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Aristotle - Unabridged Guide

Aristotle - Unabridged Guide

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Complete, Unabridged Guide to Aristotle. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as a river of gold), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived. ...On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays, pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given current astronomical demonstrations that the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then. . . the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them. ... He says [12th chapter of his Meteorics] 'the distribution of land and sea in particular regions does not endure throughout all time, but it becomes sea in those parts where it was land, and again it becomes land where it was sea, and there is reason for thinking that these changes take place according to a certain system, and within a certain period. ...According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about Aristotle in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about Aristotle. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: Aristotle, Arete, Areopagus, Archimedes, Archilochus, Arcadocypriot Greek, Applied ethics, Apellicon of Teos, Antisthenes, Antiperistasis, Antipater, Andronicus of Rhodes, Ancient philosophy, Ancient Macedonian language, Ancient Greek technology, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Greek marriage law, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Greek law, Ancient Greek dialects, Ancient Greek cuisine, Ancient Greek coinage, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Greece and wine, Ancient Greece, Ancient Corinth, Anaximander, Anaxagoras, Analytic philosophy, Ammonius Hermiae, American philosophy, Alfred Tarski, Alexander the Great, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Alexander Bain, Alcmaeon of Croton, Alcibiades, Alchemy, Albertus Magnus, Alberto Jori, Alasdair MacIntyre, Alan Ross Anderson, Air (classical element), Agriculture in ancient Greece, Aether (classical element), Aesthetics, Aesop, Aeschylus, Adrastus of Aphrodisias, Action theory (philosophy), Accident (philosophy)
Complete, Unabridged Guide to Aristotle. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as a river of gold), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived. ...On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays, pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given current astronomical demonstrations that the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then. . . the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them. ... He says [12th chapter of his Meteorics] 'the distribution of land and sea in particular regions does not endure throughout all time, but it becomes sea in those parts where it was land, and again it becomes land where it was sea, and there is reason for thinking that these changes take place according to a certain system, and within a certain period. ...According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about Aristotle in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about Aristotle. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: Aristotle, Arete, Areopagus, Archimedes, Archilochus, Arcadocypriot Greek, Applied ethics, Apellicon of Teos, Antisthenes, Antiperistasis, Antipater, Andronicus of Rhodes, Ancient philosophy, Ancient Macedonian language, Ancient Greek technology, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Greek marriage law, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Greek law, Ancient Greek dialects, Ancient Greek cuisine, Ancient Greek coinage, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Greece and wine, Ancient Greece, Ancient Corinth, Anaximander, Anaxagoras, Analytic philosophy, Ammonius Hermiae, American philosophy, Alfred Tarski, Alexander the Great, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Alexander Bain, Alcmaeon of Croton, Alcibiades, Alchemy, Albertus Magnus, Alberto Jori, Alasdair MacIntyre, Alan Ross Anderson, Air (classical element), Agriculture in ancient Greece, Aether (classical element), Aesthetics, Aesop, Aeschylus, Adrastus of Aphrodisias, Action theory (philosophy), Accident (philosophy)

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  • Accident (philosophy)
  • Action theory (philosophy)
  • Adrastus of Aphrodisias
  • Aeschylus
  • Aesop
  • Aesthetics
  • Aether (classical element)
  • Agriculture in ancient Greece
  • Air (classical element)
  • Alan Ross Anderson
  • Alan Ross Anderson
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  • Antisthenes
  • Apellicon of Teos
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Aristotle Accident (philosophy) Action theory (philosophy) Adrastus of Aphrodisias Aeschylus Aesop Aesthetics Aether (classical element) Agriculture in ancient Greece Air (classical element) Alan Ross Anderson Alasdair MacIntyre Alberto Jori Albertus Magnus Alchemy Alcibiades Alcmaeon of Croton Alexander Bain Alexander of Aphrodisias Alexander the Great Alfred Tarski American philosophy Ammonius Hermiae Analytic philosophy Anaxagoras Anaximander Ancient Corinth Ancient Greece Ancient Greece and wine Ancient Greek architecture Ancient Greek coinage Ancient Greek cuisine Ancient Greek dialects Ancient Greek law 1 21 22 25 26 37 49 65 68 73 78 80 87 88 94 112 133 136 142 147 182 191 202 204 215 219 231 243 260 265 287 292 304 310

Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek marriage law Ancient Greek medicine Ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek technology Ancient Macedonian language Ancient philosophy Andronicus of Rhodes Antipater Antiperistasis Antisthenes Apellicon of Teos Applied ethics Arcadocypriot Greek Archilochus Archimedes Areopagus Arete

311 317 320 325 332 338 352 362 363 366 367 371 372 374 383 390 406 408

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 411 421

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License 427

Aristotle

1

Aristotle
Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs

Marble bust of Aristotle. Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippus c. 330 BC. The alabaster mantle is modern. Born 384 BC Stageira, Chalcidice 322 BC (aged 61 or 62) Euboea Greek Ancient philosophy Western philosophy Peripatetic school Aristotelianism Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, Zoology Golden mean, Reason, Logic, Syllogism, Passion

Died

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Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC)[1] was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as ‫" - ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬The

Palaephatus of Abydus. about 55 km (34 mi) east of modern-day Thessaloniki. and the king had executed Aristotle's grandnephew Callisthenes as a traitor. De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. meteorology. geography. While in Asia. While in Athens. gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. intended for widespread publication. metaphysics. physics and zoology. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy. The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not. His ethics.Aristotle First Teacher". and threatened Aristotle in letters. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira.[9] Early Islamic portrayal of Aristotle It is during this period in Athens from 335 to 323 BC when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works. but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 [7] BC. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold").[8] Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest. Nicomachean Ethics. astronomy. and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants'.[10] Near the end of Alexander's life. Chalcidice. economics. he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. for the most part. According to the Suda.[2] it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived. Alexander began to suspect plots against himself. as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. In one famous example. At about the age of eighteen. ethics. Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. Politics. In philosophy. It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time. but made significant contributions to most of them. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander. government. She bore him a daughter. Soon after Hermias' death. he wrote on aesthetics. literature and poetry. He also studied education. whom they named Pythias. rhetoric and theology. embryology. geology. Nicomachus. who bore him a son whom he named after his father.[6] He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander's pretense of divinity. and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric."[4] was born in Stageira. politics. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years before quitting Athens in 348/47 BC. Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time.[5] His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. In physical science.[3] 2 Life Aristotle. whose name means "the best purpose. in 384 BC.[7] Aristotle wrote many dialogues. foreign customs. he counsels Alexander to be 'a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians. Metaphysics. he also had an eromenos. to look after the former as after friends and relatives. psychology. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. though always influential. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. Aristotle studied anatomy. although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian sentiments and left before Plato had died. The traditional story about his departure reports that he was disappointed with the direction the academy took after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus upon his death.[8] By 335 BC he had returned to Athens. only fragments of which survived. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a . His most important treatises include Physics.

Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form. 6.[11] Upon Alexander's death.Aristotle role in Alexander's death. but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist. Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic. to the study of more complex forms. Aristotle himself would have labeled "analytics". He never succeeded in devising such a method. date to speak of'". namely. The first three treatises form . Consequently. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. but never truly Aristotle portrayed in the 1493 understood the logical implications.[17] Analytics and the Organon What we today call Aristotelian logic. Even Plato had difficulties with logic. Nuremberg Chronicle as a although he had a reasonable conception of a deductive system. syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions. Aristotle fled the city to his mother's family estate in Chalcis. who was concerned by the correct use of words. Plato reports that syntax was devised before him. but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics On Sophistical Refutations The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain. since it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. explaining. the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation. 3. 2.[16] Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises. Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that Aristotle's theory of logic completely accounted for the core of deductive inference. 4. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD: 1. Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife. by Prodicus of Ceos. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics. Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. the analysis of simple terms in the Categories. where he introduced his division method.[14] 3 Thought Logic With the Prior Analytics. He died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC)."[12][13] a reference to Athens's prior trial and execution of Socrates.D. "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy. The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics. anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. but there is little evidence for this. History Aristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier [15] However. scholar actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic. he could never 15th-century-A. 5. and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic. It goes from the basics.

most of "Aristotle" by Francesco Hayez (1791–1882) Plato (left) and Aristotle (right). including Metaphysics. therefore. however. a detail of The School of Athens. namely the fourth book of Metaphysics. he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts. the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic. below). mathematics and metaphysics. while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles. For Aristotle. . representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience. "all science (dianoia) is either practical. the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries. however. that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy. by theoretical science.[18] In Aristotle's terminology. and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar. For Aristotle. In the larger sense of the word. In a certain sense. There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon. in which logic plays a major role. Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science. Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive. found the universal in particular things. Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. Note. Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today. By practical science. while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand. In contrast. while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things. which he called the essence of things.[16] 4 Aristotle's scientific method Like his teacher Plato. such as ethics and metaphysics. a fresco by Raphael. In fact. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. whilst Plato gestures to the heavens. he means physics. In the period between his two stays in Athens. he means ethics and politics. In modern times. Aristotle. "form" still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is "instantiated" in a particular substance (see Universals and particulars. Physics and Mathematics. biology and other natural sciences. (2) Theoretical Philosophy. however.Aristotle the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences. Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning. Aristotle gestures to the earth. "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world. Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method. while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) to a contemplation of particular imitations of these. poetical or theoretical" (Metaphysics 1025b25). which he also would describe as "science". He did. representing his belief in The Forms. by poetical science. For Aristotle. between his times at the Academy and the Lyceum. and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics. If logic (or "analytics") is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy.

He alludes .. these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given. neither the Tanais. and that discerning the validity of one's hypothesis requires far more rigorous experimentation than that which Aristotle used to support his laws. which held back science in this epoch. a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. e. and later Galileo. astronomy.g.[19] In a similar vein. His writings provide an account of many scientific observations. force and temperature. are so slow in comparison to the duration of our lives. and several other sciences. Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific fields. and within a certain period."[21] In places. showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect. Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants. The places where they rise were once dry. previous to a volcanic eruption. cause the event to be forgotten.Aristotle perform original research in the natural sciences. as opposed to quantitative. Today's scientific method assumes that such thinking without sufficient facts is ineffective. and insists emphatically on the great results which they must produce in the lapse of ages. From the 3rd century to the 16th century. of . and again it becomes land where it was sea. given "current astronomical demonstrations" that "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun. Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays. and their removal to other regions. Aristotle goes too far in deriving 'laws of the universe' from simple observation and over-stretched reason. then. and deserts that had at length become watered by rivers and fertilized. The changes of the earth. chemistry. meteorology. His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass. He points to the growth of the Nilotic delta since the time of Homer.the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them. nor the Nile. he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. Since he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance. physics. and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed hopelessly inadequate. For example.to the upheaving of one of the Eolian islands. can have flowed for ever. which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices.. but there is none to time.. zoology. scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences. but no quantitative understanding of them. and the universe is eternal. velocity. For instance.. and the sea also continually deserts some lands and invades others The same tracts. He had a conception of speed and temperature. Moreover." pointing out (correctly. and there is a limit to their operations. botany. Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics. So also of all other rivers.[20] On the other hand. like clocks and thermometers. but it becomes sea in those parts where it was land. even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that. to the shallowing of the Palus Maeotis within sixty years from his own time. he says. and there is reason for thinking that these changes take place according to a certain system. in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females.. that they are overlooked.. He says [12th chapter of his Meteorics] 'the distribution of land and sea in particular regions does not endure throughout all time. and the migrations of people after great catastrophes. they spring up and they perish. Beginning in the 16th century.. therefore. John Philoponus. 5 Geology As quoted from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology: He [Aristotle] refers to many examples of changes now constantly going on. the dominant view held that the Earth was the rotational center of the universe.' The concluding observation is as follows: 'As time never fails. which was widely accepted up until the 16th century.[22] However. He instances particular cases of lakes that had dried up.

e. More simply again that which immediately sets the thing in motion. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect. and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel. for example. Water tends toward a sphere surrounding the center.'[23] 6 Physics Five elements Aristotle proposed a fifth element. embodied in the matter. they naturally move back towards it. determining cause. macrostructure) is the cause of its parts. but every thing changes in the course of time. A more simple example of the formal cause is the blueprint or plan that one has before making or causing a human made object to exist. and others always continents. this corresponds to the modern idea of a liquid. as the whole (i. the heavenly. Because actuality and potentiality are normally opposites in Aristotle. Plainly put the formal cause is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor. or that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. The Four Causes Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active causal factors: • Material cause describes the material out of which something is composed. It is not about action. It does not mean one domino knocks over another domino. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws. All that is earthly tends toward the center of the universe. that any thing is determined by the definition. i. Air. and in the second place as intrinsic. which is cold and wet. aether. Fire.Aristotle the earth are not some always sea. So. acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. the first is knocked over causing the . other commentators either suggest that the wording which has come down to us is erroneous.e.. which is hot and wet. earthy bodies sink while air bubbles rise up. in water. Air tends toward a sphere surrounding the water sphere. rain falls and flame rises. manifested in the stars and planets. pattern.. this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. this corresponds to the modern idea of heat. form.[24] Aquinas suggested that the passage be understood literally. Aether. which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets). nonliving or living. Outside all the other spheres. whole. i. a relationship known as the whole-part causation. this corresponds to the modern idea of a solid. in air. moves in the perfection of circles.e. fifth element. This is "natural motion"—motion requiring no extrinsic cause. It tells us what a thing is. synthesis or archetype. the center of the Earth. • • • • • Earth. the arrangement of that matter. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents. • The formal cause is its form. When elements are moved out of their natural place. as a transition toward a potentially possible state. Motion Aristotle defined motion as the actuality of a potentiality as such. Fire tends toward the lunar sphere (in which the Moon orbits). • The efficient cause is "the primary source".. which is cold and dry. Formal cause could only refer to the essential quality of causation. Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place. So take the two dominos this time of equal weighting. in addition to the four proposed earlier by Empedocles. Water. which is hot and dry. Thus the material cause of a table is wood. this corresponds to the modern idea of a gas. or that the addition of the "as such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.[25] Causality. that motion can indeed be understood as the active fulfillment of a potential. essence.

It must be unusual that something happens by chance. "What is not capable of action cannot do anything by chance". According to Aristotle. the one is as the beginning of change. Taking our two dominos. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was. Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects. we cannot say that it is by chance. rational. Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event (not necessarily a mental goal). Optics Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day. or that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done. Additionally. can be spoken as potential or as actual. particular effects to particular causes. need. to allow for sunlight to enter. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the aperture and the surface with the [26] image increased. motivation or motives. or it is that from which and that to which the change is. so that generic effects assigned to generic causes. the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object. All causes. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things. particular or generic. luck must involve choice (and thus deliberation). this is analogous to the diaphragm. as hard work causes fitness and vice versa.Aristotle second also to fall over. For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place. In modern cameras. if something happens all or most of the time. distinguishable from other types of cause. Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance. That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum. Chance and spontaneity According to Aristotle. It is "from what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance). This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition. causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect. things can be causes of one another. causing each other reciprocally. but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place. it requires someone to intentionally knock the dominos over as they cannot fall themselves. not for the purpose of collecting donations. spontaneity and chance are causes of some things. if the person seeking the donations met the person donating. which Aristotle names "luck". There is also more specific kind of chance. proper and incidental. Essentially. The same language refers to the effects of causes. that can only apply to human beings. (Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect). but for some other purpose. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve. 7 . However. ethical. and all that gives purpose to behavior. This is effectively efficient cause. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole. The earliest known written evidence of a camera obscura can be found in Aristotle's documentation of such a device in 350 BC in Problemata. including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. the other as the goal. its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. Moreover. the image was magnified. although not in the same way or function. since it is in the sphere of moral actions. For example: A person seeks donations. • The final cause is its purpose. irrational. operating causes to actual effects. or aperture. In other words. and only [27] humans are capable of deliberation and choice.

In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form. in time and in substantiality. is its principle. we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do. alteration. "For that for the sake of which a thing is. the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant. Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula. if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else.e. he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum. Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. how then is man a unity? However. namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia (see also predicables) that let us define something as a house.. but they have sight that they may see. The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. and for the sake of the end exists potentiality.. With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now. and the actuality is the end. and the becoming is for the sake of the end. it will become a plant. the matter of a house is the bricks. for example. therefore actuality is the end. according to Aristotle. which can be either innate or learned. as well as "the theologic science. and 3. which is change in space. Statue of Aristotle (1915) by Cipri Adolf Bermann at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau . or the stuff of which it is composed. and the formula that gives the [28] differentia is the account of the form. stones. With this definition of the particular substance (i. growth and diminution. locomotion. 2. Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change. Referring then to our previous example. matter and form). For example. For animals do not [29] see in order that they may have sight. he distinguishes the coming to be from: 1." Substance. the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities. For example." or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction. while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise – acting). which is change in quality. while the form of the substance is the actual house. In book VIII. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter. which is also a final cause or end. "what is it that makes a man one"? Since. or being acted upon. which is change in quantity. the potential being (matter) and the actual one [30] (form) are one and the same thing. potentiality and actuality Aristotle examines the concepts of substance and essence (ousia) in his Metaphysics (Book VII). For example." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy". according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped. timbers etc.Aristotle 8 Metaphysics Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being. as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption 319b-320a. this is what a thing is capable of doing. Referring to potentiality. or whatever constitutes the potential house. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein). Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings. and if is not prevented by something. and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form." In summary. the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate – being acted upon).

arguing that all universals are instantiated. according to Aristotle. namely. Octopus. but "good" is still a proper universal form. contain some observations and interpretations. or must be in the future. His observations on catfish. Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos. then it does not exist. He gave accurate descriptions of ruminants' four-chambered fore-stomachs. if a universal exists. 9 Biology and medicine In Aristotelian science.Aristotle Universals and particulars Aristotle's predecessor. such as History of Animals. along with sundry myths and mistakes. something on which the universal can be predicated. we see an apple. Generation of Animals. Empirical research program Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. and we can also analyze a form of an apple. which could be either a property. and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus. either as a particular or a relation. and widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century. things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others. The works that reflect this research. Consequently. In this distinction. In addition. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish. there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. according to Aristotle. Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. as is his writing on cephalopods. For example. He dissected animals but not humans. for example. then there must have been. According to Aristotle. Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point. electric fish (Torpedo) and angler-fish are detailed. When we look at an apple. or a relation to other things. if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time. which contain error and superstition. so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. and Parts of Animals. argued that all things have a universal form. his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded. Sepia (cuttlefish) and the Octopus swimming paper nautilus (Argonauta argo). So. and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas.[32] . As Plato spoke of the world of the forms. Bertrand Russell is a contemporary philosopher who agreed with Plato on the existence of "uninstantiated universals". most especially in biology. rather than in the world of the forms. Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. Moreover. the form of apple exists within each apple. Another good example of his methods comes from the Generation of Animals in which Aristotle describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to observe when visible organs were generated. Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selachē [31] (selachians). a location where all universal forms subsist. must be currently. Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. Plato. it is possible that there is no particular good in existence. we can place an apple next to a book. His description of the hectocotyl arm was about two thousand years ahead of its time.

final causes. i. he supposed the first was to compensate for the latter. at the same time. but of a different kind from vertebrates). Torpedo fuscomaculata Leopard shark For Charles Singer. a sensitive. responsible for mobility and [36] sensation. the lowest bore theirs cold. dry.[35] His system had eleven grades. and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary. Noting that "no animal has. Aristotle. with Nature trying to preserve a type of balance. which generally went against previous philosophers.. "Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living [31] Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder things as a scala naturae" of Life" (scala naturae). capable of thought and reflection. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive. with the exception of Alcmaeon. and his ideas about souls. arranged according "to the degree to which they are infected with potentiality". and humans a vegetative. animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul. Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals). placed the rational soul in the heart." and "a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen. both tusks and horns. are not regarded as science at all in modern times. and egg-bearing (birds and fish)." Aristotle suggested that Nature. was staving off vanity. who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups. Noting that ruminants had multiple stomachs and weak teeth. but not preordained by that form.e. Ideas like this. guided all natural processes. expressed in their form at birth. this incomplete classification is better than that of Linnaeus. crustacea (divided into non-shelled – cephalopods – and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul.[34] In a similar fashion. in contrast to earlier philosophers. He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design. placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move.[38] . and in thick eggs. responsible for reproduction and growth. the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.[37] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought. Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects. In some respects.Aristotle 10 Classification of living things Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the 19th century. and a rational soul. Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates. but in accordance with the Egyptians.[33] Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes. Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he was not to know that complex invertebrates do make use of hemoglobin. rather than the brain. giving no animal both horns and tusks. Insecta and Vermes (worms). Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man.

"[42] Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived. 1200). Since all beings are composites of form and matter. Ernst Mayr claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance. Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants.Aristotle Successor: Theophrastus Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum. they were generally taken [40] It is not until the age of Alexandria under the unquestioningly. often known by its Latin title De Anima). teleology (and after the rise of Christianity. and pericarpion for seed vessel. even into the Middle Ages. though this last discovery was lost in later ages. noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. Theophrastus. Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found. drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes. Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme.[41] Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries. the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings. and the rational soul. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived. growth and [44] chemical transformations. natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation.g. e. Rather than focus on formal causes.[39] Influence on Hellenistic medicine After Theophrastus. which was originally written around 200 BC Psychology Aristotle's psychology. the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of plants. wrote a series of books on botany—the History of Plants—which survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany. the sensitive soul. the soul (psyche) was a simpler concept than it is for us today. 11 The first medical teacher at Alexandria. and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause. but only humans of all beings in the world have a rational soul.[43] Frontispiece to a 1644 version of the expanded and illustrated edition of Historia Plantarum (ca. placing intelligence in the brain. and the sensitive soul with all animals. given in his treatise On the Soul (peri psyche. as Aristotle did. but they were generally taken unquestioningly. Herophilus of Chalcedon. which Aristotle considers types of movement). corrected Aristotle. such as carpos for fruit. By soul he simply meant the form of a living being. posits three souls ("psyches") in humans: the vegetative soul. Humans share the vegetative soul with all living things. . Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times. For Aristotle.

object. therefore. eudaimonia. but by teachers.e. and that this function must be an activity of the psuchē (normally translated as soul) in accordance with reason (logos).[48] He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political animal. tragedy. Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics.[49] The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different to Aristotle's understanding. Lastly. conservatives generally accept the world as it is. To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (ēthikē aretē). Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans." Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine. generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". Comedy. but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life. and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner. one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. i. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. and experience. and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. the natural community according to Aristotle was the city (polis) which functions as a political "community" or "partnership" (koinōnia). because the proper function of an eye is sight. reason divorced from experience.[52] Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone. beginning with social contract theory. Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (ergon) of a thing. through change or no change. Benjamin Wiker[47] In addition to his works on ethics. music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony. or in other words. they distrust the politics of abstract reason – that is. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic. each varying in imitation by medium.. Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action. the Nicomachean Ethics. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (phronesis) and their intellect (nous) can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue. "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part". often translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence). he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual. including most notably. and to perform beautiful acts: "The political partnership must be regarded. the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker. and through drama or no drama.[46] Politics Like Aristotle. and poetry with language. He wrote several treatises on ethics. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see. the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character. The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability. Moreover. is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. as being for the sake of noble actions. comedy.[53] ." This is distinguished from modern approaches. and manner. for instance. not for the sake of living together. according to which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Although he was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires."[50] Rhetoric and poetics Aristotle considered epic poetry. dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative. which address the individual.[45] Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately.[51] For example.Aristotle 12 Practical philosophy Ethics Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study. whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. a philosopher.

[62] However. with some books duplicating or summarizing each other. folklore.Aristotle While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books – one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. including the Constitution of Athens. The 5th century neoplatonist Ammonius Hermiae writes that Aristotle's writing style is deliberately obscurantist so that "good people may for that reason stretch their mind even more.[62] However. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure. not the characters. the authorship of one book questioned and another book considered to be unlikely Aristotle's at all. he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop. and the more technical works intended for use within the school (esoteric). and lyric poetry. Still others acquired Aristotle's name through similarities in doctrine or content.[65] . if either. On this ground. and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. passive female element. style. Others. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with an intent for subsequent publication. the surviving works do not appear to have been so. one classic scholar offers an alternative interpretation. Modern scholars commonly assume these latter to be Aristotle's own (unpolished) lecture notes (or in some cases possible notes by his students).[59] Rather the surviving works mostly resemble lecture notes unintended for publication." perhaps compiled under his direction or supervision. Loss and preservation of his works Modern scholarship reveals that Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterization[59] from the surviving Aristotelian corpus. feminists have accused Aristotle of misogyny[57] and sexism.[61] Most scholars have understood this as a distinction between works Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric)."[63] Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant – that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind. his writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric" and the "esoteric". whereas empty minds that are lost through carelessness will be put to flight by the obscurity when they encounter sentences like these. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic. Theophrastus and Straton.[55] Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles.[64] it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us. some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works. spectacle. is more unified. and proverbs. Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which. character. Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious. e. ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert.[56] 13 Views on women Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active. are regarded by most scholars as products of Aristotle's "school. such as On Colors. (Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived. and the plot.[59] Some of the individual works within the corpus. may have been produced by Aristotle's successors at the Lyceum. is superior: epic or tragic mimesis.. possibly by Nicolaus of Damascus. is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear. it can be considered superior to epic. thought. though many of them may have been in dialogue form. Aristotle gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's.[54] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story.[59] The authenticity of a portion of the surviving works as originally Aristotelian is also today held suspect. Other works in the corpus include medieval palmistries and astrological and magical texts whose connections to Aristotle are purely fanciful and self-promotional. possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music.) Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as "a river of gold". such as the De Plantis.g. a few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style found in Aristotle's extant works.[58] However. and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope. and commented in his Rhetoric that a society cannot be happy unless women are happy too.[60] According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself.

the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his. where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the 1st century BC. by Rembrandt Aristotelian doctrine". introducing a number of errors into the text.[72] pioneered the study of zoology. According to the story. Third. where they were first published in 60 BC by the grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes. until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors. and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period. and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method. who in turn willed them to Neleus of Scepsis. he carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome." Lord says.[71] Aristotle was the founder of formal logic. "it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did". Second. Bertrand Russell notes that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotle with a Bust of Homer. Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis. and he was the founder of many new fields.C. however. Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive". bringing them back to Athens. as opposed to the dialogues and other "exoteric" texts he published more widely during his lifetime. but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact. there is "incontrovertible evidence. First. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelian interpolations in the Politics. when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts. is how were the exoteric writings all lost."[70] Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this story. the influence of Aristotle's errors is considered by some to have held back science considerably. Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. and how did the ones we now possess come to us?[66] The story of the original manuscripts of the esoteric treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his Parallel Lives. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied Athens in 86 BC. and calls his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement. Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle. ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelian corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess.Aristotle The surviving texts of Aristotle are technical treatises from within Aristotle's school. 14 Legacy More than twenty-three hundred years after his death. He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge then in existence. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee.[73][74] Despite these achievements. then. that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis. for example. the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair. One major question in the history of Aristotle's works. And fourth. as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century B.[7] .[68][69] Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides "the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century.[67] The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus.

Avicenna and Alpharabius. Meno. and David in the sixth century.Aristotle 15 Later Greek philosophers The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. the author of a closed system. were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim philosophers. Part I. Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines. bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages. botanists. and Theophrastus. Some went so far as to credit Aristotle himself with neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas. the Muslims considered Aristotle to be a dogmatic philosopher. formal commentary by Eustratius and Michael of Ephesus reappears in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries.[79] as well as a number of the original Greek commentaries. It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods. Mnason of Phocis.[79] Influence on Western Christian theologians With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West.[85] Aristotle is referred to as "The Philosopher" by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas. and Stephen of Alexandria in the early seventh century. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity. Hephaestion. Harpalus. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists. The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having . Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong. Averroes. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus. Dicaearchus. The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were John Philoponus. Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. such as those by James of Venice and William of Moerbeke. apparently sponsored by Anna Comnena.[82] The title "teacher" was first given to Aristotle by Muslim scholars. such as those by Gerard of Cremona. for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"[75] Influence on Byzantine scholars Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle by copying all the extant Greek language manuscripts of the corpus. and other elements of Aristotelian thought. and believed that Aristotle shared with Plato essential tenets of thought. Question 3. movement.[84] and from the original Greek. After Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology. also influenced Thomas Aquinas and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. and researchers.[83] In accordance with the Greek theorists. scientists and scholars. interest in Aristotle revived and Latin Christians had translations made.[78] Influence on Islamic theologians Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. etc. and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous poem of Dante) who were influenced by the tradition of Islamic philosophy. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the Organon made by Boethius.[81] Medieval Muslim scholars regularly described Aristotle as the "First Teacher". AD 600 to c.[76] John Philoponus stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle's views on the eternity of the world. Nicomachus. Eudemos of Rhodes.[77] After a hiatus of several centuries. See Summa Theologica. both from Arabic translations. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West. who wrote on Aristotle in great depth. Demetrius of Phalerum. when the old philosopher released his works to the public. Elias. stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe that continued into the Renaissance. working from Moerbeke's translations. Alkindus considered Aristotle as the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy[80] and Averroes spoke of Aristotle as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.

ancientlibrary. Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition. The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy (http:/ / www. [3] Jonathan Barnes. 88 (http:/ / www. Routledge. . Amid the philosophic family. [7] Bertrand Russell. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown already by August Boeckh (Kleine Schriften VI 195). [4] Campbell. com/ dp/ 0070461929/ ). p. Michael. Retrieved 25-Jan-2007. Who stood beside him closer than the rest. for further discussion. Ingemar Düring. (1980). p. 5. Berlin. The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern (http:/ / www. as opposed to Aristotle's lost works. McGraw Hill. com/ smith-bio/ 2421.58–59 [9] William George Smith. 253. List of works The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. and Socrates.Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. p. 488. Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works. Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking. [5] McLeisch. amazon. clad in blak or reed. 1972 [8] Peter Green. Ltd. 1984).[86] The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell. Retrieved April 6. and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue – or arete – of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy. I saw the Master there of those who know. who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle. [6] Carnes Lord. p. [11] Peter Green. 2012. Introduction to The Politics. Ltd. Aaron Ridley (1995). More recently. com/ name/ aristotle). see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. vt. www. Simon & Schuster. England. 1991 University of California Press.459 [12] Jones. It is Martin Heidegger. Academica. Behind the Name: The Etymology and History of First Names. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. W. edu/ gutenberg/ 1/ 4/ 9/ 7/ 14970/ 14970-h/ 14970-h. . .[88] However implausible this is.com. Alex. amazon. England. . By all admired. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. not Nietzsche. "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995). 1831–1870). are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. 9. Alexander of Macedon. Göteborg. 3. p. it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production.Aristotle at his beddes heed Twenty bookes. Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of [89] disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.T. Notes and references [1] That these undisputed dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/3. "Behind the Name: Meaning. Of aristotle and his philosophie. by Aristotle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kenneth Cole (1999). intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. Alexander of Macedon.behindthename. "flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles" (http:/ / www2. vol. and by all reverenced. ISBN 0-415-92392-1. htm#BkII_119). 1957. cddc. com/ dp/ 0155383124/ ). [2] Cicero. Origin and History of the Name Aristotle" (http:/ / www.379. p. "A History of Western Philosophy". There Plato too I saw. p. behindthename. Oxford. Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). These texts. 1991 University of California Press. p. Oxford. Reference to them is made according to the organization of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica. html) [10] Neill. .[87] 16 Post-Enlightenment thinkers The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle. 216.

"A Pseudo-Aristotelian Chiromancy. trans. A History of the Sciences pp 45 Guthrie. Barnes. Poetics I 1447a [52] Aristotle. pp 90–91. p 252 [44] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [45] Nicomachean Ethics Book I. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. [59] Terence Irwin and Gail Fine.3. Oxford 1931. (1968). Roger A. com/ books?id=mmIOAAAAQAAJ& ). pp. utm. John. The Growth of Biological Thought. M. Poetics XXVI [56] Temple. "Pseudo-Arisoteles: Chiromantia. Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company. wnd. Aristotle. google. xi–xii. [48] Politics 1253a19-24 [49] Ebenstein. Dalton. pp 201–202. Johannes (Spring 1979). Alan. The Complete Fables By Aesop (http:/ / books. Charles. A History of the Sciences pp 56 Mayr. Poetics VI [55] Aristotle. google. knowledge about. T44a-e. Webster. stanford.edu. 674–706. 348 Mayr. [16] Bocheński. . [17] Rose. Robert (translators). . Archived (http:/ / web. "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy" (http:/ / plato. "Optics and ancient Greeks" (http:/ / www. Lynn E. [58] Morsink. I. Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. 92." Speculum 40 (1965). p. History of Animals.de. Metaphysics IX 1050a 5–10 Aristotle. Berkeley: University of California Press. Platonism. de/ Greeks/ Optics. pp. A History of the Sciences pp 43–44 Mayr. Mason. Alberto (2003).6 [28] Aristotle. The Great Chain of Being Aristotle. "Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature" (http:/ / www. (1996). htm) from the original on 11 April 2009.Aristotle [13] Vita Marciana 41. 189–241. 1998. Physics 2. Introduction. Wnd. [46] Nicomachean Ethics Book VI. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore. Indianapolis. Penn State University Press. p 46 Annas. [18] [19] [20] [21] Jori. iep. Emily Kearns. Wadsworth Group. J. p. pp. 1 pp. Introduction to Political Thinkers. Poetics III [53] Aristotle. Cornell University. "Animals. see also: Lovejoy. com/ books?id=ifqGuiHo6eQC& pg=PA3862& dq=Antipater+ Aristotle+ will& sig=sQzQVBdRmk-spNdZnyd1MwzAPTc) [15] Bocheński. 2307/ 4330727). org/ stable/ 10.8. 3rd ed. ISBN 0-14-044649-4 Cf. 01. 59. Göteborg. 61. p. Principles of Geology (http:/ / books. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1): 83–112. and Temple. 0054:bekker page=1098a). edu/ entries/ philoponus/ #2. 1951. google. Aelian Varia historica 3. [50] For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomachean Ethics and Politics see Polanyi. 2). stanford. "Chiromancy in Medieval Latin Manuscripts. Classical Greek Philosophy. tufts. Retrieved 15 October 2012." in Oxford Classical Dictionary. edu/ aris-mot/ ). 14 August 2010. edu/ entries/ aristotle-psychology/ ). Metaphysics VIII 1045a-b Singer. De Anima II 3 Mason. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 103–104. mlahanas. Meteorology 1. htm). 2. Mlahanas. of course. jstor. de/ Greeks/ Optics. is not responsible for the later use made of this idea by clerics. Boston 1971. pp.36. Mason. [60] Lynn Thorndike. cf. . (1951). Classical Greek Philosophy pp 252 Mason. . Wolfgang Haase Aristotle's Will (http:/ / books. Pack. "Was Aristotle's Biology Sexist?" (http:/ / www." Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge 36 (1969). Inc. (1957) "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" in Primitive. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 17 [22] Burent. 201a27-29. [27] Aristotle. [57] Freeland. (1998). Ancient Formal Logic.com. pp 90–94. com/ books?id=ZB-rVxPvtPEC& pg=PR3& source=gbs_selected_pages& cad=0_0) Penguin Classics. 1832. org/ web/ 20090411051535/ http:/ / www. See for example chapter 7 1098a (http:/ / www. Ingemar Düring. [14] Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt by Hildegard Temporini. K. [26] Michael Lahanas. Introduction. Feminist Interpretations of Aristotle." Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge 39 (1972). Aristotle: Introductory Readings. pp. Aristotle. 201b4-5 [25] Sachs. Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition. Aristotle.17 [24] Physics 201a10-11. xi–xii. Pack. article "Psychology" (http:/ / plato. Poetics IV [54] Aristotle. Aristotele. pp. perseus. Retrieved 2009-04-26. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. The Growth of Biological Thought. Metaphysics VIII 1043a 10–30 [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] Aristotle. Aristotle's Syllogistic. [47] "Aristotle: Father of political conservatism" (http:/ / www. Cynthia A. ISBN 0271017309. E. William Ebenstein (2002). archive.stanford. [23] Charles Lyell. com/ 2010/ 08/ 191121). A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. rev. The Growth of Biological Thought. Olivia. Joe (2005). Plato. mlahanas. A short history of biology. 1928. 78–115 [51] Aristotle.W.. A History of the Sciences. 289–320. 1996. . quotation from p 91 Annas. 1957.

see W. Aristotle himself: Nicomachean Ethics 1102a26–27. The Works of Aristotle Translated into English Under the Editorship of WD Ross. Grolier Incorporated – Juvenile Nonfiction [70] Lord. " A history of Greek philosophy: Aristotle : an encounter (http:/ / books. Retrieved 2009-04-26. stanford. Lines 131–135 [88] Durant. 11. Dorling Kindersley. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 34560/ Aristotle). 103. L. 34. Polity Press. usually refers generally to "discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school". On Aristotle's Categories. ISBN 0-521-38760-4 [73] "Aristotle (Greek philosopher) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. eds. Archived (http:/ / web.. Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). google. Aristotle Transformed London. 408–410. Aristutalis [80] Rasa'il I. C. Matthews. Tutti lo miran. edu/ entries/ arabic-islamic-influence) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [85] Aristotelianism in the Renaissance (http:/ / plato. 12. Dante. stanford. passim. 407-408. A popular exposition for the general reader. p. archive. Will (1926 (2006)). NY: Cornell University Press. 240. Ithaca. p. ISBN 978-0-671-73916-4. 28-29. K. [84] Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West (http:/ / plato. in Gregory Nagy. 15 [64] Cicero. The following references are only a small selection. britannica. Cohen. 393-406. britannica. htm#BkII_119). De Anima. Aristotle Transformed (London. 35-36. Oxford University Press. [65] Barnes. [63] Ammonius (1991). 1990) 20-21. [78] Richard Sorabji. [66] The definitive. Carnes (1984). Matthew Dillon. Aristotle for Everybody. ed. Bryan (2010). . United States: Simon & Schuster. Introduction to the Politics. p. Abu Rida [81] Comm. "Life and Work". cddc. . D. vol. English study of these questions is Barnes. "flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles" (http:/ / www2. ISBN 0-8014-2688-X. 43 Crawford [82] al-mua'llim al-thani. p. 1990. 2007. ISBN 0-7007-0314-4. [62] Barnes. ISBN 0-8014-2688-X.Aristotle [61] Jonathan Barnes. The Canterbury Tales. 28. 12. Cambridge University Press. at least in Aristotle's own works. Aristotle Transformed (London. edu/ gutenberg/ 1/ 4/ 9/ 7/ 14970/ 14970-h/ 14970-h. Aristotle's Metaphysics (1953). • Ackrill J. "Roman Aristotle". Chicago: Chicago University Press. 174 n. Routledge 2001. rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own. Life of Alexander [76] Richard Sorabji. [72] W. Greek Literature. "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995). by Aristotle. 86 [89] Kelvin Knight.com. (1981). Gareth B. J. Academica. 8. [75] Plutarch. ed. 92. On Aristotle's Categories. Aristotelian Philosophy. L. The Story of Philosophy. Prologue. III. (2010). p. Seyyed Hossein (1996). p. • Aristotle (1908-1952)." 18 [68] Ancient Rome: from the early Republic to the assassination of Julius Caesar – Page 513. Aristotle the Philosopher. [77] Richard Sorabji. Canto IV. Ross. 59–60. 2. ed. 1990)233-274. . vol. tutti onor li fanno: quivi vid'ïo Socrate e Platone che 'nnanzi a li altri più presso li stanno. Britannica. The Story of Philosophy. [74] Durant. edu/ entries/ aristotelianism-renaissance) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [86] Geoffrey Chaucer. Inc. L'Inferno (Hell). Further reading The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exōterikoi logoi. Magnum in Aristotle. vt. Guthrie (1990). Lynda Garland [69] The Encyclopedia Americana. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 17. Ithaca. com/ books?id=8EG0yV0cGoEC& pg=PA156& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". 12 vols. NY: Cornell University Press. pp. • Adler. 2. New York: Macmillan. USA. Curzon Press. Essays on Plato and Aristotle. p. org/ web/ 20090422103155/ http:/ / www. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Aristotle himself never uses the term "esoteric" or "acroamatic". Marc. Retrieved 25 January 2007. "Roman Aristotle". The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia. Aristutalis [83] Nasr. S. [67] "Sulla. [71] Magee. lines 295–295 [87] vidi 'l maestro di color che sanno seder tra filosofica famiglia. 20. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase. [79] Encyclopedia of Islam. (1978). Volume 22 – Page 131. • Ackrill. p. pp. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 34560/ Aristotle) from the original on 22 April 2009. Mortimer J. p.156. • Ammonius (1991).

