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**Shear, Bond, Anchorage, Development Length and Torsion
**

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 15

Bond, Anchorage, Development Length and Splicing

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Kharagpur . the student should be able to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • understand the importance of bond and why is it essential to provide between steel and concrete. determine the development length of a single bar and bars bundled in contact. The average value Version 2 CE IIT.15. specify the salient points of anchoring bars in tension. the plane section of a beam remains plane even after bending. understand the need for anchoring the tensile bars. The local bond stress varies along a member with the variation of bending moment. compression and shear. The bond is measured by bond stress. understand the reason for different values of design bond stresses of plain bars and deformed bars in tension and compression. derive the expression to check the development length of bars in tension. take adequate precautions when the direction of reinforcement changes. justify the superiority of deformed bars to smooth mild steel bars. explain the development length. specify the salient points of splicing and welding of reinforcement to make it longer. apply the theory for designing beams in different situations as may arise.Instruction Objectives: At the end of this lesson. 6. The length of a member required to develop the full bond is called the anchorage length. determine the bearing stress and check the same. With the perfect bond between them.1 Introduction The bond between steel and concrete is very important and essential so that they can act together without any slip in a loaded structure. define the design bond stress.

throughout its anchorage length is designated as the average bond stress. IS 456.15. thus. a tensile member has to be anchored properly by providing additional length on either side of the point of maximum tension. 6. 26.2. This concept of design bond stress finally results in additional length of a bar of specified diameter to be provided beyond a given critical section. Thus. it is needed to check for the sufficient development length Ld only rather than checking both for the local bond stress and development length as required for the smooth mild steel bars. In our calculation. This average bond stress is still used in the working stress method and IS 456 has mentioned about it in cl. Similarly. to enable it carrying the loads.1 mentions that the local bond stress varies along the length of the reinforcement while the average bond stress gives the average value throughout its development length. Clause 26. B-2. “The calculated tension or compression in any bar at any section shall be developed on each side of the section by an appropriate development length or end anchorage or by a combination thereof. In such a case. which is known as ‘Development length in tension’.2.1. The stress is acting on the interface between bars and surrounding concrete and along the direction parallel to the bars. However.15. Accordingly. 26. The same is given below as a ready reference.2 of IS 456 stipulates.1. the average bond stress will be used. It is. for compression members also.2 Design Bond Stress τbd (a) Definition The design bond stress τbd is defined as the shear force per unit nominal surface area of reinforcing bar.” (b) Design bond stress – values Section 6. slippage of a bar may not always result in overall failure of a beam. in the limit state method of design. Version 2 CE IIT.2 stipulates the requirements of proper anchorage of reinforcement in terms of development length Ld only employing design bond stress τbd. It is worth mentioning that the deformed bars are known to be superior to the smooth mild steel bars due to the presence of ribs. Kharagpur . cl. desirable to provide end anchorages also to maintain the integrity of the structure and thereby. we have ‘Development length Ld in compression’. the overall bond failure may be avoided by this provision of additional development length Ld. Though.1. the average bond stress has been designated as design bond stress τbd and the values are given in cl.

9 For deformed bars conforming to IS 1786. 6.15.4 M 30 1.15. these values shall be increased by 60 per cent. the Ast required is the maximum at x = L/2.2 M 25 1. For any section 1-1 at a distance x < L/2. For bars in compression.1(a) shows a simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load. the values of bond stress in tension shall be increased by 25 per cent. Kharagpur .Table 6.7 M 40 and above 1. Because of the maximum moment.4 τbd for plain bars in tension Grade of concrete Design Bond Stress τbd in N/mm2 M 20 1. some of the Version 2 CE IIT.5 M 35 1.3 Development Length (a) A single bar Figure 6.

