists channel and encourage the healthiest instincts of Greek culture. of overfullness. through theiradvocacy of unconditionaltruthsand dogmatic moral rules.The first of these concerns was their emphasis on rhetoric.
. emphasis added).the sophists deepened this appreciationfor rhetoric. language itself is the result of purely rhetoricalarts. . The power to discover and to make operativethat which works and impresses. Nietzsche suggests that the sophists consider every use of language as agonistic. inevitably engaged in a projectof demolishing and potentiallydisplacing his or her adversary's arguments. no longer having sucked in this kind of cultural mother'smilk from the first moment of life" (HA 218). Devotion to oratoryis the most tenacious element of Greek culture and survives through all the curtailments of their condition. There is obviously no unrhetorical 'naturalness' of language to which one could appeal. ("DAR"23. Second. . the sophists would insist that every speaker is a rhetor. with respect to each thing. attending "the theater in order to hear beautiful speeches" (GS 135). . the rhetorical is a further development. Insofar as he depicts them as construing all language as inherently rhetorical. By privileging rhetoric in their curriculum. . the essence of language. is. . seeing in each use of language a fabrication of a persuasive image or argument designed to persuade an adversary or audience. at the same time. the Greeks considered rhetoric to be of paramount importance. . He notes that it is difficult for us to appreciate the enormous importance the Greeks attributedto rhetoric. ."Nietzsche delineates the pivotal role of the sophists in the teaching and practice of rhetoric. the sophists construe language not as a transparentwindow . As such. Nietzsche adds: "To no task did the Greeks devote such incessant labor as to eloquence. and their view that excellence in rhetoric constitutes the highest cultural achievement.12 Rhetoric Review "Descriptionof Ancient Rhetoric"and "Historyof Greek Eloquence. But in the culture of the sophists. Nietzsche's sophists would consider all language to be inherently creative. "the education of the ancient man customarily culminates in rhetoric: it is the highest spiritual activity of the well-educated political man-an odd notion for us" ("DAR"3). occurring only within contests between adversaries. for "we have grown unaccustomedto the tonal effects of rhetoric. Hellenic culture and power gradually concentrate on oratorical skill" (HGE 213) Even in their appreciation of tragedy. Unlike the socratic rather than philosophers who present themselves as seeking objective "truth" rhetorical victory. a power which Aristotle calls rhetoric. providing the apparatusand training needed for eloquent competition. in that they tended to consider every use of language as inherentlyrhetorical. according to Nietzsche. guided by the clear light of the understanding. .Nietzsche notes that for the sophists. of the artistic means which are already found in language. according to Nietzsche. The sophists' privileging of rhetoric had a second profound effect.
each of which articulatesits own perspective. Nietzsche suggests that the sophists would presumably consider the fundamentallinguistic unit to be a creative maneuverin a verbal agon. the sophists maintain that "the tropes are not just occasionally added to words but constitute their most proper nature. Unlike a member of the "socraticschool" such as Aristotle."Rather. He promises to teach to hetto logon kreitto poiein: how one can by means of dialectics help the weaker case to win out" (HGE 215). speech is "literal"only to those people who fail to recognize that they have been captivated by its metaphors. the trope acquiresmeaning within each particularagon in which it is used. the tropes. who emphasizes the importanceof the competitive agon. According to Nietzsche. synecdoches. 455 B. The tropes in this sense are variations upon other tropes. and the only criteria for its "proper" are the ultimately arbitraryprotocols of the contest use itself. and metonymes. The first branch is representedby Protagorasof Abdera. a trope does not derive its meaning by referring to an external."a symbol that represents or mirrors "actualthings" existing in the world.The second branch of sophistic teaching is that of the Sicilian Gorgias." Correspondingto what he identifies as the agonistic and creative aspects of the sophistic model of language. Stated another way. instructing his students in a dialectical skill thus enabling them to overpowertheir adversariesin any verbal competition on any subject. Nietzsche writes that "Sophism originated with Protagoras'sjourney through the Hellenistic cities. Nietzsche accounts for the agonistic and poetic aspects of the sophists' model of language with what he identifies as the fundamentalinstrumentsof language.Nietzsche'sReading of the Sophists 13 through which one may observe an independentand preexisting reality but as an apparatus for weaving elegant and enchanting texts. As such. Nietzsche distinguishes two branches of the sophistic movement. Nietzsche's sophists would maintain that "Whatis called language is actually all figuration"("DAR"25). determinate reality that exists independently of discourse and serves as its "foundation. For the in trope is a "turn" a rhetoricalcompetition. devices with which a rhetor may fabricate a persuasiveaccountthat may be accepted as "literallytrue. He influenced Attic eloquence much earlier than did the Sicilians. It makes no sense to speak of a 'propermeaning' which is carried over to something else only in special cases" ("DAR" 25). Protagoras emphasizes the "combative"aspect of rhetoric. who emphasizes what Nietzsche characterizes as the dimensionof sophistic eloquence: overtly "artistic" . who maintains that the fundamentalunit of language is the "name" or "noun. In this respect the tropes are not alterationsof a stable "literal" language capable of objectively mirroring the world. analogous to a maneuveror "turn" performed by a wrestler in a match. instead.C. which began ca.
