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Find out moreDue: 11:00pm on Sunday, November 4, 2012 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

**Projectile Motion Tutorial
**

Learning Goal: To understand how to apply the equations for one-dimensional motion to the x and y directions separately in order to derive standard formulas for the range and height of a projectile. A projectile is fired from ground level at time horizontal. It has an initial speed , at an angle with respect to the

. In this problem we are assuming that the ground is level.

Part A

Find the time Express it takes the projectile to reach its maximum height , , and .

in terms of

(the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity).

**Hint 1. A basic property of projectile motion
**

The motion in the y direction is independent of the motion in the x direction because the force of gravity is acting in the forces are acting in the direction (we are ignoring friction due to the air). direction, while no

**Hint 2. What condition applies at the top of the trajectory?
**

What is the value of the projectile's vertical velocity ANSWER: = 0 when it has reached the top of its trajectory?

**Hint 3. Vertical velocity as a function of time
**

Find an expression for , the projectile's vertical velocity, as a function of time. , , and , the acceleration due to gravity.

Express your answer in terms of ,

**Hint 1. Determine the initial velocity in the y direction
**

What is , the initial y component of the velocity? and .

Provide your answer in terms of ANSWER: =

ANSWER: =

**Hint 4. Putting it all together
**

You now have a general expression for the vertical velocity as a function of time, and you also know the the vertical velocity at the top (i.e.,

at time

). This gives an equation that you can solve for

.

**Hint 5. A list of possible answers
**

There are four answers listed below, one of which is the correct answer for this question (the time for the projectile to reach the top of its trajectory). Once you have selected the correct answer, you will have the answer to Part A. (However, you will still need to enter this answer into the answer box ifor Part A.) ANSWER:

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part B

Find , the time at which the projectile hits the ground after having traveled through a horizontal distance , , and . .

Express the time in terms of

**Hint 1. Invoking the symmetry of the problem
**

Because the projectile is fired over level ground, the time it takes for the projectile to reach its maximum height will be equal to the time it takes for the projectile to fall from its maximum height back to ground level. Thus, you can use your answer from Part A to quickly find the total flight time .

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part C

Find , the maximum height attained by the projectile. , , and .

Express your answer in terms of

**Hint 1. Equation of motion
**

Note that if you use the kinematic equation , then and and . What is the initial vertical velocity . ?

Answer in terms of

ANSWER: =

ANSWER: =

Correct

Part D

Find the total distance (often called the range) traveled in the x direction; see the figure in the problem introduction. , , and .

Express the range in terms of

**Hint 1. When does the projectile hit the ground?
**

The projectile reaches the ground at time .

**Hint 2. Determine the x position of the projectile as a function of time
**

Give an expression for , the x position of the particle as a function of time. , and .

Express your answer in terms of ,

**Hint 1. Acceleration in the x direction
**

There is no acceleration in the x direction.

ANSWER: =

**Hint 3. Finding the range
**

Note that .

**Hint 4. A list of possible answers
**

Choose the correct answer for ANSWER: from the following list. (You will still have to enter this answer into the main answer box for Part D.)

ANSWER: =

Correct

The actual formula for is less important than how it is obtained:

1. Consider the motion in the x and y directions separately. 2. Find the time of flight from the motion in the y direction. 3. Find the x position at the end of the flight. This is the range. If you remember these steps, you can deal with many variants of the basic problem, such as a cannon on a hill that fires horizontally (i.e., the second half of the trajectory), a projectile that lands on a hill, or a projectile that must hit a moving target.

**Projectile Motion Ranking Task
**

Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case, the ball is thrown with speed thrown from the same height at an angle from the horizontal. In all cases, the baseball is

above the ground. Assume for the basis of these rankings that the effects of air resistance are negligible.

Part A

Rank these throws based on the maximum height reached by the ball. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

**Hint 1. Solving two-dimensional motion problems
**

A key insight in solving two-dimensional motion problems is the realization that motion in the horizontal direction and motion in the vertical direction are independent. This means that the position, velocity, and acceleration in one direction do not influence the position, velocity, and acceleration in the other direction.

**Hint 2. Finding vector components
**

Given a vector magnitude the figure. and angle , the x and y components of the vector can be determined using the equations and , as shown in

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Rank these throws based on the amount of time it takes the ball to hit the ground. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

The time it takes each ball to hit the ground is the sum of the time it takes to reach its maximum height and the time it takes to fall from its maximum height to the ground.

**Hint 2. Compare times to reach the maximum height
**

Consider two balls thrown at different speeds and different angles from the same height. Ball A reaches a maximum height of reaches a maximum height greater than ANSWER: Ball A takes longer to reach its maximum height. Ball B takes longer to reach its maximum height. They reach their maximum heights in the same amount of time. It is impossible to determine without knowing the balls' initial velocities. . Which ball takes longer to reach its maximum height? and ball B

**Hint 3. Compare times to fall from the maximum height
**

Consider two balls dropped from different heights. Ball A is dropped from height Which ball takes longer to reach the ground? ANSWER: Ball A takes longer. Ball B takes longer. They fall in the same amount of time. and ball B is dropped from a height greater than .

ANSWER:

Correct

Speed of a Softball

A softball is hit over a third baseman's head with some speed at an angle above the horizontal. Immediately after the ball is hit, the third baseman turns around and begins to run at a constant velocity . He catches the ball later at the same height at which it left the bat. The third baseman was originally standing from the location at which the ball was hit.

Part A

Find . Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.