(1981). (1991). London: Routledge. Albany: SUNY Press. Aristotle's First Principles (http://www. • Cantor. eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Allen. (2005). • Knight. (1923). Richard (1973). Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre. Michael J. Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy. Lynn E. ed. eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Thomas P. The Worlds of Plato and Aristotle. New York: Philosophical Library. A History of Greek Philosophy. Introduction to The Politics. Science. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76. • Bolotin. in print since 1923. C. • Halper. Parmenides Publishing.). Alberto. • Ross. (1989). Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics. W. Cambridge University Press. Robinson. Sir David (1995).. B. • Chappell. • Rose. Aristotle. • Kiernan. Lorraine Smith (2003). • Plato (1979). Carnes. • Halper. Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments. Introduction to Aristotle (2d ed. Journal of Philosophy 70: 679–696. I. Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. ed. Pr. Aristotle. M. London: Cape. • Frede. • Loux. (1965c). [Reprinted in J. NY: Cornell University Press. (1988). K. G. (1962). Princeton: Princeton University Press. Aristotle's Conception of Matter. C. • Burnyeat. Aristotle (6th ed. (1984). Cambridge University Press. One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Aristotle's Syllogistic. (1995). • Jaeger. K. Volume 2: The Central Books. • Reeve. Aristotle Dictionary. 3. • Lloyd. M. et al. ISBN 0-521-09456-9. Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Proceedings of the British Academy 50: 125–150.cyjack. • Irwin. 1. 19 . Mass: Blaisdell Publishing Co. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought.Aristotle • Bakalis Nikolaos. • Fuller. Richard. Ancient Thought: Plato and Aristotle. (1968). Waltham. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. A classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English translators.com/cognition/Aristotle's first principles. New York: Twayne Publishers. London: Duckworth 14–34. L.. Kelvin. Ancient Formal Logic.(1975). (2005). David (1998). C. and R. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (2000). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. E. Frank A.A.. Alan. Barnes. Schofield.). (1991). • Jori. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Buffalo: Prometheus Books. (1995). Substance and Predication in Aristotle. Articles on Aristotle Vol 1. • Owen. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of Science") ISBN 88-424-9737-1. The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Werner (1948). Sorabji. History of Greek Philosophy. Aristotele. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.. Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics Ζ and Η. Norman F. H. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-19-824290-5. (2003). Vol. Mary Louise. (1968). (1973). Michael. Peter L. G. • McKeon. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. (1979). R. V. • Gill. Indianapolis: Hackett. (2007).. Volume 1: Books Alpha — Delta. James B. Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of His Development (2nd ed. Wilbur. Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics.] • Pangle. • Ferguson. "The Platonism of Aristotle". E. Monuments of Western Thought.G. (1969). F. • Guthrie. • Bocheński. Parmenides Publishing. An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing.). (1987). ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6. 6. (1951). pdf). R. Harold Joseph. Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 • Barnes J. T. Edward C. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (2007). Aristotle's conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of the history of philosophic thought on friendship. M. eds. Ithaca. D. • Code. Klein. • Lewis. Edward C. One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics. John (1972). ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6. Polity Press. by Aristotle. • Lord.

Archived from the original (http://www. For the general reader.org/web/20060327222953/ http://www.iep.stanford.html) – primarily in English • Project Gutenberg (http://www. J.org/ web/20060211201625/http://www.utm.stanford. Causality (http://plato.org/bloodwolf/philosophes/Aristote/table.org: volume 1 (http://www. Henry B.stanford.edu/entries/aristotelianism-renaissance/). Henry Osborn (1922).org/details/aristotelisopera04arisrich). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. M.stanford. Suppl.stanford.rutgers.com/medicine/index. Commentators on Aristotle (http://plato.org/details/aristotelisopera03arisrich).perseus. Greek Biology and Medicine (http://web.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/). T.stanford. • Works by Aristotle on Open Library at the Internet Archive Collections of works • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (http://classics. volume 4 (http://www.stanford.edu.edu/entries/aristotle-causality/). (1974). volume 3 (http://www. Remacle's collection (http://remacle.indiana. Leo (1964).edu/ancient/greek/aristotle_greek/)) • Bekker's Prussian Academy of Sciences edition of the complete works of Aristotle at Archive. Psychology (http://plato. edu/entries/aristotle-biology/).stanford.htm) (general article) • Diogenes Laërtius.html).edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/) • The Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.htm) – Greek with French translation • The 11-volume 1837 Bekker edition of Aristotle's Works in Greek ( PDF (http://isnature. 41–56. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. • Taylor. Rand McNally.archive. Aristotle and the Later Tradition. • Veatch.stanford. Logic (http://plato.html).org/cathen/01713a.org/browse/aristotle) at PhilPapers Aristotle (https://inpho.html) on 2006-02-11. Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Life of Aristotle. in The City and Man. translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925). volume 5 (http://www.submit=Change&collection=Any& type=text&lang=Any&lookup=Aristotle) – at the Perseus Project.edu/entries/ aristotle-metaphysics/).adelaide. Bloomington: Indiana U. • Woods.archive.edu/entries/aristotle-politics/).ceth. "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology" (http://web.mit.tufts.edu/thinker/2553) at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project Aristotle (http://plato.edu/entries/ aristotle-psychology/).edu/Browse/index-Aristotle.edu/entries/aristotle-logic/).archive.archive.edu/aristotl) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (general article) Scholarly surveys of focused topics from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: articles on. Metaphysics (http://plato.org/details/ • • • • • .archive.ancientlibrary. 20 External links Aristotle (http://philpapers.edu/entries/aristotle-natphil/). Chicago.ancientlibrary. stanford.com/medicine/0051.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-commentators/). volume 2 (http://www. "Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics". Ethics (http://plato. Biology (http://plato.archive.org/Files/Aristotle/)| DJVU (http://grid. Natural philosophy (http://plato.cogs. Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. pp.ancientlibrary. in both English and Greek • University of Adelaide (http://etext. Judith (1992).newadvent.Aristotle • Scaltsas.edu/entries/aristotle) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Aristotle (http://www. (1994).stanford.stanford.au/a/aristotle/) – primarily in English • P. • Swanson. "On Aristotle's Politics". Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy.gutenberg. Aristotle in the Renaissance (http://plato. Rhetoric (http://plato.library.edu/cgi-bin/perscoll?. • Strauss.stanford.org/browse/authors/a#a2747) – English texts • Tufts University (http://www.com/medicine/index. Press.archive. The Public and the Private in Aristotle's Political Philosophy.edu/entries/aristotle-noncontradiction/). Non-contradiction (http://plato. (1991b). Mathematics (http://plato. Political theory (http:// plato.org/details/aristotelisopera01arisrich).edu/entries/aristotle-mathematics/).org/details/ aristotelisopera02arisrich).

org/search/eventsearch. as used in philosophy. and are therefore candidates for being accidental.[1] The word "accident" has been employed throughout the history of philosophy with several distinct meanings. "Atomic Number 79" are all properties. and passion ("being acted on"). relation. and every single existent bachelor had brown hair. is an attribute which may or may not belong to a subject. "gold". Together with "substance". an accident is a property which has no necessary connection to the essence of the thing being described. There are two opposed philosophical positions that also impact the meaning of this term: • Anti-Essentialism (associated with Willard Van Orman Quine) argues that there are no essential properties at all. an accidental property (Greek symbebekos)[7] is at its most basic level a property. time. According to this tradition. a chair can be made of wood. an accident (or accidental property) is the union of two concepts: property and contingency. the accidents of the bread and wine do not change.concharto.org/identities/lccn-n79-4182) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) 21 Accident (philosophy) Accident.Aristotle aristotelisopera05arisrich) Other • Timeline of Aristotle's life (http://www. situation (or position). quality. Modern philosophy In modern philosophy. metal. "high value". To put this in technical terms.html) at PlanetMath • Works by or about Aristotle (http://worldcat. but this is accidental relative to its being a chair. A particular bachelor may have brown hair.[3][4][5] To take another example. the property of having brown hair would still be accidental. On the other hand. action. And this distinction is independent of experimental verification: even if for some reason all the unmarried men with non-brown hair were killed. then P must be true). and "electrum" are not properties. It is still a chair regardless of the [2] material it is made of. without affecting its essence. or plastic. For example. "platinum". • Modal Necessitarianism (associated with Saul Kripke). The nine kinds of accidents according to Aristotle are quantity. location. habitus. argues for the veracity of the modal system "Triv" (If P is true. these nine kinds of accidents constitute the ten fundamental categories of Aristotle's ontology. Aristotelian substance theory Aristotle made a distinction between the essential and accidental properties of a thing. but their substances change from bread and wine to the Body and Blood of Christ.[6] Catholic theologians such as Thomas Aquinas have employed the Aristotelian concepts of substance and accident in articulating the theology of the Eucharist. In relation to the first. The consequence of this theory is that all properties are essential (and no property is an accident). and from the point of view of bachelorhood it would be an accidental property. particularly the transubstantiation of bread and wine into body and blood. . since it would still be logically possible for a bachelor to have hair of another color. and are therefore not classified as accidents.org/encyclopedia/Aristotle. and therefore every property is an accident. The color "yellow". all bachelors are unmarried: this is a necessary or essential property of what it means to be a bachelor.htm?_tag=timeline of aristotle& _maptype=0) • Aristotle (http://planetmath. but this would be a property particular to that individual.

Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. htm). edu/ entries/ aristotle-noncontradiction/ ). google. Blackwell. stanford. 90–93. In some theories a desire plus a belief about the means of satisfying that desire are always what is behind an action. However. Anton. SparkNotes. [6] "Predication and Ontology: The Categories" (http:/ / faculty. Aristotle's Topics. Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy V. . reaching over for the glass). ISBN 978-90-04-10757-1. should not be confused with sociological theories of social action. the desire and belief jointly cause the action. . com/ philosophy/ aristotle/ section6. George L. 2007-02-02. many theories of action argue that rationality extends far beyond calculating the best means to achieve one's ends. can directly cause me to do X without my having to want to do X (i.e. With the advent of psychology and later neuroscience. Philosophical action theory. in some theories. A History of Greek Philosophy. Commentary on Aristotle's Physics (http:/ / books. In the simple theory (see Donald Davidson). a belief that I ought to do X. whether thinking should be analysed as action. Retrieved 2008-12-19. and how complex actions involving several steps to be taken and diverse intended consequences are to be summarised or decomposed. rhtml). BRILL. not just acting on wants. [5] Preus. Michael Bratman has raised problems for such a view and argued that we should take the concept of intention as basic and not analyzable into beliefs and desires.g. Paul (1997). For instance. ISBN 978-1-84371-545-0. also involves responding correctly to the reasons an agent perceives. [3] "Aristotle . Retrieved 2008-12-19. Agents aim. [4] "Aristotle on Non-contradiction" (http:/ / plato. . Conceptual discussions also revolve around a precise definition of action in philosophy. Scholars may disagree on which bodily movements fall under this category. archive. Anthony. Spath. Archived (http:/ / web. many theories of action are now subject to empirical testing. Retrieved 2008-12-19. Rationality. edu/ smcohen/ 433/ catlec. While action theorists generally employ the language of causality in their theories of what the nature of action is. 29. e. in acting. pp. pp. the issue of what causal determination comes to has been central to controversies about the nature of free will. . com/ books?id=6CD0IRPg4roC& pg=). have a desire to do X).Accident (philosophy) 22 References [1] Guthrie. rhtml) from the original on 18 December 2008. [2] Thomas (2003). Kustas (1992). Cambridge University Press. [7] Slomkowski. com/ philosophy/ aristotle/ section6. What is left over if I subtract the fact that my arm goes up from the fact that I raise my arm? Ludwig Wittgenstein.Metaphysics: Books Zeta and Eta" (http:/ / www. in such theories. Such a theory of prospective rationality underlies much of economics and other social sciences within the more sophisticated framework of Rational Choice. such as the action theory established by Talcott Parsons. Richard J. to maximize the satisfaction of their desires. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. . or the philosophy of action. W. Richard J.g. Edmund Thirlkel. This area of thought has attracted the strong interest of philosophers ever since Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Third Book). William Keith Chambers (1990). sparknotes. org/ web/ 20081218210927/ http:/ / www. University of Washington. sparknotes. ISBN 978-0-7914-1027-1. Philosophical Investigations §621 Overview Basic action theory typically describes action as behavior caused by an agent in a particular situation.g. ISBN 978-0-521-38760-6. my wanting a glass of water and believing the clear liquid in the cup in front of me is water) lead to bodily behavior (e. SUNY Press. The agent's desires and beliefs (e. washington. Action theory (philosophy) Action theory is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of more or less complex kind. John P. 148.

On the other hand. are not the cause of the action. Generally an agent doesn't intend to catch a cold or engage in bodily movement to do so (though we might be able to conceive of such a case). Unsuccessfully trying to do something might also not be considered an action for similar reasons (for e. not something done by one. Scholars of action theory • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Maria Alvarez Thomas Aquinas Hannah Arendt Robert Audi G. an agent that accidentally cures a person by administering a poison he was intending to kill him with.Action theory (philosophy) 23 Discussion For example. However. This introduces a moral dimension to the discussion (see also Moral agency). catching a cold is not considered an action because it is something which happens to a person. Other events are less clearly defined as actions or not. others think it is not an action unless the decision is carried out. E. explaining the relationship between actions and their effects. in an example from Anscombe's manuscript Intention. it involves an intention. For instance.g. Whether a side effect is considered part of an action is especially unclear in cases in which the agent isn't aware of the possible side effects. distractedly drumming ones fingers on the table seems to fall somewhere in the middle. that death might be considered part of the action of the agent that pumped the water. Deciding to do something might be considered a mental action by some.D. Other concerns include individuating actions. If the poisoned water resulted in a death. Some would prefer to define actions as requiring bodily movement (see behaviorism). as well as examining the nature of agency. they must explain the action in some other way or be causally impotent. Problems have been raised for this view because the mental states seem to be reduced to mere physical causes. Some philosophers (e. It is contentious whether believing. Dray Fred Dretske R. however.A. The side effects of actions are considered by some to be part of the action. If the reasons an agent cites as justifying his action. Anscombe Aristotle Jonathan Bennett Maurice Blondel Michael Bratman Hector-Neri Castañeda David Charles August Cieszkowski Arthur Collins Jonathan Dancy Donald Davidson Giuseppina D'Oro William H. and thinking are actions since they are mental events. Duff • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hegel Carl Hempel Rosalind Hursthouse David Hume Jennifer Hornsby John Hyman K.g. For example. Irani Hans Joas Robert Kane Anthony Kenny Jaegwon Kim Christine Korsgaard Loet Leydesdorff John McDowell Alfred R. explaining how an action is related to the beliefs and desires which cause and/or justify it (see practical reason). a goal. lack of bodily movement). M. A primary concern is the nature of free will and whether actions are determined by the mental states that precede them (see determinism). and a bodily movement guided by the agent. A primary concern of the philosophy of action is to analyze the nature of actions and distinguish them from similar phenomena. throwing a ball is an instance of action. pumping water can also be an instance of poisoning the inhabitants. Donald Davidson) have argued that the mental states the agent invokes as justifying his action are physical states that cause the action. intending. Mele Elijah Millgram Ludwig von Mises Thomas Nagel Lucy O'Brien • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Ricoeur David-Hillel Ruben Constantine Sandis John Searle Scott Sehon Wilfrid Sellars Michael Smith Helen Steward Frederick Stoutland Galen Strawson Charles Taylor Richard Taylor Sergio Tenenbaum Irving Thalberg Michael Thompson Judith Jarvis Thomson David Velleman Candace Vogler Georg Henrik von Wright . Their mental properties don't seem to be doing any work.

Donald Davidson (1980). A Companion to the Philosophy of Action. Oxford. Essays on Actions and Events. Jay Wallace Gary Watson George Wilson Ludwig Wittgenstein Max Weber Alan R.) (2007). Actions. Timothy O'Connor & Constantine Sandis (eds.) (2004). Berlin. Oxford University Press. John Hyman & Helen Steward (eds. The Philosophy of Action. Oxford. Agency and Intersubjectivity. Action in Context. The Constitution of Agency. Anton Leist (ed. edu/ entries/ action [2] http:/ / philosophersanswer. External links • Action [1] entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • The Meaning of Action by Various Authors at PhilosophersAnswer. Oxford. New Essays on the Explanation of Action.com/ References [1] http:/ / plato. Basil Blackwell. • Constantine Sandis (ed. L'Harmattan.) (1997). White Christopher Yeomans Xavier Zubiri 24 Further reading • • • • • • • • • • • Maurice Blondel (1893). Routledge. Oxford. Oxford University Press.com [2] • http://philosophyofaction. Jennifer Hornsby (1980). Peter Šajda et al (eds.) (2010). Corpus Books. Anscombe (1957). Affectivity. Walter de Gruyter. Oxford.Action theory (philosophy) • • • • • • Ignacio Ellacuria John Martin Fischer Harry Frankfurt Carl Ginet Alvin I. Paris.) (2012). Palgrave Macmillan. Cambridge University Press. L'Action . Clarendon Press. Agency and Action. Total Commitment. M. Wiley-Blackwell. Cambridge. Blondel's L'Action. com/ index. Alfred R.) (2009). stanford. Goldman Jürgen Habermas • • • • • • • Timothy O'Connor Juan Antonio Pérez López Thomas Pink Brian O'Shaughnessy Joseph Raz Thomas Reid Raymond Reiter • • • • • • • • R. E. Mele (ed. Intention.Essai d'une critique de la vie et d'une science de la pratique G. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=20672:the-meaning-of-action-philosophers-answer& catid=1:philosophers-answer& Itemid=2 . London. Basingstoke. James Sommerville (1968). Christine Korsgaard (2008).

disciple of Aristotle. whose writings on harmonics are frequently cited by Theon of Smyrna in the surviving sections of his On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato.[4] In the 17th century.Adrastus of Aphrodisias 25 Adrastus of Aphrodisias Adrastus (Greek: Ἄδραστος.[5] Adrastus of Philippi is also reported by Stephanus of Byzantium. 366.[2] and a treatise on the Categories of Aristotle by Galen. (1984). (1867). in viii. page 8 (http:/ / books. a work by Adrastus on harmonics. William. com/ smith-bio/ 0030. " ". pp. and Longmans. lib. com/ books?id=PV4MAAAAYAAJ). html). pp. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. in the Vatican Library. 1. Cambridge University Press [5] Long. ancientlibrary. Green.[7] References [1] Simplicius. was said by Gerhard Johann Vossius to have been preserved. [2] p. ed. "Adrastus" (http:/ / books. 1. unless there was a different. [4] Andrew Barker. He was the author of a treatise on the arrangement of Aristotle's writings and his system of philosophy.[1] and by Achilles Tatius. Phys. (2006). Brown. Greek Musical Writings. in manuscript. [6] Fragmente der griechischen Historiker Part 7. in Harmonica Ptolemaei [3] Jowett. William. The philosophers of the ancient world: an A to Z guide. None of these have come down to us.[6] he is presumably the same philosopher. Benjamin (1867). Boston. google. George (1842). quoted by Simplicius. 21. in Smith. 2nd century) of Aphrodisias was a Peripatetic philosopher who lived in the 2nd century AD. Page 51 (1999) [7] Among the (very) few sources prepared to give Adrastus of Philippi an independent existence is: Trevor Curnow. Some commentaries of his on the Timaeus of Plato are also quoted by Porphyry. Περὶ Ἁρμονικῶν ("On Harmonics"). "Adrastus (3)" (http:/ / www. London: Longman. 270. article name needed  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Duckworth.[3] He was a competent mathematician. as a peripatetic philosopher. . Praefat. google. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. page 210. earlier. although the manuscript appears to be no longer extant. if indeed this was not an error on Vossius' part. com/ books?um=1& q=Adrastus of Philippi Aphrodisias& hl=en& ie=UTF-8& sa=N& tab=wp).

Aiskhulos. whereas previously characters had interacted only with the chorus. 456/455 BC) was the first of the three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays can still be read or performed. The Persians. Prometheus Bound. So important was the war to Aeschylus and the Greeks that. 525/524 BC – c.[11] . c. is the only extant classical Greek tragedy concerned with recent history (very few of that kind were ever written)[8] and it is a useful source of information about that period. which took place during his lifetime. he expanded the number of characters in plays to allow for conflict amongst them. religious thinker. the others being Sophocles and Euripides. and there is a longstanding debate about his authorship of one of these plays. Few poets have ever presented evil in such stark and tragic terms[9] yet he had an exalted view of Zeus. He was a deep. Rome Born c.[4] According to Aristotle. 456 BC Gela Playwright and soldier Died Occupation Aeschylus (Greek: Αἰσχύλος. often giving us surprising insights into his work.[6] He was probably the first dramatist to present plays as a trilogy and his Oresteia is the only ancient example of the form to have survived. upon his death. He is often described as the father of tragedy:[1][2] our knowledge of the genre begins with his work[3] and our understanding of earlier tragedies is largely based on inferences from his surviving plays. 525 BC Eleusis c. Fragments of some other plays have survived in quotes and more continue to be discovered on Egyptian papyrus. whom he celebrated with a grand simplicity reminiscent of the Psalms. This play. his epitaph commemorated his participation in the Greek victory at Marathon rather than his success as a playwright.[7] At least one of his works was influenced by the Persian invasion of Greece.[10] and a faith in progress or the healing power of time.Aeschylus 26 Aeschylus Aeschylus Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums. around 456 BC.[5] Only seven of his estimated seventy to ninety plays have survived into modern times.

and his first performance took place in 499 BC. members of the cult were supposed to have gained some secret knowledge. and during one of these trips he produced The Women of Aetna (in honor of the city founded by Hieron) and restaged his Persians. but he fled the scene. as members were sworn under the penalty of death not to reveal anything about the Mysteries to non-initiates.[17] Aeschylus was one of many Greeks who had been initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. after the death of Phrynichus.[18] As the name implies.[14] As a youth he worked at a vineyard until. Aeschylus staged the production that included the Persians.[16] Salamis holds a prominent place in The Persians. Aeschylus was the yearly favorite in the Dionysia.[20] Aeschylus's work was so respected by the Athenians that after his death. Heracleides of Pontus asserts that the crowd watching the play tried to stone Aeschylus. 525 BC in Eleusis. Aeschylus and his brother Cynegeirus fought to defend Athens against Darius I's invading Persian army at the Battle of Marathon.[12][13] He would win his first victory at the City Dionysia in 484 BC. Aeschylus's younger brother Ameinias helped acquit his brother by showing the jury the stump of the hand that he lost at Salamis. a victory celebrated across the city-states of Greece. He was said to have been born in c.[13] As soon as he woke from the dream. the ancient nobility of Attica.[12] . a cult to Demeter based in his hometown of Eleusis.[16] In 458 BC. which is nestled in the fertile valleys of western Attica.[12] His sons Euphorion and Euæon and his nephew Philocles also become playwrights. It is claimed that he was killed by a tortoise that fell out of the sky when dropped by an eagle. In 490 BC.[16] The Persian Wars would play a large role in the playwright's life and career. He then took refuge at the altar in the orchestra of the Theater of Dionysus. too. a small town about 27 kilometers northwest of Athens. Aeschylus was called into military service again.[12] The Athenians emerged triumphant. however. not Aeschylus's brother. When he stood trial for his offense he pleaded ignorance.[12] By 473 BC.[12][16] In 480. His family was wealthy and well established. Nevertheless.[16] Aeschylus travelled to Sicily once or twice in the 470s BC. according to Aristotle some thought that Aeschylus had revealed some of the cult's secrets on stage. the young Aeschylus began writing a tragedy. He was acquitted. receiving a mortal wound while trying to prevent a Persian ship retreating from the shore. one of his chief rivals. according to the 2nd-century AD geographer Pausanias. and perhaps. The truth is that the award for bravery at Salamis went to Ameinias of Pallene. winning first prize in nearly every competition.[13][15] In 510 BC. the god Dionysus visited him in his sleep and commanded him to turn his attention to the nascent art of tragedy. this story is very likely apocryphal.[12] In 472 BC. which was performed in 472 BC and won first prize at the Dionysia.[12] Cynegeirus. for which his countrymen extolled him as a hero. his were the only tragedies allowed to be restaged in subsequent competitions. visiting the city of Gela where he died in 456 or 455 BC. when he was only 26 years old.Aeschylus 27 Life There are no reliable sources for the life of Aeschylus. where he was voted bravest warrior. with the jury sympathetic to the wounds that Aeschylus and his brother Cynegeirus suffered at Marathon. died in the battle. and Cleisthenes came to power.[19] Other sources claim that an angry mob tried to kill Aeschylus on the spot. however.[12] though the date is most likely based on counting back forty years from his first victory in the Great Dionysia. having been invited by Hiero I of Syracuse. at the Battle of Plataea in 479. Cleomenes I (Aeschylus was 15 at the time) expelled the sons of Peisistratus from Athens. his oldest surviving play.[13] though this might be a fiction that the ancients invented to account for the grandeur of his plays. a major Greek city on the eastern side of the island. his father Euphorion was a member of the Eupatridae. with Pericles serving as choregos. According to the 2nd-century AD author Aelian.[12] Ion of Chios was a witness for Aeschylus's war record and his contribution in Salamis. Firm details of specific rites are sparse. Aeschylus and his family were living in the deme of Eleusis. this time against Xerxes I's invading forces at the Battle of Salamis. In the last decade of the 6th century. he returned to Sicily for the last time. His reforms included a system of registration that emphasized the importance of the deme over family tradition.

was also a tragic poet. .[24] Aeschylus had at least two brothers. at an estimated 120 plays).[15] During Aeschylus's lifetime. consisted of three playwrights each presenting three tragic plays followed by a shorter comedic satyr play. the trilogy known as The Oresteia. The Alexandrian Life of Aeschylus claims that he won the first prize at the City Dionysia thirteen times. and won first prize in the competition against Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. With the exception of this last play – the success of which is uncertain – all of Aeschylus's extant tragedies are known to have won first prize at the City Dionysia.[25] The first competition Aeschylus would have participated in. Euphorion and Euaeon. the god of wine. Seven against Thebes. together with Prometheus Bound (whose authorship is disputed). the Athenian. both of whom became tragic poets. son of Euphorion. commemorating only his military achievements: Αἰσχύλον Εὐφορίωνος Ἀθηναῖον τόδε κεύθει      μνῆμα καταφθίμενον πυροφόροιο Γέλας· ἀλκὴν δ' εὐδόκιμον Μαραθώνιον ἄλσος ἂν εἴποι [21]      καὶ βαθυχαιτήεις Μῆδος ἐπιστάμενος Beneath this stone lies Aeschylus. Cynegeirus and Ameinias.      and the long-haired Persian knows it well.[25] A second competition of five comedic playwrights followed. and various ancient sources attribute between seventy and ninety plays to him.[1][26] Only seven tragedies have survived intact: The Persians.[22] His nephew. Euphorion won first prize in 431 in competition against both Sophocles and Euripides.Aeschylus The inscription on Aeschylus's gravestone makes no mention of his theatrical renown. and dwarfs the five victories of Euripides. The Libation Bearers and The Eumenides. dramatic competitions became part of the City Dionysia in the spring. where many of Aeschylus's plays were performed Aeschylus entered many of these competitions in his lifetime.      who perished in the wheat-bearing land of Gela. The Suppliants. Works The roots of Greek drama are in religious festivals for the gods. who is thought to have written roughly 90 plays. of his noble prowess the grove of Marathon can speak. chiefly Dionysus. This compares favorably with Sophocles' reported eighteen victories (with a substantially larger catalogue. Philocles (his sister's son).[16][23] A scholiast has noted that Philocles' Tereus was part of his Pandionis tetralogy. 28 Personal life Aeschylus married and had two sons. consisting of the three tragedies Agamemnon. and the winners of both competitions were chosen by a panel of judges.[25] Modern picture of the Theatre of Dionysus in Athens. followed with a competition of boys singing dithyrambs and culminated in a pair of dramatic competitions.[15] The festival opened with a procession.

and the aftermath of the war portrayed in Seven against Thebes (Eleusinians. Hypsipylê). It is. where his ghost appears to explain the cause of the defeat. Penelope and The Bone-gatherers. the Oresteia's satyr play Proteus treated the story of Menelaus' detour in Egypt on his way home from the Trojan War. A number of these trilogies treated myths surrounding the Trojan War. the life of Perseus (The Net-draggers. Aeschylus also seems to have written about Odysseus' return to Ithaca after the war (including his killing of his wife Penelope's suitors and its consequences) in a trilogy consisting of The Soul-raisers.[30] . specifically the Battle of Salamis. Xerxes appears at the end of the play.[1] The Persians focuses on the popular Greek theme of hubris by blaming Persia's loss on the pride of its king. collectively called the Achilleis. but there is evidence that Aeschylus often wrote such trilogies. Atossa then travels to the tomb of Darius. Argives (or Argive Women). the Persian capital. Based on the evidence provided by a catalogue of Aeschylean play titles. Other suggested trilogies touched on the myth of Jason and the Argonauts (Argô.Aeschylus 29 Trilogies One hallmark of Aeschylean dramaturgy appears to have been his tendency to write connected trilogies. Phorkides). For example. The Ransoming of Hector). he says. performed in 472 BC and based on experiences in Aeschylus's own life. One. Polydektês. and his death at the hands of Achilles (Memnon and The Weighing of Souls being two components of the trilogy). and the play closes to lamentations by Xerxes and the chorus. the mother of the Persian King Xerxes. The Phrygian Women. the birth and exploits of Dionysus (Semele. not realizing the cause of his defeat. [28] Surviving plays The Persians The earliest of his plays to survive is The Persians (Persai). Sons of the Seven). Another trilogy apparently recounts the entry of the Trojan ally Memnon into the war. Lemnian Women.[29] It opens with the arrival of a messenger in Susa. respectively (see below). Nereids and Phrygians (alternately. comprised the titles Myrmidons. Pentheus). an action which angered the gods. Scholars have moreover suggested several completely lost trilogies derived from known play titles. and The Suppliants and Prometheus Bound each being the first play in a Danaid trilogy and Prometheus trilogy. it is assumed that three other of his extant plays were components of connected trilogies: Seven against Thebes being the final play in an Oedipus trilogy.[29] It is unique among surviving Greek tragedies in that it describes a recent historical event. in which each play serves as a chapter in a continuous dramatic narrative. Bacchae. scholia. and play fragments recorded by later authors. her husband. The Award of the Arms.[27] The Oresteia is the only extant example of this type of connected trilogy. The comic satyr plays that follow his trilogies also drew upon stories derived from myths. and The Salaminian Women suggest a trilogy about the madness and subsequent suicide of the Greek hero Ajax. the result of Xerxes' hubris in building a bridge across the Hellespont. bearing news of the catastrophic Persian defeat at Salamis to Atossa.

and married off to unspecified Argive men. Lynceus reveals himself to Danaus. Danaus orders her imprisonment and. The sons agree to alternate in the throne of the city.Aeschylus 30 Seven against Thebes Seven against Thebes (Hepta epi Thebas).[31] The play tells the story of Eteocles and Polynices. possibly. and they are allowed within the walls of Argos despite Egyptian protests. During the course of the war. 3 confirmed a long-assumed (because of The Suppliants' cliffhanger ending) Danaid trilogy. and thus spared his life and helped him to escape.[29] It also marks the first known appearance in Aeschylus's work of a theme which would continue through his plays. Oedipus. Antigone declares her intention to defy this edict.[32] The play was the third in a connected Oedipus trilogy. The brothers kill each other in single combat. the Danaids. The Egyptians and The Danaids. He and Hypermnestra will establish a ruling dynasty in Argos. The satyr play following this trilogy was titled Amymone. The other forty-nine Danaids are absolved of their murderous crime.[36] In short order. loved her husband Lynceus. a distinctly democratic move on the part of the king.[34] The 1952 publication of Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 2256 fr. flee a forced marriage to their cousins in Egypt. and kills him (thus fulfilling the oracle). A plausible reconstruction of the trilogy's last two-thirds runs thus:[35] In The Egyptians. and Danaus rules Argos. which pays tribute to the democratic undercurrents running through Athens in advance of the establishment of a democratic government in 461. and the original ending of the play consisted of lamentations for the dead brothers. In the trilogy's climax and dénouement. he therefore orders the Danaids to murder their husbands on their wedding night. They turn to King Pelasgus of Argos for protection. the fifty daughters of Danaus. as a condition of which. founder of Argos. but after the first year Eteocles refuses to step down. He negotiates a peace settlement with Aegyptus. Danaus secretly informs his daughters of an oracle predicting that one of his sons-in-law would kill him. the Argive-Egyptian war threatened in the first play has transpired. In the play. King Pelasgus has been killed. his fifty daughters will marry the fifty sons of Aegyptus. The concluding satyr play was The Sphinx. The Danaids would open the day after the wedding.[33] The Suppliants Aeschylus continued his emphasis on the polis with The Suppliants in 463 BC (Hiketides). whose constituent plays are generally agreed to be The Suppliants. however. has the contrasting theme of the interference of the gods in human affairs. which was performed in 467 BC.[32] A new ending was added to the play some fifty years later: Antigone and Ismene mourn their dead brothers. and finally.[36] . His daughters agree. and Polynices wages war to claim his crown. a messenger enters announcing an edict prohibiting the burial of Polynices. Hypermnestra. but Pelasgus refuses until the people of Argos weigh in on the decision. her execution. the sons of the shamed King of Thebes. it is revealed that forty-nine of the Danaids killed their husbands as ordered. Angered by his daughter's disobedience. the first two plays were Laius and Oedipus. after one of the Danaids. The people decide that the Danaids deserve protection. that of the polis (the city) being a key development of human civilization.

largely on stylistic grounds. He makes his way to the temple of Apollo and begs him to drive the Furies away.[34] Prometheus Bound In addition to these six works. Orestes is then beset by the Furies. The god Hephaestus. with Hermes as a guide. Orestes enters the palace pretending to bear news of his own death. scholars have increasingly doubted this ascription. or Kindly Ones). including Athena deliver a tie vote. to pour libations on Agamemnon's tomb (with the assistance of libation bearers) in hope of making amends. and so bears some of the guilt for the murder. Proteus. and this leads her to order Electra. who will seek to avenge his father. after the judges. The Libation Bearers (Choephoroi).[29] The trilogy consists of Agamemnon. Cassandra enters the palace even though she knows she will be murdered by Clytemnestra. with theories ranging from the 480s BC to as late as the 410s. revealing that one of her descendants will free Prometheus. and the chorus of Oceanids all express sympathy for Prometheus' plight. patron of Athens. Orestes kills them both. Prometheus Bound. and extols the importance of reason in the development of laws. although the satyr play that originally followed it. a fellow victim of Zeus' cruelty.[12][37] The play consists mostly of static dialogue. The play closes with Zeus sending Prometheus into the abyss because Prometheus refuses to divulge the secret of a potential marriage that could be Zeus' downfall. and.[30] The Prometheus Bound appears to have been the first play in a trilogy called the Prometheia. In the second play. Its production date is also in dispute. Apollo had encouraged Orestes to kill Clytemnestra. knowing that she cannot avoid her fate.Aeschylus 31 The Oresteia The only complete (save a few missing lines in several spots) trilogy of Greek plays by any playwright still extant is the Oresteia (458 BC). The Furies are a more ancient race of the gods.[34] The Furies track him down. is lost except for some fragments. Prometheus meets Io. the Titan Oceanus. as in The Suppliants. Prometheus Unbound. Agamemnon Agamemnon describes Agamemnon's death at the hands of his wife Clytemnestra.[31] The Furies drive Orestes from Argos and into the wilderness. Athena announces that Orestes is acquitted. Apollo argues Orestes' case and. however. She renames the Furies The Eumenides (The Good-spirited. who avenge the murders of kin in Greek mythology.[31] The Eumenides The final play of The Oresteia addresses the question of Orestes' guilt.[31] The Libation Bearers The Libation Bearers continues the tale.[31] Together. steps in and declares that a trial is necessary. we . is attributed to Aeschylus by ancient authorities. and Apollo sends Orestes to the temple of Athena. Heracles frees Prometheus from his chains and kills the eagle that had been sent daily to eat Prometheus' perpetually regenerating liver. son of Agamemnon. and prophesies her future travels. Perhaps foreshadowing his eventual reconciliation with Prometheus. and they plan revenge upon Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. The ending of the play includes a prediction of the return of Orestes. as throughout the play the Titan Prometheus is bound to a rock as punishment from the Olympian Zeus for providing fire to humans. these plays tell the bloody story of the family of Agamemnon. Electra meets Orestes. and the goddess Athena. Since the late 19th century. a seventh tragedy. At the tomb. Clytemnestra's account of a nightmare in which she gives birth to a snake is recounted by the chorus. and when Clytemnestra calls in Aegisthus to share in the news. her daughter. opening with Orestes arrival at Agamemnon's tomb. King of Argos. who has returned from exile in Phocis. who was angry at his sacrifice of their daughter Iphigenia and his keeping of the Trojan prophetess Cassandra as a concubine. and The Eumenides. the ideals of a democratic Athens are praised.