15.2. Figure 6. thus gives Ld = (6.1(b) shows the free body diagram of the segment AB of the bar. Kharagpur . three or four bars in contact are determined following the same principle. 26. the development length is reduced by 25 per cent as the design bond stress in compression τbd is 25 per cent more than that in tension (see the last lines below Table 6.1. It is necessary to have the resistance force to be developed by τbd for the length Ld to overcome the tensile force. 26. Equating the two. the development length of deformed bars is reduced by 60 per cent of that needed for the plain round bars. we get π φ (Ld) (τbd) = (π φ 2 σs /4) (6. Similarly. Let us derive the expression to determine Ld of this bar. Tables 64 to 66 of SP-16 present the development lengths of fully stressed plain and deformed bars (when σs = 0. Following the same logic. The resistance force = π φ (Ld) (τbd).11.11) Equation 6. other sections of the bar should have the required Ld as determined for such sections.1 of IS 456 to determine the development length of bars.2 of IS 456 stipulates a simpler approach to determine the development length directly under such cases and the same is given below: Version 2 CE IIT. Let us then assume that section 1-1 is the theoretical cut-off point of one bar. cl. However. The example taken above considers round bar in tension. It is to be noted that the consequence of stress concentration at the lugs of deformed bars has not been taken into consideration. the tensile force T trying to pull out the bar is of the value T = (π φ 2 σs /4). However. (b) Bars bundled in contact The respective development lengths of each of the bars for two.12) φ σs 4 τ bd The above equation is given in cl. where φ is the nominal diameter of the bar and σs is the tensile stress in bar at the section considered at design loads.tensile bars can be curtailed. At B. For bars in compression.2.4). it is necessary to extend the bar for a length Ld as explained earlier.87 fy) both under tension and compression.

(i) At least one-third of the positive moment reinforcement in simple members and one-fourth of the positive moment reinforcement in continuous members shall be extended along the same face of the member into the support. Bundled bars shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties to ensure the bars remaining together. According to this clause: • • • In addition to single bar. 6.87 fy.” However. while using bundled bars the provision of cl. when such member is part of the primary lateral load resisting system. (ii) Such reinforcements of (i) above shall also be anchored to develop its design stress in tension at the face of the support.15.3 of IS 456. increased by 10 per cent for two bars in contact.1 of IS 456 must be satisfied. 20 per cent for three bars in contact and 33 per cent for four bars in contact.2.13) fd ≤ M1 + Lo V where M1 = moment of resistance of the section assuming all reinforcement at the section to be stressed to fd. Curtailment of bundled bars should be done by terminating at different points spaced apart by not less than 40 times the bar diameter except for bundles stopping at support (cl. 6. 26.4 Checking of Development Lengths of Bars in Tension The following are the stipulation of cl. Bars larger than 32 mm diameter shall not be bundled.3.5 of IS 456).1.3.2. Version 2 CE IIT. to a length equal to Ld/3. (iii) The diameter of the positive moment reinforcement shall be limited to a diameter such that the Ld computed for σs = fd in Eq. except in columns. Kharagpur .“The development length of each bar of bundled bars shall be that for the individual bar. 26.12 does not exceed the following: ( Ld ) when σ s = (6. bars may be arranged in pairs in contact or in groups of three or four bars bundled in contact. 26. fd V = 0. = shear force at the section due to design loads.

φ It has been further stipulated that M1/V in the above expression may be increased by 30 per cent when the ends of the reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction.Lo = sum of the anchorage beyond the centre of the support and the equivalent anchorage value of any hook or mechanical anchorage at simple support. whichever is greater.5 Derivation of the Limiting Ld (Eq. 6. 6. These bond stresses are designated as flexural bond stress.2(a) shows the tensile bar AB near the support of a beam and Fig. 6.15. At a point of inflection. Lo is limited to the effective depth of the member or 12 φ . the tensile capacity to be developed is normally small although the rate of change of tensile stress in the bars is high.15.2(b) explains the stresses and forces in the free body diagram of the Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . and = diameter of bar.15.13) At the face of simple support and at the points of inflection in continuous beams. Figure 6.

The tensile force at C (TC) is greater than that at D (TD).segment CD of the bar. for N bars of equal diameter. TD = πφ (dx) τ bd MC .MD z = πφτ bd (dx ) which gives dM = πφ z τ bd dx or (6.14 and 6. we get from Eq. we have τ bd = (6. which gives: Version 2 CE IIT. Considering z as the lever arm (distance between the centres of gravity of tensile and compressive force).16 gives the flexural bond stress in the tension reinforcement at any section.15) From Eqs.17) V z ( ∑ 0) where ∑ 0 = N π φ = total perimeter of all bars in tension at the section.14) MD = TD (z) Again TC (6.87 f y (when σ s = 0.6.11: N π φ Ld τ bd = Ast σ s = Ast 0. If there are N bars of equal size. Kharagpur .15.87 f y ). 6. we have MC = TC (z) (6. Again.16) τ bd = V πφz Equation 6.