Express the initial speed numerically in units of meters per second to three significant figures.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

Consider the motion in the x direction and in the y direction separately; the problem can be solved by combining the relevant equations.

**Hint 2. Find the initial velocity in the x direction
**

Consider and , the respective horizontal and vertical components of the softball's initial velocity. Since we assume that there is no air resistance, the horizontal component of the ball's velocity does not change. Find . Express your answer symbolically.

**Hint 1. Distance traveled in the x direction
**

What is the horizontal distance traveled by the ball before it is caught?

Express your answer symbolically.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem

The distance the ball travels is determined by the inital distance of the third baseman from the point where the ball was hit and the distance covered by the third baseman.

ANSWER: =

ANSWER: =

**Hint 3. Find the initial velocity in the y direction
**

Using either the equation of motion in the y direction, , or , find . Express your answer symbolically.

**Hint 1. Using the first equation
**

The ball is caught at the same height it was launched from; what does this tell us about and ?

**Hint 2. Using the second equation
**

You know the time of flight of the ball. What is a good choice for ? ANSWER: y velocity when the ball is caught y velocity when the ball is at the highest point

ANSWER: =

**Hint 4. Finding the maginitude of the initial velocity from its components
**

Once you have and , you can find using .

ANSWER: = 18.8

Correct

Part B

Find the angle in degrees.

Express your answer numerically in degrees to three significant figures.

**Hint 1. The angle
**

The angle

and velocity components

is given by

.

ANSWER: = 31.5

Correct

**Vector Addition Ranking Task
**

Six vectors ( through ) have the magnitudes and directions indicated in the figure.

Part A

Rank the vector combinations on the basis of their magnitude. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

**Hint 1. Adding vectors graphically
**

To add two vectors together, imagine sliding one vector (without rotating it) until its tail coincides with the tip of the second vector. The sum of the two vectors, termed the resultant vector , is the vector that goes from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the second vector. The magnitude of the resultant, , is determined by the sum of the squares of its x and y components, that is,

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Rank the vector combinations on the basis of their angle, measured counterclockwise from the positive x axis. Vectors parallel to the positive x axis have an angle of 0 . All angle measures fall between 0 and 360 . Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.

**Hint 1. Angle of a vector
**

The angle of a vector is to be measured counterclockwise from the x axis, with the x axis as 0 . The following vectors are at the angles listed and are shown on the graph below.

Notice that the magnitude of the vector is irrelevant when determining its angle

ANSWER:

Correct

Vector Magnitude and Direction Conceptual Question

A man out walking his dog makes one complete pass around a perfectly square city block. He starts at point A and walks clockwise around the block.

Let be the displacement vector from A to B, be the displacement vector from B to C, etc.

Part A

Which of the following vectors is equal to ?

**Hint 1. Determining a vector
**

Recall that is a vector representing the displacement of the man and his dog as they walk from point A to point B. This vector has a magnitude equal to one block and a direction along the positive x axis.

**Hint 2. Equal vectors
**

Two vectors are equal if they have the same magnitude and the same direction.

ANSWER: only only only All of the above None of the above

Correct

Recall that, for vectors to be equal, they must have the same magnitude and direction.

Part B

Which of the following vectors is equal to ? ANSWER: only only only All of the above None of the above

Correct

Part C

Which of the following vectors is equal to ?

**Hint 1. Determining the difference of two vectors
**

can be determined by adding the vector to the vector pointing opposite to . Thus looks like this:

Carefully perform the vector addition in each of the options and compare the resultant vectors to the one shown above.

ANSWER: only only only All of the above None of the above

Correct

Problem 3.8

Vector is 6.2 units long and points along the negative axis. Vector is 8.4 units long and points at 45 to the positive axis.

Part A

What are the and components of vector ?

Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. ANSWER: , = -6.2,0 units

Correct

Part B

What are the and components of vector ?

Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. ANSWER: , = 5.9,5.9 units

Correct

Part C

Determine the magnitude of the sum . Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER:

= 5.9 units

Correct

Part D

Determine the angle of the sum . Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = 93 counterclockwise from the positive -axis

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Problem 3.9

An airplane is traveling 735 in a direction 41.5 west of north (see the figure).

Part A

Find the components of the velocity vector in the northerly and westerly directions. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. ANSWER: , = 550,487

Correct

Part B

How far north and how far west has the plane traveled after 3.60 Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma. ANSWER: , = 1980,1750 ?

Correct

Problem 3.21

A ball is thrown horizontally from the roof of a building 42.0 tall and lands 23.8 from the base.

Part A

What was the ball's initial speed? ANSWER: = 8.13

Correct

Problem 3.23

A ball thrown horizontally at 21.2 from the roof of a building lands 36.7 from the base of the building.

Part A

How tall is the building? ANSWER: = 14.7

Correct

Problem 3.35

A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated mountain climbers on a rocky ridge 235 below.

Part A

If the plane is traveling horizontally with a speed of 259 be dropped (see the figure )? (71.9 ), how far in advance of the recipients (horizontal distance) must the goods

ANSWER: = 498

Correct

Part B

Suppose, instead, that the plane releases the supplies a horizontal distance of 425 ANSWER: = -10.8 in advance of the mountain climbers. What vertical velocity (up or down) should the supplies be given so that they arrive precisely at the climbers' position (see the figure )?

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Part C

With what speed do the supplies land in the latter case? ANSWER: = 99.5

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 87.3%. You received 87.31 out of a possible total of 100 points.

Giancoli

Giancoli

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