and Gorgias may be seen as using his artistic performances not only to challenge the prevailing tenets of the culture. In his account of Protagoras. have no sense for this activity (for they had no understanding of the art which lived and flourished around them."anchored in the contingencies of specific rhetorical situations. It is a refreshing pause for a nation of artists. for such a model implies that every claim to knowledge is "conditional. but also to mock and thought"itself. there is no intention to deceive: the content is not the issue. Thus. a practice he is presentedas exhibiting in Plato's Protagoras. The philosophers.however. in that his "dialectics was to make all other arts and sciences superfluous:how without being a geometrician one can out argue the geometrician. (HGE 216) It may be observed that these two branches of sophistry are by no means exclusive and that the agonistic and the artistic are correlativefor Protagorasas well as for Gorgias. Protagoraswould hold that every use of language is made . For if enable them to speak "nonrhetorically" is construedas the expression of a rhetor engaged in an agon. wrestling. Using his rhetorical "art. every assertion and as such is conditioned by his or her own ethos and pathos. the practical life of the state"(HGE 215). This contributionis integrallyrelated to the sophists' rhetoricalmodel of language. and likewise on naturalphilosophy. Stated another way. for once they want to indulge in an exquisite treat in oratory. Pleasure in beautiful discourse acquires a realm of its own where it does not clash with necessity.Nietzsche observes that the sophist considers rhetoric to be universal in its application. potentially subvertthe authorityof "rational Sophistic Epistemology The second contributionto Greek culture that Nietzsche attributesto the sophists is in the field of epistemology. such as the culpability of Helen of Troy. then no speaker is warrantedin claiming that his or her assertions are unconditionally true. and so their hostility is too vehement. Protagoras uses poetic myths as well as logical arguments to convince audiences and defeat interlocutors."Protagoras is able to undermine the dogmatic claims of every self-styled "expert"to possess privileged discourses or methods that about any subject whatsoever.14 Rhetoric Review Innovation already begins with Gorgias: he came adornedfestively and magnificently-like Empedocles he appeared in a purple garment-with a worldwidereputationand presentedthe epideictic oration:in it one wants to display one's ability. nor of sculpture).
"Stated another way. In this respect Nietzsche maintains that Protagorasechoes Heraclitus. As a "synthesis" of Heraclitus and Democritus." Protagoras's refusal to countenance claims to unconditional or nonperspectival truths has profound ontological consequences. All myths and gods useless" (WPh 6). as they are interpretedby the participantsand or observersof that game. in that whatever a persuasive rhetor is able to render apparentbecomes "real"for his or her audience." thathas been fabricatedwith a language that his audience one of accepts as a literal representation reality. a domain of "Being" that transcendsand is independentof individual rhetoricalsituations." Furthermore. But Nietzsche suggests further that Protagoras's conception of is "becoming" not a metaphysicalclaim about the ultimate natureof reality but rather a statement about humanity's inability to acquire certain knowledge about such a putative "reality. In his discussion of Gorgias. then one is never warrantedin claiming access to an independent "reality. for if every assertion is an articulation of one's own perspective. an observation that recalls Protagoras'sremark that "humanityis the measure of all things. In Nietzsche's vocabulary Protagoraswould construeevery assertion as inherentlyperspectival. Protagoras would presumably repudiate as unwarranted any metaphysical claim about an ultimate reality. the "real world"for Protagorasis identical with the "apparent" world. and not by reference to an "independent" universal criterion that governs all games. Nietzsche suggests that the "Western" sophist's artistic rhetoric has significant epistemological and ontological implications." Nietzsche seems to read Protagorasin this way. Nietzsche notes: . eschewing the possibility of a "nonperspectival way of seeing. Nietzsche observes that Gorgias uses his overtly extravaganttropes to overcome the limitations of the prevailing view of "reality. In this respect Nietzsche observes that for the sophist "in general everything appears only as the speaker's power represents it" (HGE 213). challenging the possibility of certainty and subvertingprevailing truths about the ultimate nature of the world. Protagoras implies that the world of appearanceis itself subject to change." wherein the validity of any assertion is determined by arbitrary protocols of each game." a "neutral" standpointfrom which to observe the "worlditself. he would presumablyinsist that he is unwarrantedin attributingany ultimate features to the "worldin itself. the latter of whom Nietzsche depicts as challenging the certaintyof sensation. and as seeing the world as "utterlywithout reason and instinct."Just as Protagorasclaims that he is unable to know anything about such transcendental entities as the gods. claiming that he represents "a synthesis of Heraclitus and Democritus"(WP 428).Nietzsche'sReadingof the Sophists 15 within a "game. who "altogetherdenied being" (PTG 51) and who depicted reality as a "flux"or process of "becoming" (PTG 51). endless whirled. since individuals and the contingent rhetorical situations in which they engage are always changing.