The stipulation of additional Lo in the expression of Eq.15.19. Such anchoring is discussed below under three sub-sections for bars in tension.4 (iii).18) 0.2.6.15.87 f y Ast z is the moment of resistance at the section and V = shear force at the section From Eq.2 of IS 456.18 give: 0.2(a) mentions that the bars may be anchored in combination of providing development length to maintain the integrity of the structure.6 Anchoring Reinforcing Bars Section 6.87 f y Ast Ld (∑ 0) Equations 6. compression and shear respectively. 6. Version 2 CE IIT.87 f y Ast Ld (∑ 0) = V z (∑ 0) or (6.17 and 6. Kharagpur . as stipulated in cl.6. The meaning of Lo has been mentioned in sec.13 is for additional safety.19) where Ld = M1 V M 1 = 0. 26. we find that the ratio of M1/V at the section must be equal to or greater than Ld if the design bond stress τbd is to be restricted within limit.15. 6.τ bd = (6.

• (b) Bars in compression (cl. The anchorage value of standard bend shall be considered as 4 times the diameter of the bar for each 45o bend subject to a maximum value of 16 times the diameter of the bar. Kharagpur . The anchorage value of standard U-type hook shall be 16 times the diameter of the bar.15.2. Standard hooks and bends should be as per IS 2502 or as given in Table 67 of SP-16.2.3 a and b.2.2 of IS 456) Here. Hooks should normally be provided for plain bars in tension. 26. the salient points are: Version 2 CE IIT.1 of IS 456) The salient points are: • • • • Derformed bars may not need end anchorages if the development length requirement is satisfied. 26. which are shown in Figs.6.(a) Bars in tension (cl.2.

• • The anchorage length of straight compression bars shall be equal to its development length as mentioned in sec. bends and straight lengths beyond bends.4 of IS 456) The salient points are: • Inclined bars in tension zone will have the development length equal to that of bars in tension and this length shall be measured from the end of sloping or inclined portion of the bar. if provided. 6. Kharagpur . The development length shall include the projected length of hooks. Version 2 CE IIT.2.3.2.15. 26. (c) Bars in shear (cl.

6.5 f ck 1 + 2 φ /a 6. and = size of the bar or bar of equivalent area in bundled bars. should be taken up by additional links or stirrups. r = internal radius of the bend.20 shall not exceed the following: Calculated bearing stress > / (6. For bars adjacent to the face of the member. Kharagpur . 26. the change in direction of tension or compression reinforcement induces a resultant force. φ The calculated bearing stress of Eq. complete development length and anchorage are considered to be satisfied if prepared as shown in Figs. • 6. a shall be taken as cover plus size of the bar φ . This force may have a tendency to split the concrete and. 26.2.4. transverse ties and other secondary reinforcement.• Inclined bars in compression zone will have the development length equal to that of bars in tension and this length shall be measured from the middepth of the beam.2.8 Change in Direction of Reinforcement (cl.15.20) Fbt rφ where Fbt = tensile force due to design loads in a bar or group of bars. For stirrups.15.15.6 of IS 456) In some situations.2.21) where a fck = characteristic cube strength of concrete = center to center distance between bars or groups of bars perpendicular to the plane of the bend.7 Bearing Stresses at Bends (cl.6. Normally.5 of IS 456) The bearing stress inside a bend is to be calculated from the expression: Bearing stress = (6. 1.2. therefore. Version 2 CE IIT. this aspect is taken care while detailing of bars is carried out.

