PC Background and Its Features What is computer?

A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. Uses of computer There are several uses of computers Word Processing - Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and g rammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you don t have to type it ea ch time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a hand written one. You can add images to your document. Internet - It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can bro wse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is becaus e computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast a nd convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a p erson sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that en ables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing t ools are becoming readily available to the common man. Digital video or audio composition Audio or video composition and editing have b een made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of eq uipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers. Desktop publishing - With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for en tire books on your personal computer. Computers in Medicine - You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Soft ware is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to stor e patient data. Mathematical Calculations - Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematica l calculations. Banks - All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide s ecurity, speed and convenience. Travel - One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online. Telecommunications - Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have s oftware embedded in them. Defense - There is software embedded in almost every weapon. Software is used fo r controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Software is used t o control access to atomic bombs. E-Learning Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software. Gambling-You can gamble online instead of going to a casino. Examinations-You can give online exams and get instant results. You can check yo ur examination results online. Computers in Business - Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using compu ters. One can predict future trends of business using artificial intelligence so ftware. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do trading online. Ther e are fully automated factories running on software. ATM machines - The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash. News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news. Robotics - Robots are controlled by software. Sports Software is used for making umpiring decisions. There are simulation soft ware using which a sportsperson can practice his skills. Computers are also to i

While the technical aspects of what makes computers work could be difficult for a non-professional to understand. Most computers come with all of these components. and other devices. and often it is possible for the o wner to upgrade each to newer or more advanced versions. RAM is memory that can be read from and wr itten to. it can mean that the computer cannot be used. the mechanical aspects of it can give you a clear idea of what and how things happen inside. allow the us er to upload new data and applications to the computer and save files. in put. Most of the essential things that make computers work are inside the case. When a comput er is first turned on. Other less central but no less vital parts that let computers work include the p ower supply. software.dentify flaws in techhnique. allowing new data to be saved. These parts make sure each component gets the electricity it needs in the proper amount. and output. Aeroplanes Pilots train on software. BIOS also checks for booting up errors and o ffers to fix them if necessary. . Weather analysis Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather. Computers work thanks to a series of hardware devices that are closely interconn ected. transformer. Memory is also extremely important to allow a computer to work. is where most of the heavy lifting occurs. The computer drives. The motherboard is central point of the computer. One kind of ROM is the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS). RAM. Once the computer is turned on. and any drives with removable media. As a command is sent. or central processing unit. including hard drives. such as CD-ROM drives. How does computer works? Computers get things done as a result of a combination of hardware. the BIOS checks basic data such as hard memory. It is where most of the actual computing takes place and the quality of the processor will greatly determine the performance of the computer. the central stop for all the processes the computer goes through. Key to allowing a com puter to work is the central processing unit (CPU). even if everything else inside is working properly. The processor speed is m easured in GHz. so if the booting up process malfunctions. The CPU. Graphics cards allow the computer to display graphics on the monitor. and the keyboard. such as "open a prog ram" or "turn the monitor on. ROM is s tored data. Comput ers work based on the CPU granting access to users. and that key information is save d even when the power is off. Sounds cards allow the computer to p lay sounds. or booted up. where all the various components attach and communicate with each other. The two main kin ds of memory are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM). Connecting to the Internet or other computers requires a modem. flash drives. and battery. and cannot be written to. which is in charge of c ommunications between the software on a computer and the hardware. The cooli ng system helps keep all of the components from overheating. the basic parts are the syst em case. A mouse or trackpad may or may not be essential to t he functioning of a computer. which may be a tower for a desktop machine or the body of a laptop." the CPU interprets this order and then acts accor dingly. Most computers also have other components without which a computer would be more difficult to use. In many cases. When looking at a computer from the outside. the monitor. the CPU goes on to activate certai n sections so that it can then give you access to programs and processes. any cards installed. depending on the type and model. Many computers al so have a CD or other disc drive in the case. and come in many different levels. What are the features of computer? CPU (Central Processing Unit) CPU stands for central processing unit and is the brains of the computer. which simulates flying. away from your eyes. additional RAM can be ad ded.