Instead. (HA 221) That is. But Nietzsche's notion of "immoralism" it applies to the sophists is very different as from the egoism of Callicles. despite their persuasiveness."prescriptionsabout how one "ought"to behave and live. To restrict oneself so may appear absurd. universal "truths." Sophistic Immoralism The third contribution to Greek culture that Nietzsche attributes to the sophists concerns their view of morality. one that is integrally related to their rhetorical model of language and their critique of knowledge. the sophist Throughhis explicitly artificial "performances. are themselves "fabrications. and are not to be mistakenas objective. or the Gorgian figures in Greek rhetoric."and not literal truths about "reality-in-itself. In this claim Nietzsche seems to acquiesce to Plato's depiction of sophistic morality as the egoism articulatedby Callicles. For insofar as Gorgias presents his discourse as constructedfrom highly artificial rhetorical figures. This antidogmatism . whose sole objective is to advance his own selfish interests. was as importanta training as counterpointand the fugue in the developmentof modem music. and one takes as profit the greatestsupplenessof movement. he suggests that his own discourses. Nietzsche affirms that the in sophists are "immoralists" that they "possessthe courage of all strong spirits to know their own immorality"(WP 428).16 Rhetoric Review The severe constraint which the French dramatists imposed upon themselves . but an artistic one" (WP 1048). dependent upon the contingencies of the participantsand audience. Since Nietzsche's sophists repudiateevery claim to be able to articulate"objective" nonperspectivaltruths about the natureof or would reject the attendantclaim to be able to discern reality. they would maintain that every assertion is made within a creative rhetorical contest and that its putative "validity"or truth is establishedby its persuasivenessor success in that particularcontest. In an assertion that appears on its face to echo Plato's criticism. they consequently and articulatedogmatic moral "rules. the sophist draws attention to his own inescapable presence and thereby underscores the fact that the views he offers are his own." affirms "an anti-metaphysicalview of the world-yes. that In way one gradually learns to step with grace. Gorgias's overtly artificial figures of speech serve as self-imposed constraintsthat enable him to overcome the prevailing conception of the "real." Nietzsche suggests. even on the small bridges that span dizzying abysses. . nevertheless there is no way to get beyond realism other than to limit oneself at first most severely (perhapsmost arbitrarily). ." Through his own distinctly personal use of artificial figures.
" would not therebyaffirm a Calliclean egoism wherein each individual strives to satisfy his or her desires. . Thus Nietzsche asserts: The Sophists verge upon the first critique of morality."on. anchored in the presuppositionsand values of the speaker." a life of "becoming. The power of form..Nietzsche'sReading of the Sophists 17 ushers in an "immoralism"in that one recognizes that every moral claim is conditional. but in order to be .' a 'good-in-itself do not exist. the first insight into morality:-they juxtapose the multiplicity (the geographical relativity) of the moral value judgments. They postulate the first truth that a 'morality-in- itself. they divine that all attemptsto give reasons for morality are necessarily sophistical.. for he implies that they would reject the notion that the "ego"or the "self"possesses permanence. that it is a swindle to talk of in 'truth' this field."TI 3). . But whereas Nietzsche's sophists would maintain that every moral and that every moral "truth" a swindle. the will to life rejoicing over its own inexhaustibility even in the sacrifice of its highest types-that is what I called Dionysian.e.-they let it be known that every moralitycan be dialecticallyjustified." (WP428) In this vein Nietzsche sharply 'distinguishes his own reading from that advanced by George Grote. And he speaks of the Greek sophistic culture as comprising a "leisure class whose members make things difficult for themselves and exercise much selfovercoming. Not in order to get rid of terror and pity . then the "immoralism"of the sophists would counsel not the affirmationof one's egoistic desires but rathera that encourages an ovenness to transformingone's desires. .just as they repudiate the assertion that any entity may possess a permanent"being"outside the flux of appearance and becoming. Nietzsche suggests that the sophists would oppose such an egoism.along witt. insisting that "Grote'stactics in defense of the Sophists are false: he wants to raise them to the rank of men of honor and ensigns of morality-but it was their honor not to indulge in any swindle with big words and virtues"(WP429). . Nietzsche depicts the sophists as Saying Yes to life even in its strangest and hardest problems. a radical repudiationof being ("Ancients. If the "self" is a fabrication. Insofar as he presents them as the advanced teachers of this culture. i. the will to give form to oneself' (WP 94).. . "self-overcoming" Nietzsche attributessuch a viev/ to the culture of the sophists as a whole in his notion of the "dionysian. . . they is pronouncementis "interested. Indeed. that affirms "passing away and destroying.