Not wishing to be overthrown. A scale is brought on stage and Hector's body is placed in one scale and gold in the other." immoral. In the Republic. Hermes then brings in King Priam of Troy.[38] 32 Lost plays Only the titles and assorted fragments of Aeschylus's other plays have come down to us. or Hector's Ransom In this play. After reconciling with Prometheus. who wins over Achilles and ransoms his son's body in a spectacular coup de théâtre.[16] These are the remaining plays of Aeschylus which are known to us: • • • • • • • • • • • Alcmene Amymone The Archer-Women The Argivian Women The Argo. but he yields only to his friend and lover Patroclus. have been slain by Apollo and Artemis because Niobe had gloated that she had more children than their mother. Greek hero of the Trojan War. slew Hector. We have enough fragments of some plays (along with comments made by later authors and scholiasts) to produce rough synopses of their plots. Leto. 19. it appears that the Titan finally warns Zeus not to sleep with the sea nymph Thetis.[16] Phrygians. follows the Daughters of Nereus. the product of that union is Achilles. Achilles sits in silent indignation over his humiliation at Agamemnon's hands for most of the play. Achilles sits in silent mourning over Patroclus. Niobe sits in silent mourning on stage during most of the play. The bravery and death of Patroclus are reported in a messenger's speech. and 22 of the Iliad.[16] Nereids This play was based on books 18. which is followed by mourning. the sea god.Aeschylus learn that Zeus has released the other Titans whom he imprisoned at the conclusion of the Titanomachy.[16] Niobe The children of Niobe. after a brief discussion with Hermes. Prometheus the Fire-Bringer. Zeus probably inaugurates a festival in his honor at Athens. or The Rowers Atalanta Athamas Attendants of the Bridal Chamber Award of the Arms The Bacchae The Bassarae • • • • • • • • • • • The Cretan Women Cycnus The Danaids Daughters of Helios Daughters of Phorcys The Descendants (of the Seven) The Edonians The Egyptians The Escorts Glaucus of Pontus Glaucus of Potniae • • • • • • • • • • • Memnon The Men of Eleusis The Messengers The Myrmidons The Mysians Nemea The Net-Draggers The Nurses of Dionysus Oedipus Orethyia Palamedes • • • • • • • • • • • The Priestesses Prometheus the Fire-Bearer Prometheus the Fire-Kindler Prometheus Unbound Proteus Semele. for she is fated to give birth to a son greater than the father. Myrmidons This play was based on books 9 and 16 in Homer's Iliad. Envoys from the Greek army attempt to reconcile him to Agamemnon. lament Patroclus' death. Zeus marries Thetis off to the mortal Peleus.[38] In the trilogy's conclusion. In this play a messenger tells how Achilles. The dynamic dancing of the chorus of Trojans when they enter with Priam is reported by Aristophanes. Plato quotes the line "God plants a fault in mortals when he wills to destroy a house utterly. or The Water-Bearers Sisyphus the Runaway Sisyphus the Stone-Roller The Spectators. or Athletes of the Isthmian Games The Sphinx The Spirit-Raisers . who then battles the Trojans in Achilles' armour. perhaps reconciled to Agamemnon and the Greeks. the heroine.

and having his actors wear platform boots (cothurni) to make them more visible to the audience. produced some half-century after Aeschylus's death. and the plays have a remoteness from daily life in Athens. that his plays inspired the Athenians to be brave and virtuous. According to a later account of Aeschylus's life. A critic of his book however. has described his arguments as unreasonable and . as they walked on stage in the first performance of the Eumenides. and pregnant women to go into labour. no violence is performed on stage.[42] Aeschylus's popularity is evident in the praise the comic playwright Aristophanes gives him in The Frogs. Michael Ewans argues in his Wagner and Aeschylus. either by relating stories about the gods or by being set. while not denying that Wagner read and respected Aeschylus. divine law.[26] He is sometimes credited with introducing skenographia. Aeschylus is also said to have made the costumes more elaborate and dramatic. allowing for greater dramatic variety. Aeschylus claims at lines 1026–7 that he "taught the Athenians to desire always to defeat their enemies.[26] Aeschylus added a second actor. The Oresteia His plays were written in verse. The Ring and the Oresteia (London: Faber.[39] though Aristotle gives this distinction to Sophocles. with his Persians. Hugh Lloyd-Jones (Regius Professor of Greek Emeritus at Oxford University) draws attention to Wagner's reverence of Aeschylus. patriarchs to urinate. although earlier playwrights like Thespis had already expanded the cast to include an actor who was able to interact with the chorus. the theatre had only just begun to evolve. and divine punishment. or scene-decoration. while the chorus played a less important role.Aeschylus • • • • • • • The Bone-Gatherers The Cabeiroi Callisto The Carians. Appearing as a character in the play. 1982) that the influence was so great as to merit a direct character by character comparison between Wagner's Ring and Aeschylus's Oresteia. the chorus of Furies were so frightening in appearance that they caused young children to faint. like The Persians. in far-away locales. main character in Aeschylus's only surviving trilogy. or Europa Cercyon Children of Hercules Circe • • • • • • • Hypsipyle Iphigenia Ixion Laius The Lemnian Women The Lion Lycurgus • • • • • • • Penelope Pentheus Perrhaibides Philoctetes Phineus Polydectes • • • • • • Telephus The Thracian Women Weighing of Souls Women of Aetna (two versions) Women of Salamis Xantriae The Youths 33 The Phrygian Women • Influence Influence on Greek drama and culture When Aeschylus first began writing. Influence outside of Greek culture Aeschylus's works were influential beyond his own time. Aeschylus claims at line 1022 that his Seven against Thebes "made everyone watching it to love being warlike".[41] Aeschylus's work has a strong moral and religious emphasis.[40] Mosaic of Orestes." Aeschylus goes on to say at lines 1039ff.[41] The Oresteia trilogy concentrated on man's position in the cosmos in relation to the gods.

Let us dedicate ourselves to what the Greeks wrote so many years ago: to tame the savageness of man and make gentle the life of this world. Phrynichus and Pratinas. Aeschylus. Aeschylean Tragedy. until in our own despair. against our will. 34 [18] Martin 2000.[45] Acknowledging the audience's emotions. but that might simply reflect an absence of records. pages 272-74) [6] P. Cf. but love and wisdom. page 273 The remnant of a commemorative inscription.K. 33 [13] Bates 1906. along with Sophocles. Indiana and was warned not to attend the event due to fears of rioting from the mostly African-American crowd.A. p. Saïd.1 [19] Nicomachean Ethics 1111a8-10. 4 Martin Cropp. He also claims that their influence went beyond just drama and applies to literature in general. p. have played a major part in the formation of dramatic literature from the Renaissance to the present. Kennedy insisted on attending and delivered an impromptu speech that delivered news of King's death to the crowd. ignores this story when giving a biographical sketch of the poet. credited to Aeschylus by Aristotle and the anonymous source The Life of Aeschylus. A Companion to Greek Tragedy. Traditionally Thespis was regarded as the inventor of tragedy. D. p. Saïd. Epigramma sepulcrale.) Lefkowitz 1981. Penguin. 227 [12] Sommerstein 1996. Aeschylus I: Oresteia. (1998). (2000). J. K. Kennedy quoted the Edith Hamilton translation of Aeschylus on the night of the assassination of Martin Luther King." The quotation from Aeschylus was later inscribed on a memorial at the gravesite of Robert Kennedy following his own assassination. §10. 1 [24] March. [23] Smith 2005. Major innovations in dramatic form. probably including Choerilus. 221 [9] R.' What we need in the United States is not division. R.. Sommerstein 2002. and compassion toward one another. Kennedy was notified of King's murder before a campaign stop in Indianapolis. [20] See (e. what we need in the United States is not violence or lawlessness. . may be exaggerations and should be viewed with caution (Martin Cropp. 243 Schlegel. Aeschylean Tragedy. In Rutter. According to another tradition. org/ etext/ 7148). 222 [27] Sommerstein 1996 . 121. Greek Drama. said: "My favorite poet was Aeschylus.[43] Sir J. 290. Kennedy and. 159 [7] S. 161 [11] S. University of Edinburgh. gutenberg. 67ff. comes wisdom through the awful grace of God. Jr. Aeschylean Tragedy. specifically in French and Elizabethan drama. 3. and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country. pp. B. possibly eight dramatic poets who won tragic victories at the Dionysia before Aeschylus. 241 [16] Kopff 1997 pp. 53–59 [14] S. 217 [15] Freeman 1999. 'Lost Tragedies: A Survey'. & Burges. 121–123. citing Milton and the Romantics. [25] Freeman 1999. 33.1-472 [17] Sommerstein 1996. vol. p. Sheppard argues in the second half of his Aeschylus and Sophocles: Their Work and Influence that Aeschylus. 242 [26] Pomeroy 1999. p.. Eschylean tragedy. [22] Osborn. Levi.[45] 34 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Freeman 1999. He once wrote: 'Even in our sleep. President John F. dated to the 3rd century BC. Lost Tragedies: A Survey. [21] Anthologiae Graecae Appendix. N. Winnington-Ingram. Lattimore. ISBN 978-0-02-862385-6.. P. p. Levi. whether they be white or they be black. 17. Senator Robert F. lists four. pain which cannot forget falls drop by drop upon the heart.g. Kennedy referred to his own grief at the murder of his brother. Saïd. Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-7486-1405-9. 215 [8] S. & Sparkes. p. quoting a passage from the play Agamemnon. Word and Image in Ancient Greece.Aeschylus forced. p. T. August Wilhelm von.[44] During his presidential campaign in 1968. "Vases and Tragic Drama". The complete idiot's guide to classical mythology. p. Saïd. pp. Greek Drama. 295 [10] P. what we need in the United States is not hatred. tragedy was established in Athens in the late 530s BC. A Companion to Greek Tragedy.

"Prometheus Bound. London: Historical Publishing Company. 239–240. see (e. Vol. Charles (1999). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 23. • Herington. References • Bates. Liapis. Oresteia: Agamemnon. 2009). Aeschylus. [45] Virginia . • Herington. New Haven.). Journal of Hellenic Studies 87: 74–85. Mark (1983). 2006).).7-19.g. (1927). (1986). Dionysalexandros: Essays on Aeschylus and His Fellow Tragedians in Honour of Alexander F. Die Orestie des Aischylos auf der modernen Bühne: Theoretische Konzeptionen und ihre szenische Realizierung (Stuttgart. • Goldhill. Literature. p. Garvie (Swansea. 141-51. 100-2. Turner 2001. p. 244 [30] Vellacott: 7–19 [31] Freeman 1999./London: Loeb Classical Library. "Aeschylus in Sicily". The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World. JSTOR 625177. pp. Vérité des mythes (Paris. Seven Against Thebes. New York: Viking Press. Volume II. 224–225 [43] Furness. Simon (1992). Mass. T. pp. . The first translation of the seven plays into English was by Robert Potter in 1779. ISBN 0-300-03562-4. The Suppliants. Mass. The Classical Press of Wales. pp.J. • Cropp. Vol. 146 (Cambridge. 89. B. Metzler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Raymond (January 1984). Fragments. 32–34 [38] For a discussion of the trilogy's reconstruction. 505 (Cambridge. 2009) (Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta. Journal of Hellenic Studies (The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies) 47 (2): 265. D. C. 36-39. Volume III. Penguin Classics. Aeschylus. • Alan H. The Oresteia. 2010). West. [44] Sheppard.) Conacher 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. a convention adopted by most translators for the next century.. Eumenides. Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta. CT: Yale University Press. C." Philip Vellacott's Introduction.J.g.. A Companion to Greek Tragedy. • Griffith. p.2307/625177. using blank verse for the iambic trimeters and rhymed verse for the choruses. [41] Pomeroy 1999. 246 [35] See (e. Aeschylus. 1. ISBN 0-521-27011-1. Une vie avec Eschyle. Aeschyli Tragoediae: cum incerti poetae Prometheo 2 ed. Blackwell Publishing. Martin (2006). [29] Freeman 1999. doi:10. III: Aeschylus (Göttingen. V. • Cairns. • Freeman. 79. [37] Griffith 1983. doi:10. ISBN 0-521-40293-X. (1998). See Summers 2007. com/ photos/ wallyg/ 3645184605/ ) 35 Citations Editions • Martin L. 244–246 [32] Aeschylus. • Stefan Radt (Hg. Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound. Libation-bearers. [34] Freeman 1999. 3).Arlington National Cemetery: Robert F. and Influence on Civilization. "Aeschylus and Sophocles: their Work and Influence". [36] Sommerstein 2002. 2008). [33] Sommerstein 2002.Aeschylus [28] Sommerstein 2002. JSTOR 3730399. 1997). The Drama: Its History. J. The Modern Language Review. • * Deforge. [39] According to Vitruvius. A. Les Belles Lettres. pp. 223 [42] Pomeroy 1999. The Persians. Alfred (1906). ISBN 0-670-88515-0. Sommerstein (ed. "Lost Tragedies: A Survey". (1967). 23. pp./London: Loeb Classical Library. • Bierl.2307/627808. 34.) Sommerstein 1996. Kennedy Gravesite (http:/ / www. [40] Life of Aeschylus. flickr.

ISBN 0-415-26027-2 Spatz. "Aeschylean Tragedy". ISBN 978-0-7156-3824-8.com/people/Aeschylu.Aeschylus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kopff. A History of Greek Literature. harvard.edu/catalog.hup. Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. Prometheus Bound and Other Plays: Prometheus Bound. Thomas G.tufts. Harvard University Press (http://www. edu/catalog. Blackwell Publishing.harvard. Chad (2001). London: Lawrence and Wishart (4th edition) Turner. Podlecki. Sommerstein. A Companion to Greek Tragedy. ISBN 978-0-313-33268-5. • "Aeschylus. Saïd. Alan H. London: Duckworth. David (2007).edu/catalog. 0004:id=aeschylus-4). R. University of North Carolina Press. Ancient Greece: A Political. The Art of Aeschylus. (1985). The Political Background of Aeschylean Tragedy. Reflection.php?recid=27808) • "Aeschylus. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Berkeley: University of California Press. Aeschylus I: Oresteia.: Lexington Books.. Oxford University Press. London: Routledge Press. London: Benn. Suzanne (2006). Md.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. (Greek studies: interdisciplinary approaches).perseus. The Oxford History of the Classical World. ISBN 0-520-04440-1.perseus. Levi. Summers. 1982). Harvard University Press (http://www. Rosenmeyer. (1982). F. Vellacott. Anthony J.org/the_great_poets/the_classics/aeschylus/) • Aeschylus-related materials at the Perseus Digital Library (http://www. ISBN 0-19-509743-2. Gale. "Greek Drama". Cambridge. Helaine (2005). 2009. University of North Carolina Press. Pomeroy. "Aeschylus (4)" (http://www. ISBN 978-0-8103-9939-6.csad. —(2002). Herbert Weir (1922). Cambridge University Press. (1999).org/author/Aeschylus) at Project Gutenberg • Online English Translations of Aeschylus (http://www. Classical Journal 97 (1): 27–50.ac. Aeschylean Tragedy (2nd ed. Sarah B. E. Lesky. III: Fragments" from the Loeb Classical Library. Yale University Press. New York: Crowell.hup. Albin (1966). (2010). Murray. Lois (1982). Mary (1981). The Lives of the Greek Poets. University of Chicago Press.04. Smyth. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature. and Cultural History.tufts. harvard. "Aeschylus".).php?recid=27807) • "Aeschylus.bartleby. "Perverted Supplication and Other Inversions in Aeschylus' Danaid Trilogy". Seven Against Thebes. Smith. Thomson. Peter (1986). Vision. Lefkowitz. Masterpieces of Classic Greek Drama. Aeschylus: The Creator of Tragedy. Richard (1953). MA: Harvard University Press.hup. Harvard University Press (http://www. Christian (1997). Aeschylus.html) • Photo of a fragment of The Net-pullers (http://www. George (1973) Aeschylus and Athens: A Study in the Social Origin of Drama.htm) • Crane. New York: Oxford University Press. Martin. Lesky. Boston: Twayne Publishers Press. New York:Penguin Classics. and The Persians. ISBN 0-14-044112-3 Winnington-Ingram.ox. (1966). Social. JSTOR 3298432.php?recid=29387) . Greek Drama and Dramatists. (1961). and Desire in Western Painting.gutenberg. Perseus Encyclopedia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Lattimore. Gilbert (1978).uk/POxy/VExhibition/2161. I. Aeschylus. Ancient Greek Authors. P. Zeitlin. Thomas (2000). 2nd ed. Greenwood. 36 External links • Selected Poems of Aeschylus (http://www.poetseers. Albin (1979). ISBN 0-8057-6522-0.edu/cgi-bin/ perscoll?collection=Perseus:collection:Greco-Roman) • Works by Aeschylus (http://www. Philip. Greek Tragedy. Under the sign of the shield: semiotics and Aeschylus' Seven against Thebes (Lanham. I: Persians" from the Loeb Classical Library. Gregory. II: The Oresteia" from the Loeb Classical Library.

Although his existence remains uncertain and (if they ever existed) no writings by him survive. Scattered details of Aesop's life can be found in ancient sources. Older spellings of his name have included Esop(e) and Isope. Many of the tales are characterized by animals and inanimate objects that speak. Art Collection of Villa Albani. Ancient Greek: Αἴσωπος. Aisōpos. Depictions of Aesop in popular culture over the last 2500 years have included several works of art and his appearance as a character in numerous books. and television programs. Herodotus. and generally have human characteristics. solve problems. including Aristotle. including the traditional description of him as a strikingly ugly slave (δοῦλος) who by his cleverness acquires freedom and becomes an adviser to kings and city-states. Hellenistic statue claimed to depict Aesop. films. An ancient literary work called The Aesop Romance tells an episodic. 620–564 BC) was a fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables. plays. and Plutarch.Aesop 37 Aesop Aesop (pronounced English pronunciation: /ˈiːsɒp/ EE-sop. probably highly fictional version of his life. c. numerous tales credited to him were gathered across the centuries and in many languages in a storytelling tradition that continues to this day. Rome . A later tradition (dating from the Middle Ages) depicts Aesop as a black Ethiopian.

. and that he met his end in the city of Delphi. a work that belonged to no one. Like The Alexander Romance. because he argued as an advocate for a wealthy Samian. during the reign of Peisistratos. The Aesop Romance became a folkbook. and Samos seems to be its home."[4] From Aristotle[5] and Herodotus[6] we learn that Aesop was a slave in Samos and that his masters were first a man named Xanthus and then a man named Iadmon. but the story "probably circulated in different versions for centuries before it was committed to writing". say that he was born in Phrygia. and was thrown from a cliff (after which the Delphians suffered pestilence and famine). which occurred decades after the presumed date of Aesop's death. Aesop met with Periander of Corinth.[9] but subsequent research has established that a possible diplomatic mission for Croesus and a visit to Periander "are consistent with the year of Aesop's death. a number of later writers from the Roman imperial period (including Phaedrus. and the occasional writer felt free to modify as it might suit him. that he must eventually have been freed. —Martin Litchfield West[1] The earliest Greek sources.[8] Problems of chronological reconciliation dating the death of Aesop and the reign of Croesus led the Aesop scholar (and compiler of the Perry Index) Ben Edwin Perry in 1965 to conclude that "everything in the ancient testimony about Aesop that pertains to his associations with either Croesus or with any of the so-called Seven Wise Men of Greece must be reckoned as literary fiction. where Plutarch has him dining with the Seven Sages of Greece.."[12] Multiple. versions of this work exist."[14] Scholars long dismissed any historical or biographical validity in The Aesop Romance." and Perry likewise dismissed Aesop's death in Delphi as legendary."[10] Still problematic is the story by Phaedrus which has Aesop in Athens. was sentenced to death on a trumped-up charge of temple theft. The earliest known version "was probably composed in the 1st century AD". Plutarch[7] tells us that Aesop had come to Delphi on a diplomatic mission from King Croesus of Lydia..[13] "certain elements can be shown to originate in the 4th century BC. widespread study of the work began only toward the end . sometimes contradictory. there is a highly fictional biography now commonly called The Aesop Romance (also known as the Vita or The Life of Aesop or The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and Aesop His Slave). 1489) depicts a hunchbacked Aesop surrounded by events from the stories in Planudes' version of his life The Aesop Romance Along with the scattered references in the ancient sources regarding the life and death of Aesop. before this fatal episode. "an anonymous work of Greek popular literature composed around the second century of our era .. whom he had met in Sardis. including Aristotle.[2] The 3rd-century poet Callimachus called him "Aesop of Sardis. that he insulted the Delphians. telling the fable of the frogs who asked for a king.Aesop 38 Life The name of Aesop is as widely known as any that has come down from Graeco-Roman antiquity [yet] it is far from certain whether a historical Aesop ever existed ."[3] and the later writer Maximus of Tyre called him "the sage of Lydia. (Leslie Kurke suggests that Aesop himself "was a popular contender for inclusion" in the list of Seven Sages). indicate that Aesop was born around 620 BC in Thrace at a site on the Black Sea coast which would later become the city Mesembria. sitting beside his friend Solon.[11] A woodcut from La vida del Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas (Spain. who adapted the fables into Latin). in the latter part of the fifth century [BC] something like a coherent Aesop legend appears.

which has been lost.[16] but no writings by Aesop have survived. a freedman of Augustus. Later he travels to the courts of Lycurgus of Babylon and Nectanabo of Egypt – both imaginary rulers – in a section that appears to borrow heavily from the romance of Ahiqar. potbellied. who says that Aesop "was laughed at and made fun . is granted by the goddess not only speech but a gift for clever storytelling.[18] Socrates while in prison turned some of the fables into verse. short-armed. with the addition of material from other cultures. squint-eyed. now lost. probably in prose (Αισοπείων α) for the use of orators. Aesop is a slave of Phrygian origin on the island of Samos. but the author's Aesop as depicted by Francis Barlow in the 1687 edition of Aesop's Fables with His Life. name is unknown. In The Aesop Romance. which he uses alternately to assist and confound his master. cited by the Suda. Herodotus calls Aesop a "writer of fables" and Aristophanes speaks of "reading" Aesop."[25] or as another translation has it. but after showing kindness to a priestess of Isis. The Aesop Romance claims that he wrote them down and deposited them in the library of Croesus. snub-nosed."[17] Sophocles in a poem addressed to Euripides made reference to Aesop's fable of the North Wind and the Sun. "a faulty creation of Prometheus when half-asleep. Scholars speculate that "there probably existed in the fifth century [BC] a written book containing various fables of Aesop. swarthy. At first he lacks the power of speech."[26] The earliest text by a known author that refers to Aesop's appearance is Himerius in the 4th century. is sentenced to death and. Phaedrus. after cursing the people of Delphi. bandy-legged. liver-lipped—a portentous monstrosity. Aesop is given his freedom and acts as an emissary between the Samians and King Croesus.[19] of which Diogenes Laertius records a small fragment. misshapen of head. embarrassing the philosopher in front of his students and even sleeping with his wife. saying he was "of loathsome aspect. Demetrius of Phalerum made a collection in ten books.[20] The early Roman playwright and poet Ennius also rendered at least one of Aesop's fables in Latin verse.Aesop of the 20th century.[21] The body of work identified as Aesop's Fables was transmitted by a series of authors writing in both Greek and Latin. A 3rd-century author. With a surge in scholarly interest beginning toward the end of the 20th century. perhaps the 4th century) translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. 39 Fabulist Aesop may or may not have written his fables. is forced to jump to his death. rendered the fables into Latin in the 1st century AD. where he angers the citizens by telling insulting fables. dwarfish.[15] The story ends with Aesop's journey to Delphi. After interpreting a portent for the people of Samos. some attempt has been made to determine the nature and content of the very earliest fables which may be most closely linked to the historic Aesop. The 4th-century grammarian Dositheus Magister also made a collection of Aesop's Fables.[24] Physical appearance and the question of African origin The anonymously authored Aesop Romance (usually dated to the 1st or 2nd century AD) begins with a vivid description of Aesop's appearance. of which the last two lines still exist.[23] Avianus (of uncertain date.. and extremely ugly. Xanthus. At about the same time Babrius turned the fables into Greek choliambics. Aesop's Fables continued to be revised and translated through the ensuing centuries. Titianus is said to have rendered the fables into prose in a work now lost.[22] Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse.. set in a biographical framework. so that the body of fables known today bears little relation to those Aesop originally told.

assuming that he was neglected by his former master. not because of some of his tales but on account of his looks and the sound of his voice. although updating it and making the Ethiopian 'a black footman'.. founder of Delphi. the more general view.'"[33] The tradition of Aesop's African origin was carried forward into the 19th century... etymologically incorrect. presumably to commemorate (and atone for) his execution at Delphi.[28] A much later tradition depicts Aesop as a black African from Ethiopia. Scholars have begun to examine why and how this "physiognomic tradition" developed. But nowhere in the fable is it suggested that this constitutes a personal reference.[38] The idea that Aesop was Ethiopian has been further encouraged by the presence of camels. "Planudes' derivation of 'Aesop' from 'Aethiopian' is.[36] but Theodor Panofka supposed the head to be a portrait of Delphos.[29] The presence of such slaves in Greek-speaking areas is suggested by the fable "Washing the Ethiopian white" that is ascribed to Aesop himself. numerous illustrations by Francis Barlow accompany this text and depict Aesop [31] But according to Gert-Jan van Dijk. and the fables featuring African animals may have entered the body of Aesopic fables long after Aesop actually lived. in 1932 the anthropologist J. The first known promulgator of the idea was Planudes. while "some say he [Aesop] was a Phrygian. which is essentially fiction. since Himerius lived some 800 years after Aesop and his image of Aesop may have come from The Aesop Romance. elephants.Aesop of.H. from which dark Tincture he ancient Delphi thought by one contracted his Name (Aesopus being the same with Aethiops)".[37] a view more widely repeated by later historians. given his name. repeating the Aesop/Aethiop linkage."[27] The evidence from both of these sources is dubious.[41] 40 . "I am a Negro". but whether based on fact or not.[39] Nevertheless.[30] An English translation of Planudes' biography from Example of a coin image from 1687 says that "his Complexion [was] black. Lobban cited the number of African animals and "artifacts" in the Aesopic fables as "circumstantial evidence" that Aesop may have been a Nubian folkteller. Driberg.. In 1856 William Martin Leake repeated the false etymological linkage of "Aesop" with "Aethiop" when he suggested that the "head of a negro" found on several coins from ancient Delphi (with specimens dated as early as 520 BC)[35] might depict Aesop.[34] The collection includes the fable of "Washing the Blackamoor white".. is that he was an African". and "if Aesop was not an African. origin by a prospective new master. at some point the idea of an ugly."[40] and in 2002 Richard A. even deformed Aesop took hold in popular imagination.. he ought to have been."[32] and Frank Snowden says that Planudes' account is "worthless as to the reliability of Aesop as 'Ethiopian. asserted that. This concerns a man who buys a black slave and. The frontispiece of William Godwin's Fables Ancient and Modern (1805) has a copperplate illustration of Aesop relating his stories to little children that gives his features a distinctly African appearance. accordingly. a Byzantine scholar of the 13th century who wrote a biography of Aesop based on The Aesop Romance and conjectured that Aesop might have been Ethiopian. Aesop replies. and apes in the fables. When asked his antiquarian to represent Aesop. even though these African elements are more likely to have come from Egypt and Libya than from Ethiopia. tries very hard to wash the blackness away.

composed of the actors in his fables. In this mixture of live action and animation. and dressed in the short Greek tunic. Even when Europeans were expelled from Japan and Christianity proscribed. two black children wander into an enchanted grove. this text survived."[47] One might compare with this Brian Seward's Aesop's Fabulous Fables[48] (2009). honoured because of Aesop. methinks. In it Chinese theatrical routines are merged with those of a standard musical. one by Aristodemus and another by Lysippus. Based on a script by British playwright Peter Terson (1983).[49] Aesop shown in Japanese dress in a 1659 edition There had already been an example of Asian acculturation in 17th-century Japan.[45] 41 of the fables from Kyoto it was radically adapted by the director Mark Dornford-May as a musical using native African instrumentation. at any rate his smile and his eyes fixed on the ground indicate this.[50] Depictions Art and literature Ancient sources mention two statues of Aesop. dance and stage conventions. For it combines animals with men to make a chorus about Aesop. The painter knows that for the composition of fables relaxation of the spirit is needed. is weaving some fable. and the Life [of Aesop] as a how-to handbook for the successful manipulation of superiors. being fond of him because he devotes himself to them. where Aesop tells them fables that differentiate between realistic and unrealistic ambition. For.. joined by the animal characters of his parable-like fables. According to Philostratus The Fables are gathering about Aesop. This was then taken up by Japanese printers and taken through several editions under the title Isopo Monogatari. There Portuguese missionaries had introduced a translation of the fables (Esopo no Fabulas.[53] . we are told "learns that liberty comes with responsibility as he journeys to his own freedom. which first played in Singapore with a cast of mixed ethnicities. gather at the doors of the wise man to bind fillets about his head and to crown him with a victor’s crown of wild olive. This is evident in Isango Portobello's 2010 production of the play Aesop's Fables at the Fugard Theatre in Cape Town. told by African-American slaves. And Aesop. The former slave. 1593) that included the biography of Aesop."[42] This is reinforced by the 1971 TV production Aesop's Fables[43] in which Bill Cosby played Aesop.[46] Although Aesop is portrayed as Greek.[44] On other continents Aesop has occasionally undergone a degree of acculturation. the all-black production contextualises the story in the recent history of South Africa. And the painting is clever in representing the persons of the Fables. and not even the tortoise is dumb – that through them children may learn the business of life. South Africa. and the fox is painted as leader of the chorus.. he checks greed and rebukes insolence and deceit.[52] None of these images have survived.[51] and Philostratus describes a painting of Aesop surrounded by the animals of his fables. and in all this some animal is his mouthpiece – a lion or a fox or a horse. in part because the figure of Aesop had been assimilated into the culture and depicted in woodcuts as dressed in Japanese costume. His version there of the Tortoise and the Hare illustrates how to take advantage of an opponent's over-confidence..Aesop Popular perception of Aesop as black may have been further encouraged by a perceived similarity between fables of the trickster Br'er Rabbit.. So the Fables. and the traditional role of the slave Aesop as "a kind of culture hero of the oppressed.

plays have shown Aesop as a slave.596. beginning in the 20th century. he is ugly.[60] Aesop began to appear equally early in literary works.[66] The fabulist then makes a cameo appearance in the novel A True Story by the 2nd-century satirist Lucian.[63] The 3rd-century-BC poet Poseidippus of Pella wrote a narrative poem entitled "Aesopia" (now lost). the representation of Aesop as an ugly slave emerged. but not ugly. Baudoin's Fables d’Ésope Phrygien (1631) and Matthieu Guillemot's Les images ou tableaux de platte peinture des deux Philostrates (1637). although alternative identifications have since been put forward.450 BC."[59] Some archaeologists have suggested that the Hellenistic statue of a bearded hunchback with an intellectual appearance. c.[58] Paul Zanker describes the figure as a man with "emaciated body and oversized head. too.. he acts [67] as their jester.[64] Pliny would later identify Rhodopis as Aesop's lover.[54] In England there was Francis Cleyn's frontispiece to John Ogilby's The Fables of Aesop[55] and the much later frontispiece to Godwin's Fables Ancient and Modern mentioned above in which the swarthy fabulist points out three of his characters to the children seated about him. who "listens carefully to the teachings of the fox sitting before him.[65] a romantic motif that would be repeated in subsequent popular depictions of Aesop. bald head. In 1843. also depicts Aesop. "I am a Negro". Aesop plays a fairly prominent part in Plutarch's conversation piece "The Banquet of the Seven Sages" in the 1st century AD and is there identified as the teller of amusing but moralistic fables. as if he were shivering. in the Vatican Museums. he finds that "Aesop the Phrygian was there. The 1687 edition of Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English.. various illustrators tried to recreate this scene. The 4th-century-BC Athenian playwright Alexis put Aesop on the stage in his comedy "Aesop". which also Portrait of Aesop by Velázquez in the Prado.Aesop With the advent of printing in Europe. discovered in the 18th century and pictured at the head of this article. and unkempt. in which Aesop's fellow slave Rhodopis (under her original name Doricha) was frequently mentioned. Early on. 7). The later tradition which makes Aesop a black African resulted in depictions ranging from 17th-century engravings to a television portrayal by a black comedian. furrowed brow and open mouth". In France there was I. when the narrator arrives at the Island of the Blessed.[62] Leslie Kurke suggests that Aesop may have been "a staple of the comic stage" of this era. and is clearly uncaring of his appearance. [57] 42 . with long hair. incorporated Planudes' Life of Aesop.." Beginning with the Heinrich Steinhowel edition of 1476.[61] conversing with Solon. and his facial features appear to accord with his statement in the text (p. according to Athenaeus 13. French and Latin[68] included 28 engravings by Francis Barlow which show him as a dwarfish hunchback (see in the section above).432). One of the earliest was in Spain's La vida del Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas (1489. featured illustrations depicting him as a hunchback. while movies and television shows (such as The Bullwinkle Show[56]) have depicted him as neither ugly nor a slave. He has pulled his mantle tightly around his meager body. many translations of the fables into European languages. the archaeologist Otto Jahn suggested that Aesop was the person depicted on a Greek red-figure cup. see above). Aesop praises the Athenian practice of adding water to wine.. In general. scraggly beard. of which a few lines survive (Athenaeus 10.

and while Rhodope's hand is held palm upwards. displays no physical deformities. and the statement in Pliny 36. poet of the fables" is in the El Escorial gallery and pictures him as an author leaning on a staff by a table which holds copies of his work. while arguably not handsome. published two fictional dialogues between Aesop and Rhodope. the play introduced Rodope as Aesop's mistress. gesture with opposite hands. one ugly and the The beautiful Rhodope. a satirical philosopher equally of slave-origin. who is seated under a tree and turns his head to look at her. Walter Savage Landor. Sir John Vanbrugh's comedy "Aesop""[75] premiered at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. who wrote Imaginary Conversations.Aesop The Spaniard Diego Velázquez painted a portrait of Aesop.[71] While the former hints at his lameness and deformed back. Aesop's is held palm downwards. Some editions of the volume were illustrated with an engraving by Francesco Bartolozzi of a work by the painter Angelica Kauffmann. There is some ambiguity here.17[74] that she was Aesop's concubine as well. The story casts the two slaves Rhodope and Aesop as unlikely lovers. ultimately Rhodope is parted from Aesop and marries the Pharaoh of Egypt.134-5[73] that Aesop had once been owned by the same master as Rhodopis.[70] The other is in the Museo de Prado. the whole picture is planned to suggest how different the couple are. and using his fables to solve romantic problems and quiet political unrest. in 1697 and was frequently performed there for the next twenty years. a romantic motif that would be repeated in later popular depictions of Aesop. the latter only emphasises his poverty. he is dressed in dark clothes. London. dated 1640-50 and titled "Aesop in beggar’s rags". 1782. she in white. Esope à la cour[72] (Aesop at Court). The presentation is anachronistic and Aesop. was first performed in 1701. It was partnered by another portrait of Menippus. She stands while he sits.[76] In 1780. There he is also shown at a table. dated 1639-40 and now in the collection of the Museo del Prado. In 1690. in love with Aesop. Vanbrugh's play depicted a physically ugly Aesop acting as adviser to Learchus. one of them a book with the name Hissopo on the cover. she holds out her hand to Aesop. drawing on a mention in Herodotus 2. French playwright Edmé Boursault's Les fables d'Esope (later known as Esope à la ville) premiered in Paris. the anonymously authored novelette The History and Amours of Rhodope was published in London. In 1844.[78] 43 . engraving by Bartolozzi. holding a sheet of paper in his left hand and writing with the other.[77] In fact. His right arm rests on a cage of doves. Titled "The beautiful Rhodope in love with Aesop". "Aesop. Rhodope and Aesop lean on opposite elbows. A similar philosophers series was painted by fellow Spaniard Jusepe de Ribera. for while the cage suggests the captive state of both of them.[69] who is credited with two portraits of Aesop. governor of Cyzicus under King Croesus. A translation and adaptation of Boursault's Les fables d'Esope. towards which he gestures. it pictures Rhodope leaning on an urn. a raven perched outside the cage may allude to his supposed colour. A sequel. after Kauffman's original other beautiful.