Overall.There are budget processors. Blu-r ay is the latest option for burning in high definition format. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the main board. Optical Drives . etc. but overall the mid grade types are quite good and will deliver great perfo rmance for most any uses. The Pin Grid Array (PGA) and the Land Grid Array (LGA). CPU Socket CPU Socket Types PGA And LGA The type determines the CPU's form it supports and its architecture. CPU. it is a good idea to check and make sure that there are open memory upgrad e slots so you can always add more memory as it is fairly cheap and easy to inst all. the logic board. memory m odules. such as gaming and entertainm ent. and each one has a hardware th at can be connected to it. Several types of soc ket exist. mid grade and high-end processors. The Processor Socket Sockets are the home for your Central Processor Unit (CPU). but only 2 of them are really used. the more port s you have the more variety and options will be available to add ons. Gaming and entertainment need a lot more RAM than regular computer tasks for which 1GB is usually sufficient. LCD screen monitors have a superior display with a reduced size due to the flat panel and their lower power consumption over the CRT models. is opti mal for gaming and media experiences. Optimal is 50 0GB. such as printers. such as v ideo watching and are much easier on the eyes. Monitors A good monitor is essential for a quality computer experience. What Is The Motherboard Main Goal? The main goal is to connect all the hardware together like hard drives. A computer mother board is made of several parts. RAM Memory RAM memory is used to run programs on the computer and the more RAM you have the better the performance and speed of computing and to avoid slow downs and crash es. At least 3GB. External Ports and Connections Ports are used to attach peripherals. They come in a variety of sizes and sometimes the larger ones are a better value for the money and make the best experience for gaming. Also. iPods and othe rs.. Most important will be to have at least 5 USB ports. system board. but 2GB is really great. entertainment. The older CRT mod els have become largely obsolete with the introduction of the LCD screen monitor s. The Motherboard A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computer s and holds many of the crucial components of the system. Internet.. and even if they do not they are cheap and easy to install and come in internal and external versions. It is als o sometimes casually shortened to mobo. the la rger the drive the more storage space and the faster the computer. on Apple computers. while providing connec tors for other peripherals. The PGA and LGA are the CPU's forms that are the most popular. one FireWire port as we ll as an Ethernet connection for Internet and networking. and both of them are used by Inte l and AMD. . Overall. or. The high end one s maybe necessary for enhanced computer functions. Overall the two best brand names for processors are In tel and AMD. Hard Drives Hard drives are significant for the speed capacity of computers.CD/DVD/Blu-ray Most computers these days come with DVD/CD burners. however many people still use them and they can still be found at online shop ping sites.

PGA CPU Form PGA stands for Pin Grid Array. On the other hand. If you want 1GB of memory. The PC-1600 has a memory clock of 100 MHz. Instead it is an array of pads that is built on the CPU's surface. Ranging from 2 to 4 banks. motherboards use the modules stre ngth to its full capacity. you will lose some strength from your module. To get the most of it. The LGA form offer a clock frequency higher than the PGA caused by its larger co ntact point. and demand less power. you get a bandwidth of 200 MHz. What Is The Computer RAM Memory Bandwidth? The bandwidth is the transfer rate of the chips in conjunction of the system's f ront side bus. rambus dynamic random access memory DDR2 SDRAM. At the installation the pins are inserted in the socket's holes making contact w ith the motherboard's circuits. double-data-rate 3 synchronous dynamic random access memory The DDR and DDR2 are largely used now as they are faster. double-data-rate 2 synchronous dynamic random access memory DDR3 SDRAM. Memory Slots Memory slots also call memory banks are for Random Access Memory modules (RAM). and the front side bus of your system is at 100 MHz. At the installation the CPU is sat on the socket's pins where they are fixed to the motherboard and contact with the circuits. In that case x2 as DDR double the clo ck rate. As on the image. it will help you to familiarize with the module names and what they are standing for. Take a look at the table below. Otherwise it may not work at all. Standards SDRAM 100 DDR-200 100 DDR-266 133 DDR-333 166 DDR-400 200 DDR2-400 MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz Memory Clock Data Transfer/s Module Names 100 million PC-100 200 Million PC-1600 266 Million PC-2100 333 Million PC-2700 400 Million PC-3200 100 MHz 400 Million PC2-3200 . Memory Banks With single-channel. the CPU's circuits are integrate d inside a ceramic layer with an array of pins on the surface. let say your computer ram memory is from PC-1600 modu les. The DDR3 is mainly used on graphic cards so far. LGA CPU Form LGA stands for Land Grid Array. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memory R DRAM. you need to use 2 512MB modules from the same manufac turer with the same technology type. with dual-channel technology. you can use 1. from the same manufacturer with exactly the same memory amounts. and it should work perfe ctly. 1 x 200. according to a 100 MHz front side bus. Types of RAM SDRAM. If you look at the image. 2 or 3 Ram modules. you will encounter single and dual-channel techno logies. If you do the math without using the last 2 digits of the front side bu s clock rate. Maybe it is the reason why Intel decided to go back to this form th at was used long ago. With a front side bus of 300 MHz it would be 600 MHz. This way. As example. you can see there are no pins. synchronous dynamic random access memory DDR SDRAM. Each memory bank can receives a RAM module designed for a specific pc mother boa rd. you need to fill 2 banks with the same module types. if you fill only 1 bank.