Stated another way. Nietzsche observes that it is because of the enormoushistorical influence of the socratic schools that the sophists tend to be "pale and ungraspableto us-for now we suspect that it must have been a very immoral culture. they use the agon as an opportunityto challenge and therebyto overcome their own limitations. Intervening on with the philosophers."EH 3) the By affirming "self-overcoming." sophists do not posit their "own"desires or values as invariable or foundational. And he asserts that "Onecannot insist too strongly upon the fact that the great Greek philosophers representthe decadence of every kind of Greek excellence . to the authorityof descent) ("WhatI Owe. since Plato and all the Socratic schools fought against it!" (D 168). instead. whom he also considers responsiblefor the demise of Greek tragedy (BT 15). taste (to the agonistic instinct. the counter-movementto the ancient." individuals who repudiatethe escapist attempts to flee to a domain of unconditional truth and moral absolutism. Sophistic "immoralism"is in this sense a repudiationof Calliclean selfishness." TI 3).18 RhetoricReview oneself the eternaljoy of becoming beyond all terrorand pity-that joy which includes even joy in destroying. Just as he depicts the sophists' epistemological rivals to be the dogmatic philosophers who privilege their own methodology as providing access to unconditional truths. the philosophers are the decadents of Greek culture.as the Germanshave done. for the sophists would see one's desires as being as contingent and conditional as one's most cherished beliefs. to the polis. like Socrates and his rationalistfollowers. Refusing to countenance the valorization of the socratic thinkers.Nietzsche depicts behalf of the sophists in their "quarrel" the sophists as champions of "this life. Nietzsche depicts the sophists' moral rivals to be those same socratic schools who use dialectic "as a way to virtue (in Plato and Socrates: evidently because Sophistrycounted as the way to immorality)"(WP 578). and use the Philistine moralism of the Socratic schools as a clue to what was basically Hellenic! After all.("BT. In this vein Nietzsche attributesthe "decline"of Greek culture not to the sophists' professed immoralism but to the "theoretical"socratic schools. to the value of race. noble. and in this manner achieve a greater degree of excellence. and they would presumablyurge individuals to be open to abandoningthose desires that inhibit their freedom and growth. Nietzsche's sophists would reject the notion of a permanent"self"lying behind each contingent rhetorical situation and eschew all unconditional rules that inhibit personal development.Nietzsche exclaims that one should not judge the Greeks by their philosophers.
the taste for the unconditional"(BGE 31). attending to some fragments of the sophists only cursorily while overlooking others altogether. In this respect the sophist repudiates the moralism of the socratic schools that Nietzsche denigrates as "the worst of tastes. in that it may enable us to articulate a "neo-Nietzschean" reading of the sophists that draws upon Nietzsche's method of reading and specific insights into the sophists'while being anchored in our own interests and commitments. or "biases. epistemology.I submit. in that it may provide some possible new directions for the contemporary"Nietzscheanturn" among sophistic scholars who have not attendedto Nietzsche's own specific writings on the sophists. and enable us to generate new perspectives on the sophists. In what follows I will delineate several key featuresof a such a neo-Nietzscheanreadingof the sophists." who "wants the unconditional and understandsonly what is tyrannical. affirm their own uniqueness. in that it may illuminate featuresof Nietzsche's own theory of language. My reconstructionof his account of the sophists may be of interest to Nietzschean scholars. we must discern the ways in which our readings of the sophists are determined by previous selections and interpretationsof their writings. In Nietzsche's reading the sophists' immoralism affirms the healthiest characteristic of Hellenic culture in that it encourages individuals to enjoy struggle. one that encourages us to become aware of our own presuppositions. But reconstructingNietzsche's reading should also be of interest to contemporarystudents of the sophists.values. An indispensablefeatureof our neo-Nietzschean reading will be the use of a "genealogical"method. to detach oneself" (WP428). .The account he presents is thus uniquely his own. anchored in his assessment of the cultural malaise of his own time and his commitment to cultural renewal and that his reading is highly selective. and insist upon personal freedom. indicating how he draws upon yet departsfrom the Greek thinkers he praises as his "co-workersand precursors" (WP 464). readingsof the sophists. In Hans-Georg Gadamer'sformulation. Such a neo-Nietzschean reading is worth articulating. and in doing so the sophist distinguishes himself from the "slave. and in this respect a strictly "Nietzschean"reading is precisely the unique interpretation that I have attempted to reconstruct from his specific remarks. and how our own values and commitmentsmay enable us to generate new openings into the sophists' texts. A Neo-Nietzschean Reading of the Sophists I have argued that Nietzsche's reading of the sophists is openly partisan.Nietzsche'sReading of the Sophists 19 and make it contagious-"Virtue" made completely abstract was the greatest seduction to make oneself abstract:i. I suggest.e. excel by overcoming their limits.in morals.."and the ways in which they influence our Unlike neopositivist critics who attemptto articulate"objective" interpretations. too" (BGE 46). and ethics.