[6] Herodotus. pp. [9] Ben Edwin Perry. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] . "A raposa e as uvas" ("The Fox and the Grapes"). would recount a fable for the edification of his son. the movie Night in Paradise[79] (1946) cast Turhan Bey in the role. Epistles 12 (http:/ / www. p. 93. [20] Diogenes Laertius. a Persian princess played by Merle Oberon.Aesop 44 Popular culture Abandoning the perennial image of Aesop as an ugly slave. edu/ 2004/ 2004-09-39. South Africa with Mhlekahi Mosiea in the role of Aesop. 133. Ben E. org/ old/ athenaeus13d. the play was staged at the Fugard Theatre in Cape Town. depicting Aesop as an advisor to King Croesus who falls in love with the king's intended bride. 0060:book=2:chapter=20& highlight=aesop). org/ stream/ ausonius02auso#page/ 32/ mode/ 2up). edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Lives/ Solon*. who would then deliver the moral in the form of an atrocious pun. Oration 36.42 (http:/ / classicpersuasion.134 (http:/ / www. 113. p. The Bullwinkle Show. 1962. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. [14] François Lissarrague. "Aesop. Aesop (voiced by Charles Ruggles).[45] In 2010. [8] Kurke 2010. Introduction to Babrius and Phaedrus. [10] BNP 1:256. Hägg. Histories 2. Aesop's 1998 appearance in the episode "Hercules and the Kids"[83] in the animated TV series Hercules[84] (voiced by Robert Keeshan) amounted to little more than a cameo. uchicago. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Gellius/ 2*. p. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers 2. ed. html). p.[81] Beginning in 1959.82 (http:/ / www. [13] Leslie Kurke. [7] Plutarch. pp. ed. org/ pw/ diogenes/ dlsocrates. including a videotaped production in China in 2000 under the title Hu li yu pu tao or 狐 狸 与 葡 萄 . Vol. Conflict. Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World (hereafter BNP) 1:256.." [21] Aulus Gellius. Life of Solon (http:/ / penelope. where the drama "The Death of Aesop. 47. htm): "He also composed a fable. Occasions on which Aesop is portrayed as black include Richard Durham's[85] "Destination Freedom" radio show broadcast (1949). Collaboration. review of Vita Aesopi: Ueberlieferung. html). Banquet of the Seven Sages.[56] The image of Aesop as ugly slave was abandoned. Attic Nights 2. p. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke. Bill Cosby played Aesop in the TV production Aesop's Fables.39 (http:/ / bmcr. in Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art. broadcast on Hallmark Hall of Fame with Lamont Johnson playing Aesop. uchicago. pp. also West. Between Man and Beast: Ancient Portraits and Illustrations". 01. Sprach und Edition einer fruehbyzantinischen Fassung des Aesopromans by Grammatiki A. in the style of Aesop. attalus. in The Cultures Within Ancient Greek Culture: Contact. mit. Lissarrague). Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. Phaedo 61b (http:/ / classics. tufts. 77. brynmawr. On the Delays of Divine Vengeance.5. [18] Athenaeus 13. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.20 (http:/ / www. edu/ Plato/ phaedo. 121. In 1971. [16] BNP 1:257. and it begins—Aesop one day did this sage counsel give / To the Corinthian magistrates: not to trust / The cause of virtue to the people's judgment. Callimachus. [15] Lissarrague. 106 and 119. 01. a Greek citizen. Beth Cohen (hereafter. 122. There was also the 1953 teleplay "Aesop and Rhodope"[80] by Helene Hanff. Karla in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004. perseus. animated shorts under the title "Aesop and Son" appeared as a recurring segment in the TV series Rocky and His Friends[82] and its successor. West.29 (http:/ / penelope. Rhetoric 2. html). p. [22] Perry. p. Notes West.287–346 [23] Ausonius."[86] portrays him as an Ethiopian. html). "Aesop and the Contestation of Delphic Authority". tufts. [19] Plato. not very artistically. [11] Phaedrus 1. [17] Hägg. html). xxxviii-xlv. was published in 1953 and has been performed in many countries. 47. 135. Demetrius of Phalerum and the Aesopic Fables. Aesop Jr. a play in three acts about the life of Aesop by Brazilian dramatist Guilherme Figueiredo.1 Aristotle. Iambus 2 (Loeb fragment 192) Maximus of Tyre. 0126:book=2:chapter=134).2 [12] William Hansen.09.[43] The musical Aesop's Fables by British playwright Peter Terson was first produced in 1983. perseus. p. archive.

com/ authors/ authors_t/ terson_peter. niger. 150-51 and 307-8. [56] The Bullwinkle Show (http:/ / www. google. studiaaurea. Philipott (translating Planudes). com/ PlaywrightsS/ seward-brian. youtube. in Anthology of Ancient Greek Popular Literature. Elisonas: Fables and Imitations: Kirishitan literature in the forest of simple letters. Logoi. Universitat de les Illes Balears. [27] Himerius. [25] The Aesop Romance. [32] Gert-Jan van Dijk. [59] Paul Zanker. britannica. 8-9. p. [40] Driberg. Nigel Wilson. Tamás Sajó: Imago Veritatis. Classical. ed. . 9.E/ frameset& FF=cpa+ 3857+ z9+ 1687+ online& 1. imdb. 4-wall. com/ watch?v=VoTfCFCCBmY) and here (http:/ / www. ''Sunday Times'' (Cape Town). p. org/ stream/ aesopiphrygisfab1570aeso#page/ 8/ mode/ 2up). 264. youtube. ece/ Backstage-with-Aesops-Fables-director-Mark-Dornford-May). p.4. 14-15. New York 2006. com/ watch?v=qUQm3Pbwfak) [48] "Doollee. [53] "''Imagines'' 1. [58] Lissarrague. The cover can be viewed online (http:/ / digitalgallery.Aesop [24] BNP 1:258–9. p. org/ nypldigital/ dgkeysearchdetail. [60] The question is discussed by Lisa Trentin in "What's in a hump? Re-examining the hunchback in the Villa-Albani-Torlonia" in The Cambridge Classical Journal (New Series) December 2009 55 : pp 130-156. 33-34. Antikenkranz zum fünften Berliner Winckelmannsfest: Delphi und Melaine. com/ articulo. Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English. Retrieved 2012-03-22. an illustration of the coin in question follows p. com/ books?id=-BsVAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA14-IA20& lpg=PA14-IA20& dq#v=onepage& q& f=false). org. pp. 45. cfm?trg=1& strucID=1804806& imageID=1660138& total=1& num=0& parent_id=1804805& word=& s=& notword=& d=& c=& f=& k=0& sScope=& sLevel=& sLabel=& lword=& lfield=& imgs=20& pos=1& snum=& e=w) [35] Ancient Coins of Phocis (http:/ / www. Doollee.. 1932.com. 111. [26] Papademetriou. ed. pp. co. and Hellenistic Greek by Gert-Jan van Dijk and History of the Graeco-Latin Fable by Francisco Rodriguez Adrado. [28] See Lissarrage. za/ news/ index. jpg). imdb. Lefkowitz. Retrieved 2012-03-22. French and Latin (http:/ / magic. html). com/ watch?v=8W9yIK36iU0) [50] Two academic studies support this conclusion: J.com. lib. [31] Tho. bpi1700. Orations 46. see also Ainoi.3" (http:/ / www. Niklas Holzberg. Bulletin of Portuguese Japanese Studies.co. pp. arts. Papademetriou. translated by Robert J. 4-wall. [34] Godwin then used the nom de plume of Edward Baldwin. doollee. com/ comptons/ art-67202/ Aesop-talks-with-a-fox-from-one-of-his-fables?& articleTypeId=31). Kids. Theoi. "Aesop" entry in The Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Retrieved 2012-03-22.137. available as an academic reprint online (http:/ / wlu-ca. edu.com" (http:/ / www. [43] IMDb. translated by Lloyd W.18 (http:/ / books. an abstract of this paper appears on p.com. . archive. 2004.). youtube. [39] Robert Temple. 250. uk/ books?id=-aFtPdh6-2QC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=aristodemus+ aesop& source=bl& ots=vJ2duHQGkl& sig=XaxkUiZaU3bl-qoXTCxEwW5LKDQ& hl=en& ei=G_YBTpy2B86HhQeEpsWiDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=aristodemus aesop& f=false) [52] BNP 1:257. pp.2. Z9 1687/ cpa+ 3857+ z9+ 1687/ 1. html) web page. 18. Jr. pp.S. p. The Ancient Fable: An Introduction. . timeslive. za/ entertainment/ article492685. William Hansen. accessed 11-12-2010. Mythoi: Fables in Archaic. West. 12–13. (http:/ / www. 2002-11-15. From Aesop to Esopo to Isopo: Adapting the Fables in Late Medieval Japan (2009). 11-12. theoi. The Mask of Socrates. youtube. xx-xxi. php?id=46) [55] "British Museum site" (http:/ / www. Lisbon 2002.com (http:/ / www.2. co. p. mx/ pdf/ 361/ 36100402..britannica. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (hereafter Snowden). Compton. com/ title/ tt0452579/ ) [44] Available in two sections on Youtube. 2002. Retrieved 2012-03-22.. uk/ resources/ images/ pubimg/ full/ aesopfrontispiece. [33] Frank M. co. Timeslive. p. org/ stream/ numismatahelleni00leakuoft#page/ n289/ mode/ 2up) [37] Theodor Panofka.britannica. com/ Text/ PhilostratusElder1A. . msu. Snowden. uaemex. html). archive. [49] There are short excerpts on YouTube (http:/ / www.A. pdf) [51] Geert van Dijk's article on Aesop in Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece.za. figures 2 and 1 (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2012-07-15. unsw. [30] ". pdf) and Lawrence Marceau. unde & nomen adeptus est (idem enim Aesopus quod Aethiops)" is one Latin translation of Planudes' Greek.com. academia. pp. pp. Introduction to Aesop: The Complete Fables. June 7. [29] Lobban.com" (http:/ / kids. pp. [47] "Aesop's Fables at the Fugard" (online listing) (http:/ / whatsonsa. [38] Snowden. . La circulación de la imagen simbólica entre fábula y emblema. Victim of the Muses. [36] William Martin Leake. 7 (http:/ / books. php/ whats-on/ in-cape-town/ 17-theatre/ 653-aesops-fables-at-the-fugard-10-june-10-july-2010. 45 . nypl. htm). edu/ search~S39?/ cXX folio PA3857 . com/ title/ tt0054524/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [57] "Kids. . there are also short publicity excerpts on YouTube here (http:/ / www. Sluiter and Rosen. [41] Lobban. p. Daly. see Aesopi Phrygis Fabulae (http:/ / www. Penella in Man and the Word: The Orations of Himerius. 2010" (http:/ / www. [42] Kurke 2010. com/ watch?v=jON9jB6KPws) [45] "Playwrights and Their Stage Works: Peter Terson" (http:/ / www. [46] ""Backstage with 'Aesop's Fables' Director Mark Dornford-May".13-17 (for consideration of Isoho Monogatari) (http:/ / redalyc. 1 and 7.com (http:/ / www.277 (http:/ / jsaa-icjle2009. google. snible. [54] Antonio Bernat Vistarini. 1932-02-24. pp. au/ common/ papers_final_090722. Studia Aurea 5 (2007). html). "Ugliness and Value in the Life of Aesop" in Kakos: Badness and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity ed. p. 16. org/ coins/ hn/ phocis.1. Numismata Hellenica: A Catalogue of Greek Coins. Retrieved 2012-07-15.

1999-2003. Francisco Rodriguez.com (http:/ / www.18 (Reardon translation). edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. "V. NY [78] The second of these is included in Selections from the Imaginary conversations of Walter Savage Landor. 1). grosvenorprints. Carol and Leslie Kurke (editors).. Retrieved 2012-03-22. richarddurham. . com/ thedeathofaesop. Retrieved 2012-03-22. perseus.com (http:/ / www.com" (http:/ / www. Verae Historiae (A True Story) 2. Archive. com/ stock. imdb. Digicoll. co. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. et al. perseus. • Cancik.perseus.com (http:/ / www. com/ title/ tt1144648/ ) [81] 00:00/00:00. Retrieved 2012-03-22.com. . uchicago. [72] "Books.com. tufts. 0137:book=36:chapter=17). com/ ). p0139& id=Literature. com/ title/ tt0599709/ ) [84] IMDb.lib. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.wisc. html) [67] Lucian. Perseus. com/ title/ tt0052507/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [83] IMDb.com (http:/ / www.youku. . edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.H. library. . . 2000. 857–8. AthV2& isize=M& pview=hide). Retrieved 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2012-03-22. J.perseus. Retrieved 2012-03-22.wisc. p0163& id=Literature. uk/ books?id=rm0_DWd5jPoC& printsec=frontcover& dq="Boursault"+ + Esope& source=bl& ots=4AwpHQxgVy& sig=5q1A7sZbyPPsgB-0L1G9WFh6XSg& hl=en& ei=zFyXTebaNcGHhQf4m7WCCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6& ved=0CDQQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage& q& f=false).tufts. tufts. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Plutarch/ Moralia/ Dinner_of_the_Seven*. google. 02. aspx?intObjectID=4684725) [70] "Lessing-photo. II Loeb translation (http:/ / penelope.com" (http:/ / www. • Cohen.uk. V. Cambridge University Press. edu/ cgi-bin/ Literature/ Literature-idx?type=turn& entity=Literature. Retrieved 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2012-03-22. Includes "Aesop. History of the Graeco-Latin Fable (three volumes). . Richarddurham. 46 References • Adrado.). richarddurham. 356. [66] Moralia vol. Retrieved 2012-03-22. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.wisc.tufts. pp. edu/ search~S39?/ cXX folio PA3857 . 1932. com/ title/ tt0038778/ ) [80] IMDb. com/ upload1/ file-admin/ images/ new7/ Diego Velazquez-288688.tufts. .E/ frameset& FF=cpa+ 3857+ z9+ 1687+ online& 1. org/ stream/ playsvanbrugh01vanbuoft#page/ 222/ mode/ 2up).msu. Conflict.edu. 166-68.youku.edu" (http:/ / digicoll. [63] Kurke 2010. [86] "Richarddurham. lessing-photo.com" (http:/ / www. 1932. [74] "Perseus. Digicoll. 02. htm). [82] Rocky and His Friends (http:/ / www. 2002. p. • Dougherty. The Cultures Within Ancient Greek Culture: Contact. Magic. [73] "Old. wisc. June 18. . 148 #5425.edu. fineart-china. com/ p3/ 391913/ 39191333. com/ v_show/ id_XMTgzOTIzNDQ=.edu" (http:/ / digicoll.org. + 2. The Spectator. . Hubert. archived online. • Driberg.google.edu" (http:/ / old. .com" (http:/ / v. com/ title/ tt0138967/ ) [85] "Richarddurham. html). Includes "Aesop and the Contestation of Delphic Authority" by Leslie Kurke.library.msu. com/ LotFinder/ lot_details.edu. 134. p 356. Retrieved 2012-03-22. Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art. AthV3. New York 1899. imdb. archive. Between Man and Beast: Ancient Portraits and Illustrations" by François Lissarrague. [75] "Archive.17" (http:/ / www. Z9 1687/ cpa+ 3857+ z9+ 1687/ 1.edu. 1949-02-13.uk" (http:/ / books. pp. youku. pp.lib.2.1-14 (http:/ / www. Perseus. . . [76] Mark Loveridge. AthV2.library.google. org/ stream/ selectionsfromim00landiala#page/ n65/ mode/ 2up) [79] IMDb. imdb.com. (http:/ / www. archive.library. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Hdt.co. Retrieved 2012-03-22. jpg). imdb. [77] View online.edu. 0137:book=36:chapter=17).org" (http:/ / www. 2003.com" (http:/ / www. Books. [68] "Magic.1. A History of Augustan Fable (hereafter Loveridge). Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World.wisc. [62] Attribution of these lines to Aesop is conjectural.. see the reference and footnote in Kurke 2010. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ Literature/ Literature-idx?type=turn& entity=Literature. Richarddurham.Aesop edu/ LisaTrentin/ Papers/ 939527/ Whats_in_a_Hump_Re-examining_the_Hunchback_in_the_Villa_Albani-Torlonia) [61] "Digicoll. [64] "Digicoll.co.2. Retrieved 2012-03-22. vol. [71] "Fineart-china. .tufts.tufts. . [69] There is a note on another from this series on the Christies site (http:/ / www. php?pageNum_rs_stock=80& totalRows_rs_stock=882& subject=Decorative& WADbSearch1=Submit& search=subject) there is a copy in the Metropolitan Museum. [65] "Pliny 36.library. Collaboration. wisc. lib. Old. jpg). msu.edu" (http:/ / magic. Retrieved 2012-03-22. Beth (editor). AthV3& isize=M& pview=hide).edu" (http:/ / www. "Aesop". christies. imdb. perseus.edu. library.

"Was Aesop a Nubian Kummaji (Folkteller)?". 1687.com/books?id=-BsVAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:Antikenkranz+intitle:zum+ intitle:fünften+intitle:Berliner+intitle:Winckelmannsfest+inauthor:Theodor+inauthor:Panofka&hl=en& ei=GYbdTLWuOIzWtQPQiuWyCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false).google.. Cambridge University Press. with a Life of Aesop. 105–36... London: John Murray.. William (editor). • Loveridge. B. Jr. London: printed for H. 11–31. • Kurke. French and Latin (http://magic.). Tho. Includes The Aesop Romance (The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and Aesop His Slave or The Career of Aesop). Richard A. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Th. Princeton University Press. and Hellenistic Greek. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. the Life of Aesop is a version from Planudes. 2007.E/frameset&FF=cpa+3857+ z9+1687+online&1. John E. • Lobban. pp. 1998. Logoi. Man and the Word: The Orations of Himerius. pp. Daly.html). Studies and Research 39. (editor). Cultural Dialogue. Babrius and Phaedrus. The Ancient Fable: An Introduction. 2002. Richard A.edu/2004/2004-09-39. Ainoi. Sprach und Edition einer fruehbyzantinischen Fassung des Aesopromans by Grammatiki A.. translated by J.P.. Tomas. Parthenope: Selected Studies in Ancient Greek Fiction (1969-2004). 9:1 (2002). Anthology of Ancient Greek Popular Literature. Maryland: Scarecrow Press.lib. 47 . • Lobban.org/ details/numismatahelleni00leakuoft). J. A History of Augustan Fable. Jr. William. "The Ascription of Fables to Aesop in Archaic and Classical Greece". Classical. Includes An Ethiopian Story by Heliodorus.Aesop • Hansen. 1997. Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English. Review of Vita Aesopi: Ueberlieferung. 2010. • Snowden. 1849. and A True Story by Lucian. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. 2004.. 1984. Mark.2. Includes Hägg's "A Professor and his Slave: Conventions and Values in The Life of Aesop".2. 1965. • Temple. 1970. Entretiens XXX). L. Antikenkranz zum fünften Berliner Winckelmannsfest: Delphi und Melaine (http:// books.edu/search~S39?/cXX folio PA3857 . Guttentag. • Holzberg. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. • Keller. translated by Christine Jackson-Holzberg. 2004. and Keating. and the Invention of Greek Prose. • West. 1998. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University press. Gert-Jan. • Papademetriou. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. William Martin. Mythoi: Fables in Archaic. Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. New York: Penguin Books. Robert J... La vida del Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas including original woodcut illustrations. Robert and Olivia (translators). 2004.1. Theodor. • Hansen.. • Penella. Northeast African Studies.09.archive. Aesop's Fables. M. Leslie. • van Dijk. Berlin: J. Niklas.R. for Francis Barlow. • Hägg. Aesop: The Complete Fables. Athens: Hellenic Society for Humanistic Studies. Includes Philipott's English translation of Planudes' Life of Aesop with illustrations by Francis Barlow. first published in 1997. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. Reardon. brynmawr. 1997. Ben Edwin (translator). English translation of the first Spanish edition of Aesop from 1489. Lanham. Berkeley: University of California Press. Numismata Hellenica: A Catalogue of Greek Coins (http://www. 2002. translated by Lloyd W.Z9 1687/cpa+3857+z9+1687/1. La Fable (Vandœuvres–Genève: Fondation Hardt. Morgan. Aesop as an Archetypal Hero. Clark. translated by B. Aesopic Conversations: Popular Tradition." Berkeley: University of California Press. • Leake. Karla. 1856. Jr. Collected Ancient Greek Novels. 1998. • Panofka. • Perry.L.39 (http://bmcr. Hills jun. • Reardon. • Philipott.P. Frank M. (translator). 1993. 1989. msu.

2009. Newly Translated and Edited. New York and London: Thomas Yoseloff. Mnemosyne: Supplements. External links • Vita Aesopi (http://aesopus.com/ aesop-wise-fool/). searchable • Works by Aesop on Open Library at the Internet Archive . 2008. Paul. 1990. Todd. Ralph M. • Sluiter. Modern reprint edited by Robert T. 111. and a Life of Aesop. Westminster. 1484. • Daly. Nigel. Lloyd W. Ineke and Rosen. Homer) as Background for Plato's Apology" (http://www. Includes Caxton's Epilogue to the Fables. The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity. 1990).com/Vita-Aesopi) Online resources for the Life of Aesop • Aesopica. 1961. 1780. Berkeley: University of California Press. "The Trial of the Satirist: Poetic Vitae (Aesop. The history and fables of Aesop. with Latin and Greek texts also. New York: Routledge. Vol.net (http://www.com/) (online journal). 330–347. 2006.M Diemer. Lenaghan (Harvard University Press: Cambridge. 1484. Archilochus. 1967). William. Laura. • Zanker.aesopica. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. Includes Daly's translation of The Aesop Romance. History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity. Lefkowitz. dated March 26. No. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece.jstor.Aesop • Wilson. (editors). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. • Gibbs. Journey to the Sea (http://journeytothesea. 48 Further reading • Anonymous. Aesop without Morals: The Famous Fables. pp. Kakos: Badness and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity. Includes "Ugliness and Value in the Life of Aesop" by Jeremy B. The American Journal of Philology. 307. • Caxton. 3 (Autumn.net) Over 600 fables in English. London: Printed for E. March 1. "Life of Aesop: The Wise Fool and the Philosopher" (http://journeytothesea. 1995.pbworks. The History and Amours of Rhodope.org/stable/295155).. • Compton. issue 9.

thought to be either developed a unique and characteristic style in its art.[3] More broadly. Greece had the most Poseidon or Zeus. Furthermore. Persia. culture and nature. History of aesthetics Ancient aesthetics Examples of pre-historic art are rare. The context of their production and use is unclear. He felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion. Similarly. or the relation between secular art and the demands placed on the secular world to conform to religious precepts. beauty. traits such as body hair are rarely depicted in art that addresses physical beauty. sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetic doctrines that guided their production and interpretation are mostly unknown. Rome. Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order. National influence on the development of aesthetics in the West."[4][5] Etymology The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός (aisthetikos. feel. An example of ancient aesthetics in Greece through poetry is Plato's quote: "For the authors of those great poems which we admire. as it were. Greek philosophers initially felt that aesthetically appealing objects were beautiful in and of themselves. China.[6] The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning in the German form Æsthetik (modern spelling Ästhetik) by Alexander Baumgarten in 1734. sentient"). Greece. if not forbidden. This period of Greek Archaeological Museum of Athens art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of corresponding skills to show musculature. and Maya. in the Metaphysics. sensitive. symmetry. The term "Islamic" refers not only to the religion. Ancient art was largely. meaning "esthetic.[1][2] It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values. which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai. harmony. Plato believed that for us to have a perception of beauty there must be a transcendent form for beauty in which beautiful objects partake and which causes them to be beautiful also. Mesopotamia. beauty and anatomically correct proportions. the proper place of art in society. sense"). with the creation and appreciation of beauty. Not all Muslims are in agreement on the use of art in religious observance. Islamic art frequently adopts secular elements and elements that are frowned upon. and. but to any form of art created in an Islamic culture or in an Islamic context. Each of these centers of early civilization Bronze sculpture. based on the nine great ancient civilizations: Egypt. the Celtic peoples. India. but not entirely. possessed by a spirit not their own. [7] In contrast with this Greek-Western aesthetic taste is the genre of the grotesque. by some Islamic theologians. do not attain to excellence through the rules of any art. in many Western and Eastern cultures alike. poise.[9] . and definiteness.Aesthetics 49 Aesthetics Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art. but they utter their beautiful melodies of verse in a state of inspiration. and taste."[8] Islamic aesthetics Islamic art does not pertain to religion only. meaning "I perceive. and unity among their parts. scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art.

a kind of Value Theory is the cornerstone of Indian Aesthetics. 50 Indian aesthetics Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience. Human representation for the purpose of worship is uniformly considered idolatry as forbidden in Sharia law. growing increasingly elaborate in the illumination and stylizing of the text. Poets like Kālidāsa were attentive to rasa. sculpture. According to Kapila Vatsyayan. Muslims believe these depictions lead to sculptural pieces.Aesthetics According to Islam. This tendency affected the narrowing field of artistic possibility to such forms of art as Arabesque. literature (kāvya). savored as rasa by these spectators. Individuals idea of 'Daksha' and 'Mahana' is relative to one's development of the concept of 'Satyam-Shivam-Sundaram. music. The Nātyashāstra presents the aesthetic concepts of rasas and their associated bhāvas in Chapters Six and Seven respectively. Rasa theory blossoms beginning with the Sanskrit text Nātyashāstra (nātya meaning "drama" and shāstra meaning "science of"). which blossomed into a fully developed aesthetic system. 'Sat' is the truth value. through different stages of life (Asramas) comes to form and realize the idea of these three values to develop a value system. known as 'Adarsha'. Eight rasas and associated bhāvas are named and their enjoyment is likened to . these calligraphic works began to be prized as works of art. This concept of Satyam-Shivam-Sundaram. "māsala mix" describes popular Hindi cinema films which serve a so-called balanced emotional meal for the masses. While the date of composition varies wildly among scholars. thus. and dancing evolved their own rules conditioned by their respective media. Even in contemporary India the term rasa denoting "flavor" or "essence" is used colloquially to describe the aesthetic experiences in films. "Classical Indian architecture. 'Shiv' is the good value & 'Sundaram' is the beauty value. Human portrayals can be found in early Islamic cultures with varying degrees of acceptance by religious authorities. Of particular concern to Indian drama and literature are the term 'Bhava' or the state of mind and rasa referring generally to the emotional flavors/essence crafted into the work by the writer and relished by a 'sensitive spectator' or sahṛdaya or one with positive taste and mind. the writer was made to contemplate the meaning of it. whereas those who have worked through the whole system and journeyed ahead of these to become a law unto themselves is called a Mahana. and has been cultivated to become a positive style and tradition. and Islamic architecture. but also the procedures by which the relationships of the symbol and the spiritual states were worked out in detail. painting. rules.' For example. A person who has mastered great amounts of knowledge of the grammars. it is believed by many that attempting to realistically depict the form of an animal or person is insolence to God. Human or animal depiction is generally forbidden. mosaic. human works of art are inherently flawed compared to the work of God. & language of an art-form are adepts (Daksha). These illuminations were applied to other works besides the Quran. but they shared with one another not only the underlying spiritual beliefs of the Indian religio-philosophic mind. which appear to be independent of the work as a whole. Man through his 'Srabana' or education. as well as any form of abstraction that can claim the status of non-representational art." In the Pan Indian philosophic thought the term 'Satyam Shivam Sundaram' is another name for the concept of the Supreme. emphasizing the decorative function of art. or with representing them symbolically. ranging from the era of Plato and Aristotle to the seventh century CE. or its religious functions via non-representational forms such as Geometric patterns. Tagore's idea of these two concepts should be way above any common man's and many perceive Tagore as a 'Mahana' Artist in the realm of literature. Islamic calligraphy. This Value-system helps us to develop two basic ideas 1) that of 'Daksha' or the adept/expert and 2) of Mahana/Parama or the Absolute and thus to judge anything in this universe in the light of these two measures. which then leads to worship of that sculpture or "idol". and arabesques. floral patterns.[10][11] The calligraphic arts grew out of an effort to devote oneself to the study of the Quran. a work attributed to Bharata Muni where the Gods declare that drama is the 'Fifth Veda' because it is suitable for the degenerate age as the best form of religious instruction. As time passed. 'Manana' or experience and conceptualization and 'Sadhana' or practice. and it became a respected art form in and of itself. Limited possibilities have been explored by artists as an outlet to artistic expression. By patiently transcribing each word of the text.

The Nok culture is testimony to this. and abstract and partially abstracted forms are valued. Abhinavagupta brought rasa theory to its pinnacle in his separate commentaries on the Dhvanyāloka. The primary purpose of this text is to refine the literary concept dhvani or poetic suggestion. The 9th . His opponent Mozi. his commentary on the Nātyashāstra. Confucius emphasized the role of the arts and humanities (especially music and poetry) in broadening human nature and aiding li (etiquette. it is the string that gives form to the necklace. however. but thanks to aesthetic distance. Most of it followed traditional forms and the aesthetic norms were handed down orally as well as written. By the 4th century AD artists had started debating in writing over the proper goals of art as well. such as gold and lapis. heroism or romance. Sculpture and performance art are prominent. the Dhvanyāloka-locana (translated by Ingalls. Roman Catholic or Orthodox church. the Dhvanyāloka which introduces the ninth rasa. is not discussed and given the Nātyashāstra's pithy wording it is unlikely the exact understanding of the original author(s) will be known. while it may not be the most appealing for most people. Religious and philosophical influences on art were common (and diverse) but never universal. argued that music and fine arts were classist and wasteful. sentence or whole work "suggests" a real-world emotional state or bhāva. 51 Chinese aesthetics Chinese art has a long history of varied styles and emphases. shānta-rasa as a specifically religious feeling of peace (śānta) which arises from its bhāva. . whether as chalices or even as church buildings themselves. Gu Kaizhi has left three surviving books on the theory of painting. portions of which are translated by Gnoli and Masson and Patwardhan. the sensitive spectator relishes the rasa. powerful ecclesiastical individuals. primarily in forms of Sanskrit including a word. Unique Malian aesthetic These art pieces often served a liturgical function. Several later artists or scholars both created art and wrote about the creation of it. The mosque of Timbuktu shows that specific areas of Africa developed unique aesthetics. The Great Mosque's signature trio of minarets overlooks the central market of Djenné. What rasa actually is. Objects of fine art from this period were frequently made from rare and valuable materials.10th century master of the religious system known as "the nondual Shaivism of Kashmir" (or "Kashmir Shaivism") and aesthetician. the rites) in bringing us back to what is essential about humanity. Masson and Patwardhan. benefiting the rich over the poor. Abhinavagupta offers for the first time a technical definition of rasa which is the universal bliss of the Self or Atman colored by the emotional tone of a drama. allowing the jewels of the other eight rasas to be relished. weariness of the pleasures of the world. in a theoretical sense. the aesthetic flavor of tragedy. 1992) and the Abhinavabharati. African aesthetics African art existed in many forms and styles. The theory of the rasas develops significantly with the Kashmiri aesthetician Ãndandavardhana's classic on poetics. Abhinavagupta likens it to the string of a jeweled necklace. or wealthy secular patrons. and with fairly little influence from outside Africa.Aesthetics savoring a meal: rasa is the enjoyment of flavors that arise from the proper preparation of ingredients and the quality of ingredients. by arguing for the existence of rasa-dhvani. Western medieval aesthetics Surviving medieval art is primarily religious in focus and funded largely by the State. Relishing the rasas and particularly shānta-rasa is hinted as being as-good-as but never-equal-to the bliss of Self-realization experienced by yogis. Shānta-rasa functions as an equal member of the set of rasas but is simultaneously distinct being the most clear form of aesthetic bliss. and were valued long before influence from the Western tradition began in earnest.

finally. August Wilhelm Schlegel.Aesthetics the cost of which commonly exceeded the wages of the artist. and claritas sive splendor formae. this light is guided by the light of divine wisdom which discloses the world of saving truth. St. However. Saint Thomas Aquinas's aesthetic is probably the most famous and influential theory among medieval authors. discusses the skills of the artisan as gifts given by God for the purpose of disclosing God to mankind. German and British thinkers emphasised beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience. Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest immediately to sense-perception. Umberto Eco's The Aesthetics of Thomas Aquinas identifies the three main characteristics of beauty in Aquinas's philosophy: integritas sive perfectio. For Lorsch Gospels 778–820. For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the sense experiences. Bonaventure’s “Retracing the Arts to Theology”. he develops a singular aesthetics which incorporates elements unique to his thought. but several scholars have conventionally arranged his thought—though not always with uniform conclusions—using relevant observations spanning the entire corpus of his work. For Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. continuing the practice of Plotinus by employing theological terminology in its explications. like many other medievals. consequently. and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty. art likewise changed its focus. . which light. which light is guided by the light of sense perception which discloses the world of natural forms. For Immanuel Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a judgment of a subjective but similar human truth. While Aristotle likewise identifies the first two characteristics. 52 Modern aesthetics From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism. Thomas. So aesthetics began now to be the name for the philosophy of art. which purpose is achieved through four lights: the light of skill in mechanical arts which discloses the world of artifacts. never gives a systematic account of beauty itself. Friedrich Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel have also given lectures on aesthetics as philosophy of art after 1800. Friedrich von Schlegel. With the shift from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. as much in its content as in its mode of expression. Friedrich Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature. a younger sister of logic. While Aquinas's theory follows generally the model of Aristotle. changing to a perfection that only philosophy can approach. Charlemagne's Court School. consonantia sive debita proportio. St. is guided by the light of philosophy which discloses the world of intellectual truth. For Hegel all culture is a matter of "absolute spirit" coming to be manifest to itself. and beauty is thus the most perfect kind of knowledge that sense experience can have. beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. having been the subject of much scrutiny in the wake of the neo-Scholastic revival of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and even having received the approbation of the celebrated Modernist writer. James Joyce. stage by stage. Medieval aesthetics in the realm of philosophy built upon Classical thought. Thomas conceives of the third as an appropriation from principles developed by neo-Platonic and Augustinian thinkers. the philosophy of art is the "organon" of philosophy concerning the relation between man and nature. a primary example of this method. since all people should agree that “this rose is beautiful” if it in fact is. and saw art as necessarily aiming at absolute beauty.