I will then talk about the ATA and the S-ATA o nly as the IDE is the same thing as the ATA. The fan connector is used for plugging the back/front wall or side panel case fa ns. Depending your needs. the connector is small and very frag ile. you can use these general rules as reference. your computer will be slowed in compari son to its full capacity. and it supports almost all modern hard drives storage capacities. 1 GB as minimum.6 Billion PC2-4200 PC2-5300 PC2-6400 PC3-6400 PC3-8500 PC3-10600 PC3-12800 General Rules For Desktop Computer Memory Needs. It was the only connector for mass storage devices before the SATA. The peripheral connector with 4 pins is used for optic drives as hard drives. You can attach 2 drives on the same ribbon. Also I w ill be brief because it is more a hard drive topic than anything else. 1 master and the other slave. It is faster than the ATA and only 1 device can be att . Where To Plug Them? Main power connectors are plugged to the motherboard. Pentium 4 or AMD for every day use. As fans do not require a lot of energy. 512 MB should work just fine Pentium 4 or AMD for gaming. 1 GB is more then enough Pentium dual-core 2 or AM2 for gaming. 2 GB for heavy gaming Why Not Use More Computer Memory Than The CPU Needs? Using more memory than needed should up the over all speed of your computer.066 Billion 1. IDE.DDR2-533 DDR2-667 DDR2-800 DDR3-800 DDR3-1066 DDR3-1333 DDR3-1600 133 166 200 100 133 166 200 MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz 533 Million 667 Million 800 Million 800 Million 1. 1 GB should be more then enough Pentium dual-core 2 or AM2 for every day use. If the m emory does not meet the CPU requirement. you do not need to use all c onnectors anyway. Having that connector on your power supply is a good thing as this technology speed up drives data transf er. The connector with 20 pins may be used on ATX motherboards and the connector with 4 pins is used for extra power for CPUs and graphic cards. more memory does not justify the money spe nt for it. The 20 pins + 4 pins (2 separate connectors on the same motherboard). I think. only the name has changed. 24 Pins Main Power Connector There are 2 main power connector types for those motherboard parts. be careful when working with them. do not bother. Power Supply Connectors. Main Power Connector And The 4 Pins Slot and Connector The main power connector is uses to get the electric energy from the power suppl y which the motherboard require to function properly. Modern computer mother boards have the new interface called Serial Advance Techn ology Attachment (S-ATA). IDE/ATA And SATA Interface The Advance Technology Attachment (ATA) interface is used to connect hard drives and optic drives. and the 24 pins. The Serial ATA connector is used for hard disk drives. Your CPU needs a certain amount of memory to function at full capacity. The small connector with 4 pins is used for floppy drives. if it's the case. ATA And S-ATA Interface Slot and Connectors Many interface standards have been created throughout the years. but it will not be significant. Not all motherboards require the use of conne ctor with 4 pins .333 Billion 1. maybe too many for discussing about all of them.

PCIe is a AGP standard at x16 and it is the #1 choice for gaming machines right now. It is unusual in terms of the number of connectors it h as and how it is used to configure the setup of the floppy disks in the system. Back Panel Slots Back Panel Connectors When the computer is mounted. you can plug or unplug hardware without having to reboot the comp uter. AGP or PCIe Ports The motherboard parts Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and PCI Epress (PCIe) focu s on graphic cards only. Wit h only 7 wires the cable is thin and permits a better airflow inside the compute r case. More motherboard content will be written on it. They are used to plug the mouse. It is similar to the standard IDE cable in that it is usually a f lat. With the SATA it is as easy as plug here and plug there. It means. soun d system and any other peripherals you may have. printer. monitor. Ethernet cards and modems. AGP And PCIe 32 bit slots Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) are used to install sound c ards.ached to it.5" floppy drive there. Features And Improvements The interesting thing with the SATA is the new cable that uses only 7 wires. Not really used now. The floppy disk interface uses what is likely the strangest cable of all those i n PCs today. PCIe standard is even better than AGP standard. x4 or x8 technologies. PCI. The older cables used for ATA interface were cutting the airflow with th eir large ribbons and were frustrating to manipulate. especially for graphic cards. they are going to disap pear completely very soon. An other interesting feature from SATA interface is the possibility to hot swapp ing. 32 bit PCI Slots. it is day and night. (hot swappable) Floppy Drive Slot and Connector Floppy Drive Connector Plug your "3. Some like to say. The wire is thinner than his predecessor and surely help at the coo ling process inside the computer case. AGP 8 bein g the best. AGP standards use x2. graphic cards. it is highly boosting your graphics and video performances. those motherboard parts show up at the computer ca se back panel. keyboard. In Compa rison with his old brother PCI. . No cable twisting probl ems like the ATA. and mostly the only one used rig ht now. This feature has been taken from the USB technology that already makes the use of swapping. IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) is a standard electronic interface used betwe en a computer motherboard's data paths or bus and the computer's disk storage de vices. gray ribbon cable.