is "remarkably sanitized. many of whom have themselves been inspired by Nietzsche's suggestions.12 A second feature of our neo-Nietzschean reading concerns our understanding of the culture of fifth-century Greece and the sophists' contributionsto it. the Nietzschean reassertion of the Dionysian and of the orgiastic counterreligionof the mysteries.1' Our commitment to multiculturalism. Dodds' The Greeks and the Irrational. Correlatively. contemporary aesthetic reinterpretationsof the Greek fact (such as Karl Orffs opera Antigone)-all converge to produce an alternativeGreece. and the newer French classical scholarship).the ritual studies of the Cambridge school. or Mediterraneansexist-culture of masks and death. the illusion that we can account for independently existing "facts themselves" in their entirety. for example.and our interest in overcoming the misperceptions that perpetuate conflict between different peoples. ritual ecstasies. and above all.focusing perhaps on Gorgias's advocacy of panhellenism and Hippias'sadvocacy of cosmopolitanism. but something African.we must become cognizant of the ways in which our commitmentslead us to select the material we are considering and interpreting. slavery. Given the diversity of our interests and our textual selections. As Fredric Jameson characterizes this emerging "alternative" pictureof ancient Greece.we may draw upon and augment Nietzsche's account of Greek culture. and artists.20 RhetoricReview circle" wherein "thehistoricityof we are inescapablysituatedin a "hermeneutic our existence entails that prejudices. most contemporaryscholarship on Greek rhetoric." in that it retains many of the tenets of the Enlightenment reading of Greek culture that Nietzsche repudiated (122). phallocratic homosexuality.in the literal sense of the word. As James Aune points out. perhaps. our neoNietzschean interpretations will presumably differ in many respects from Nietzsche's own. In our neo-Nietzschean reading. decisive reversals in classical scholarship (such as the work of George Thompson. and disabuse ourselves of what Nietzsche calls the "idolatryof the factual"("UH"8).and consequentlyon the sophists. an utterly nonor anticlassical culture to which something of the electrifying . Our interest in and commitment to feminism. Freud himself (and Levi-Strauss'rewriting of the Oedipus legend in terms of primitive myth). in contrast.psychologists. constitute the initial directednessof our whole ability to experience"(9). scapegoating. may lead us to explore the ways in which the sophists advanced arguments bearing on gender equality. may lead us to attend to the sophists' challenge to Athenocentrism. not that of Pericles or the Parthenon. attending to the work of twentieth-centuryanthropologists.
Attending to the mythological beliefs and magical practices of colonial Sicily.(151) Drawing upon these studies. adopting the persona of the mythical inventor of games. we may explore the ostensible affinity of some nomadic Sophists for "African"and "Oriental" cultures. the discourse on Helen of Troy. examining the connections between the model of language and their challenge to conventional sophists' "rhetorical" "philosophical" inquiry. and following the lead of Richard Lanham and Roger Moss. who characterizes Gorgias as a "tragic"philosopher.One approachmay be to draw upon Nietzsche's notion of the "tragic"to explore the thought of some of the sophists. generating entirely new "genealogical" interconnections. James Coulter. we may explore such texts as the Defense of Palamedes. in which Gorgias. we may examine the ways in which the sophist challenges the "reality" fabricated in such established genres or discourses as the Eleatic treatise. 13 Drawing on the studies by RichardEnos of the violent and unstable culture of fifth-centurySicily. the conventions of the legal apologia.17 Concerning the epistemology and ethics of the sophists. In this we may follow Mario Untersteiner. and with the values and beliefs of his audience. and the Athenian funeral address. Drawing on recent discussions of play. exploring their respective views of knowledge and morality. plays with traditional myths.16 In these inquiries we may draw upon and supplement Nietzsche's notion that the sophists perceived speech and writing as a form of play. we Nietzsche's suggestion that Gorgias uses figurationto overcome the may pursue constraints of "realism. Drawing on specific studies of the linguistic conventions of these genres undertaken by G. we may further explore the sophists' role in the "ancient quarrel" between philosophy and rhetoric. Kerferd.Nietzsche'sReading of the Sophists 21 otherness and fascination. Using a genealogical method and attending to the sophists' roles in Greek culture in these ways. B. Arthur Adkins. of the Aztec world.14 And pursuing the suggestions of Martin Bemal in Black Athena. and we may develop Eric .15Concerning the deploymentof figures of speech. who attendto the sophists' playful use of parodyand paradox. the legal apology. we may delineate the possible connections between Gorgias's writings and revolutionaryupheaval. we may situate individual sophists in novel ways. With Samuel Ijsselling and David Roochnik. and others. we may examine specific ways in which Gorgias appears to appropriate and subvert established conventions."Specifically. Nicole Loraux. we may supplement Nietzsche's account of the sophists' conception of language and rhetoric. for example. we may pursue Nietzsche's insight into the differences between Protagoras and Gorgias. say. we may situate Gorgias in a mannerthat underscoreshis awarenessof the power of irrationalityand the limits of logos. has been restored.