[12] Wilde famously toured the United States in 1882. founded Aesthetic Realism. He travelled across the United States spreading the idea of Aesthetics in a speech called "The English Renaissance. regularity or symmetry. Lord Kames. and that "The world. thinks that beauty consists of (1) fitness of the parts to some design. where the taxonomy implied a preference for tragedy and the sublime to comedy and the Rococo. (5) intricacy. The British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic camps. and Edmund Burke hoped to reduce beauty to some list of attributes. It is. (3) uniformity. and self explain each other: each is the aesthetic oneness of opposites.". art. Hogarth. broadening the scope of art and aesthetics. leading the eye on "a wanton kind of chase". (4) simplicity or distinctness."[14][15] Various attempts have been made to define Post-modern aesthetics. one would beautify the inner ones." In his speech he proposed that Beauty and Aesthetics was "not languid but energetic. For Oscar Wilde the contemplation of beauty for beauty's sake was not only the foundation for much of his literary career but was quoted as saying "Aestheticism is a search after the signs of the beautiful. but through its enabling the eye to enjoy variety with ease. a sort of rebirth of the spirit of man". he said. In 1941. poets and composers challenged existing notions of beauty." The English Renaissance was. which provides employment for our active energies. What was new was a refusal to credit the higher status of certain types. For Ludwig Wittgenstein aesthetics consisted in the description of a whole culture which is a linguistic impossibility. the search after the secret of life. self-portrait. which draws our attention and produces admiration and awe. and (6) quantity or magnitude. beauty just is the sensory version of moral goodness. which is only beautiful when it helps to preserve the character of fitness. which gives pleasure not in itself. The intuitionists believed that aesthetic experience was disclosed by a single mental faculty of some kind. George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities. Aristotle was the first in the Western tradition to classify "beauty" into types as in his theory of drama. It is the science of the beautiful through which men seek the correlation of the arts. is actually continuous with older aesthetic theory. For Anthony Ashley-Cooper.[13] For Francis Hutcheson beauty is disclosed by an inner mental sense. 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury this was identical to the moral sense. (2) variety in as many ways as possible. but is a subjective fact rather than an objective one. Croce suggested that “expression” is central in the way that beauty was once thought to be central. 53 William Hogarth. Eli Siegel. That which constitutes aesthetics lies out side the realm of the language game. William Hogarth. here we contemplate perfection of form without any kind of worldly agenda. The challenge to the assumption that beauty was central to art and aesthetics. 1745 Post-modern aesthetics and psychoanalysis Early-twentieth-century artists. Analytic theorists like Henry Home. thought to be original. American philosopher and poet.[16] Marshall McLuhan suggested that art always functions as a "counter-environment" designed to make visible what is usually invisible about a society. the philosophy that reality itself is aesthetic. Theodor Adorno felt that aesthetics could not proceed without confronting the role . and Kant made a distinction between beauty and the sublime. to speak more exactly. Later analytic aestheticians strove to link beauty to some scientific theory of psychology (such as James Mill) or biology (such as Herbert Spencer). "like the Italian Renaissance before it. for example. It is thus for Schopenhauer one way to fight the suffering. By beautifying the outward aspects of life. and thus any intrusion of utility or politics would ruin the point of the beauty.Aesthetics For Arthur Schopenhauer aesthetic contemplation of beauty is the most free that the pure intellect can be from the dictates of will.

[32][33] This is closely related to the principles environment of algorithmic information theory and minimum description length. Jean-François Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime.[19] Brian Massumi suggests to reconsider beauty following the aesthetical thought in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari. Hal Foster attempted to portray the reaction against beauty and Modernist art in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Sublime painting.. Darwinian literary studies. unlike kitsch realism.[29] In contrast to romantic theorists Sircello argued for the objectivity of beauty and formulated a theory of love on that basis.. and information theory. and the study of the evolution of emotion.[27] love[28] and sublimity."[22][23] Sigmund Freud inaugurated aesthetical thinking in Psychoanalysis mainly via the "Uncanny" as aesthetical affect. Following Freud and Merleau-Ponty. it will please only by causing pain. The discipline of aesthetics. which originated in the eighteenth century.will enable us to see only by making it impossible to see. for which he is still the most cited individual decades after his death.[25] Jacques Lacan theorized aesthetics in terms of sublimation and the Thing[26] 54 Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary aesthetics refers to evolutionary psychology theories in which the basic aesthetic preferences of Homo sapiens are argued to have evolved in order to enhance survival and reproductive success.[20] Daniel Berlyne created the field of experimental aesthetics in the 1970s.[21] Pneumaist aestheticism is a theory of art and a highly experimental approach to art negating historical preconceptions of the aesthetic. One of his examples: mathematicians enjoy simple proofs with a short description in their formal language. information processing. One example being that humans are argued to find beautiful and prefer landscapes which were good habitats in the ancestral environment. mistook this transient state of affairs for a revelation of the permanent nature of art.[17] André Malraux [18] explains that the notion of beauty was connected to a particular conception of art that arose with the Renaissance and was still dominant in the eighteenth century (but was supplanted later). Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to analyze links between aesthetics. focusing on the concepts of beauty. Arthur Danto has described this reaction as "kalliphobia" (after the Greek word for beauty .'kalos'). Another example is that body symmetry is an important aspect of physical attractiveness which may be due to this indicating good health during body growth.[34][35] drawing inspiration from less detailed 15th . Aesthetics and information In the 1970s. ".[24] Guy Sircello pioneered efforts in analytic philosophy to develop a rigorous theory of aesthetics. given the observer’s previous knowledge and his particular Initial image of a Mandelbrot set zoom sequence with continuously coloured method for encoding the data.[30][31] In the 1990s. the aesthetically most pleasing one is the one with the shortest description. Jürgen Schmidhuber described an algorithmic theory of beauty which takes the subjectivity of the observer into account and postulates: among several observations classified as comparable by a given subjective observer. Another very concrete example describes an aesthetically pleasing human face whose proportions can be described by very few bits of information.Aesthetics of the culture industry in the commodification of art and aesthetic experience. Evolutionary explanations for aesthetical preferences are important parts of evolutionary musicology.

James Page[45] has suggested that aesthetic ethics might be taken to form a philosophical rationale for peace education. Schmidhuber's theory explicitly distinguishes between what's beautiful and what's interesting. Truth as beauty. outside of empirical considerations. aesthetics can also be applied to cultural objects. also called curiosity reward.Aesthetics century proportion studies by Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer.the word having a double meaning of attractive and morally acceptable. A reinforcement learning algorithm is used to maximize future expected reward by learning to execute action sequences that cause additional interesting input data with yet unknown but learnable predictability or regularity. truth beauty" in the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats. has been presented as an explanation [47] Indeed. mathematics. The principles can be implemented on artificial agents which then exhibit a form of artificial curiosity. and physics Mathematical considerations. analytic philosophy. Here the premise is that any observer continually tries to improve the predictability and compressibility of the observations by discovering regularities such as repetitions and symmetries and fractal self-similarity. are used for analysis in theoretical aesthetics. gastronomy. Beauty and Truth have been argued to be nearly synonymous. This is different from the aesthetic considerations of applied aesthetics used in the study of mathematical beauty. such as symmetry and complexity. such as ethics and theoretical physics and cosmology to define truth.see also Neuroesthetics) leads to improved data compression such that the observation sequence can be described by fewer bits than before. . Aesthetic considerations such as symmetry and simplicity are used in areas of philosophy. Aesthetic ethics Aesthetic ethics refers to the idea that human conduct and behaviour ought to be governed by that which is beautiful and attractive. recent research found that people use beauty as an for why beauty is sometimes equated with truth.[36][37][38][39] 55 Applied aesthetics As well as being applied to art. It can also be used in topics as [41][42][43] diverse as mathematics. John Dewey[44] has pointed out that the unity of aesthetics and ethics is in fact reflected in our understanding of behaviour being "fair" . More recently. fashion and website design. [48] indication for truth in mathematical pattern tasks. This compression progress is proportional to the observer's internal reward. The fact that judgments of beauty and judgments of truth both are influenced by processing fluency. which is the ease with which information can be processed. Whenever the observer's learning process (which may be a predictive neural network . These audiences were generally not fluent in the English language. Aesthetic coupling between art-objects and medical topics was made by speakers working for the US Information Agency[40] This coupling was made to reinforce the learning paradigm when English-language speakers used translators to address audiences in their own country. stating that interestingness corresponds to the first derivative of subjectively perceived beauty.[46] as reflected in the statement "Beauty is truth. the temporary interestingness of the data corresponds to the number of saved bits.

Edwardian audiences saw the same sculptures as being beautiful. observes of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me. "If he proclaims something to be beautiful. Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class.) Thus. which escape the rest of mankind. Seeing a sublime view of a landscape may give us a reaction of awe. these approaches follow a machine learning approach.[49][50][51] Typically. rates natural photographs uploaded by users. but rather on cultural specifics and individual interpretations. The Acquine engine. Responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is linked in instinctual ways to facial expressions. where large numbers of manually rated photographs are used to "teach" a computer about what visual properties are of relevance to aesthetic quality. Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon. Likewise. seeing a stripe of soup in a man's beard is disgusting even though neither soup nor beards are themselves disgusting. 1987. Victorians in Britain often saw African sculpture as ugly. writing in 1790. Yet disgust can often be a learned or cultural issue too. but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. like emotions. he then judges not just for himself but for everyone. developed at Penn State University. the sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. but just a few decades later. Immanuel Kant. For David Hume. The contemporary view of beauty is not based on innate qualities. aesthetic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent." because "Everyone has his own (sense of) taste". beauty is objective and universal. cultural background. Literary Classics 5.Aesthetics 56 Computational inference of aesthetics Since about 2005. Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture. computer scientists have attempted to develop automated methods to infer aesthetic quality of images.[53] Aesthetic judgment Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. be linked to emotions or. partially embodied in our physical reactions. Aesthetic judgments may Rainbows often have aesthetic appeal. . Leyton is the president of the International Society for Mathematical and Computational Aesthetics and the International Society for Group Theory in Cognitive Science and has developed a generative theory of shape. delicacy of taste is not merely "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition".[52] Notable in this area is Michael Leyton. Viewer interpretations of beauty possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste. There have also been relatively successful attempts with regard to chess and music. emotional and intellectual all at once. These unconscious reactions may even be partly constitutive of what makes our judgment a judgment that the landscape is sublime. Indianapolis. and education. and speaks of beauty as if it were a property of things. but also our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures. For Kant "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation. as Darwin pointed out." (Essays Moral Political and Literary. which might manifest physically as an increased heart rate or widened eyes." Aesthetic judgments usually go beyond sensory discrimination. professor of psychology at Rutgers University. The case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because. Factors involved in aesthetic judgment Judgments of aesthetical values seem often to involve many other kinds of issues as well. thus certain things are beautiful to everyone. then he requires the same liking from others. and even behaviors like the gag reflex.[54] According to Kant. Judgments of beauty are sensory.

there is seemingly quite a lack of words to express oneself accurately when making an aesthetic judgment. while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics : art as knowledge or art as action. is supposed to relate to perceiving beauty in art or artefacts. Due to imprecision in the standard English language. 57 Are different art forms beautiful. emotions. depending on exactly which theory one employs. Likewise aesthetic judgments seem often to be at least partly intellectual and interpretative. A collective identification of beauty. sociological institutions. — Barnett Newman[59][60] For some. subconscious behavior. perhaps even to sexual desirability. a fragrance. or some complex combination of these. conscious decision. judgments of aesthetic value can become linked to judgments of economic. This goes back at least to Kant.[57] At the same time. but see Mary Mothersill. but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. yet preference and choice have seemed important aesthetics to some 20th-century thinkers. values. preferences. or we might judge it to be repulsive partly because it signifies for us over-consumption and offends our political or moral values. as Wittgenstein argued in his lectures on aesthetics. Wittgenstein stated this in his lectures on aesthetics and language games. An aesthetic judgment cannot be an empirical judgement. and beautiful sunset?[58] Defining it requires a description of the entire phenomenon. desires. We can call a person. because art deals with the senses (i. training. Aesthetics and the philosophy of art Aesthetics is for the artist as Ornithology is for the birds. 2004. culture. The point is already made by Hume. aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel. and a mathematical proof beautiful. disgusting.[55] In a current context. while artistic judgement refers to the recognition. instinct. a symphony. especially perception of the human form as beautiful. with some echoes even in St. but has also to give a definition of what art is. due to impossibility for precision. appreciation or criticism of art or an art work. Is there some underlying unity to aesthetic judgment and is there some way to articulate the similarities of a beautiful house. What characteristics do they share which give them that status? What possible feature could a proof and a fragrance both share in virtue of which they both count as beautiful? What makes a painting beautiful is quite different from what makes music beautiful. Hence. Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy. beautiful proof.[61] . a house. Philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works. e. may be a socially negotiated phenomenon. discussed in a culture or context. intellectual opinions.[56] Aesthetic judgments can often be very fine-grained and internally contradictory. Modern aestheticians have asserted that will and desire were almost dormant in aesthetic experience. "Beauty and the Critic’s Judgment". there is confusion about what interpretations can be culturally negotiated. the etymology of aesthetics) and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. one might judge a Lamborghini to be beautiful partly because it is desirable as a status symbol. In practice aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object). Bonaventure. which suggests that each art form has its own language for the judgement of aesthetics. two completely different feelings experienced by two different people can be represented by an identical verbal expression. Thus aesthetic judgments might be seen to be based on the senses. or boring in the same way? A third major topic in the study of aesthetic judgments is how they are unified across art forms. political. Likewise there has been long debate on how perception of beauty in the natural world. or moral value. Therefore. will. with willing participants in a given social spectrum. It is what a thing means or symbolizes for us that is often what we are judging. Thus.Aesthetics Evaluations of beauty may well be linked to desirability. in The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics.

dadaists. with such success that. that whatever art schools and museums and artists define as art is considered art regardless of formal definitions.Aesthetics 58 What is "art"? How best to define the term “art” is a subject of constant contention. Malraux argues that. Proceduralists often suggest that it is the process by which a work of art is created or viewed that makes it art. Whereas if a journalist writes exactly the same set of words. it is clear that even the basic meaning of the term "art" has changed several times over the centuries. The cubists.e. Even as late as 1912 it was normal in the West to assume that all art aims at beauty. if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way it may be considered design instead of art. as the wider history of art demonstrates. Likewise. Another approach is to say that “art” is basically a sociological category. or how well received it is by the institutions of the art world after its introduction to society at large. to convey or communicate an idea. not any inherent feature of an object. people will consider it a craft instead of art.”[63][64] Artists. "Beauty had disappeared not only from the advanced art of the 1960’s but from the advanced philosophy of [63] Perhaps some notion like "expression" (in Croce’s theories) or "counter-environment" art of that decade as well. Most people did not consider the depiction of a Brillo Box or a store-bought urinal to be art until Andy Warhol and Marcel Duchamp (respectively) placed them in the context of art (i. Functionalists like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether or not a piece counts as art depends on what . Leo Tolstoy. Brian Massumi brought back "beauty" into consideration together with "expression". A further approach. the art gallery). Furthermore. or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities." is that of the "sublime." (in McLuhan’s theory) can replace the previous role of beauty. on the other hand. perhaps called applied art. which then provided the association of these objects with the associations that define art. or to draw the audience towards consideration of the “finer” things." elaborated upon in the twentieth century by the postmodern philosopher Jean-François Lyotard. philosophers. many books and journal articles have been published arguing over even the basics of what we mean by the term “art”. not by the intention of its creator. Some thinkers. intending them as shorthand notes to help him write a longer article later. if the skill is being used in a functional object. anthropologists. or contrariwise these may be defended as art forms. are by no means essential to it. as important to the philosophy of art as "beauty.[66] Another view. he writes. psychologists and programmers all use the notion of art in their respective fields. and many later art movements struggled against this conception that beauty was central to the definition of art. Perhaps art should be thought of as a cluster of related concepts in a Wittgensteinian fashion (as in Weitz or Beuys). If a poet writes down several lines. intending them as a poem. Often.” Here we mean that skill is being used to express the artist’s creativity. and thus that anything that wasn't trying to be beautiful couldn't count as art. elaborated by André Malraux [67] in works such as The Voices of Silence.[68] Perhaps (as in Kennick's theory) no definition of art is possible anymore. the very procedure by which it is written makes it a poem. these would not be a poem. 'is an 'anti-destiny').[62] Theodor Adorno claimed in 1969 “It is self-evident that nothing concerning art is self-evident. Stravinsky. Harmony of colors The main recent sense of the word “art” is roughly as an abbreviation for creative art or “fine art. This "institutional definition of art" (see also Institutional Critique) has been championed by George Dickie. and has continued to evolve during the 20th century as well. according to Danto. while art has sometimes been oriented towards beauty and the sublime (principally in post-Renaissance European art) these qualities. for instance. and give it operational definitions that vary considerably. claims that what decides whether or not something is art is how it is experienced by its audience.. is that art is fundamentally a response to a metaphysical question ('Art'. a suggestion which is highly disputed by many Contemporary Craft thinkers. have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with [65] Art usually implies no function other than the actual function of the object than any clear definitional difference.

creative goals. film. how are we to think of the work of art? Is it a physical object? Several objects? A class of objects? A mental object? A fictional object? An abstract object? An event? Or simply an Act? What should art be like? Many goals have been argued for art. the whole performance. and even more perceptual or aesthetic goals have all been popular pictures of what art should be like. and all three can be judged. yet the conceptual move of exhibiting these boxes as art in a museum together with other kinds of paintings is Warhol's. ' 59 What should we judge when we judge art? Art can be difficult at the metaphysical and ontological levels as well as at the value theory level. philosophical goals. Similar problems arise for music. but are to be judged by different standards. which is also distinct from the performance of the play by this troupe on this night. Are we judging Warhol’s concept? His execution of the concept in the medium? The curator’s insight in letting Warhol display the boxes? The overall result? Our experience or interpretation of the result? Ontologically. Warhol’s famous Brillo Boxes are nearly indistinguishable from actual Brillo boxes at the time. Perhaps the manuscript by Shakespeare is a distinct work of art from the play by the troupe. aggressive complete madness of a world abandoned to the hands of bandits. argued in 1960 that each artistic medium should seek that which makes it unique among the possible mediums and then purify itself of anything other than expression of its own uniqueness as a form. These problems have been made even more difficult by the rise of conceptual art since the 1960s. spiritual goals. and which should we judge? Perhaps there is only one relevant work of art. “We must sweep and clean. and aestheticians often argue that some goal or another is superior in some way. Affirm the cleanliness of the individual after the state of madness. the work of the painter. and even painting.[69] The Dadaist Tristan Tzara on the other hand saw the function of art in 1918 as the destruction of a mad social order. for instance. Clement Greenberg. and which will exist briefly and then disappear. Is one to judge the painting itself. . When we see a performance of Hamlet. Perhaps every person involved should be judged separately on his or her own merits. self-expression. dance. and each costume or line is its own work of art (with perhaps the director having the job of unifying them all). or perhaps the painting in its context of presentation by the museum workers? Nature provides aesthetic ideals. and an artistic function in another context (helping us to appreciate the beauty of the human figure).Aesthetics function it plays in a particular context. It would be a mistake to praise Warhol for the design of his boxes (which were designed by Steve Harvey).”[70] Formal goals. how many works of art are we experiencing. the same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context (carrying wine). political goals. which many different people have contributed to.

Art is politics by other means. Nonutilitarian pleasure. hands on to others feelings he has lived through. art is both useless in a functional sense. or enculturation. and/or for individuals beyond the audience? Is the "value" of art different in each of these different contexts? Working on the intended value of art tends to help define the relations between art and other acts.Aesthetics 60 The value of art Tolstoy defined art (and by no coincidence also characterized its value) as the following: "Art is a human activity consisting in this. proceeds that. People enjoy art for art's sake. Art clearly does have spiritual goals in many contexts.[71] Aesthetic universals The philosopher Denis Dutton identified six universal signatures in human aesthetics:[72] 1. 4. if some external force presenting imminent destruction of Earth asked humanity what its value was—what should humanity's response be? The argument continues that the only justification humanity could give for its continued existence would be the past creation and continued creation of things like a Shakespeare play. recognize. used in the fictional work The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Another problem is that Dutton's categories seek to universalise traditional European notions of aesthetics and art forgetting that. The suggestion is that these are the things of value which define humanity. For example. People make a point of judging. and don't demand that it keep them warm or put food on the table. Art makes us more moral. In any case. and interpreting works of art. as André Malraux and others have pointed out. Expertise or virtuosity. Do they differ significantly in their values. Style. one ought to ask: for whom? For the artist? For the audience? For society at large. that there are rather too many exceptions to Dutton's categories. Criticism. Art is set aside from ordinary life and made a dramatic focus of experience.[73] . or (if not) in their ability to achieve the unitary value of art? But to approach the question of the value of art systematically. but such objects often had (and sometimes still have) specific devotional functions. Art has the value of allowing catharsis. then. It uplifts us spiritually. however. is one with the value of empathy. With a few important exceptions like abstract painting. 2. and that other people are infected by these feelings and also experience them. but what exactly is the difference between religious art and religion per se? The truth is complex. some of Dutton's categories seem too broad: a physicist might entertain hypothetical worlds in his/her imagination in the course of formulating a theory. a Rembrandt painting or a Bach concerto. Art serves as a tool of education. the value of art may determine the suitability of an art form. 3. Moreover. Other possible views are these: Art can act as a means to some special kind of knowledge. Humans cultivate. Artistic objects and performances satisfy rules of composition that place them in a recognizable style. It might be objected. "Rules of composition" that might be read into Duchamp's Fountain or John Cage's 4′33″ do not locate the works in a recognizable style (or certainly not a style recognizable at the time of the works' realisation). that one man consciously. the installations of the contemporary artist Thomas Hirschhorn deliberately eschew technical virtuosity. Imitation. 5. An argument for the value of art. or indoctrination. there have been large numbers of cultures in which such ideas (including the idea "art" itself) were non-existent. and admire technical artistic skills. Art relates to science and religion. 6. appreciating. and also the most important human activity. Special focus. People can appreciate a Renaissance Madonna for aesthetic reasons. Art may give insight into the human condition. works of art simulate experiences of the world." The value of art. by means of certain external signs.

Frima Fox. utm. let. Walter B. ix [5] Review (http:/ / www. David L. (ed. No. EJOS (Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies) (http:/ / www2. org/ pss/ 425879?searchUrl=/ action/ doBasicSearch?acc=off& Query=%22the+ making+ one+ of+ opposites%22+ Eli+ Siegel& gw=jtx& prq=%22All+ beauty+ is+ a+ making+ one+ of+ opposites%22+ Eli+ Siegel& Search=Search& hp=25& wc=on& acc=off& Search=yes) [16] "The Aesthetic Attitude" (http:/ / www. Nick. uu. pp. Expression after Deleuze and Guattari. NJ: Princeton University Press. 541–550 [30] A. jstor. A Shock to Thought.com" (http:/ / www. 1984. Princeton. Seventh Edition. Jean-Françoise. Roberts. Edward. htm Derek Allan. W. 1-24. [24] Freud. Penelope J. utoronto. stanford. Joseph. 1955. in The Postmodern Condition. Janson's History of Art. [2] Definition 1 of aesthetics (http:/ / www. Steve Mwai. Number 1. Norton & Company. au/ derek. 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He argues that Kant's "aesthetic" merely represents an experience that is the product of an elevated class habitus and scholarly leisure as opposed to other possible and equally valid "aesthetic" experiences which lay outside Kant's narrow definition. Love and Beauty. p." International Revue of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music. or other interpretations such as other phenomenon which may not be considered as "art". References [1] "Merriam-Webster. org/ artdoc/ vol18/ iss2/ 01. jstor. Minnesota and Manchester.). 63 no. NJ: Princeton University Press. "Donald Francis Tovey. Simon. Maurice (1964). com/ books?id=rpUuqLPPKK4C& dq=wijdan& printsec=frontcover& source=web& ots=QXySmKzsy6& sig=a9V6tTTfsrTT5Ex01QGnwrL7XYY). uu. 2002. in Theory. 02-28-2003/10-22-2007. London: The Hogarth Press [25] Merleau-Ponty. [27] Guy Sircello. 17:234-36. Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Work of Sigmund Freud. . 1992. Princeton. 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Rodopi.M. New York. [70] Tristan Tzara. Dallas (1866)..). NY. • Mario Costa (1999) (in Italian). 2009) [69] Clement Greenberg.worldcatlibraries. Esthétique de l'éphémère. Science and their philosophies) • John Bender and Gene Blocker Contemporary Philosophy of Art: Readings in Analytic Aesthetics 1993. 1997. Robert M. Art History and Visual Studies. Fink. Dordrecht / Heidelberg / London / New York 2010. (Amsterdam: Rodopi. • Ayn Rand. Art and the Human Adventure. 2009) Further reading • Chung-yuan. "Modernist Painting". 2005. • Christine Buci-Glucksmann (2003). Vol. New York: Harper Torchbooks. Ill. 2006. ISBN 0-300-09789-1 • Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher (eds. (1997). 1971 • Derek Allan (http://www. Massachusetts: October Books/MIT Press. M. Lectures on Fine Art. on the aesthetics of poetry. Art. (Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 0-262-01226-X . Chang (1963/1970). Aesthetics. ISBN 88-8210-165-7. Art and the Human Adventure. Blackwell. T. Edited by Hans Rainer Sepp and Lester Embree..org/oclc/1125858&referer=brief_results) (Cambridge. 63 [71] The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Women Artists at the Millenium. com.au/derek.netspeed. The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature. Search for the real. • Handbook of Phenomenological Aesthetics. Bartlett H Hayes.allan/default. 59) Springer. Mass. Andre Malraux's Theory of Art. 2002. Sept Manifestes Dada. (Series: Contributions To Phenomenology. netspeed. (French) • Noël Carroll (2000). 1967) OCLC 1125858 • Michael Ann Holly and Keith Moxey (eds. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-631-16302-6 • Feagin and Maynard (1997). Milan: Castelvecchi. and other essays (http://www. Clement (1960). Addison Gallery of American Art. S. Munich. 85-92. Einführung in die Ästhetik. • Greenberg. 2 volumes. by Douglas Adams [72] Denis Dutton's Aesthetic Universals summarized by Steven Pinker in The Blank Slate [73] Derek Allan. Aesthetics. • Penny Florence and Nicola Foster (eds. trans. W. • Benedetto Croce (1922). • Danto.htm). London: Routledge. Press. Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic. Theories of Art Today. University of Minnesota Press. Aesthetics: A Reader in the Philosophy of the Arts. André Malraux’s Theory of Art. "Routledge Companion to Aesthetics". Aesthetic Theory. • David Goldblatt and Lee Brown. and Poetry. Yale University Press. 2 vols. The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art.. The New Story of Science: mind and the universe. Creativity and Taoism.Aesthetics [67] http:/ / home. The Collected Essays and Criticism 1957–1969.com. ISBN 0-89526-833-7 (has significant material on Art. New American Library. c1984. George N. Avanguardie e tecnologia. • Evelyn Hatcher (ed. L’estetica dei media.home. London: Ashgate. “On Modernist Painting”.: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X • Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes (eds. • Stephen Davies (1991). Adorno. 2009 • Augros. • E. A Study of Chinese Philosophy. Galilée.). Minneapolis. Definitions of Art.). The University of Chicago Press. Stanciu. ed.). • Hans Hofmann and Sara T Weeks. Differential Aesthetics. Arthur (2003).) (2000). Art and the Human Adventure: André Malraux's Theory of Art.I. ISBN 0-06-131968-6. Lake Bluff. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-90-481-2470-1 • Theodor W. 1999 • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1975). 1993. allan/ default. Open Court.T. Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art. Oxford Readers. htm [68] Derek Allan. The Gay Science. au/ derek. Knox. ISBN 0-415-32798-9 • Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert (1995). The Ideology of the Aesthetic. • Terry Eagleton (1990).

depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Aesthetics (http://www. • Elaine Scarry.Aesthetics • Kant. Routledge. • Alan Singer and Allen Dunn (eds. 555. Penguin Classics. Blackwell Publishing Limited. Translated by Werner S. Space and the Archive. New York. • Martinus Nijhoff. The Postmodern Condition.) Art and Thought. On the Aesthetic Education of Man. The Sense of Beauty. pp. 1998 • Lyotard. London-NewYork.ac. R. ISBN 978-0-19-511307-5. • Richard Wollheim. 100 b/w photos. or hardback first edition ISBN 0-688-00230-7 • Griselda Pollock. 4 voll. Valentine. Aesthetics: The Big Questions. • John Whitehead. Art and its objects. Penguin. 2001. Pluhar. 2004. sociological. • Søren Kierkegaard (1843). On Beauty and Being Just. Hackett Publishing Co. Continuum. 1980. • Mario Perniola. 42(2) 182-8. ISBN 0-415-41374-5. 1966. • Ludwig Wittgenstein. translated by Massimo Verdicchio. 2004. 1987. • Kelly. Immanuel (1790). Grasping for the Wind. Oxford. London. The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics. 3 vols. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values. 1980. Mouton. • Markand Thakar Looking for the 'Harp' Quartet: An Investigation into Musical Beauty. Michael (Editor in Chief) (1998) Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. (1795). 572." Lanham MD: Lexington: 2007. A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics.). Beginning Aesthetics: An Introduction To The Philosophy of Art. ISBN 978-0-631-20869-3 • Władysław Tatarkiewicz. "Aesthetics: A Lost Cause in Cartographic Theory?" The Cartographic Journal. • Robert Pirsig.Silverman. Being the Outlines of Aesthetic Theory. The Nature of Art. 2000. translated by Alastair Hannay. 2006. Oxford. What Is Art?. 1966 64 . ISBN 0-415-14128-1. • Thomas Wartenberg. "Does Art Think?" In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds. 2011. Princeton. • The London Philosophy Study Guide (http://www.uk/ philosophy/LPSG/Aesthetics. psychology and religious belief. • George Santayana (1896) .htm) • John M. Modern Library. 536. McGraw-Hill. Northwestern University Press. • Alexander J. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. The Hague. ISBN 0-631-22715-6. 2001. Blackwell. and biographical aspects of Art and Aesthetics worldwide. pp. The Visible and the Invisible.. 2nd edn. History of Aesthetics. Jean-François (1979).).ac. 2224 total pages. foreword by Hugh J. University of Rochester Press. Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts. 1974). 1970. paperpack. Cambridge University Press. The Hague. • Leo Tolstoy. ISBN 978-0-691-08959-1 • Friedrich Schiller. ISBN 978-0-07-353754-2 • von Vacano. historical. 2005. The Art and Its Shadow. Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time. 1992 • Peter Kivy (ed. Diego. 2007. Kent. 1996. Lectures on aesthetics.uk/philosophy/LPSG/) offers many suggestions on what to read. Maurice (1969).). Routledge. 2006. • Merleau-Ponty. pp. Covers philosophical. New York.ucl. 2004 • Carolyn Korsmeyer (ed.ucl.. XVII-521. 1984. Literary Aesthetics: A Reader. Manchester University Press. 1974. • Griselda Pollock. 2003. • Griselda Pollock. • David Novitz (1992). The Boundaries of Art. Either/Or. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. Dover Publications. "The Art of Power: Machiavelli. 3. 1995. Nietzsche and the Making of Aesthetic Political Theory. Aesthetic Enjoyment: Its Background in Philosophy and Medicine.. 1955. K. pp. ISBN 0-521-29706-0 • Sen. Critique of Judgement. (1–2. 129-174. Oxford University Press.

edu/entries/aesthetic-concept) Aesthetics (http://www.iep.Aesthetics 65 External links • • • • • • • • • • • Aesthetics (https://inpho.edu/aestheti) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Revue online Appareil (http://revues.pdf) Aether (classical element) Classical Elements Babylonian Earth Sea Fire Wind Sky Greek Air Water Aether Fire Earth Hinduism (Tattva) Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Jainism (Tattva) Vayu Ap Akasha Agni Prithvi Chinese (Wuxing) .stanford.ditext.rep.com/index.utm.saylor.html) Aesthetics in Art Education: A Look Toward Implementation (http://www.org/pre-9219/art.Some Old Problems in New Perspectives (http://www.php?title=Philosophy_of_Aesthetics) entry in the Philosophy Archive Washington State Board for Community & Technical Colleges: Introduction to Aesthetics (http://www.org/appareil/index.info/de/ Revised_interpretation_of_founding's_and_concepts_through_an_history_of_aesthetics) The Concept of the Aesthetic (http://plato.kunstbewegung.indiana.philosophyarchive.mshparisnord.com/article/M046) entry in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Philosophy of Aesthetics (http://www. org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Module-1.cogs.php?id=61) Postscript 1980.ericdigests.org/browse/aesthetics) at PhilPapers Aesthetics (http://www.com/anka/beardsley/post.htm) An history of aesthetics (http://www.edu/taxonomy/2247) at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project Aesthetics (http://philpapers.routledge.

See also Empyrean. meaning "people with a burnt (black) visage". is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. imagined in Greek mythology to be the pure essence where the gods lived and which they breathed. . to shine" (related is the name Aithiopes (Ethiopians)). It is related to αἴθω "to incinerate". also spelled æther or ether. analogous to the air breathed by mortals (also personified as a deity. Mythological origins The word αἰθήρ (aithēr) in Homeric Greek means "pure.[2] also intransitive "to burn. the son of Erebus and Nyx).Aether (classical element) 66 Wood (木 ) Water (水 ) Metal (金 ) Earth (土 ) Fire (火 ) Japanese (Godai) Air (風 ) Water Void Fire (水 ) (空 ) (火 ) Earth (地 ) Tibetan (Bön) Air Water Aether Fire Earth Medieval Alchemy Air (瀐) Water (瀐) Aether Fire (瀐) (瀐) Earth (瀐) Sulphur Mercury Salt (瀐) (瀐) According to ancient and medieval science aether (Greek αἰθήρ aithēr[1]). fresh air" or "clear sky". Aether.

[12] . However. However. In Aristotle's system aether had no qualities (was neither hot. These aether theories are considered to be scientifically obsolete. especially of the medical sort. medicine or the philosopher’s stone itself.Aether (classical element) 67 Fifth element In Plato's Timaeus (St-55c) Plato described aether as "that which God used in the delineation of the universe. on the principle that the four terrestrial elements were subject to change and moved naturally in straight lines while no change had been observed in the celestial regions and the heavenly bodies moved in circles. was incapable of change (with the exception of change of place).[8] The term has over the years become synonymous with elixirs. a 15th century English translation of a continental text. motion. In it. and by its nature moved in circles. as it implied that the empty space between objects had its own physical properties.[3] Medieval scholastic philosophers granted aether changes of density. in which the bodies of the planets were considered to be more dense than the medium which filled the rest of the universe.[5] See also Arche. or fifth element. and had no contrary. attributed to Raymond Lull and written in the early 14th century. was a term used by medieval alchemists for a substance similar or identical to that thought to make up the heavenly bodies. concerning the aether as penetrative and non-material. in honor of the models.[10] Despite the early modern aether models being superseded by general relativity.[9] Legacy With the 18th century physics developments some physical models known as "aether theories" made use of a similar concept as an explanation for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces. Alchemy then dealt with the isolation and use of this fifth element. or unnatural.[6] This theory was developed in the text “The testament of Lullius”. wet.[7] The idea spread with rapidity through Europe and was popular with later alchemists. the quintessence is used as a medicine for man’s illnesses. as the development of special relativity showed that Maxwell's equations do not require the aether for the transmission of these forces. Fludd cites the 3rd century view of Plotinus. This can be seen in “The book of Quintessence”. The quintessence. the early modern aether had little in common with the aether of classical elements from which the name was borrowed. meaning that things on earth could be affected by what happened in the heavens. Einstein himself noted that his own model which replaced these theories could itself be thought of as an aether. classical element. as used in alchemy The quintessence. cold. and instructions are given for making it from seven times distilled alcohol. occasionally some physicists have attempted to reintroduce the concept of an aether in an attempt to address perceived deficiencies in current physical [11] One proposed model of dark energy has been named "quintessence" by its proponents. It was proposed that a little of the quintessence was present in things on earth.[4] Robert Fludd stated that the aether was of the character that it was "subtler than light". or dry)." Aristotle (Plato's student at the Akademia) included aether in the system of the classical elements of Ionian philosophy as the "fifth element" (the quintessence).

with mild. [6] The Alchemists. arXiv:astro-ph/9807002.. [2] Pokorny. E. the south of Peloponnese. by F.v. British Museum . Grant. 1968. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 906. Paul: "Is there an Aether?". Steinhardt. R. ISBN 0618701729. by F. London. ai-dh-. [12] Zlatev. 422-428. and Crete are more dry than the rest of Greece. Pr. 2006. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.896Z. Pr. Attica. Agriculture in ancient Greece Agriculture was the foundation of the Ancient Greek economy. Physical Review Letters 82 (5): 896–899. P. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. & Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos. frost-free temperatures. London. Albert: "Ether and the Theory of Relativity" (1920). (1999).[1] Environment The Mediterranean climate is characterized by two seasons: the first dry and hot. pp. "Mosaical Philosophy". L. Pg 221.. Cyclades. As such in the mountains winters can be rigorous and snowy. republished in Sidelights on Relativity (Methuen. pp. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. "Quintessence. Planets.82. Sherwood Taylor page 95 [7] The Alchemists. 1659.82. Nearly 80% of the population was involved in this activity. the second is humid.1103/PhysRevLett. s. Agricultural products Harvesting olives. doi:10. from April to September (river beds tend to dry up). Wang. 1994.. by Mark Haeffner [10] Einstein. 1200-1687.896. 1922) [11] Dirac.. edited by F. and is marked by often violent rain storms brought in by west winds.. and the Cosmological Constant". I. Humphrey Moseley. Julius (1959). [3] G.Aether (classical element) 68 References [1] "ether". Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. ISBN 0-521-09456-9. Early English Text society original series number 16. Bibcode 1999PhRvL. Lloyd ). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed. J. Sherwood Taylor page 95 [8] The book of Quintessence. [5] Robert Fludd. 133-139. ISBN 0-521-56509-X. Stars. [4] E..). Furnivall [9] The dictionary of alchemy. p. Cosmic Coincidence. Nature 168 (1951).

and diet . seen as a sign of power and wealth in the works of Homer. wool. Stamped Stater. Bronze billygoat found in the deme of Kephissia. Animal husbandry Animal husbandry. lentils. Attempts have been made to calculate Attican grain production in the period. the practice was restricted as a result of geographic expansion into less suitable terrain. Louvre Horses were raised on the plains of Thessaly and Argolis. signifying aristocracy. Oxen were rare and normally used as a work animal. An [3] inscription also mentions a certain Eubolos of Elateia. It did not take long for demand to outpace production c. the growing of barley was less demanding and more productive. illustrates the equestrian snobbery of Athenian aristocrats: Pheidippides. been conclusive. as arable land was limited. Combined farm/livestock operations also existed. Pork and poultry (chicken and geese) were also raised. oregano). symbol of wealth in the city of Metapontum. could in fact designate any type of cereal grain). The "tightness" of the land (στενοχωρία / stenokhôría) also explains Greek colonization. in Phocis. Greek agriculture . garlic. 5th century BCE. The Clouds. and the importance Anatolian cleruchies would have for the Athenian empire in controlling grain provision. mules and their mixes were raised as pack or draught animals.Agriculture in ancient Greece 69 Farming During the early part of Greek history. chick pea. sesame. thyme. capabilities. 530–510 BCE. Grapes have been grown since the Bronze age. but results have not An ear of barley. and poppy were also grown. . the son of the hero is addicted to race-horses and so ruins his father Strepsiades. These core crops were augmented by vegetable gardens (cabbage. a comedy by Aristophanes. Orchards included those of fig. and milk (usually in the form of cheese). Olive plantations are a long-term investment: it takes more than twenty years for the tree to provide fruit. Taxes existed for the transit or stopover of flocks in cities. Donkeys. The growing of olive trees dates back to early Greek history. Flocks of sheep were herded between the valley in winter and the mountains in summer. apple. but demand a lot of care. Grapes also do well in the rocky soil. Oilseed plants such as linseed.was based on cereals (sitos. While the Mycenean civilisation was familiar with the rearing of cattle. Goats and sheep quickly became the most common livestock. less difficult to raise and providers of meat. and pear trees. onion. as well as those specializing in livestock. which provided olive oil. though usually translated as wheat. and it only fruits every other year. it was a luxury animal. In reality. as shown in the Odyssey. savory. Magna Graecia. mint. 90% of cereal production was barley. It is likely that most farms practiced some limited animal husbandry. beans) and herb [2] gardens (sage. Even if the ancients were aware of the better nutritional value of wheat. almond. the Greek land was well suited for olive trees. poultry or small animals grazing on waste land or fed kitchen scraps. though they were occasionally used as sacrificial animals (see Hecatomb). the owner of 220 head of cattle and horses and at least 1000 sheep and goats. On the other hand. was in fact not well developed in ancient Greece.

