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Due: 11:00pm on Sunday, October 28, 2012 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

Consistency of Units

In physics, every physical quantity is measured with respect to a unit. Time is measured in seconds, length is measured in meters, and mass is measured in kilograms. Knowing the units of physical quantities will help you solve problems in physics.

Part A

Gravity causes objects to be attracted to one another. This attraction keeps our feet firmly planted on the ground and causes the moon to orbit the earth. The force of gravitational attraction is represented by the equation , where is the magnitude of the gravitational attraction on either body, is the distance between them, and , the units of mass are and are the masses of . For this equation to

the bodies, of force are

is the gravitational constant. In SI units, the units

, and the units of distance are

have consistent units, the units of

must be which of the following?

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

To solve this problem, we start with the equation . For each symbol whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace with . We now solve this equation for .

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

One consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity is that mass is a form of energy. This massenergy relationship is perhaps the most famous of all physics equations: , where is mass, is the speed of the light, and is the energy. In SI units, the units of speed are

. For the preceding equation to have consistent units (the same units on both sides of the equation), the units of must be which of the following?

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

To solve this problem, we start with the equation . For each symbol whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace with . We now solve this equation for .

ANSWER:

Correct

To solve the types of problems typified by these examples, we start with the given equation. For each symbol whose units we know, we replace the symbol with those units. For example, we replace with . We now solve this equation for the units of the unknown variable.

Significant Figures

Part A

To seven significant figures, the mass of a proton is choices demonstrates correct rounding? Check all that apply. . Which of the following

ANSWER:

Correct

The number 1.673, not 1.672. Similarly, figures we get 1.67262, not 1.67263. is incorrect because when we round to four significant figures we get is incorrect because when we round to six significant

Part B

To eight significant figures, Avogadro's constant is choices demonstrates correct rounding? Check all that apply. ANSWER: . Which of the following

Correct

All these options are correct; they represent different levels of precision, even though the numerical value is the same.

**Significant Figures Conceptual Question
**

In the parts that follow select whether the number presented in statement A is greater than, less than, or equal to the number presented in statement B. Be sure to follow all of the rules concerning significant figures.

Part A

Statement A: 2.567 Statement B: 2.567 , to two significant figures. , to three significant figures.

Determine the correct relationship between the statements.

**Hint 1. Rounding and significant figures
**

Rounding to a different number of significant figures changes a number. For example, consider the number 3.4536. This number has five significant figures. The following table illustrates the result of rounding this number to different numbers of significant figures: Four significant figures Three significant figures Two significant figures One significant figure 3.454 3.45 3.5 3

Notice that, when rounding 3.4536 to one significant figure, since 0.4536 is less than 0.5, the result is 3, even though if you first rounded to two significant figures (3.5), the result would be 4.

ANSWER: greater than Statement A is less than equal to Statement B.

Correct

Part B

Statement A: (2.567 Statement B: (2.567 figures). Determine the correct relationship between the statements. ANSWER: greater than Statement A is less than equal to Statement B. + 3.146 ), to two significant figures. , to two significant

, to two significant figures) + (3.146

Correct

Evaluate statement A as follows: (2.567 5.7 . Statement B evaluates as 2.6 are equal. + 3.146 + 3.1 ) = 5.713 = 5.7 to two significant figures is . Therefore, the two statements

Part C

Statement A: Area of a rectangle with measured length = 2.536 Statement B: Area of a rectangle with measured length = 2.536 and width = 1.4 and width = 1.41 . .

Since you are not told specific numbers of significant figures to round to, you must use the rules for multiplying numbers while respecting significant figures. If you need a reminder, consult the hint. Determine the correct relationship between the statements.

**Hint 1. Significant figures and multiplication
**

When you multiply two numbers, the result should be rounded to the number of significant figures in the less accurate of the two numbers. For instance, if you multiply 2.413 (four significant figures) times 3.81 (three significant figures), the result should have three significant figures: . Similarly, , when significant figures are respected (i.e., 15.328646 rounded to one significant figure).

ANSWER: greater than Statement A is less than equal to Statement B.

Correct

Evaluate statement A as follows: (2.536 3.6 is 3.58 . Statement B evaluates as (2.536 ) (1.4 ) (1.41 ) = 3.5504 to two significant figures is to three significant figures ) = 3.57576

. Therefore, statement A is greater than statement B.

Problem 1.9

Part A

Multiply ANSWER: 8.3 by , taking into account significant figures.

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Problem 1.10

Part A

What is the area of a circle of radius ?

Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = 8.8×109

Answer Requested

Part B

What is the approximate uncertainty in the area of a circle of radius Express your answer using one significant figure. ANSWER: = 3×108 ?

Answer Requested

Problem 1.12

Write the following as full (decimal) numbers with standard units:

Part A

287.5 ANSWER: 0.2875

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Part B

88 ANSWER: 8.8×10−5

Correct

Part C

670 ANSWER: 6.7×10−4

Correct

Part D

20.0 ANSWER: 2.00×10−11

Correct

Part E

8.00 ANSWER: 8.00×109

Correct

Problem 1.15

The Sun, on average, is 93 million miles from Earth.

Part A

How many meters is this? Express using powers of ten. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 1.5×1011

Correct

Part B

Express using a metric prefix. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 150

Correct

Problem 1.27

Part A

Estimate how long it would take one person to mow a football field using an ordinary home lawn mower (as shown in the figure). Assume the mower moves with a 1 speed, and has a 0.5 width.

ANSWER:

11 minutes 110 hours 110 minutes 11 hours 1 hour

Correct

Problem 1.46

Part A

Estimate how many days it would take to walk around the world, assuming 10 . ANSWER: walking per day at 4

Correct

Problem 1.49

Jean camps beside a wide river and wonders how wide it is. She spots a large rock on the bank directly across from her. She then walks upstream until she judges that the angle between her and the rock, which she can still see clearly, is now at an angle of 30 downstream (as shown in the figure). Jean measures her stride to be about one yard long. The distance back to her camp is 120 strides.

Part A

About how far across, in yards, is the river?

ANSWER: = 210

Correct

Part B

About how far across, in meters, is the river? ANSWER: = 190

Correct

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 69.1%. You received 69.14 out of a possible total of 100 points.

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