interests and selection of texts will presumably differ from his. in Basic Writings. we may find that an equally fruitful reading would place Gorgias in the comic tradition.I would also like to thankDavid Roochnik. Yet insofar as we acknowledge our own perspectives and articulate compelling genealogies of the sophists.18 Another approach may be to pursue "carnivalesque" approach the inquiries of Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant. "TheHistoryof GreekEloquence" (HGE). . With Roger Moss we may examine the ways the sophists refine their "violence" and "barely suppressed aggression" through the use of such tactics as paradox and parody (216). Schia!pa 3-12. Our interpretations of the sophists' conceptions of knowledge and morality may differ dramatically from Nietzsche's own. who draw on Nietzsche's notion that the sophists' reliance upon cleverness and cunning suggests a conception of knowledge that is antithetical to a platonic or scientific quest for "certainty.in Philosophyand Truth. we may inquire into the ways that individual sophists such as Gorgias are able to overcome their personal limitations by "recreating" themselves in agonistic and epideictic performances (38).Thomas Kent. The Genealogy of Morals (GM). in "Homer's Contest" ("HC").All-Too-Human(HA). Ochs 39-40. Notes i I would like to thankEdward commentson Schiappaand RichardLeo Enos for theirinstructive an earlierdraftof this article. 2 For discussionsof the seminal role of Hegel and Grote in the modem "rehabilitation" the of sophists. in "WePhilologists("WPh"). Beyond Good and Evil (BGE). ThePortable Nietzsche. Human. Conversely. Philosophyin the TragicAge of the Greeks(PTAG). Kerferd5-10. in The Portable Nietzsche. of of I cite Nietzsche'swritingswith an abbreviation the Englishtranslation the title followed by the sectionnumber: "ThePhilosopher" ("P"). given that our values. And following Eric White."19 In respect to ethics. we may generate neo-Nietzschean readings that are faithful to the spirit if not the letter of Nietzsche's own interpretation. Guthrie 10-13. and Michael Mendelsonfor sharingwith me theirviews of the sophistsandthe historyof rhetoric." Arion. we may explore the nature of what Nietzsche calls sophistic "immoralism" in a variety of specific texts. in Friedrich Nietzsche on Rhetoric and Language. Twilight of the Idols (TI). "OnThe Use and Disadvantages Historyfor Life"("UH"). in Basic Writings. Jarratt1-6. associating him with the Sicilian comic playwright Epicharmus and examining the sophist's to knowledge. in FriedrichNietzsche on Rhetoricand Language. of in Daybreak(D). UntimelyMeditations.see Sidgwick 323-71. TheBirthof Tragedy(BT). The Gay Science (GS). "Hegel"160-71. in Basic Writings.22 Rhetoric Review White's contention that Nietzsche's conception of the dionysian illuminates Gorgias's epistemology. "Descriptionof Ancient Rhetoric" ("DAR"). in Basic Writings. Poulakos. Ecce Homo (EH).
QuarterlyJournal of Speech 79 (1993): 119-22. White 24-31.Lloyd-Jones1-15. and Hall 161-62. 19The sophists' of cunningintelligenceor metis is discussedby Detienneand Vernant39. Schrift 169-98. Lain Entralgo32-107.Breazealexxiii-xxvii. 103-14.Cambridge: Clark. 13 Recentdiscussionof Greekmagic that bearon the sophistsmay be found in Romilly. 14 For discussionof the politicalcontextof the sophists' 321-50. Nietzsche on Truthand Philosophy. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. Coulter 31-69. 107-28. ." . and of by 8 Accounts of the debate over Nietzsche'scontributionsto classical philology are providedby "Introduction" BT. Bernal. and Nussbaum19.NJ: RutgersUP. and Del Caro593by 96.NY: CornellUP. Untersteiner 283-84. Cambridge JohnsHopkinsUP. 42. Valadier 247-61. Loraux 225-30. Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985. specific discussionof the sophists'attitudes 12For discussionof the sophists' and see advocacyof panhellenism cosmopolitanism.or Nietzsche'sAppropriation an AestheticNorm. 135-64. Inconsistencyand InvalidArgumentin Some Greek Thinkers. Untersteiner 194-205. 