This was also the time for pruning of trees and vines and harvesting of legumes. The Greek forests located in the highlands were denuded by goats and charcoal production. irrigation was indispensable. possibly due to the low number of cattle. they harvested with sickles. Wheat was threshed with animal power. They were placed in wicker baskets and left to ferment for a few weeks before being pressed. The Hymettus region of Attica was known for the quality of honey produced there. 8th century BCE and Xenophon's Economy of the 4th century BCE provide information about working off the land. The olive. primarily for domestic use. To do this required three passes. while winters were mild on the coast they could be brutal in the highlands. either by hand or by pole. Euboea In summer. The screw press. They practised biennial crop rotation. . people could drink the ambrosial wine and enjoy it. although referred to as the Greek press by Pliny the Elder (XVIII. and absence of mechanization. This was the time of the grape harvest. The only soil additive was weeds ploughed back into the ground after fields came out of fallow. the scythe was not used. A hoe and mallet were also used to break clumps of earth. it was trampled by oxen. and the grain stored. they collected deadfall and prepared supplies of firewood. Spring was the rainy season. Bronze was used for farm tools and weaponry. After that process. Women and slaves ground it and made bread. it was not long before it had to be imported especially for ship production (see trireme). a foundation of Greek agriculture — here in Karystos. the only source of sugar known to the Greeks. It also was used in medicines and in the production of mead. ran into problems due to the poor Greek soil. The Greeks did not use animal manure. donkeys or mules. the ard plough was wooden (iron ploughshares were rare). Attempts to introduce triennial crop rotation with legumes in the third year.Agriculture in ancient Greece 70 Other products Wood was exploited. or light plough. homes and wagons were made of wood as was the aratrum. used in the lost wax process to produce bronze statues as well as in medicines. alternating from year to year between fallow and cultivated. the grapes were crushed by foot in large vats then the wine was left to ferment in jugs. 37) was a late (2nd century BCE) Roman invention. The Ancient Greeks did not have access to sugarcane. Agricultural work Hesiod's Works and Days. In June.[4] Wax was also produced. Oil was preserved in terra cotta vases for use later. Beekeeping provided honey. Farmers also had to break the hard crust that had formed over the summer on grain fields. farmers took advantage of this to bring fallow ground back into production. In early autumn. The fallow land for next year was sown by hand. lack of power. The olive harvest took place from late autumn to the beginning of winter.

land remains intimately associated with the concept of wealth. such as that of Messinia was capable of supporting two crops per year. and a few areas where aerial surveys have permitted analysis of historical land distribution. who were finding it more and more difficult to survive. no improvements can be found in agriculture. 71 Satyrs making wine. The father of Demosthenes possessed 14 talents and for land owned only a home. the land has passed into the hands of a few (Politics. 1270a). nor animal husbandry saw notable advances. Each city possessed such land and it is estimated that in Athens during the classical period these lands represented a tenth of cultivable land.Agriculture in ancient Greece In the nearly four centuries that passed between Hesiod and Xenophon. whereas in Thessaly they had single tenants. In Athens. in Attica domains were divided among smaller plots. It took until the Middle Ages for true plows which turned the earth to be widely adopted. including in Sparta where according to Aristotle. land use varied regionally. the crisis was resolved with the arrival of Solon in 594 BCE. but he was the exception. tyrants undertook redistributions of land seized from wealthy political enemies. National Archaeological Museum of Athens Agricultural property With the exception of Athens. agricultural property allocation is not well known. When the banker Pasion made his fortune. Nevertheless. 123c). Tools remained mediocre and there were no inventions to lighten the work of either man or animal. the wealthy Alcibiades possessed only 28 hectares (Plato. it is certain that the land belonged to great landowners. 1 Alcibiades. II. employing hydraulic power to augment muscle power. nor soil improvements. . Only the very richest of land. He forbade slavery for debt and introduced other measures intended to help the peasants. the reforms of Lycurgus led to a drastic redistribution of land. the aristocratic estates in Greece never achieved the scope of the great Roman latifundia. From the 4th century BCE onwards property starts to become concentrated among few land owners. the practice of liturgy ( λειτουργία / leitourgia . In the 5th century BCE. "public work") placed the responsibility for provision of public services heavily on the shoulders of the rich. It was not until the rise of Romans that the water mill came into wide use. Neither irrigation. These lands were leased to individuals. In Sparta. during the classical period. Before the 5th century BCE. dionysianbas-relief from altar of unknown date. Some Greek land was public and/or sacred.[5] Nevertheless.[6] In all cases. tensions grew between the great landowners and the peasants. it was a deme) or a temple. From the 8th century BCE. Elsewhere. It is estimated that most citizens of hoplite rank owned around 5 hectares of land. and aggravated by the practice of equally subdividing land amongst several inheritors each generation (attested to by both Homer and Hesiod).literally. he hurried to buy land. This was an administrative division and the property of the city itself (for example in Attica. This can probably be explained by population growth brought on by reduced infant mortality. such as the Attican Eupatrides. with 10 to 18 hectare lots (kleroi) distributed to each citizen. and led to a reduction in large scale land ownership.

2002 (ISBN 2-251-41012-0) . 69–94. coll. tufts. L'Économie des cités grecques. Skydsgaard.M. p. (French)Anne-Marie Buttin. Annie Schnapp-Gourbeillon. « U ». Vol. Rites et rythmes agraires. L'élevage en Grèce (fin Ve . Ellipses.C. • (French)Le Pain et l'huile dans la Grèce antique. (ISBN 2-910023-34-6). 0176. p. Mouton. Leopold.Agriculture in ancient Greece 72 Notes [1] As estimated by L. Signe Isager and Jens E. coll.fr/cercam/article. 21. • (French)L'emprunt public dans les cités grecques. Routledge. 01. 01.query=section%3D%23100. Paris. .univ-montp3. L'emprunt public dans les cités grecques. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. (French) Christophe Chandezon (http://recherche. Belles Lettres. 1984. Maison Orient-Méditerrannée. coll. 1975 . 2003.41 [3] Migeotte. Armand Colin. • (French)Claude Mossé. Rackham 1944 online at http:/ / www. Ancient Greek Agriculture: An Introduction. [2] Signe Isager and Jens E. Paris: De Boccard. Routledge. « Antiquité : une histoire ».layout=. Lyon-Paris. 8 trans W. Recueil des documents et analyse critique.fin Ier S. Ancient Greek Agriculture: An Introduction. trans H. 2002 (ISBN 2-7298-0849-3). Migeotte. tufts. Léopold Migeotte : • • • • • • • (French)L'économie des cités greques. Québec-Paris. Paris. (French)Moses Finley. La Grèce classique.1. Bilan des recherches de la dernière décennie". Recueil des documents et analyse critique.): l'apport des sources épigraphiques. 1995 (ISBN 0-415-11671-6) .R.. perseus. Quebec-Paris..loc=Alc. 0058& query=book%3D%232& chunk=book accessed 10 June 2006 [6] Plato in Twelve Volumes. Précis d'histoire grecque. 2003 (2nd ed) (ISBN 2-200-26562-X). edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999. 1991 . 1986 . perseus. 463 p. 4 (1994). Sphinx and Belles Lettres editions. [4] Strabo. 1995 (ISBN 0-415-11671-6) p. (French)Marie-Claire Cauvin. Belles Lettres. 123d accessed 10 June 2006 Bibliography • Marie-Claire Amouretti : • (French)"L'agriculture de la Grèce antique. éditions du Sphinx et Belles Lettres. Geography 9. 55. De l'araire au moulin. 1984 . Orient-Occident. Paris-La Haye. "Guide Belles Lettres des civilisations". a.php3?id_article=391). Lamb 1955 online at http:/ / www. %201.. Vol.23 [5] Aristotle in 23 Volumes. Topoi. Le Problème de la terre en Grèce ancienne. Skydsgaard.

Air (classical element) 73 Air (classical element) Classical Elements Babylonian Earth Sea Fire Wind Sky Greek Air Water Aether Fire Earth Hinduism (Tattva) Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Jainism (Tattva) Vayu Ap Akasha Agni Prithvi Chinese (Wuxing) Wood (木 ) Water (水 ) Metal (金 ) Earth (土 ) Fire (火 ) Japanese (Godai) Air (風 ) Water Void Fire (水 ) (空 ) (火 ) Earth (地 ) Tibetan (Bön) .

He also said of air that its minuscule components are so smooth that one can barely feel them. hermaphrodite (combining the masculine quality of heat with the feminine quality of moisture).[3] A similar belief was attributed by some ancient sources to Diogenes Apolloniates (late 5th century BCE).[7] In ancient Greek medicine.[8] . and earth. each of the four humours became associated with an element.. water. Anaximenes (mid-6th century BCE) named air as the arche. the sanguine temperament (of a person dominated by the blood humour). Empedocles’ roots became the four classical elements of Greek philosophy. and aether meant the bright upper atmosphere above the clouds. According to Aristotle. the Platonic solid associated with air is the octahedron which is formed from eight equilateral triangles. Aristotle definitively separated air from aether. Air was one of many archai proposed by the Pre-socratics. where it formed celestial spheres. Greek and Roman tradition Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and science. all derived from the Latin spirare. Ancient and modern opinions differ as to whether he identified air by the divine name Hera. For him. 435 BCE) selected four archai for his four roots: Air. The four elements were arranged concentrically around the center of the universe to form the sublunary sphere. since it increased the qualities of heat and moisture. According to Plato.. and other kinds for which we have no name. Blood was the humor identified with air. almost divine substance that was found only in the heavens. it is associated with the octahedron.[4] Aristophanes parodied such teachings in his play The Clouds by putting a prayer to air in the mouth of Socrates. Its supposed fundamental importance to life can be seen in words such as aspire. his major cosmological dialogue. sharpness. who also linked air with intelligence and soul (psyche).[5] Plato (427-347 BCE) took over the four elements of Empedocles. but other sources claim that his arche was a substance between air and fire. perspire and spirit. In the Timaeus. for instance writes that "So it is with air: there is the brightest variety which we call aether. air is both hot and wet and occupies a place between fire and water among the elemental spheres. Other things associated with air and blood in ancient and medieval medicine included the season of spring. and ability to penetrate. aether was an unchanging. However. Aidoneus or even Zeus. inspire.[6] Plato's student Aristotle (384-322 BCE) developed a different explanation for the elements based on pairs of qualities. most of whom tried to reduce all things to a single substance.Air (classical element) 74 Air Water Aether Fire Earth Medieval Alchemy Air (瀐) Water (瀐) Aether Fire (瀐) (瀐) Earth (瀐) Sulphur Mercury Salt (瀐) (瀐) Air is often seen as a universal power or pure substance. air is considered to be both hot and wet. the muddiest which we call mist and darkness.[1] Plato. This places air between fire and water which Plato regarded as appropriate because it is intermediate in its mobility. Empedocles of Acragas (c. and the northern point of the compass. fire. 495-c."[2] Among the early Greek Pre-Socratic philosophers.. The ancient Greeks used two words for air: aer meant the dim lower atmosphere. since both were hot and wet.

is a fundamental concept of traditional Chinese culture. Pavana पवन (meaning the Purifier). and 'Prāna' "breathing" (viz. In the Golden Dawn. 75 Indian tradition Chinese tradition Air is not one of the traditional five Chinese classical elements. the *an.[11] The elemental weapon of air is the dagger which must be painted yellow with magical names and sigils written upon it in violet. also known as Vāta वात. In Mandarin Chinese it is pronounced something like "chee" in English. In the Golden Dawn and many other magical systems. superficial. Nevertheless.[13] Air is considerable and it is referred to the upper left point of the pentagram in the Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentagram. spelled qì in Pinyin romanization and ch'i4 in Wade-Giles) or ki (in Japanese romanization). It is frequently translated as "energy flow".[16] . the king is Paralda. the ancient Chinese concept of Qi or chi is believed to be close to that of air. however. or literally as "air" or "breath".[15] Air is associated with the east. [10] others with wood due to Astrological personalities People born under the astrological signs of Gemini. founded in 1888.in 'animate').[9] or Prāna. The Sanskrit word 'Vāta' literally means "blown". As the words for air (Vāyu) or wind (Pavana) it is one of the Panchamahābhuta the "five great elements" in Hinduism. 'Vāyu' "blower". but the tongue position is different. Qi is believed to be part of every living thing that exists.GIF. Air personalities tend to be kind. cf. In Hinduism. which is guarded by the First Watchtower.) The concept of qi is often reified. (For example. Libra and Aquarius are thought to have dominant air personalities. intellectual. bisected by a horizontal line. Vayu (Sanskrit वायु ). they can also be selfish. is a primary deity. Some Western modern occultists equate the Chinese classical element of metal with air.[14] Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community. The archangel of air is Raphael. who is the father of Bhima and the spiritual Alchemical symbol for air father of Lord Hanuman. the elemental association of wind and wood in the ba gua.[12] Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings. the breath of life. and the air elementals (following Paracelsus) are called sylphs. incorporates air and the other Greek classical elements into its teachings. The element air also appears as a concept in the Buddhist religion which has an ancient history in China. vicious and very insensitive to other people's emotions. communicative and social. each element is associated with one of the cardinal points and is placed under the care of guardian Watchtowers. however no scientific evidence supports its existence. The Watchtowers derive from the Enochian system of magic founded by Dee. (See Media:Difficult Sounds. the angel is Chassan. Ceremonial magic The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. as a kind of "life force" or "spiritual energy". they are represented by the Enochian elemental tablets.Air (classical element) The alchemical symbol for air is an upward-pointing triangle. literally "sky breath". is the ordinary Chinese word for "weather"). Qi (Mandarin pronunciation: [tɕʰî]. "tiānqì". the ruler is Aral.

Kraig. 206-209. 17. Aristotle. [8] Londa Schiebinger. p. air is seen as the equivalent of wood. Golden Dawn. Wicca in particular was influenced by the Golden Dawn system of magic. 83. Valiente. p. 162. R. 66-82. This is still a matter of debate within the esoteric and Wiccan community. or http:/ / www. Guthrie. chapters 7-8. pp. [7] G. 1.322. 80. 2. p. Guthrie. Timaeus. He became an emblem of strength by virtue of his role in separating Nut from Geb. See Philip and Stephanie Carr-Gomm DruidCraft Tarot Handbook. chap. Other traditions Enlil was the god of air in ancient Sumer. Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] W. and Aleister Crowley's mysticism. vol. p. 64. Swords are traditionally associated with air and still are in most tarot decks. [9] The Book of Hindu Imagery: Gods. a yoke to the Hindus and for Greeks as a sword and in Christian iconography as mankind. study. [6] Plato. The Rebirth of Witchcraft. [11] Israel Regardie. 138-46. Shu was the ancient Egyptian god of air and the husband of Tefnut. p. pp. The Golden Dawn. however. 115-16. Modern Magick. A History of Greek Philosophy.[17] Common Wiccan attributions include: • • • • • • • • • Cardinal direction: East Season: Spring Time of life: Infancy Time of day: Sunrise Regent Planet: Mercury Elemental being: Sylph Colors: Yellow and white Magical tools: Sword Tarot reading: Wands or Swords in the Minor Arcana. [5] Guthrie.[18] • Altar tool: Incense • Masculine energy • Other: Correspondences include mind. which were spells intended to help the deceased reach the realm of the afterlife safely. pp. pp. Plato. [14] Regardie. 470-71. p. He played a primary role in the Coffin Texts. vol. Jonathan Barnes. [12] Regardie. 1. Plato’s Universe. Barnes. shtml Bob Brier. Guthrie suggests that Hera is the safest identification for air. [16] [17] [18] [19] Regardie. E. pp. vol. Modern Magick. Kraig. Timaeus. 115. pp. Golden Dawn. [13] Regardie. 27. 120-32. increasingly decks are being published with the Wands association. the spirit had to travel through the air as one spell indicates: "I have gone up in Shu. pp. 289-94. History of Greek Philosophy. 631. Early Greek Philosophy. consciousness and communications. On the way to the sky. 362-81. . 149-53. intellect. ch. [15] Doreen Valiente. 77-80. aeclectic. pp. net/ tarot/ learn/ meanings/ suits. 2. which was in turn inspired by the Golden Dawn. p. Golden Dawn. Modern Magick. Guthrie. 280-286. pp. Golden Dawn. 216-23. Gregory Vlastos.Air (classical element) 76 Modern witchcraft Air is one of the five elements that appear in most Wiccan and Pagan traditions. Air is represented in the Aztec religion by a snake to the Scythians. Ancient Egyptian Magic. C. 154-65. pp. I have climbed on the sunbeams. K. p."[19] In East Asia. 22-23. Witchcraft for Tomorrow. p. Lloyd. 466. vol. pp.128. pp. Hutton. goddess of moisture. 68 [10] Donald Michael Kraig. Manifestations and Their Meaning By Eva Rudy Jansen p.

Custer.edu/~mclennan/BA/AGEDE/Air.shtml) Elemental correspondences from Wicca: For the rest of us. Bob. Fire and Water: More Techniques of Natural Magic. The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. K. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scott.org/four_elements. Wash. Gregory.cs. The Golden Dawn. W. A History of Greek Philosophy. External links • The elements (http://wicca. Guthrie. Doreen. G.C.Air (classical element) 77 References and further reading • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Barnes. Regardie. 1975. Jonathan. Earth. Cunningham. Modern Magick: Eleven Lessons in the High Magickal Arts. Brier.html) Essay on Golden Dawn elemental tradition by V. London: Penguin. 1968. • The Four Elements In the Western Tradition (http://www. Starhawk. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.friesian. Frater I.net/elements. 1962-81. Kraig.: Phoenix Publishing. Revised edition. 2001. C.timerift. Lloyd. London: Penguin. 1989. 1989. 1999. Hutton. Doreen. St. Paul: Llewellyn. Paul: Llewellyn. Vlastos. Plato’s Universe.golden-dawn. 1978. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Different versions of the classical elements (http://www. 3rd edition. 1990. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. • The Elements:Air (http://www. Translated by Desmond Lee. Wash. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ancient Egyptian Magic. Londa. Donald Michael. 1980. Seattle: University of Washington Press.html) Neo-pagan version of "The Ancient Greek Esoteric Doctrine of the Elements" by John Opsopaus. Witchcraft for Tomorrow. E.com/elements. 1987. Schiebinger. 1977. Plato. Valiente.: Phoenix Publishing. Israel. New York: Quill.N. Ronald. St. The Rebirth of Witchcraft. Valiente. R.L. 6th edition.htm) . Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. 1994.utk. Early Greek Philosophy. Timaeus and Critias. 6 volumes. Custer. The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science. Air. 1999.

Kit Fine. Michael Dunn. Anderson and Belnap (with contributions from J. Meyer. Anil Gupta (logician). . Anderson was instrumental in the development of relevance logic and deontic logic. Anderson died of cancer in 1973. This is misleading at best. since alethic modal logics generally do not contain anything like Anderson's special v constant. somewhat ironically. be relevant to) the premises. he captured this "relevance condition" with the principle that A entails B only if A and B share at least one non-logical constant. implementing it in a formal system requires a radical departure from the semantics of classical logic. but had been unduly neglected since Gottlob Frege and George Boole laid the foundations for what would come to be known. Relevance logic Anderson believed that the conclusion of a valid inference ought to have something to do with (i. Formally. He developed systems of deontic relevance logic containing a special constant v (notation varies) for this purpose. Such systems have sometimes been characterized as "reductions" of deontic logic to alethic modal logic. however. (For an example of classical logic's failure to satisfy the relevance condition. as "classical" logic. see the article on the principle of explosion.) Deontic logic Anderson advocated the view that sentences of the form "It ought to be (the case) that A" should be interpreted logically as: • Not-A entails v. Robert K. Alasdair Urquhart. where v means something like a norm has been violated.e. As simple as this idea appears. Anderson and Belnap were quick to observe that the concept of relevance had been central to logic since Aristotle. and others) explored the formal consequences of the relevance condition in great detail in their influential Entailment books (see references below). which are the most frequently cited works in the field of relevance logic.Alan Ross Anderson 78 Alan Ross Anderson Alan Ross Anderson Born Died 1925 1973 Alan Ross Anderson (1925 – 1973) was an American logician and professor of philosophy at Yale University and the University of Pittsburgh. A frequent collaborator with Nuel Belnap.

ISBN 0-691-07339-2 • Mares. 1. E. R. Entailment: The Logic of Relevance and Necessity. R. D. he believed in "The One True Logic. Vol. Belnap. Andersonian deontic logic. N. 1992. A. N. • Anderson. 1967. D." and he believed that it was a relevance logic. and Belnap. 2. and Dunn. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Princeton: Princeton University Press. • Anderson. Theoria 58: 3-20.Alan Ross Anderson 79 Philosophy of logic Anderson was known for being a Platonist (or realist. D. J. Entailment: The Logic of Relevance and Necessity. Vol. or monist) about logic. . M. Resources • Anderson. R.. A.. Some nasty problems in the formal logic of ethics. Nous I(4): 345-60. 1975. 1992. A.

He has held the following positions: • • • • • • Professor of History and Ideas. and has a Master of Arts from the University of Manchester and from the University of Oxford. Brandeis University (1969 or 1970). Vanderbilt University (1985). Duke University (1995–1997). . Professor of Philosophy. and Boston University.Alasdair MacIntyre 80 Alasdair MacIntyre Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (Photo Credit: Sean O'Connor) Born 12 January 1929 Glasgow. Dean of the College of Arts and Professor of Philosophy. • Visiting scholar. He is Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Contemporary Aristotelian Studies in Ethics and Politics (CASEP) at London Metropolitan University. Professor of Philosophy. W. Duke University. Biography Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre was born 12 January 1929 in Glasgow. Yale University (1988). During his lengthy academic career. Wellesley College (1980). Metaethics. Political Philosophy Notable ideas Revival of Virtue ethics. he also taught at Brandeis University. to John and Emily (Chalmers) MacIntyre. He began his teaching career in 1951 at Manchester University. Vanderbilt University. and an Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. having taught at many universities in the US. Vanderbilt University (1982). London. Internal and External Goods Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 1929) is a Scottish[1] philosopher primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy but known also for his work in history of philosophy and theology. University of Notre Dame (1985). MacIntyre has been something of an intellectual nomad. Boston University (1972).[2] He taught at the University of Leeds. Scotland Western Philosophy Roman Catholicism Analytic Philosophy. Thomism Region Religion School Main interests Ethics. Henry Luce Professor. History of Ethics. Alton Jones Professor. before moving to the USA in around 1969. Notre Dame (1989). and • Arts & Sciences Professor of Philosophy. Whitney Humanities Center. • McMahon-Hank Professor of Philosophy. He was educated at Queen Mary College. the University of Essex and the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.

MacIntyre is concerned with reclaiming various forms of moral rationality and argumentation that claim neither ultimate finality nor incorrigible certainty (the mistaken project of the Enlightenment). and is a former president of the American Philosophical Association. More generally. Sartre and Stevenson). In April 2005 he was elected to the American Philosophical Society. who is also on the Philosophy faculty at Notre Dame.[5] By contrast. He does this by returning to the tradition of Aristotelian ethics with its teleological account of the good and moral persons. according to MacIntyre it is the case that moral disputes always take place within and between rival traditions of thought that make recourse to a store of ideas.[3] This "peculiarly modern understanding" largely concerns MacIntyre's approach to moral disputes. one of MacIntyre's major points in his most famous work. types of arguments and shared understandings and approaches that have been inherited from the past. he proposes. with whom he had a son and daughter. From 1953 to 1963 he was married to Ann Peri. both of how things are and how we ought to act. Following Hegel and Collingwood he offers a "philosophical history" (which he distinguishes from both analytical and phenomenological approaches to philosophy) in which he concedes from the beginning that "there are no neutral standards available by appeal to which any rational agent whatsoever could determine" the conclusions of moral philosophy. is that the failed attempt by various Enlightenment thinkers to furnish a final universal account of moral rationality led to the rejection of moral rationality altogether by subsequent thinkers such as Charles Stevenson. Although his project is largely characterized by an attempt to revive an Aristotelian conception of moral philosophy as sustained by the virtues. From 2000 he was the Rev. On MacIntyre's account. O'Brien Senior Research Professor in the Department of Philosophy (emeritus since 2010) at the University of Notre Dame. presuppositions. Jean-Paul Sartre. epistemic crisis. notions whose value can not be reduced to a common measure. but nevertheless do not simply bottom out into relativistic or emotivist denials of any moral rationality whatsoever (according to him. and fruitfulness. which was originally rejected by the Enlightenment and which reached a fuller articulation in the medieval writings of Thomas Aquinas. This Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition. Thus even though there is no definitive way for one tradition in moral philosophy to vanquish and exclude the possibility of another. 81 Philosophical Approach MacIntyre's approach to moral philosophy has a number of complex strains that inform it. and Friedrich Nietzsche.Alasdair MacIntyre He has also been a visiting professor at Princeton University. with whom he had two daughters. From 1963 to 1977 he was married to Susan Willans. MacIntyre presents a historical narration of the development of ethics in order to illuminate the modern problem of "incommensurable" moral notions—i. he was awarded the Aquinas Medal by the American Catholic Philosophical Association.[4] Indeed. John A.. the mistaken conclusion of Nietzsche. He has been married 3 times. He is also Professor Emerit and Emeritus at Duke University. it is especially Nietzsche's utter repudiation of the possibility of moral rationality that is the outcome of the Enlightenment's mistaken quest for a final and definitive argument that will settle moral disputes into perpetuity by power of a calculative reason alone and without use of teleology. Unlike some analytic philosophers who try to generate moral consensus on the basis of an ideal of rationality. nevertheless opposing views can call one another into question by various means including issues of internal coherence. Since 1977 he has been married to philosopher Lynn Joy. he nevertheless describes his own account of this attempt as a "peculiarly modern understanding" of the task. and in July 2010 became Senior Research Fellow at London Metropolitan University's Centre for Contemporary Aristotelian Studies in Ethics and Politics.[6] .e. After Virtue. imaginative reconstruction of dilemmas. presents 'the best theory so far'. Indiana USA. In 2010.

”[8] In general terms the task of After Virtue is to account both for the dysfunctional quality of moral discourse within modern society and rehabilitate what MacIntyre takes to be a forgotten alternative in the teleological rationality of Aristotelian virtue ethics. Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (1988) MacIntyre's second major work of his mature period takes up the problem of giving an account of philosophical rationality within the context of his notion of "traditions. focusing first on this problem and then on that. integrate or defeat one another (e. Up until that time MacIntyre had been a relatively influential analytic philosopher of a Marxist bent whose inquiries into moral philosophy had been conducted in a “piecemeal way."[9] Although MacIntyre's treatment of traditions is quite complex he does give a relatively concise definition: "A tradition is an argument extended through time in which certain fundamental agreements are defined and redefined" in terms of both internal and external debates. second..g. after reading the works of Thomas Kuhn and Imre Lakatos on philosophy of science and epistemology MacIntyre was inspired to change the entire direction of his thought. These competing forms of practical rationality and their attendant ideas of justice are in turn the result of "socially embodied traditions of rational inquiry. respectively). that all rational human inquiry is conducted whether knowingly or not from within a tradition. MacIntyre's aim in this book is to examine three major rival traditions of moral inquiry on the intellectual scene today (encyclopaedic.”[7] However. MacIntyre argues that rival and largely incompatible conceptions of justice are the outcome of rival and largely incompatible forms of practical rationality. Aristotelian. Augustinian. Humean) but also with substantiating how practical rationality and a conception of justice help constitute those traditions.[11] MacIntyre's account also defends three further theses: first.[10] Much of Whose Justice? Which Rationality? is therefore engaged in the task of not only giving the reader examples of actual rival traditions and the different ways they can split apart. Specifically. After Virtue was written when MacIntyre was already in his fifties. tearing up the manuscript he had been working on and deciding to view the problems of modern moral and political philosophy “not from the standpoint of liberal modernity. As its title implies.Alasdair MacIntyre 82 Major Writings After Virtue (1981) Probably his most widely read work." which had still remained under-theorized in After Virtue. in a mode characteristic of much analytic philosophy. that although the arguments of the book are themselves attempts at universally valid insights they are nevertheless given from within a particular tradition (that of Thomist Aristotelianism) and that this need not imply any philosophical inconsistency. Three Rival Versions of Moral Inquiry (1990) Three Rival Versions of Moral Inquiry was first presented by MacIntyre as part of the Gifford lecture series at the University of Edinburgh in 1988 and is considered by many the third part in a trilogy of philosophical argumentation that commenced with After Virtue. Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals and Pope Leo XIII's Aeterni Patris. that the incommensurable conceptual schemes of rival traditions do not entail either relativism or perspectivism. Thomist. third. MacIntyre's book ultimately conducts a complex series of both interior and exterior critiques of the encyclopaedic . Aristotelian moral and political practice. but instead from the standpoint of . genealogical and traditional) which each in turn was given defense from a canonical piece published in the late nineteenth century (the Ninth Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. MacIntyre argues that despite their incommensurability there are various ways in which alien traditions might engage one another rationally — most especially via a form of immanent critique which makes use of empathetic imagination to then put the rival tradition into "epistemic crisis" but also by being able to solve shared or analogous problems and dilemmas from within one's own tradition which remain insoluble from the rival approach..

Virtue ethics MacIntyre is a key figure in the recent surge of interest in virtue ethics.g. independent reasoner who determines ethical and moral questions autonomously and what he calls the "illusion of self-sufficiency" that runs through much of Western ethics culminating in Nietzsche's Übermensch. let alone our flourishing . foundational claim) that "human vulnerability and disability" are the "central features of human life" and that Thomistic "virtues of dependency" are needed for individual human beings to flourish in their passage from stages of infancy to adulthood and old age. MacIntyre understands himself to be reworking the Aristotelian idea of an ethical teleology. and the virtues that we need. One of his main goals is to undermine what he sees as the fiction of the disembodied. Dependent Rational Animals tries to make a holistic case on the basis of our best current knowledge (as opposed to an ahistorical. His critique in chapter IX of Nietzsche's and Foucault's genealogical mode as implicitly committed to an emancipatory and continuous notion of self which they cannot account for on their own terms has been of particular influence.rather than focusing on practice-independent obligation of a moral agent (deontological ethics) or the consequences of a particular act (utilitarianism). the distinctive virtues of dependent rational animals"[13] Engaging with scientific texts on human biology as well as works of philosophical anthropology. historically grounded.. Plato. MacIntyre has argued that Aquinas' synthesis of Augustinianism with Aristotelianism is more insightful than modern moral theories by focusing upon the telos ('end'. MacIntyre writes the following of this shift in the Preface to the book: "Although there is indeed good reason to repudiate important elements in Aristotle's biology. It will be a central thesis of this book that the virtues that we need.[8] As MacIntyre puts it: "It is most often to others that we owe our survival..[14] In its place he tries to show that our embodied dependencies are a definitive characteristic of our species and reveal the need for certain kinds of virtuous dispositions if we are ever to flourish into independent reasoners capable of weighing the intellectual intricacies of moral philosophy in the first place."[12] More specifically. I now judge that I was in error in supposing an ethics independent of biology to be possible. if we are to confront and respond to vulnerability and disability both in ourselves and in others. within the context of which the morality of acts may be evaluated. Being a good person is not about seeking to follow formal rules. His approach seeks to demonstrate that good judgment emanates from good character. After Virtue. MacIntyre emphasizes the importance of moral goods defined in respect to a community engaged in a 'practice' which he calls 'internal goods' or 'goods of excellence' . if we are to develop from our animal condition into that of independent rational agents. In elaborating this approach.[15] . Aristotle. which identifies the central question of morality as having to do with the habits and knowledge concerning how to live a good life.Alasdair MacIntyre and genealogical positions in an attempt to vindicate philosophical Thomism as the most persuasive form of moral inquiry currently on offer. MacIntyre considers his work to be outside "virtue ethics" due to his affirmation of virtues as embedded in specific. belong to one and the same set of virtues. Thomas Aquinas). social practices. or completion) of a social practice and of a human life. virtue ethics in European/American academia had been primarily associated with pre-modern philosophers (e." Dependent Rational Animals was a self-conscious effort by MacIntyre to ground virtues in an account of biology. Before its recent resurgence. MacIntyre identifies the human species as existing on a continuous scale of both intelligence and dependency with other animals such as dolphins. 83 Dependent Rational Animals (1999) While After Virtue attempted to give an account of the virtues exclusively by recourse to social practices and the understanding of individual selves in light of "quests" and "traditions. His seminal work in the area of virtue ethics can be found in his 1981 book.

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Minch & Weigel. 2nd ed. The Tasks of Philosophy: Selected Essays. London: Fontana Modern Masters. N. 1953. University of Notre Dame Press. London: Duckworth.) New York: Collier. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. God." Commonweal. and Virtue."[17] Also. universities: A Selective History of the Catholic Philosophical Tradition . P. The Unconscious: A Conceptual Analysis. Kelvin. 1969 (with Paul Ricoeur). 2004 (1958). Second edition 1998. & Davidson. University of Notre Dame Press. 1967. 1967 A Short History of Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield. Cambridge University Press. 2007 (1981). 1990. Kierkegaard After Macintyre: Essays on Freedom. London: SCM Press. First Principles. 2005. 1971. "The Nature of The Virtues". Number 18. Marcuse. Marxism: An Interpretation. New York: Columbia University Press. 2006. 2006 / Volume CXXXIII. Which Rationality? there is a section towards the end that is perhaps autobiographical when he explains how one is chosen by a tradition and may reflect his own conversion to Roman Catholicism. 1913-1922. 1955 (edited with Antony Flew). Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. 1970. London: SCM Press. Ethics and Politics: Selected Essays. Narrative. 2009. 1990. 1998. 1995. philosophy. ed. . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. London: Duckworth. Hume's Ethical Writings. New Essays in Philosophical Theology.. Excerpt. 2006. 1959.). Leiden: Brill. Secularization and Moral Change. Alasdair MacIntyre's Early Marxist Writings: Essays and Articles 1953-1974. After Virtue. Chicago: Open Court 1988. The Riddell Memorial Lectures. The Religious Significance of Atheism. October 20. University of Notre Dame Press. London: SCM Press. Living Ethics. Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry. Final Ends. 2008 (Blackledge. (ed. MacIntyre explains that his conversion to Catholicism occurred in his fifties as a "result of being convinced of Thomism while attempting to disabuse his students of its authenticity. Oxford University Press. Philosophy and Universities. Marxism and Christianity. 3rd ed. Volume 2. Chicago: Open Court. in his book Whose Justice." [16] In an interview with Prospect Magazine. 1970. 2002 (with Anthony Rudd and John Davenport). Herbert Marcuse: An Exposition and a Polemic.[18] Fuller accounts of MacIntyre's view of the relationship between philosophy and religion in general and Thomism and Catholicism in particular can be found in his essays "Philosophy recalled to its tasks" and "Truth as a good" (both found in the collection The Tasks of Philosophy) as well as in the survey of the Catholic philosophical tradition he gives in God. Cambridge University Press. 2009. The Gifford Lectures. Difficulties in Christian Belief.[19] Bibliography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1953. • "The End of Education: The Fragmentation of the American University. Whose Justice? Which Rationality?. and Contemporary Philosophical Issues. Dependent Rational Animals: Why Human Beings Need the Virtues. Against the Self-Images of the Age: Essays on Ideology and Philosophy. New York: The Viking Press. Edith Stein: A Philosophical Prologue. University of Notre Dame Press. Volume 1. eds. 1999.Alasdair MacIntyre 84 Religion MacIntyre converted to Roman Catholicism in the early 1980s. and now does his work against the background of what he calls an "Augustinian Thomist approach to moral philosophy. The MacIntyre Reader Knight. 1965.

