From: “Optimization of Magnetic Pole Shifting to Reduce Cogging Torque in Solid-Rotor Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors” - Daohan

Wang, Xiuhe Wang, Yubo Yang, and Ran Zhang For surface-mounted permanent-magnet motors, many methods have been proposed to reduce cogging torque, such as: - a fractional number of slots per pole [1] slot skewing [2] tetaskew= Np= ; Q-number of slots, 2p-motor poles magnet skewing [3], [4] “goodness” of slot number and pole number combination [4], slot or tooth pairing [5], [10] magnet segmentation [6] pole-arc coefficient adjusting and its optimization [7], [9]–[11] adjusting the shape of the slots or the tooth width [8], [13], [14] auxiliary slots or teeth [12], [14] magnet displacing and shifting [3], [15]–[17] magnetic pole shifting [0] Θk=2π(k-1)/2pNpZ Θk-shifting angle of kth permanent magnet Z-number of slots Np=2p/GCD(2p,Z) GCD(2p,Z)-greatest divisor between 2p and Z Cogging torque with magnetic pole shifting:

Gn- is the nth Fourier transform coefficentns of (hm/ (hm+g(Θ+α)))2 ( ) =G0+∑ Br(θ)-distribution of air-gap flux density in an equivalent slotless machine α- the relative position between magnetic pole and aramature θ- the deviated angle along circumference fo air-gap