4 Scholarswho criticize the use of the Nachlas in an interpretation Nietzsche include Magus of 218-35.and 15The sophists'seminalrole in the "ancient betweenphilosophyand rhetoricis discussed quarrel" by Ijsselling 7-33.Albany:StateU of New YorkP. Martin. Faraone3-32. White 14-15. and 238-57. 1987.see Smith 335-59. A defenseof a judicious use of the Nachlas is advancedby Nehamas9-10. NietzscheAs Philosopher.Maudemarie. For an alternativereadingof this see 1-15. section2. Lanham1-20. Schiappa.1965. Enos. 1991. Thomas. Arthur. and Clark 25-27.Scott. andCole. Nietzsche'sViewof Socrates. and Hunt 5969. "Form and Content in Gorgias' Helen and Palamedes: Rhetoric. Aune. Ed."Examination" "Epideictic" 17Discussionof the role of play in 163-65.and Hoy 20-38. Danto. 18The is Norwood83-113."Journal of the History of Ideas 50 (1989): 589-605. 1990.andWinkler214-43.see Kaufmann 281-82. quarrel. J.The Origins of Rhetoricin AncientGreece. Consigny. UP.Nietzsche'sReading of the Sophists 23 The WillTo Power (WP).New York:Macmillan." JohnAntonand AnthonyPreus. Strong 149-52. Ithaca. and Del Caro589-605.James.Pease 27-42. "Old Quarrel"225-46. 1983. 6 Discussions of Nietzsche'sconception of a cultural renewal inspiredby Greek culture are undertaken Tejara1-32. 310. 1974."Gorgias's of the Epideictic. "TheStyles of Gorgias."Rhetorike" 16For a discussionof Gorgias'suse of style to adaptto and challengeestablished conventions. W. "Styles" 43-53. Works Cited Adkins. andSuzuki 13-15. Dannhauser.Arthur. and Demand placementof Gorgiasin the comic tradition suggestedby 453-63. Citations of of follow the originalarrangement numbering the fragments Diels andKranz. 5 For a discussionof Nietzsche'sgenealogicalmethod.Review of BlackAthena. Kerferdl 156-60. Nehamas 100-13. to Kaufmann. 9 For a discussionof Nietzsche'smaturenotionof the dionysian. Strong 135-85. Essays in Greek Philosophy. Philosophy. 215-17. Guthrie writing. "Helen" 1-16. Kerferd139-62. Baltimore: Use Philosophyand Rhetoric25 (1992): 281-97. 7 Translations fragments the OlderSophistsare fromSprague." RhetoricSociety Quarterly22 (1992): 43-53. "Epistemology"35-51.see Granier 190-200. 281-97. see Jarratt 63-79.The Older Sophists. and Roochnik 155-76. Cole. and Schrift15-16. use 307. Poulakos. 10Nietzsche'sconceptionof agon is discussedby Lloyd-Jones 6-7. For towardwomen. Consigny. Adkins 107-28. New Brunswick. andLloyd-Jones3-15. Scarborough 138-74.Adrian. of Del Caro."Dionysian Classicism.Guthrie sophisticthoughtmaybe foundin Untersteiner 193-95. Schiappa.see Untersteiner Enos 41-90. and Roochnik. Lloyd 81-102. "Magic" 3-21. 11 Ancient Greek attitudestoward women have been examined by Pomeroy and Keuls. Strong 109-85. Guthrie160-63.
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27 and 45. David B. Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration. Winckelmann.Edward.Greek Comedy. 1977.New York:OxfordUP."Reviewof Protagoras and Logos.Columbia:U of SouthCarolinaP.Henry. MA: Harvard UP.Cambridge: UP.Trans. Nietzscheand Greek Thought. "Dionysian of Classicism. 1990."MagikaHiera:. Sidgwick. 1975." (1987): 41-66.Paul. Romilly. "StanleyFish and the Old Quarrel Between Philosophy and Rhetoric. 1990."Things Plato. 1990. 1991. Allison. 1991.John. Oxford:Basil Blackwell." Ithaca. 1954. The WillTo Power."Gorgias' . 1962.EricCharles. 1954.Martha. Rhetoric Review 6 Vitanza. . Magic and Rhetoricin Ancient Greece. R. Norwood. New York:Viking.W. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks.V. Cambridge.Oxford:OxfordUP."Magika Hiera:. "An Examination and Exculpation of the Composition Style of Gorgias of Leontini. 1968. as Shaw. Donovan."Critical Review 5 (1991): 225-46.or Nietzsche'sAppropriation an Aesthetic Norm. The Valadier. 247-61.1931. 12 PRETFEXT (1991): 238-57. JohnFaraoneand DirkObbink. Sophistic. 1987. Nietzscheand the Questionof Interpretation.Jacqueline The Great Sophists in Periclean Athens. Poulakos. Trans. and Schiappa. 