2 of IS 456) The strength of welded splices and mechanical connections shall be taken as 100 per cent of the design strength of joined bars for compression splices. They should be considered as staggered if the centre to centre distance of the splices is at least 1.2.5. it can go even up to 100 per cent if welding is strictly supervised and if at any cross-section of the member not more than 20 per cent of the tensile reinforcement is welded. For mechanical connection of tension splice.2.15. They should be away from the sections of maximum stress and be staggered. (a) Lap Splices (cl. 26.2.5 of IS 456) Reinforcement is needed to be joined to make it longer by overlapping sufficient length or by welding to develop its full design bond stress. whichever is greater. However. 26.3 times the lap length calculated as mentioned below.2. Kharagpur . The lap length shall be calculated on the basis of diameter of the smaller bar when bars of two different diameters are to be spliced. such strength of welded bars shall be taken as 80 per cent of the design strength of welded bars. IS 456 (cl. The lap length including anchorage value of hooks for bars in flexural tension shall be Ld or 30 φ .1 of IS 456) The following are the salient points: • • They should be used for bar diameters up to 36 mm. 26. whichever is greater. • • • • (b) Strength of Welds (cl. For tension splices.9 Reinforcement Splicing (cl.5) recommends that splices in flexural members should not be at sections where the bending moment is more than 50 per cent of the moment of resistance and not more than half the bars shall be spliced at a section. The same for direct tension shall be 2Ld or 30 φ . Version 2 CE IIT. 26. The lap length in compression shall be equal to Ld in compression but not less than 24 φ .6. Lap splices of bundled bars shall be made by splicing one bar at a time and all such individual splices within a bundle shall be staggered.5. 100 per cent of design strength of mechanical connection shall be taken.

2) = 1..10 Numerical Problems Problem 1: Determine the anchorage length of 4-20T reinforcing bars going into the support of the simply supported beam shown in Fig.. Kharagpur . we need xu Version 2 CE IIT.92 N/mm2 Eq..6(1.15.4 gives τbd for M 20 and Fe 415 (with 60% increased) = 1.13 gives ( Ld ) when σ s = f d ≤ M1 + Lo V Here.87(415) φ = 4 τ bd 4(1. to find M1. Solution 1: Table 6. (1) Eq.6.87 f y ) = 47. 6. width of the column support = 300 mm.92) (when σ s = 0.01φ ..6..15. Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.5.12 gives Ld = φ σs 0. The factored shear force Vu = 280 kN.6.

87(415) (1256) = 209. 280(10 3 ) φ ≤ 18..15..max .48(500) = 240 mm Since xu < xu.01φ ≤ 1.13 above.87 fy Ast (d – 0. we have 47.87 f y Ast 0.485 mm V 280 So.01φ V Minimum Lo = 47. if Lo is assumed as zero.754 kNm V = 280 kN We have from Eq. Kharagpur .3( ) = 68.xu = 0.1. Determination of Lo: 1. with the stipulation of 30 per cent increase assuming that the reinforcing bars are confined by a compressive reaction: Ld ≤ 1.3 ( M1 ) + Lo V or or 187. 20 mm diameter bar does not allow Lo = 0.87(415) (1256) {500 – 0..3 ( M1 187754 ) = 47. the bars are extended by 100 mm to satisfy the requirement as shown in Fig. (2) V From Eqs.3 ( M1 ) + Lo .36 f ck b = 0.6.94)} = 187.01(20) ...94 mm 0.36(20) (300) xu.(1) and (2).42 xu) or and M1 = 0.3 { }.max = 0.754(10 6 ) 47.01φ ≤ 1.6.3 ( M1 ) + Lo ≥ 47. Version 2 CE IIT.01φ .54 mm Therefore.6.1. M1 = 0.42(209.

15. 6. How would you determine the development lengths of bars when two.2: A.5: Version 2 CE IIT.4: Derive the expression of determining the development length of a single bar in tension. Kharagpur . A.4 of sec.6.15.3: State the percentage increase/decrease of design bond stress of deformed bars in tension and compression with reference to the respective values of plain bars.2: Q.1: Explain the importance of the bond and why is it essential to provide between steel and concrete in beams? Sec.1: Q.15.3(b) A. Sec. for the compression bars.2(b) Q.15. Sec.15. 6. 6. A.1 para 1 Define the design bond stress τ bd .3(a). 6.5: Sec.15. three or four bars are bundled in contact? State the salient points of the stipulations of IS 456 in this respect.3: Three lines below Table 6. if any.2(a) A. 6. State the changes.4: Q.11 Practice Questions and Problems with Answers Q.