2006) viii [8] Ibid. 2012. Machiavelli and Republicanism. net/ ~icuweb/ c04309. See chapter six: "Aristotelian Revival". Intuition and Construction: The Foundation of Normative Theory. 5 [14] Ibid. Kelvin. 1998. uk/ 2010/ 10/ alasdair-macintyre-on-money/ [18] See pages 393-395 of "Whose Justice. 2006). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thomism. MA: Rowman and Littlefield. David. [9] "Précis of Whose Justice? Which Rationality?" in MacIntyre Reader. Resistance and Utopia. John.). (ed. Reading Alasdair MacIntyre's After Virtue. UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. [3] After Virtue. New York: Palgrame-Macmillan. • Bielskis. After MacIntyre: Critical Perspectives on the Work of Alasdair MacIntyre. Thomas D. God. 1. Retrieved 6 January 2012. Quentin. [19] The Tasks of Philosophy: Selected Essays. [11] Ibid. T.. Cambridge: Polity Press.). Kelvin. and Paul Blackledge (eds. pp. . 255-56 [2] Hauerwas. and Susan Mendus (eds. ie/ news/ 2009/ 03FEB09/ 110309_macintyre. comcast.. 3. • Seung. and Philosophy. Basingstoke. • Knight. Andrius. • Skinner.html): Alasdair MacIntyre: une biographie intellectuelle. Burlington. Cambridge: Polity Press. 1999) x. 257 [6] After Virtue. IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Reason. 2004. 2006. Emile (http://www. Christopher Stephen.ac.cam. firstthings. The MacIntyre Reader. Philosophy and Universities (Plymouth. Alasdair MacIntyre. 2003. 293–309 (critique of MacIntyre's After Virtue) .. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ed. 1998) 107. VT: Ashgate. [13] Ibid. 127 [15] MacIntyre. Rationality and Virtue: The Thought of Alasdair Macintyre.Alasdair MacIntyre 85 References [1] Kelvin Knight. • Horton. com/ article/ 2007/ 09/ 004-the-virtues-of-alasdair-macintyre-6). New York: Continuum. 2009 • Nicholas. [5] After Virtue. Kelvin Knight (Notre Dame. 361-362. [10] Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (Notre Dame. xiii. (Notre Dame.uk/contacts/staff/eperreau-saussine. Jesse. Revolutionary Aristotelianism: Ethics. 1993. "Interview with Giovanna Borradori. K. and the Good: MacIntyre's Tradition-Constituted Reason and Frankfurt School Critical Theory. "The Virtues of Alasdair MacIntyre" (http:/ / www. Quentin Skinner and Maurizio Viroli. Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre. • Lutz. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2007. Stanley (October 2007). First Things. International Catholic University: Twentieth-century ethics (http:/ / home. New York: Cambridge University Press.polis. Lanham. 1994. Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius. Jeffery L. 1990. Tradition in the Ethics of Alasdair MacIntyre: Relativism. • Myers. 3rd edn. co. Tradition. htm) [17] http:/ / www. Vol.). "Towards Virtue: Alasdair MacIntyre and the Recovery of the Virtues". 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Christopher Stephen. 2005. 2007) xii. "The Republican Ideal of Political Liberty". • Lutz. xii-xiii [7] The Tasks of Philosophy: Selected Essays. ucd.. prospectmagazine.. 2009) Further reading • D'Andrea. [4] After Virtue. Tradition. IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Mark C. Which Rationality?" 1988. • Knight. 2008. Notre Dame Press. 1988) 12. Towards a Post-Modern Understanding of the Political: From Genealogy to Hermeneutics. UNDP 2012. edited by Gisela Bock. Vol. "Lecture 9: After Virtue". “On having survived the academic moral philosophy of the twentieth century” (http:/ / www. lecture of March 2009 [16] Solomon. html). • Perreau-Saussine. [12] Dependent Rational Animals (Chicago: Carus Publishing. • Murphy. 2005." pp. IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Alasdair MacIntyre 86 Interviews with MacIntyre • 'The Illusion of Self-Sufficiency' in A.com/8361474) .pdf) • • • • • • • • • Online videos of MacIntyre giving lectures • “On having survived the academic moral philosophy of the twentieth century” (scroll down) (http://www.msl. Putnam. October 2012.iep. • William Hughes..firstthings. pp.com/article/2007/09/ 004-the-virtues-of-alasdair-macintyre-6)" First Things MacIntyre. (http://www.utm. Voorhoeve Conversations on Ethics (Oxford University Press. 2009).org/web/20070906051542/http://www.xhtml) Dahlstrom." critique of MacIntyre's "Dependent Rational Animals" (1999) in Reason Papers: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Normative Studies 34.Lecture at Duquesne University.co. Hauerwas. Stanley (2007) The Virtues of Alasdair MacIntyre.00.cfm) . Daniel O. 2010 .firstthings.org/) A Review of Three Rival Versions of Moral Inquiry.Lecture delivered at The Catholic University of America for the series "The Issue of Truth .ca/philosophy/ macintyre/) University of Guelph.com/ archive/12/feb94/cowling.htm)" The New Criterion 12:6. The American philosopher: Conversations with Quine.ucd. (2012) "Independence and the Virtuous Community.edu/Scott_Moore/www/MacIntyre_info.com/pdf/342/rp_342_8. 2009 • "Newman's Idea of a University" (http://vimeo.2.duq. (http://web.timesonline. (http://www.uoguelph. 1994) 137-152.com/article/2007/ 10/001-the-achievement-of-alasdair-macintyre-2)" First Things Times Literary Supplement: " Review of Selected Essays Vols. I & II (http://tls.cfm) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: " Political Philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre (http://www. Danto.aspx?peid=eb70b4fc64dd4a2eaf1b74901edd8a05) .ac.baylor.org/library/ Alasdair MacIntyre/macintyre2004vote. Oakes.25366-2652309.In Honor of Robert Sokolowski" • "Philosophical Education Against Contemporary Culture" (http://edtech.reasonpapers.firstthings. Dublin. First Things (http://www.by Constantine Sandis. (http://www. 70-83 (http://www. 2009 • "Ends and Endings" (http://philosophy. Edward T.edu/p/ p-macint.htm)"—by Edward Clayton.html)" -. Davidson.edu/lectures/Videos/Fall-2009-MacIntyre. External links • Bibliographies of MacIntyre by: • Scott Moore. Rorty.edu/mediasite/ SilverlightPlayer/Default. ie/news/2009/03FEB09/110309_macintyre.archive. International Society for MacIntyrean Enquiry. (http://bearspace. Kuhn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press.html) . MacIntyre. Alasdair (2004) The Only Vote Worth Casting in November (http://brandon.Lecture at University College.newcriterion. • "Nietzsche or Aristotle?" in Giovanna Borradori. Nozick. Cavell. Oxford U.uk/article/ 0. Maurice (1994) " Alasdair MacIntyre.cua. (http://macintyreanenquiry. (1996) The Achievement of Alasdair MacIntyre. Religion & the University. • Centre for Contemporary Aristotelian Studies in Ethics and Politics (CASEP) (http://www. uk/depts/lgir/research-centres/casep/research-resources/macintyre-publications/ macintyre-publications_home.multics.html) Baylor University.Lecture at the Las Casas Institute.londonmet.com/article/2007/ 11/001-alasdair-macintyres-university-28) Cowling.

Cambridge and Heidelberg and received a grant from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. brunomondadori. Tübingen 2006 ISBN 3-935625-59-6 References [1] de:Patriziat (Alte Eidgenossenschaft) [2] de:Solomon Aviad Sar Shalom Basilea [3] (http:/ / www.[5] and is an exponent of the School of "Practical Philosophy". accademiavirgiliana. on his father's side he is the descendant of an old noble Swiss family of barons (Freiherren) from [1] Ticino and patricians from Zurich. Germany.Lecture at London Metropolitan University. eu/ cms/ storia_e_statuto-191-191.[3][4] He is professor for philosophy at the University of Tübingen. it) . 2010 • "Ends and Endings" (http://philosophy. Censorship. html) [7] (http:/ / www. Books • La responsabilità ecologica (ed. Giuntina. Milano 2002 • Aristotele. and Other Requirements of Rationality"] . ambrosiana. from which the famous kabbalists Moses ben Mordecai Zacuto (also known as the Ramaz) and Solomon Aviad Sar Shalom Basilea[2] were also members. il Mulino. Milano 2002) • Lessing.wmv "Intolerance.uk/MacIntyreOct2010.cfm) .[7] and "International Academy of the History of Science" and is also co-founder of the "Academia Judaica/'Tarbut' . Bruno Mondadori.Alasdair MacIntyre • [mms://streamwm. De caelo (ed. php?uff=comunicati& ID=11) [5] (http:/ / www. Bologna-Napoli 1996 ISBN 88-15-05792-7 • Aristotele. Bompiani. Rusconi. Saggio sul 'Perì technes' ippocratico.International Academy of Jewish Studies".). He is member a of the following academic institutions: "Accademia Ambrosiana". Studium. He studied in Padua. html) [6] (http:/ / www. is an Italian Neo-Aristotelian philosopher.[6] "Accademia Nazionale Virgiliana". Gli ebrei (ed. On his mother's side he is related to a long Jewish line of Mantuan Rabbis. Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna 1999 (II ed. aihs-iahs. org/ en/ prizes) [4] (http:/ / www.cua.). MVK. Firenze 2004 ISBN 88-8057-207-5 • Hermann Conring (1606–1681). Sorbonne). Born in Mantua. Milano 2003 ISBN 88-424-9737-1 • Identità ebraica e sionismo in Alberto Cantoni. 2009 87 Alberto Jori Alberto Jori (born 1965). Bompiani.edu/lectures/Videos/Fall-2009-MacIntyre.). In 2003 he won with his book on Aristotle the Prize of the Académie Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences . uni-tuebingen. baron. de/ fakultaeten/ philosophische-fakultaet/ fachbereiche/ philosophie-rhetorik-medien/ philosophisches-seminar/ mitarbeiter/ prof-dr-phil-habil-alberto-jori.londonmet.Lecture at Catholic University. Der Begründer der deutschen Rechtsgeschichte. com/ ufficiostampa.ac. Roma 1990 ISBN 88-382-3624-0 • Medicina e medici nell'antica Grecia.International Academy of the History of Science (Paris.

1193/1206 Lauingen.eu/cms/storia_e_statuto-191-191.html) Albertus Magnus Saint Albertus Magnus (St.org/en) • Accademia Nazionale Virgiliana (http://www.Alberto Jori 88 External links • Universität Tübingen. Ohio.ambrosiana. fresco. Rome by Pope Pius XI Died Major shrine Saint Andreas in Cologne Feast Patronage November 15 Cincinnati. 1352.aihs-iahs. natural sciences.de/fakultaeten/ philosophische-fakultaet/fachbereiche/philosophie-rhetorik-medien/philosophisches-seminar/mitarbeiter/ prof-dr-phil-habil-alberto-jori. scientists. and Doctor of the Church Born ca. Confessor. World Youth Day . Duchy of Bavaria November 15. Italy Bishop. Rome 1931. 1280 Cologne. Holy Roman Empire Honored in Beatified Canonized Catholic Church 1622. Albert the Great) Saint Albertus Magnus.it) • Accademia Ambrosiana (http://www.html) • International Academy of the History of Science (http://www. medical technicians. Treviso. philosophers. students.accademiavirgiliana. Philosophisches Seminar (http://www.uni-tuebingen.

He was ahead of his time in his attitude towards science. thus making them accessible to wider academic debate. also known as Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne. Albertus was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle. at Regensburg. he taught for several years there. Bavaria 1280 Cologne Medieval philosophy Western philosophy Scholasticism Died Era Region School Albertus Magnus. Weisheipl and Joachim R.[2] Contemporaries such as Roger Bacon applied the term "Magnus" to Albertus during his own lifetime. received his doctorate and taught for some time as a master of theology with great success. A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers to Albertus' encounter with the Blessed Virgin Mary. and witchcraft). year between 1193–1206 Lauingen. During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus. who.[1] The Catholic Church honours him as a Doctor of the Church. He was a German Dominican friar and a bishop who achieved fame for his comprehensive knowledge of and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. Germany. Freiburg. referring to his immense reputation as a scholar and philosopher. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages. one of only 35 persons with that honor. where the Dominicans had a house. Biography Albertus was born sometime before 1200 in Lauingen in Bavaria. Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne. 1280). (1193/1206 – November 15. where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings. Albertus was educated principally at Padua. In 1223 (or 1229) [3] he became a member of the Dominican Order. Two aspects of this attitude deserve to be mentioned: 1) he did not only study science from books. O. but actually observed and experimented with nature (the rumours starting by those who did not understand this are probably at the source of Albert's supposed connections with alchemy Bust of Albertus Magnus by Vincenzo Onofri. notably Avicenna and Averroes. 2) he took from Aristotle the view that scientific 1493 method had to be appropriate to the objects of the scientific discipline at hand (in discussions with Roger Bacon. In 1245 he went to Paris.Albertus Magnus 89 Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great) Other names "Albert of Cologne" Born Unknown.P. and fulfilled the arduous duties of the office with great care and efficiency. The study of Aristotle brought him to study and comment on the teachings of Muslim academics. like many 20th century academics. c. Strasbourg and Hildesheim. In 1254 Albertus was made provincial of the Dominican Order. against the wishes of his family. During his tenure he publicly defended the Dominicans against attacks by the secular and . and studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. as other academics did in his day. Those such as James A. and this would bring him in the heart of academic debate. thought that all science should be based on mathematics). is a Catholic saint. an opinion supported by contemporaries such as Roger Bacon.

Since November 15. St Albert's feast day is celebrated on November 15. He was canonized and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on December 16. After suffering a collapse of health in 1278. scheme of the sciences. in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. however. who made his doctrine of free will the basis of his ethical system. He was perhaps the most well-read author of his time. In 1260 Pope Alexander IV made him Bishop of Regensburg. He digested. his body is incorrupt. "boots the bishop. After his stint as bishop. theology. 1931 by Pope Pius XI and patron saint of natural scientists in 1941. botany. This earned him the affectionate sobriquet. Andreas church in Cologne. Writings Albertus' writings collected in 1899 went to thirty-eight volumes. he spent the remainder of his life partly in retirement in the various houses of his order. Germany Albertus was beatified in 1622.Albertus Magnus regular faculty of the University of Paris. an office from which he resigned after three years. interpreted and systematized the whole of Aristotle's works. . and occasional divergences from the opinions of the master. chemistry. he died on November 15." from his parishioners. Albertus is also mentioned. he was especially known for acting as a mediator between conflicting parties (In Cologne he is not only known for being the founder of Germany's oldest university there. After this. phrenology and others. all of which were the result of logic and observation. Most modern knowledge of Aristotle was preserved and presented by Albertus. 1954. 90 Roman sarcophagus containing the relics of Albertus Magnus in the crypt of St. and answered what he perceived as errors of the Arabian philosopher Averroes. physiology. occupying the first six and the last of Albertus Magnus monument at the the twenty-one volumes. astrology. whose death in 1274 grieved Albertus (the story that he travelled to Paris in person to defend the teachings of Aquinas can not be confirmed). 1280. yet often preaching throughout southern Germany. geography. but also for "the big verdict" (der Große Schied) of 1258. mineralogy. with supplementary discussions upon contemporary topics. was more philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism). gleaned from the Latin translations and notes of the Arabian commentators. Albertus' activity. astronomy. in Cologne. Andreas church in Cologne. are generally divided according to the Aristotelian University of Cologne. [4] Albertus is frequently mentioned by Dante. Thomas Aquinas. During the exercise of his duties he enhanced his reputation for humility by refusing to ride a horse—in accord with the dictates of the Dominican order—instead walking back and forth across his huge diocese. Dante places Albertus with his pupil Thomas Aquinas among the great lovers of wisdom (Spiriti Sapienti) in the Heaven of the Sun. Germany. and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works. [5] According to Joan Carroll Cruz. The philosophical works. In 1270 he preached the eighth Crusade in Austria. in accordance with Church doctrine. along with Agrippa and Paracelsus. In his Divine Comedy. commented on St John. in which his writings influence a young Victor Frankenstein. zoology. These displayed his prolific habits and literally encyclopedic knowledge of topics such as logic. Among the last of his labors was the defense of the orthodoxy of his former pupil. his relics are in a Roman sarcophagus in the crypt of the Dominican St. which brought an end to the conflict between the citizens of Cologne and the archbishop.

many treatises relating to Alchemy have been attributed to him. His industry in every department was great. However. arguing that an understanding of the celestial influences affecting us could help us to live our lives more in accord with Christian precepts. and d) the cures for sick and wounded falcons. Albertus made this a central component of his philosophical system.[6] His scholarly legacy justifies his contemporaries' bestowing upon him the honourable surname Doctor Universalis. These include Metals and Materials. shortly before his death. In the centuries since his death. c) the way of preparing them for the hunt. details of these beliefs can be found in almost everything he wrote. the Summa theologiae. if any. as he related in his work De mineralibus. Albertus Magnus is said to have discovered the philosopher's stone and passed it to his pupil Thomas Aquinas. Within this worldview. According to legend. De mineralibus. as has been articulated by scholars such as Paola Zambelli. 91 Natural philosopher Albertus's knowledge of physical science was considerable and for the age remarkably accurate. collected under the name of Theatrum Chemicum. this legend as stated is unlikely. including silver nitrate. one of the fundamental sciences of the Middle Ages. De Animalibus. For example. he refers to the Urbino. and then mostly through commentary on Painting by Joos (Justus) van Gent. in which he displays impressive actual knowledge of a) the differences between the birds of prey and the other kinds of birds. there is scant evidence that he personally performed alchemical experiments. ~ 1475 [7] power of stones. Albertus does not confirm he discovered the stone in his writings. his protracted study of Aristotle gave him a great power of systematic thought and exposition. . and thereby motivate us to behave in certain ways. On the subject of alchemy and chemistry. The latter is in substance a more didactic repetition of the former. b) the different kinds of falcons. it is true that Albertus was deeply interested in astrology. and the Summa Theologiae in two volumes. and though we find in his system many gaps which are characteristic of scholastic philosophy. though in his authentic writings he had little to say on the subject. though. The most comprehensive statement of his astrological beliefs is to be found in a work he authored around 1260. many stories arose about Albertus as an alchemist and magician. and other alchemy-chemistry topics. chapter 40). but he did record that he witnessed the creation of gold by "transmutation.[10][11] He did believe that stones had occult properties. the Origin of Metals. A wide range of Pseudo-Albertine works dealing with alchemy exist. the Secrets of Chemistry. as book 23.[8] He is credited with the discovery of the element arsenic[9] and experimented with photosensitive chemicals. showing the belief developed in the generations following Albert's death that he had mastered alchemy. the Origins of Compounds. but does not elaborate on what these powers might be. and a Concordance which is a collection of Observations on the philosopher's stone. Aristotle. from his early Summa de bono to his last work. However. questioned the basic assumptions of astrology: humans live within a web of celestial influences that affect our bodies. it was reasonable to believe that astrology could be used to predict the probable future of a human being. in his commentary. However."[12] Given that Thomas Aquinas died six years before Albertus Magnus' death. now known as the Speculum astronomiae.Albertus Magnus His principal theological works are a commentary in three volumes on the Books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Magister Sententiarum).[13] In the high Middle Ages — and well into the early modern period — few intellectuals. An exception to this general tendency is his Latin treatise "De falconibus" (later inserted in the larger work.

he supposed. Marbach who he quotes as saying "Albertus repente ex asino factus philosophus et ex philosopho asinus" [Albert was suddenly transformed from an ass into a philosopher and from a philosopher into an ass]. Buckley as one of several historical figures whose best qualities would be emulated by the ideal President." Kierkegaard cites G. Miller. Such a feat was also attributed to Roger Bacon. Illinois. Most of his written musical observations are found in his commentary on Aristotle's Poetics. named by its founder after Albertus Magnus and dedicated to preserving scientific knowledge lost after a nuclear war. It is located on the campus of the University of Houston. the character of Alberto Mallich (founder of the Unseen University and later Death's manservant Albert) is a sly nod to Albertus Magnus in his more legendary and esoteric guise. Walter M. Influence and tribute A number of schools have been named after Albert.[14] Albertus is recorded as having made a mechanical automaton in the form of a brass head that would answer questions put to it. the hero. The main science building at Aquinas College in Grand Rapids. he was cited by William F. He wrote extensively on proportions in music. Albertus Magnus Lyceum in River Forest. reads a book of magic by Albertus Magnus and comments on love magic involving a wolf's burned hair.'s novel A Canticle for Leibowitz centers on a monastic order called the Albertian Order of Leibowitz. In Robert Heinlein's novel Glory Road. was founded in 2004.Albertus Magnus 92 Music Albertus is known for his enlightening commentary on the musical practice of his times. and on the three different subjective levels on which plainchant could work on the human soul: purging of the impure. illumination leading to contemplation. In Managua. New York. In Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels. Scar Gordon. Of particular interest to 20th-century music theorists is the attention he paid to silence as an integral part of music. As a tribute to the scholar's contributions to the law. The Albertus-Magnus-Gymnasium is found in Regensburg. He rejected the idea of "music of the spheres" as ridiculous: movement of astronomical bodies. The main science building at Providence College is named in honor of Albertus Magnus. . Nicaragua. He is also referred to in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Birth-mark and Herman Melville's The Bell Tower. including Albertus Magnus High School in Bardonia. Albertus Magnus is referred to as one of Victor Frankenstein's chosen readings. Germany. and Albertus Magnus College in New Haven. Michigan. the University of Houston Law Center displays a statute of Albertus Magnus. and nourishing perfection through contemplation. The typeface Albertus is named in his memory. "arrogantly boasted of his speculation before the deity and suddenly became stupid. the Albertus Magnus International Institute. Connecticut.[15] In The Concept of Anxiety Søren Kierkegaard wrote that Albert Magnus. is incapable of generating sound. The Academy for Science and Design in New Hampshire honored Albertus by naming one of its four houses Magnus House. is also named after Albertus Magnus. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. O. Cultural references The iconography of the tympanum and archivolts of the late 13th-century portal of Strasbourg Cathedral was inspired by the writings of Albertus Magnus.[16] Iconography inspired by writings of Albertus Magnus In 1968. Jr. a business and economic development research center.

fsu. pp. 43. Available online. ISBN 0-19-850341-5. no.pdf).” Wort und Antwort 41 (2000): 145. elementary and high school education. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (2003-08-01).erregendes Wunder. 1. 1988. The Thirteenth. New York Paulist Press. [8] Walsh. html). Due to his contributions to natural philosophy. 93 References [1] Joachim R. the Albertus Magnus Building at the University of Santo Tomas that houses the Conservatory of Music. Magnus or Magus?: Magic. [2] Simon Tugwell. • Collins. Princeton University Press.A. in: Philosophia: E-Journal of Philosophy and Culture. New York: Scribner & American Council of Learned Societies. The Florida State University. 17." Renaissance Quarterly 63. . The Incorruptibles: A Study of the Incorruption of the Bodies of Various Catholic Saints and Beati. Oxford: Oxford University Press. "Albertus Magnus. 99–103.edu/~aversa/scholastic/ Dictionary of Scientific Biography/Albertus Magnus (Wallace). “Albert der Grosse. com/ books?id=_rofAAAAIAAJ& pg=RA2-PA46& dq=albertus+ magnus+ gold+ minerals#PRA2-PA46. 2002). Charles. com/ books?id=53APqy0KDaQC). p. Androides (http:/ / digicoll. CycloSupple01. Carol Poster. and Religious Reform in the Late Middle Ages. J. Joan (1977). Donald and Catherine Rachel John.M1) [9] Emsley. 150–151 Further reading • Attwater. [7] Georg Wieland. 1980. Dictionary of the Middle Ages 1 (New York: Scribner.arizona. edu/ cgi-bin/ HistSciTech/ HistSciTech-idx?type=turn& entity=HistSciTech. ISSN: 1314-5606 • Wallace. "The Speculum Astronomiae and its Enigma" Dordrecht.” Philosophen des Mittelalters (Darmstadt: Primus. [10] Davidson. and Richard Utz (Eugene. [11] Szabadváry. Electric Book Company. Michael W. “Albertus Magnus. ISBN 0-14-051312-4. 96. ISBN 2-88124-569-2. Natural Philosophy. pp. (http:/ / books. p. Georgiana Donavin. Albert as their patron saint. pp. Optics and You — Timeline — Albertus Magnus" (http:/ / micro.. the plant species Alberta magna and the asteroid 20006 Albertus Magnus were named after him. wisc. 1988. ISBN 0-691-02011-6. 189–99. ISBN 1-84327-087-0. 5 [4] http:/ / gemeinden. edu/ optics/ timeline/ people/ magnus.Albertus Magnus In the Philippines. 2000) 124-39. Budd. Taylor & Francis. 4. John. "Albertus. 28-30. NC: TAN Books. ISBN 0-89555-066-0. "Molecular Expressions: Science. • Miteva. [6] An Smets. "Le réception en langue vulgaire du "De falconibus" d'Albert le Grand. 2001. 1/2012. Der Entwurf einer eigenständigen Philosophie. magnet. Greatest of Centuries. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. William A. David J. The Saint Albert the Great Science Academy in San Carlos City. pp. 1985. CycloSupple01& isize=M& q1=androides). which offers preschool.529. 1907:46. [14] France: A Phaidon Cultural Guide. "The Soul between Body and Immortality: The 13th Century Debate on the Definition of the Human Rational Soul as Form and Substance" (http://philosophy-e. (1970). 3rd edition. OR: Wipf & Stock. In Gillispie.513. . A Survey of the Occult. Albert and Thomas. Weisheipl. Saint" (http://www. Phaidon Press. 1993. New York: Penguin Books. takes pride in having St. [16] The Concept of Anxiety. erzbistum-koeln. History of analytical chemistry (http:/ / books. pp. google. Söder. Charlotte. Pangasinan. [12] Julian Franklyn and Frederick E. Its main building was named Albertus Magnus Hall in 2008. 705 [15] Ephraim Chambers. Evelina. and UST Education High School is named in his honor. Albert and Thomas.” Joseph Strayer ed. ISBN 0-7148-2353-8.u. . ed. 1982) 129. John (2001). Retrieved 2009-11-28. library.com/ the-soul-between-body-and-immortality-the-13th-century-debate-on-the-definition-of-the-human-rational-soul-as-form-and-substance/ ). p0158& id=HistSciTech. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1 (2010): 1–44. College of Education." in: Medieval Forms of Argument: Disputation and Debate. Cyclopaedia (1728). “Albert der Grosse – ein staunen. p. de/ st_andreas_koeln/ albertusMagnus/ [5] Carroll Cruz. [13] Paola Zambelli. Ferenc (1992). 3. p. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9. google. New York Paulist Press. 97 [3] Simon Tugwell.. College of Tourism and Hospitality Management.

(1913). James and John Knapton. (1913). ed. But alchemy differs from modern science in the inclusion of Hermetic principles and practices related to mythology.jpg and . highlights certain aspects of alchemy. Albertus Magnus". experimental process and basic laboratory techniques that are still recognizable today. Cyclopaedia. Ephraim. Alchemists have historically rewritten and evolved the explanation of their art.Latin and English Edition.stanford.net/books/St. making a singular definition difficult. Western alchemy is recognized as a protoscience that contributed to the development of modern chemistry and medicine. Alchemists developed a framework of theory. (1728). 1604.ou. and spirituality. Stones and Certain Beasts" (http://www.Albert the Great . ed.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann. this only alchemy by Al-Ghazālī (1058–1111). Albertus Magnus". • Alchemy Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose early practitioners' claims to profound powers were known from antiquity.edu/ galleries/03Medieval/AlbertusMagnus/) High resolution images of works by Albertus Magnus in . However.farlang. New York: Robert Appleton Company. religion.com/albertusmagnus. Sheppard gives the following as a comprehensive summary: . Robert Appleton Company.On Cleaving to God .J.renaissanceastrology. "St.De Adhaerendo Deo . the creation of a Kimiya-yi sa'ādat (The Alchemy of Happiness) – [1] a text on Islamic philosophy and spiritual panacea. • Albertus Magnus – De Adhaerendo Deo – On Cleaving to God (http://www.html) • "Albertus Magnus & Prognostication by the Stars" (http://www. these include the creation of the fabled philosopher's stone possessing powers including the capability of turning base metals into the noble metals gold or silver. "St. • Albertus Magnus on Astrology & Magic (http://www.tiff format.[2] H.co.html) • Albertus Magnus: "Secrets of the Virtues of Herbs. Attributions •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers. Catholic Encyclopedia. Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. University of Oklahoma Libraries (http://hos. et al. Overview The defining goals of alchemy are often given as the transmutation of common metals into gold (known as chrysopoeia). The defining objectives of alchemy are varied. terminology. as well as an elixir of life conferring youth and longevity.edu/entries/albert-great) entry by Markus Führer in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy •  Kennedy. full online version.html) • Online Galleries.J.skyscript. D. "article name needed".Albertus Magnus 94 External links • Albert the Great (http://plato.uk/magnus.). History of Science Collections.com/ gemstones/magnus-virtue-stones/page_001) London. or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (first ed. and the discovery of a universal solvent.saintsbooks.

in their emphasis that he laid the foundations of modern chemistry. cosmetics. which was taught at universities. The latter is of interest to the historians of esotericism. Elixir of Life for humans).[5] The prototype for this model can be found in Bolos of Mendes' second century BCE work. leather tanning. and its esoteric aspects. and hermetic philosophers. for example. modern chemistry. They learned how to extract metals from ores. The attempts of alchemists to arrange information on substances. spiritual and new age communities. dyes. which she calls extraverted. Alchemists contributed distillation to Western Europe. for metals is gold. the "father of modern chemistry". practical alchemy started to evolve into modern chemistry. in theory.[4] The subject has also made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts.[13] In his book.[3] Modern discussions of alchemy are generally split into an examination of its exoteric practical applications. paints. During the 17th century. numerous sources stress an integration of esoteric and exoteric approaches to alchemy. and charlatanism.[11] It is a popular belief that alchemists made contributions to the "chemical" industries of the day—ore testing and refining. production of gunpowder. liquors. states that they can not be properly appreciated if the esoteric is not always kept in mind. psychological one. Paracelsian iatrochemistry emphasized the medicinal application of alchemy (continued in plant alchemy. glass manufacture. as meditation requires practice in the real world. The alchemist Robert Boyle[8] is credited as being the father of chemistry. contemplative.[6] Marie-Louise von Franz tells us the double approach of Western alchemy was set from the start. ink. finally. so as to clarify and anticipate the products of their chemical reactions. or spagyric). the "water of life". . preparation of extracts. was a fairly popular "experiment" among European alchemists). medicine. in Hellenistic and western practices). Boyle's biographers. neglect how steadily he clung to the scholastic sciences and to [14] The decline of alchemy continued in the 18th century with the birth of alchemy.[7] 95 Relation to the science of chemistry Practical applications of alchemy produced a wide range of contributions to medicine and the physical sciences. redemption. Physika kai Mystika (On Physical and Mystical Matters). which provided a more precise and reliable framework within a new view of the universe based on rational materialism. Holmyard. Material perfection was sought through the action of a preparation (Philosopher's Stone for metals. operative approach. However. ceramics.[10] Academic historical research supports that the alchemists were searching for a material substance using physical methods. and the mystic. Despite the modern split. and how to compose many types of inorganic acids and bases. and so on (it seems that the preparation of aqua vitae. while spiritual ennoblement resulted from some form of inner revelation or other enlightenment (Gnosis. The Skeptical Chymist. resulted in early conceptions of chemical elements and the first rudimentary periodic tables. then immortality and.[12] as it was renamed by Robert Boyle. but complementary instead. and conversely. psychologists. and for man. longevity. Boyle attacked Paracelsus and the natural philosophy of Aristotle. when writing on exoteric aspects.Alchemy Alchemy is the art of liberating parts of the Cosmos from temporal existence and achieving perfection which. The former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who have examined the subject in terms of proto-chemistry. practice and doctrine. when Greek philosophy was mixed with Egyptian and Mesopotamian technology. which she calls introverted are not mutually exclusive. metalworking.[9] Studies of alchemy also influenced Isaac Newton's theory of gravity. The technological.

the twin goal symbolized his evolution from ignorance to enlightenment. and references to other equally cryptic works. as opposed to desert sand).)ﺍﻟـ‬The ancient Greek word may have been derived from[26] a version of the Egyptian name for Egypt. When the Philosophers speak of gold and silver.[25] The word could also have originally derived from the Greek chumeia (χυμεία) meaning "mixture" and referring to pharmaceutical chemistry. In texts that are written according to this view. especially as applied to medieval. 16th and 17th century alchemy. such as Zosimos of Panopolis (c. while those of the Philosophers are full of life. Applied to the alchemist himself. other scholars such as Calian and Tilton reject this view as entirely historically inaccurate. Early alchemists.[20] There is evidence to support that some classical alchemical sources were adulterated during this time to give greater weight to the spiritual aspects of alchemy. and textual imagery of late alchemical works typically contain multiple layers of meanings. vulgar silver and gold are dead. Isaac Newton.Alchemy 96 Relation to Hermeticism In the eyes of a variety of esoteric and Hermetic practitioners. and the philosopher's stone then represented a mystic key that would make this evolution possible. which is from the Medieval Latin alchimia. and must be laboriously decoded to discover their true meaning. In his 1766 Alchemical Catechism. spiritual states. Principe and William R. or 'internal' alchemy. and material processes were used as metaphors for spiritual entities. the cryptic alchemical symbols. are we to suppose that they refer to the vulgar gold and silver? A. allegories. the literal meanings of 'Alchemical Formulas' were a blind. as metaphysical aspects. and. symbolic of a religious regeneration of the human soul. stating it arose as a product of the Victorian occult revival.[16] Both the transmutation of common metals into gold and the universal panacea symbolized evolution from an imperfect.(‫ ]52[. substances.[15] This approach continued in the Middle Ages. hiding their true spiritual philosophy. the word may have derived from Χημία. which was itself based on the Ancient Egyptian word kēme (hieroglyphic Khmi. drawing examples of historical spiritual alchemy from Boehme. and everlasting state. Théodore Henri de Tschudi denotes that the usage of the metals was a symbol: Q.)ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء‬This term itself is derived from the Ancient Greek chemeia (χημεία) or chemia (χημία)[24] with the addition of the Arabic definite article al.[6] This approach is often termed 'spiritual'. while Martin Luther applauded alchemy for its consistency with Christian teachings. By no means. transformation.[18] While most spiritual alchemists also incorporate elements of exotericism. and the stone represented a hidden spiritual truth or power that would lead to that goal. Practitioners and patrons such as Melchior Cibinensis and Pope Innocent VIII existed within the ranks of the church.[28] Its etymology is still open to question. physical states. incorruptible. purification. black earth. AD 300). healthy. diseased. and Michael Maier. and perfection. alchemy broke into more distinct schools placing spiritual alchemists in high contrast with those working with literal metals and chemicals.[27] With the later rise of alchemy in Alexandria.[18] The recent work of L. and which is in turn from the Arabic al-kimia (‫ . Transmutation of lead into gold is presented as an analogy for personal transmutation. . 'esoteric'. and the original meaning forgotten. In this sense. from which they extract their matter. diagrams.[21][22] Despite this.[23] Etymology The word alchemy may derive from the Old French alquimie. highlight the spiritual nature of the alchemical quest. corruptible. and ephemeral state towards a perfect. examples of a purely spiritual alchemy can be traced back as far as the sixteenth century. [17] During the renaissance. ultimately. when Jacob Boehme used alchemical terminology in strictly mystical writings. M.[19] Another example can be found in the work of Heinrich Khunrath (1560–1605) who viewed the process of transmutation as occurring within the alchemist's soul. and thus became spelled as χημεία. the heart of alchemy is spiritual. seeks to reject the 'spiritual interpretation' of alchemy. Newman.

cucurbit and retort of Zosimos.[31] These included the pantheon of gods related to the Classical planets. religion. Roman. They wrote in Greek and lived in Egypt under Roman rule. each with their own much longer histories. and finally medieval Europe. Osiris. Jason.[29] Here. His name is derived from the god Thoth and his Greek counterpart Hermes. to the Islamic world. Paris. Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoism and Indian alchemy with the Dharmic faiths. centered in China and its zone of cultural influence. there is little or no evidence for such a claim though. Mythology – It is claimed by Zosimos of Panopolis that alchemy dated back to pharaonic Egypt where it was the domain of the priestly The central figure in the mythology of alchemy is Hermes Trismegistus (or Thrice-Great Hermes). One can distinguish at least three major strands. from Marcelin Berthelot. which occurred around the Mediterranean and whose center has shifted over the millennia from Greco-Roman Egypt. combined to form the earliest known records of alchemy in the West. It is still an open question whether these three strands share a common origin. Hermes and his caduceus or serpent-staff. The Hellenistic city of Alexandria was a center of Greek alchemical knowledge. class. he wrote what were called the "forty-two books of Hermes". mythology. called the hermetic philosophy by its . Zosimos of Panopolis wrote the oldest known books on alchemy while Mary the Jewess is credited as being the first non-fictitious Western alchemist. were among alchemy's principal symbols.[30] Alchemical writers used Classical figures from Greek. or to what extent they influenced each other. at Extract and symbol key from a 17th century book on alchemy. which appear to be largely independent. According to Clement of Alexandria. but influenced by.. and Greek philosophy. elements of technology.Alchemy 97 History Alchemy covers several philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents.[32] The Hermetica of Thrice-Great Hermes is generally understood to form the basis for Western alchemical philosophy and practice. Alchemy in Greco-Roman Egypt The origin of Western alchemy may generally be traced to Hellenistic Egypt. various Western religions. and Egyptian mythology to illuminate their works and allegorize alchemical transmutation. centered around the Indian subcontinent. The symbols used least in their earlier stages: Chinese have a one-to-one correspondence with symbols used in astrology at the time. alchemy. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships. and Western alchemy. Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (3 vol. and retained its preeminence through most of the Greek and Roman periods. 1887–1888). covering all fields of knowledge. whereas Western alchemy developed its own philosophical system that was largely independent of. Isis. Ambix. Indian alchemy. and many others.