1975.Ancient GreekMagic and Religion.Tracy. "CriticalSub/Versionsof the Historyof PhilosophicalRhetoric. Heinemann. Ed. Trans. New York:Routledge. Herbsand Roots.Kaironomia. 13874. . John Faraoneand DirkObbink. Ed.RosamundKent. 1986. Arthur Stanley. Hollingdale. The Tragedyof Reason. Mario." . M.London:Methuen.:A Study in Greek Philosophsy Rhetoric."Journal of the History of Ideas 50 (1989): 589-605."TheJournal of Philology 8 (1872): 288-307. White.ProtagorasAnd Logos. GreekMagic and Religion.New York:OxfordUP.Gilbert. Victor." Classical Philology 21 (1926): 27-42. Pease.Gedankenuber die Nachamungder grieschen Werke."InternationalPhilosophical Quarterly26 (1986): 331-39. and .DC: Regnery.Columbia:U of South CarolinaP. and cited by AdrianDel Caro. 223. of John. Cambridge Ochs.KathleenFreeman."TheConstraints Eros. Encomiumto Helenandthe Defense of Rhetoric. Roochnik. MarianneCowan. "Hegel'sReceptionof the Sophists.David.WalterKaufmann.Trans.New York:Vintage. J.Nietzsche's Reading of the Sophists 25 . New York:Routledge. Martinus Tejera."RhetoricSociety Quarterly21 (1991): 39-42." Rhetorica 1 (1983): 1-16. Johann. WithoutHonor. Lamb."Westertl Journal of Speech Communication54 (1990): 160-71. of Winkler. "Interpreting SophisticRhetoric:A Reply to EdwardSchiappa. Strong. New York: Dell.NY: CornellUP. 214-43.Dordrecht: Nijhoff. Sprague. Washington. What'sin a Name'? Towarda RevisedHistoryof EarlyGreekRhetorical "Rhetorike: Theory.1775.1967."'Some More'Notes. Ed. The Older Sophists." Philosophy and Rhetoric23 (1990): 218-28. Schrift.The Sophists. Towarda 'Third' Argumentation (1991): 117-39. 1991.London:Wm."TheSophists.John.Alan. "Nietzsche Sophist:A Polemic." QuarterlyJournal of Speech 78 (1992): 1-15. Gorgias. "ThePharmacology Sacred Plants. Trans. 1992. Nussbaum.WalterKaufmann R. Untersteiner.ed.Ancient Scarborough. 1987. "DionysusVersusthe Crucified. 5 . The Portable Nietzsche." New Nietzsche. Trans.Berkeley:U of CaliforniaP. Daniel C. de.The Fragility of Goodness.
Corbett Jim W. McQuade CarolynMiller ThomasP. Submita computer -spaced. We thankthe following RRpeerreviewersof manuscripts: Don Abbott Paul Bator CharlesBazerman PatriciaBizzell LynnZ. Connors EdwardP. stampedenvelopeto David Starkey. Christopher Burnham RobertJ. kindergarten through college. Covino SharonCrowley FrankJ.with notes in current or ASCIItext format)or threepapercopies with a selfWordPerfec. Scott JackSelzer JamesF. Ross Winterowd GeorgeYoos RichardYoung JamesP. Murphy JasperNeel RobertT.GuestEditor. MLA style. unformatted addressed. Roen Mike Rose MurielSaville-Troike EdwardSchiappa JohnSchilb RobertL. "Gorgias's Use of the Epideictic" in Philosophy and Rhetoric. Gorgias and the Subversion of Logos" in PRE/TEXT. Phelps Duane H. Slevin IraShor JamesStratman JohnTrimbur Lynn QuitmanTroyka Arthur Walzer E. Brown BarryBrummett C.26 RhetoricReview Scott Consigny's recent publications include "The Styles of Gorgias. and "Sophistic Freedom.notes. He teaches the history and theory of rhetoric at Iowa State University.Carolina English Teacher. Carolina English Teacher Journal the SouthCarolina of Councilof Teachersof English Call for Contributors: 1995-96 Special Issue Creative Writing as a Teaching Tool of Carolina English Teacheracceptsarticles.reviews. MichaelHalloran PatriciaHarkin BruceHerzberg WinifredBryanHomer BrianHuot Lee A. White ThomasWillard W. Miller JamesJ.J." in Rhetoric Society Quarterly. Bloom StuartC.descriptions classroom and strategies-in shortanythingthatmightbe of interestto teachersof literature shouldbe typed. Lunsford Steven Mailloux DonaldA. Manuscripts disk (MicrosoftWord. Gross S.doubled languageat all levels.Florence. JimmieKillingsworth JaniceM. Department EnglishandMass Communications. Jacobus DavidJolliffe Nan Johnson M. Lauer YamengLiu AndreaA. JohnWarnock Tilly Warnock IrwinWeiser Welch Kathleen EdwardM. Oliver Sean O'Rourke Louise W. of FrancisMarionUniversity. Zappen He-PingZhao . SC 29501-0547. Corder WilliamA. D'Angelo PeterElbow Leo Enos Richard David Foster Richard Fulkerson JohnGage Alan G.
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