8: Write down the expressions of calculated bearing stress at bends and its limiting value. Version 2 CE IIT.6: Q. Sec.9(a) and (b). Q. 6.7: Sec. A.15.6. Assume M 20 and Fe 415.Q.6. A.5 and the final form is given in Eq. 6.20 and 6.15. 6.15.7: State the salient points of the stipulations of IS 456 regarding anchoring reinforcing bars in tension.10: State the salient points of splicing and welding of reinforcing bars. A. Q.6. Q.7 if the factored shear force is 200 kN at the point of inflection.15. (b) and (c) are the respective answers.8: Eqs. A.6: Derive the limiting value of the development length for bars in tension having both bending moment and shear force.8.15.21 are the answers.6(a).13. 6.9: State the additional measure to be taken when the reinforcing bars change the direction. respectively. Kharagpur .10: Sec.9: Sec. compression and shear. respectively. Q. A. Explain the role of additional length Lo. are the answers.11: Check the bond requirement of the continuous beam of Fig.

A.46 mm 0.. (5) V Version 2 CE IIT. Eq.. M1 = 0. (3) 4 τ bd 4(1.11: Table 6.13 gives ( Ld ) when σ s = f d ≤ M1 + Lo V To find M1.36 f ck b = 0.48(400) = 192 mm Since xu < xu.. (4) 47.36(20) (300) xu.max = 0.55 kNm From Eqs.max .10). we have ….15.87(415) (942) {400 – 0.87 f y Ast 0.01φ ≤ ( M1 ) + Lo ...87(415) φ = = 47.42(157.42 xu) = 0.92) Eq..12 gives Ld = φ σs 0.92 N/mm2 (see Solution 1 of Problem 1 of sec.87(415) (942) = 157.46)} = 113.6.4 gives τbd for M 20 and Fe 415 as 1.. 6.6.... we need xu xu = 0. Kharagpur .87 fy Ast (d – 0. (3) and (4).01φ ..

1st Revised Edition. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. New Delhi. 6th Edition..Mallick and A. Nilson. 2004.P. Oxford & I. 3rd Edition.C.Syal and R. 6. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. New Delhi.K.Steedman. Jain. 1996. Publishing Company Pvt.C. Reinforced Concrete Structures. David Darwin and Charles W. by G. 2nd Edition. 7. by P. New Delhi. by C. With Lo = 400 mm.01φ ≤ { } + 400 200(10 3 ) which gives φ ≤ 20. 13. 2nd Edition.Neville.H.Sinha. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Textbook of R. 1989. Reinforced Concrete Limit State Design. 6. 10..Unnikrishna Pillai and Devdas Menon. A.At the point of inflection Lo is the maximum of d (= 400 mm) or 12φ ( = 240 mm). 2001. we can write from Eq.Ummat. 2000. by Ashok K.N. by I.M.K.C. 2003. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Concrete Technology. by I. London. 2002. by P. Ltd. use of φ = 20 mm satisfies the bond requirement.H. 2002.55(10 6 ) 47. 13th Edition. Ltd. 14. 1994.Birdie and J. 10th Edition.C. Dolan. 4th Edition. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete. by Arthur H.H.J..Goel. Reinforced Concrete Design. ELBS with Longman. 9. 1993. by A. by S.Wheeler & Co. 3. Reinforced Concrete Design.B. New Delhi. Ltd. 1990. 2.Gupta..Neville and J. 8.E.Varghese. by S.15.C. Analysis & Design of Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements.Birdie.Dayaratnam. Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Handbook.. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.Varghese. Allahabad. 1st Indian reprint. Nem Chand & Bros. Allahabad. Properties of Concrete. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Behaviour. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Reynolds and J. Reinforced Concrete. Ltd. Wiley Eastern Limited. 5.Syal and A. 1992. 6th Edition.K.C. Version 2 CE IIT. New Delhi. New Delhi. 1997. New Delhi. 11.12 References: 1.M. Ltd.C. Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design.S. New Delhi. Longman. by S. 4. Roorkee. Design of Concrete Structures.Brooks. 2004. A. Thus. E & FN SPON. by A.(5) 113.S.58 mm. Pvt. Kharagpur . 12. Ltd. by P.Wheeler & Co.

3: Sec. 6. Answer all questions. (10 marks) A.TQ.5 and the final form is given in Eq. (20 marks) A. if any. TQ. Explain the role of additional length Lo. Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS: 456 – 1978. Check the development length at the support if 50 per cent of the reinforcing bars are continued to the support.3: State the salient points of the stipulations of IS 456 regarding anchoring reinforcing bars in tension. compression and shear. BIS. TQ.6.4: Design the main tensile reinforcement of a singly reinforced rectangular beam of width 300 mm and effective span of 8 m carrying a total factored load of 40 kN/m using M 20 and Fe 415 with the help of SP-16.13 Test 15 with Solutions Maximum Marks = 50.15. State the changes.3(a). (10 marks) A. IS 456: 2000. TQ.13. Assume width of the support as 300 mm.3 = 1067 kNm/m Maximum Time = 30 minutes Version 2 CE IIT.15.1: Derive the expression of determining the development length of a single bar in tension.4: Design of beam using SP-16: Factored mid-span bending moment = 40(8)(8)/8 = 320 kNm Factored shear at the support = 40(8)/2 = 160 kN Required moment of resistance per metre width = 320/0. 16. New Delhi.TQ.15.15. TQ. 6.6(a). respectively. New Delhi.TQ. (10 marks) A. BIS. 6. (b) and (c) are the respective answers.15. for the compression bars. Indian Standard Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Code of Practice (4th Revision).2: Sec.1: Sec. 6.TQ. Kharagpur .2: Derive the limiting value of the development length for bars in tension having both bending moment and shear force.

48(650) = 312 mm} So.13 gives ( Ld ) when σ s = f d ≤ ( M 1 / V ) + Lo .87 fy Ast (d – 0.25 cm and percentage of reinforcement = 0.3(M1/V) + Lo From Eqs.6 and 7 above.87(415)(942.5)/(0.92) = 940.12 gives Ld = φ σ s /4(τ bd ) = (20)(0. M1 = 0.4 with 60 per cent increased as 1.36)(20)(300) = 157. we have (8) 940.67 kNm We have from Eq. The value of τ bd for M 20 and Fe 415 is obtained from Table 6.42 xu) = 0. Let us provide 6-20T of area = 1885 mm2. Using the total depth D = 700 mm and effective depth as 650 mm. we need xu as given below: xu = (0. we get the area of main tensile reinforcement at mid-span = 0.42(157.max {= 0.9.54 mm < xu.6.87 fy Ast)/(0. Eq.Chart 15 of SP-16 gives d = 63.23 ≤ 1.87)(415)/4(1.6.3(M1/V) + Lo (7) Version 2 CE IIT.13 with the stipulation of increase of 30 per cent assuming that the reinforcing bars are confined by a compressive reaction: Ld ≤ 1.6.36 fck b) = 0.5){(650) – 0. Three 20T bars (50 per cent) are continued at the support.9(300)(650)/100 = 1755 mm2.87(415)(942.92 N/mm2. To find M1.54)} = 198.9(bd)/100 = 0.23 mm (6) Eq. Kharagpur .

Numerical problems solved in the lesson and other examples of practice problem and test question explain the calculations of satisfying the requirements of reinforcing bars under different situations with respect to bond. 1.8). compression and shear are discussed.15. The expression of determination of development length has been derived.14 Summary of this Lesson This lesson explains the importance of bond between steel and concrete which is essential for the two materials to act together. Lo is not required as Ld is satisfied when Lo = 0 (sec. The stipulations of IS 456 regarding anchoring bars in tension.Here.67)/160 = 1. Kharagpur . which is known as the development length and calculated on the basis of design bond stresses. Eq. To ensure the bond.3(M1/V) = 1. 6.614 m Hence. Version 2 CE IIT. additional length of the reinforcing bars is to be provided.3(198. The design bond stress has been defined in this lesson and the values of the design bond stresses for different grades of concrete are given for mild steel plain and ribbed steel bars.

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