Cleopatra. Most of the Greco-Roman alchemists preceding Zosimos are known only by pseudonyms. philosophical elements of alchemy. Technology – The dawn of Western alchemy is sometimes associated with that of metallurgy. Isis.Alchemy early practitioners. but also condemned Trismegistus for idolatry. not quantitative. and most general. air.[33] Many writings were lost when the emperor Diocletian ordered the burning of alchemical books[34] after suppressing a revolt in Alexandria (292 CE).[38] The four elements of the Greek were mostly qualitative aspects of matter. cleaning and fabricating pearls. Others authors such as Komarios. ". water. the change took place that transformed this metallurgy into a Hermetic art. These writings were collected in the first centuries of the common era. and the manufacture of imitation gold and silver. Lactantius believed Hermes Trismegistus had prophesied its birth. each element had a sphere to which it belonged and to which it would return if left undisturbed.[42] It was at that time that Khalid Ibn Yazid sparked its migration from Alexandria to the Islamic world. water. Dating from 300 to 500 CE. and fire as corporeal or chemical substances in the present-day sense of the word. Greek alchemical writers occupied themselves solely in commenting on the works of these predecessors. Democritus.[35] These writings lack the mystical.[41] By the middle of the seventh century alchemy was almost an entirely mystical discipline.True alchemy never regarded earth. and fire. they contained recipes for dyeing and making artificial gemstones. originated by Empedocles and developed by Aristotle.[36] Between the time of Bolus and Zosimos. we only know through fragments of text. After 400 CE. facilitating the translation and preservation of Greek alchemical texts in the 8th and 9th centuries. According to Aristotle. Stoicism and Gnosticism which formed the origin of alchemy's character. Platonism. such as Moses. The four elements are simply the primary. Few original Egyptian documents on alchemy have survived. and Jewish alchemists can be found during this period. and Chymes..[36] An important example of alchemy's roots in Greek philosophy."[39] Later alchemists extensively developed the mystical aspects of this concept. air.[43] 98 . and Ostanes. Alchemy coexisted alongside emerging Christianity. Christian. was that all things in the universe were formed from only four elements: earth.. extending back to 3500 BCE. Augustine (354–430 CE) later affirmed this.[37] Philosophy – Alexandria acted as a melting pot for philosophies of Pythagoreanism. but do contain the works of Bolus of Mendes (or Pseudo-Democritus) which aligned these recipes with theoretical knowledge of astrology and the Classical elements.[40] Examples of Pagan. as our modern elements are. most notable among them the Stockholm papyrus and the Leyden papyrus X. qualities by means of which the amorphous and purely quantitative substance of all bodies first reveals itself in differentiated form.

could make clear only few points of detail… The study of the Greek alchemists is not very encouraging. the corpus of the Greek alchemists is a cluster of incoherent fragments. In vain one would seek in the Greek texts a work as systematic as that which is presented for example in the Book of Seventy. sulfuric and nitric acids. The Islamic world was a melting pot for alchemy.[47] Early Islamic chemists such as Jabir Ibn Hayyan (‫ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬in Arabic. In the late 8th century.Alchemy 99 Alchemy in the Islamic world After the fall of the Roman Empire. with very little concern for [45] Jabir is thus "considered by many to be the father laboratory work. [46] of chemistry". von Lippmann. The relatively clear description of the processes and the alchemical apparatuses. Tannery. going back to all the times since the third century until the end of the Middle Ages. "To form an idea of the historical place of Jabir's alchemy and to tackle the problem of its sources. the focus of alchemical development moved to the Islamic World. mark an experimental spirit which is extremely far away from the weird and odd esotericism of the Greek texts. considered the "father of chemistry". Lagercrantz. More than with the other Arab authors. in the state where we find them today." "The efforts of Berthelot and Ruelle to put a little order in this mass of literature led only to poor results." Jabir himself clearly recognized and proclaimed the importance of experimentation as follows: The first essential in chemistry is that thou shouldest perform practical work and conduct experiments. among them in particular Mrs. introduced a scientific and experimental approach to alchemy. Ruska. are unintelligible nonsense which refuses any interpretation. The theory on which Jabir supports his operations is one of clearness and of an impressive unity. Paul Kraus. Bidez. could dissolve the noblest metal. continued to be assimilated during the late 7th and early 8th centuries. and more. Much more is known about Islamic alchemy because it was better documented: indeed. An even surface examination of the Greek texts shows that a very small part only was organized according to true experiments of laboratory: even the supposedly technical writings. which had already been somewhat appropriated into hermetical science. Reitzenstein. Festugiere and others. it is advisable to compare it with what remains to us of the alchemical literature in the Greek language. Hammer-Jensen. Al-Kindi (Alkindus) and Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rasis or Rhazes in Latin) contributed a number of key chemical discoveries. wrote:[45] Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber). .[44] The word alchemy itself was derived from the Arabic word ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء‬al-kimia. based on scientific methodology and controlled experimentation in the laboratory. and the later researchers. the methodical classification of the substances. most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic translations. in contrast to the ancient Greek and Egyptian alchemists whose works were often allegorical and unintelligible. Jābir ibn Hayyān (known as "Geber" in Europe) introduced a new approach to alchemy. was to fuel the imagination of alchemists for the next millennium. The historian of science. for he who performs not practical work nor makes experiments will never attain to the least degree of mastery. The discovery that aqua regia. One knows in which miserable state this literature reached us. usually rendered in English as Geber). Platonic and Aristotelian thought. such as the muriatic (hydrochloric acid). a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. between the `ilm and the `amal. albeit others reserve that title for Robert Boyle or Antoine Lavoisier. one notes with him a balance between theoretical teaching and practical teaching. gold. It is different with Jabir's alchemy. Collected by Byzantine scientists from the tenth century. Geberus in Latin.

up to and including human life.Alchemy Islamic philosophers also made great contributions to alchemical hermeticism. thereby priming Europe for the influx of alchemical thought. and moistness. His original system consisted of seven elements. The elemental system used in medieval alchemy also originated with Jabir. The translation of Arabic texts concerning numerous disciplines including alchemy flourished in twelfth century Toledo. mercury giving volatility and stability. elixir.[49] The atomic theory of corpuscularianism. and mercury. The most influential author in this regard was arguably Jabir. in addition to two chemical elements representing the metals: sulphur. 1144. by rearranging the qualities of one metal. For example. Jabir developed an elaborate numerology whereby the root letters of a substance's name in Arabic. the search for the philosopher's stone was introduced to Western alchemy. carboy. in each metal two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior. Alcohol. air. also has its origins in the work of Jabir. He analyzed each Aristotelian element in terms of four basic qualities of hotness. they wrote refutations against the idea of the transmutation of metals. theologian contemporaries of the translators made strides towards the reconciliation of faith and experimental rationalism. a different metal would result. Meanwhile. when treated with various transformations. Although European craftsmen and technicians preexisted. and the works of Avicenna and al-Razi. which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties. Saint Painting by Joseph Wright of Derby. coldness. earth. through contributors like Gerard of Cremona and Adelard of [54] Translations of the time included the Turba Bath. this evolved into eight elements. 'the stone which burns'. 1771 Anselm (1033–1109) put forth the opinion that faith and rationalism were compatible and encouraged rationalism in a Christian context. lead was externally cold and dry. which characterized the principle of combustibility. which included the five classical elements (aether. Shortly thereafter. with the completion of Robert of Chester's translation of the Arabic Book of the Composition of Alchemy. Robert notes in his preface that alchemy was unknown in Latin Europe at the time of his writing.[50] During the 9th to 14th centuries. Peter Abelard followed Anselm's . while gold was hot and moist. where all physical bodies possess an inner and outer layer of minute particles or corpuscles. In particular. dryness. and [55] athanor are examples.[52] Avicenna[53] and Ibn Khaldun. alchemical theories faced criticism from a variety of practical Muslim chemists. Philosophorum. held correspondences to the element's physical properties. These brought with them many new words to the European vocabulary for which there was no previous Latin equivalent. the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory. with the Arabic concept of the three metallic principles: sulphur giving flammability or combustion. Jabir theorized.[48] According to Jabir.[51] Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī. and salt giving solidity. including Alkindus.[48] By this reasoning. Thus. Spain. fire and water). Jabir's ultimate goal was Takwin. 100 Alchemy in Medieval Europe The introduction of alchemy to Latin Europe occurred on February 11.

a common practice giving rise to his reputation as an accomplished alchemist. His Summa Perfectionis remained a staple summary of alchemical practice and theory through the medieval and renaissance periods. and he did not produce symbolic allegorical works. alchemy had developed into a fairly structured system of belief. Finally. Roger Bacon (1214–1294) was an Oxford Franciscan who studied a wide variety of topics including optics. and the unusual clarity with which they were described. twenty-eight or more alchemical tracts were misattributed to him. Albertus critically compared these to the writings of Aristotle and Avicenna. he observed and commented on the operations and theories of alchemical authorities like Hermes and Democritus.[63] Dante. the influential work of Pseudo-Geber (sometimes identified as Paul of Taranto) appeared. Bacon's writings demonstrated an integration of morality. It was notable for its inclusion of practical chemical operations alongside sulphur-mercury theory. His correspondence with Pope Clement IV highlighted this integration. Grosseteste also did much work to bridge Platonic and Aristotelian thinking. and unnamed alchemists of his time. man could be reunited with [62] God. alchemy became more accessible to Europeans outside the confines of Latin speaking churchmen and scholars. Bacon maintained that Albertus Magnus' ignorance of the fundamentals of alchemy prevented a complete picture of wisdom. confirmed the theoretical through experiment. Piers the Ploughman. Alchemical discourse shifted from scholarly philosophical debate to an exposed social commentary on the alchemists themselves. Henry IV of England banned the practice of multiplying metals (Although it was possible to buy a licence to attempt to make gold alchemically. and all Latin writers of his time. From the time shortly after his death through to the fifteenth century.[57] Their works explained and summarized the newly imported alchemical knowledge in Aristotelian terms. and Chaucer all painted unflattering pictures of alchemists as thieves and liars. they believed that processes that affect minerals and other substances could have an effect on the human body (for example. Later. By purifying the two parts of man's soul. experimentation. Spondent quas non exhibent forbade the false promises of transmutation made by pseudo-alchemists. In his authentic works such as the Book of Minerals. Bacon acknowledged the division of alchemy into the practical and the papacy. After studying the Pseudo-Aristotelian Secretum Secretorum around 1247. languages and medicine.[58] Likewise. the natural philosophers. was himself an alchemist. alchemical knowledge in Europe remained centered around translations. Their entire philosophy revolved around their belief that man's soul was divided within himself after the fall of Adam. Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon are the most notable of these. The practical however. theoretical. alchemical texts have been attributed to Albert's student Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274).[60] Soon after Bacon. and they had a strong tradition of cloaking their written ideas in a labyrinth of coded jargon set with traps to mislead the uninitiated. and conclusions in making scientific evaluations. salvation. he dramatically shifted his studies towards a vision of a universal science which included alchemy and astrology. that is to say. where they concerned the transmutation of metals. Pope John XXII's 1317 edict. In the 14th century. and new Latin contributions were not made. Bacon's contributions advanced alchemy's connections to soteriology and Christian theology. laying the foundation for acceptance of Aristotelian thought before the first works of Aristotle reached the West. a Dominican. There is little to suggest that Albertus Magnus (1193–1280). Robert Grosseteste (1170–1253) took Abelard's methods of analysis and added the use of observations. calling attention to the importance of alchemy to [59] Like the Greeks before him.Alchemy work. and the prolongation of life. and a number 101 . if one could learn the secret of purifying gold.[61] By the end of the 13th century. alchemy. The efforts of the translators were succeeded by that of the encyclopaedists. Adepts believed in the macrocosm-microcosm theories of Hermes. the alchemists practiced their art: they actively experimented with chemicals and made observations and theories about how the universe operated. one could use the technique to purify the human soul). They believed in the four elements and the four qualities as described above. He noted that the theoretical lay outside the scope of Aristotle.[64] In 1403.[56] Through much of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. While alchemy was not more important to him than any of the other sciences. and Bacon advocated its uses in natural science and medicine.

astrology. Hermetic and Platonic foundations were restored to European alchemy. and that certain illnesses of the body had chemical remedies that could cure them. and wrote "Many have said of Alchemy. He was instrumental in spreading this new blend of Hermeticism outside the [70][71] borders of Italy. the writings and legends assigned to him only appeared in 1612. The dawn of medical. and his entire interest in the subject revolved around the pursuit of the philosopher's stone. especially as regarded the philosopher's stone. but a good example of pseudepigraphy. that it is for the making of gold and silver. In the late fifteenth century. usually more famous. In his De Occulta Philosophia he attempted to merge Kabbalah. Paracelsus pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. The 14th century saw the Christian imagery of death and resurrection employed in the alchemical texts of Petrus Bonus. but kept much of the Hermetical. Hermetical science had so much Aristotelian theory that his rejection of Gnosticism was practically meaningless. the practice of giving your works the name of someone else. Though the historical Flamel existed.Alchemy were granted by Henry VI and Edward IV [65]). especially herbal medicine and plant remedies has since been named spagyrics (a synonym for alchemy from the . pharmaceutical. 102 Alchemy in the Renaissance and modern age During the Renaissance.[67][68] Flamel was not a religious scholar as were many of his predecessors. These were previously unavailable to Europeans who for the first time had a full picture of the alchemical theory that Bacon had declared absent. which continued with an increasingly Christian tone. These critiques and regulations centered more around pseudo-alchemical charlatanism than the actual study of alchemy. Esoteric systems developed that blended alchemy into a broader occult Hermeticism. however. A key figure in this development was German Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535) who received his Hermetic education in Italy in the schools of the humanists.[66] Nicolas Flamel is a well known alchemist. but never actually gives the formula for carrying out the transmutations. fusing it with magic. Renaissance Humanism and Renaissance Neoplatonism guided alchemists away from physics to refocus on mankind as the alchemical vessel. He took an approach different from those before him. Page from alchemic treatise of Ramon Llull. For me such is not the aim. John of Rupescissa and in works written in the name of Raymond Lull and Arnold of Villanova. He rejected Gnostic traditions.[73] Paracelsian practical alchemy. but to consider only what virtue and power may lie in medicines. Most of 'his' work was aimed at gathering alchemical knowledge that had existed before him. using this analogy not in the manner of soul-purification but in the manner that humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies. 16th century Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus. and Pythagorean philosophies. 1493–1541) cast alchemy into a new form. Marsilo Ficino translated the Corpus Hermeticum and the works of Plato into Latin. and entrepreneurial branches of alchemy followed. Hermetism. and alchemy. occult. neo-Platonic. and Christian cabala. Their cryptic allusions and symbolism led to wide variations in interpretation of the art. (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Bernard Trevisan and George Ripley made similar contributions in the 14th and 15th centuries . rejecting some of Agrippa’s occultism and moving away from chrysopoeia.[69] Through the late Middle Ages (1300–1500) alchemists were much like Flamel: they concentrated on looking for the philosophers' stone."[72] His hermetical views were that sickness and health in the body relied on the harmony of man the microcosm and Nature the macrocosm. His work spends a great deal of time describing the processes and reactions.

1566–1636). His writing portrayed alchemy as a sort of terrestrial astronomy in line with the Hermetic axiom As above so below. a Polish alchemist. medical doctor and pioneer of chemistry wrote mystical works but is also credited with distilling oxygen in a lab sometime around 1600. had a laboratory built at his Uraniborg observatory/research institute.[74] Iatrochemistry also refers to the pharmaceutical applications of alchemy championed by Paracelsus. and the differences between alchemy. Holy Roman Emperor. including Dee and his associate Edward Kelley. He assumed nothing in his experiments and compiled every piece of relevant data. King James IV of Scotland. famously received and sponsored various alchemists at his court in Prague. Isaac Newton devoted considerably more of his writing to the study of alchemy (see Isaac Newton's occult studies) than he did to either optics or physics. and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. and in fact may have reached its apogee in the 18th century. John Dee (13 July 1527 – December. in the late 16th century. or claims of secret knowledge to make money or secure patronage. and the production of chemicals. cryptographer. medicines. Legitimate mystical and medical alchemists such as Michael Maier and Heinrich Khunrath wrote about fraudulent transmutations.[76] Rudolf II.[77] Julius. Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel all contracted alchemists. There were important overlaps between practitioners. Other early modern alchemists who were eminent in their other studies include Robert Boyle. Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. in 1621.[79] False alchemists were sometimes prosecuted for fraud. Tycho Brahe (1546–1601). Though better known for angel summoning. The terms "chemia" and "alchemia" were used as synonyms in the early modern period. applied this in a submarine. medical services. better known for his studies of gases (cf. Robert Boyle (1627–1691). written in 1564 was his most popular and influential work. in a .[78] John’s son Arthur Dee worked as a court physician to Michael I of Russia and Charles I of England but also compiled the alchemical book Fasciculus Chemicus. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Though most of these appointments were legitimate. Augustus. 1867 Henry V. based on the Latin alchemic maxim: solve et coagula). "Alchemist Sędziwój" (1566–1636) by Jan Matejko. chemistry and small-scale assaying and metallurgy were not as neat as in the present day. and Maurice. As late as 1781 James Price claimed to have produced a powder that could transmute mercury into silver or gold. Michael Sendivogius (Michał Sędziwój. Sendivogious taught his technique to Cornelius Drebbel who. and his role as astrologer. and trying to classify them into alchemists. and Jan Baptist van Helmont. an alchemist better known for his astronomical and astrological investigations. 103 The decline of Western alchemy The demise of Western alchemy was brought about by the rise of modern science with its emphasis on rigorous quantitative experimentation and its disdain for "ancient wisdom". philosopher. distinguishing themselves from the con artists. Their Hermetism complemented rather than precluded their practical achievements in medicine and science. metals. Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. divination. alchemy still flourished for some two hundred years. Although the seeds of these events were planted as early as the 17th century.Alchemy Greek words meaning to separate and to join together. Boyle's law) pioneered the scientific method in chemical investigations. and gemstones. For example. chemists and craftsmen is anachronistic.[75] Entrepreneurial opportunities were not uncommon for the alchemists of Renaissance Europe. the trend of pseudo-alchemical fraud continued through the Renaissance. Betrüger would use sleight of hand. Dee’s alchemical Monas Hieroglyphica. Elector of Saxony. 1608) followed Agrippa’s occult tradition. Alchemists were contracted by the elite for practical purposes related to mining.

all just in case they proved to be relevant. Proponents of the supernatural interpretation of alchemy believed that the philosopher's stone might be used to summon and communicate with angels. based on revolutionary discoveries of Lavoisier and John Dalton — which finally provided a logical.Alchemy typical experiment.[20][82] In the eighteenth century. and Ethan Allen Hitchcock who independently published similar works regarding spiritual alchemy. for the sake of survival. academic writers during the scientific Enlightenment attempted. as Atwood claimed: "No modern art or chemistry.[87] In the nineteenth century revival of alchemy. interpretive and prescriptive. Boyle would note the place in which the experiment was carried out.[20][86][87] This interpretation further forwarded the view that alchemy is an art primarily concerned with spiritual enlightenment or illumination. the position of the Sun and Moon.[82] The obscure and secretive writings of the alchemists was used as a case by those who wished to forward a fraudulent and non-scientific opinion of alchemy. This move was mostly successful. alchemy received new attention as an occult science. including support by fellows of the Royal Society: Robert Boyle and Elias Ashmole. moral or mystical processes. to separate and divorce the "new" chemistry from the "old" practices of alchemy. and it downplays the role of the alchemy as a practical tradition or protoscience.[81] The words "alchemy" and "chemistry" were used interchangeably during most of the seventeenth century."[88][89] Atwood's work influenced subsequent authors of the occult revival including Eliphas Levi. while deflating its hopes of miraculous elixirs and exposing the ineffectiveness or even toxicity of its remedies. et al. has any thing in common with Alchemy. quantitative and reliable framework for understanding matter transmutations.[83] In order to protect the developing science of modern chemistry from the negative censure of which alchemy was being subjected. which arose during the nineteenth century. and Rudolf Steiner. leading to the popular belief that most. Both forwarded a completely esoteric view of alchemy. and the barometer reading. and even to the present day.). Experimentalists gradually uncovered the workings of the human body.[90] 104 . published his studies on Odic force. Supported by parallel developments in organic chemistry. and the tradition itself nothing more than a fraud.[80] This approach eventually led to the founding of modern chemistry in the 18th and 19th centuries. the wind characteristics. the new science easily displaced alchemy from its medical roles. Eijkman. 1616). During the seventeenth century. and revealed the futility of longstanding alchemical goals such as the philosopher's stone. a short-lived "supernatural" interpretation of alchemy become popular. in his Remarks Upon Alchymists (1855) attempted to make a case for his spiritual interpretation with his claim that the alchemists wrote about a spiritual discipline under a materialistic guise in order to avoid accusations of blasphemy from the church and state. Paracelsian alchemy led to the development of modern medicine.[84] During the occult revival of the early nineteenth century. Baron Carl Reichenbach. and the consequences of this continued into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.[83][85] The esoteric or occultist school. In 1845. 19th century) or lack of natural nutrients and vitamins (Lind. a concept with some similarities to alchemy. held (and continues to hold) the view that the substances and operations mentioned in alchemical literature are to be interpreted in a spiritual sense. such as blood circulation (Harvey. Funk. as opposed to the physical manipulation of apparatus and chemicals. Arthur Edward Waite. the two most seminal figures were Mary Anne Atwood. and claims that the obscure language of the alchemical texts were an allegorical guise for spiritual. Meanwhile. "alchemy" was considered to be restricted to the realm of "gold making". only during the eighteenth century was a distinction drawn rigidly between the two. Hitchcock. if not all. but his research did not enter the mainstream of scientific discussion. and eventually traced many diseases to infections with germs (Koch and Pasteur. alchemists were charlatans. notwithstanding all its surreptitious claims.

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Indian alchemy
According to Multhauf & Gilbert (2008):[91] The oldest Indian writings, the Vedas (Hindu sacred scriptures), contain the same hints of alchemy that are found in evidence from ancient China, namely vague references to a connection between gold and long life. Mercury, which was so vital to alchemy everywhere, is first mentioned in the 4th- to 3rd-century-BC Artha-śāstra, about the same time it is encountered in China and in the West. Evidence of the idea of transmuting base metals to gold appears in 2nd- to 5th-century-AD Buddhist texts, about the same time as in the West. Since Alexander the Great had invaded Ancient India in 325 BC, leaving a Greek state (Gandhāra) that long endured, the possibility exists that the Indians acquired the idea from the Greeks, but it could have been the other way around. Significant progress in alchemy was made in ancient India. Will Durant wrote in Our Oriental Heritage: "Something has been said about the chemical excellence of cast iron in ancient India, and about the high industrial development of the Gupta times, when India was looked to, even by Imperial Rome, as the most skilled of the nations in such chemical industries as dyeing, tanning, soap-making, glass and cement... By the sixth century the Hindus were far ahead of Europe in industrial chemistry; they were masters of calcinations, distillation, sublimation, steaming, fixation, the production of light without heat, the mixing of anesthetic and soporific powders, and the preparation of metallic salts, compounds and alloys. The tempering of steel was brought in ancient India to a perfection unknown in Europe till our own times; King Porus is said to have selected, as a specially valuable gift from Alexander, not gold or silver, but thirty pounds of steel. The Moslems took much of this Hindu chemical science and industry to the Near East and Europe; the secret of manufacturing "Damascus" blades, for example, was taken by the Arabs from the Persians, and by the Persians from India." An 11th century Persian chemist and physician named Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī reported that they "have a science similar to alchemy which is quite peculiar to them, which in Sanskrit is called Rasayāna and in Persian Rasavātam. It means the art of obtaining/manipulating Rasa: nectar, mercury, and juice. This art was restricted to certain operations, metals, drugs, compounds, and medicines, many of which have mercury as their core element. Its principles restored the health of those who were ill beyond hope and gave back youth to fading old age." One thing is sure though, Indian alchemy like every other Indian science is focused on finding Moksha: perfection, immortality, liberation. As such it focuses its efforts on transmutation of the human body: from mortal to immortal. Many are the traditional stories of alchemists still alive since time immemorial due to the effects of their experiments. Since alchemy eventually became ingrained in the vast field of Indian erudition, influences from other metaphysical and philosophical doctrines such as Samkhya, Yoga, Vaisheshika and Ayurveda were inevitable. Nonetheless, most of the Rasayāna texts track their origins back to Kaula tantric schools associated to the teachings of the personality of Matsyendranath. Two famous early Indian alchemical authors were Nāgārjuna Siddha and Nityanātha Siddha. Nāgārjuna Siddha was a Buddhist or Jaina monk. His book, Rasendramangalam, is an example of Indian alchemy and medicine. Nityanātha Siddha wrote Rasaratnākara, also a highly influential work. In Sanskrit, "rasa" translates as "mercury" and [92] Nāgārjuna Siddha was said to have developed a method or converting mercury into gold. Reliable scholarship on Indian alchemy has been advanced in a major way by the publication of The Alchemical Body by David Gordon White.[93] Trustworthy scholarship on Indian alchemy must now take the findings of this work into account. An important modern bibliography on Indian alchemical studies has also been provided by David Gordon White at Oxford Bibliographies Online [94].[95]

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Chinese alchemy
Whereas Western alchemy eventually centered on the transmutation of base metals into noble ones, Chinese alchemy had a more obvious connection to medicine. The philosopher's stone of European alchemists can be compared to the Grand Elixir of Immortality sought by Chinese alchemists. However, in the hermetic view, these two goals were not unconnected, and the philosopher's stone was often equated with the universal panacea; therefore, the two traditions may have had more in common than initially appears. Black powder may have been an important invention of Chinese alchemists. Described in use this alternate version 9th century texts and used in fireworks in China by the 10th century, it was used in of the Taijitu. cannons by 1290. From China, the use of gunpowder spread to Japan, the Mongols, the Arab world, and Europe. Gunpowder was used by the Mongols against the Hungarians in 1241, and in Europe by the 14th century. Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoist forms of traditional Chinese medicine, such as Acupuncture and Moxibustion, and to martial arts such as Tai Chi Chuan and Kung Fu (although some Tai Chi schools believe that their art derives from the philosophical or hygienic branches of Taoism, not Alchemical). In fact, in the early Song Dynasty, followers of this Taoist idea (chiefly the elite and upper class) would ingest mercuric sulfide, which, though tolerable in low levels, led many to suicide. Thinking that this consequential death would lead to freedom and access to the Taoist heavens, the ensuing deaths encouraged people to eschew this method of alchemy in favor of external sources (the aforementioned Tai Chi Chuan, mastering of the Qi, etc.).
Taoist Alchemists often

Alchemy as a subject of historical research
The history of alchemy has become a significant and recognized subject of academic study.[96] As the language of the alchemists is analyzed, historians are becoming more aware of the intellectual connections between that discipline and other facets of Western cultural history, such as the evolution of science and philosophy, the sociology and psychology of the intellectual communities, kabbalism, spiritualism, Rosicrucianism, and other mystic movements.[97] Institutions involved in this research include The Chymistry of Isaac Newton project at Indiana University, the University of Exeter Centre for the Study of Esotericism (EXESESO), the European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE), and the University of Amsterdam's Sub-department for the History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents. A large collection of books on alchemy is kept in the Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica in Amsterdam.

Modern alchemy
Due to the complexity and obscurity of alchemical literature, and the eighteenth century disappearance of remaining alchemical practitioners into the area of chemistry; the general understanding of alchemy in the general public, modern practitioners, and also many historians of science, have been strongly influenced by several distinct and radically different interpretations.[98] Hundreds of books including adulterated translations of classical alchemical literature were published throughout the early nineteenth century.[21] Many of these continue to be reprinted today by esoteric book publishing houses, along with modern books on spiritual alchemy and poor translations of older alchemical texts. These are then used as sources by modern authors to support spiritual interpretations. Over half of the books on alchemy published since 1970 support spiritual interpretations, mostly using previously adulterated documents to support their conclusions. Many of these books continue to be taken seriously, even appearing in university bookshelves.[22] Esoteric interpretations of alchemy remains strong to this day, and continue to influence both the public and academic perceptions of the history of alchemy. Today, numerous esoteric alchemical groups continue to perpetuate modern interpretations of alchemy, sometimes merging in concepts from New Age or radical environmentalism

Alchemy movements.[99] Rosicrucians and freemasons have a continued interest in alchemy and its symbolism.

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Alchemy in traditional medicine
Traditional medicine sometimes involves the transmutation of natural substances, using pharmacological or a combination of pharmacological and spiritual techniques. In Ayurveda the samskaras are claimed to transform heavy metals and toxic herbs in a way that removes their toxicity. These processes are actively used to the present day.[100] Twentieth century spagyrists Albert Richard Riedel and Jean Dubuis merged Paracelsian alchemy with occultism, teaching laboratory pharmaceutical methods. The schools they founded, Les Philosophes de la Nature and The Paracelsus Research Society, popularized modern spagyrics including the manufacture of herbal tinctures and products.[101] The courses, books, organizations, and conferences generated by their students continue to influence popular applications of alchemy as a new age medicinal practice.

Psychology
Alchemical symbolism has been used by psychologists such as Carl Jung who reexamined alchemical symbolism and theory and presented the inner meaning of alchemical work as a spiritual path.[102][103] Jung was deeply interested in the occult since his youth, participating in seances, which he used as the basis for his doctoral dissertation "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena."[104] In 1913, Jung had already adopted a "spiritualist and redemptive interpretation of alchemy", likely reflecting his interest in the occult literature of the nineteenth century.[105] Jung began writing his views on alchemy from the 1920s and continued until the end of his life. His interpretation of Chinese alchemical texts in terms of his analytical psychology also served the function of comparing Eastern and Western alchemical imagery and core concepts and hence its possible inner sources (archetypes).[106][107][108] Jung saw alchemy as a Western proto-psychology dedicated to the achievement of individuation.[102][108] In his interpretation, alchemy was the vessel by which Gnosticism survived its various purges into the Renaissance,[108][109] a concept also followed by others such as Stephan A. Hoeller. In this sense, Jung viewed alchemy as comparable to a Yoga of the East, and more adequate to the Western mind than Eastern religions and philosophies. The practice of Alchemy seemed to change the mind and spirit of the Alchemist. Conversely, spontaneous changes on the mind of Western people undergoing any important stage in individuation seems to produce, on occasion, imagery known to Alchemy and relevant to the person's situation.[110] Jung did not completely reject the material experiments of the alchemists, but he massively downplayed it, writing that the transmutation was performed in the mind of the alchemist. He claimed the material substances and procedures were only a projection of the alchemists' internal state, while the real substance to be transformed was the mind itself.[111] Marie-Louise von Franz, a disciple of Jung, continued Jung's studies on alchemy and its psychological meaning. Jung's work exercised a great influence on the mainstream perception of alchemy, his approach becoming a stock element in many popular texts on the subject to this day.[112] Modern scholars are sometimes critical of the Jungian approach to alchemy as overly reflective of nineteenth century occultism.[20][85][113]

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Magnum opus
The Great Work of Alchemy is often described as a series of four stages represented by colors. • • • • nigredo, a blackening or melanosis albedo, a whitening or leucosis citrinitas, a yellowing or xanthosis rubedo, a reddening, purpling, or iosis[114]

Alchemy in art and entertainment
Alchemy has had a long standing relationship with art, seen both in alchemical texts and in mainstream entertainment. Literary alchemy appears throughout the history of British literature from Shakespeare to J. K. Rowling. Here, characters or plot structure follow an alchemical magnum opus. In the fourteenth century, Chaucer began a trend of alchemical satire that can still be seen in recent fantasy works like those of Terry Pratchett. Visual artists had a similar relationship with alchemy. While some of them used alchemy as a source of satire, others worked with the alchemists themselves or integrated alchemical thought or symbols in their work. Music was also present in the works of alchemists and continues to influence popular performers. In the last hundred years, alchemists have been portrayed in a magical and spagyric role in fantasy fiction, film, television, comics and video games.

Notes and references
[1] Alchemy at Dictionary.com (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ alchemy). [2] Linden 1996, pp. 7,11 [3] Linden 1996, pp. 11 [4] For a detailed look into the problems of defining alchemy see Linden 1996, pp. 6–36 [5] Holmyard 1957, p. 16 [6] Antoine Faivre, Wouter J. Hanegraaff. Western esotericism and the science of religion. 1995. p.96 [7] von Franz 1997 [8] Arthur Greenburg. From alchemy to chemistry in picture and story. [9] H. Stanley Redgrove. Alchemy Ancient and Modern p.60 [10] Mitch Stokes. Isaac Newton p. 57 [11] Principe & Newman 2001, pp. 397–8,400 [12] William R Newman & Lawrence M Principe (1998) "The Etymological Origins of an Historiographic Mistake" in Early Science and Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 1 pp. 32–65 [13] Deem, Rich (2005). "The Religious Affiliation of Robert Boyle the father of modern chemistry. From: Famous Scientists Who Believed in God" (http:/ / www. adherents. com/ people/ pb/ Robert_Boyle. html). adherents.com. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090326003343/ http:/ / www. adherents. com/ people/ pb/ Robert_Boyle. html) from the original on 26 March 2009. . Retrieved 2009-04-17. [14] More, Louis Trenchard (January 1941). "Boyle as Alchemist". Journal of the History of Ideas (University of Pennsylvania Press) 2 (1): 61–76. doi:10.2307/2707281. JSTOR 2707281. [15] Allen G. Debus. Alchemy and early modern chemistry. The Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry. p.34. [16] Raphael Patai. The Jewish Alchemists: A History and Source Book. Princeton University Press. p.4 [17] Théodore Henri de Tschudi. Hermetic Catechism in his L'Etoile Flamboyant ou la Société des Franc-Maçons considerée sous tous les aspects. 1766. (A.E. Waite translation as found in The Hermetic and Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus.) [18] Raphael Patai. The Jewish Alchemists: A History and Source Book. Princeton University Press. p.3 [19] Daniel Merkur. Gnosis: an esoteric tradition of mystical visions and unions. State University of New York Press. p.75 [20] Newman & Principe 2002, p. 37 [21] Newton and Newtonianism by James E. Force, Sarah Hutton, p211 [22] Principe & Newman 2001, pp. 395–6 [23] Calian 2010 [24] alchemy (http:/ / oxforddictionaries. com/ view/ entry/ m_en_gb0017630#DWS-M_EN_GB-037342), Oxford Dictionaries [25] "alchemy" (http:/ / oed. com/ search?searchType=dictionary& q=alchemy). Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2001. . Or see Harper, Douglas. "alchemy" (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?term=alchemy). Online Etymology Dictionary. . Retrieved 2010-04-07..

I. perseus. and the scientific revolution. The Origins of Alchemy in Graeco-Roman Egypt. p. 294f. 49 John Hines. 1980. "a corpuscularian tradition in alchemy stemming from the speculations of the medieval author Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan)" [51] Felix Klein-Frank (2001). [28] The original source for this analysis is the article on pp. (2000). 134–141. Al-Biruni.26. revised throughout ed. 1995 p. Science of the Soul. [54] Holmyard 1957. Stromata.90 [58] James A. ISBN 0-906540-96-8. A Greek-English Lexicon (Eighth edition. 211–213 [32] Clement. and Ibn Sina by Seyyed Hossein Nasr". Jack (1970). ISBN 0-415-11965-0. 104 [67] Linden 2003.). 67–68). Jâbir et la science grecque. Baltimore: Penguin. the etymology for χημεία in Liddell. tufts. in Oliver Leaman & Hossein Nasr. p. Duemmler. Baltimore: Penguin. Paul. for example. (Natural Sciences in Islam. p. 81–85 of Mahn. Distilling knowledge: alchemy.64. ISBN 0-405-07955-9. p. University of Chicago Press. com/ Geber/ Geber 3. 23. 284–285 [44] Burckhardt. Columbia University Press. 1992. [53] Robert Briffault (1938). Le corpus des écrits jâbiriens. com/ ?id=-BMLAAAAQAAJ). p. Alchemy and early modern chemistry: papers from Ambix. Bibcode 2008AcCrA. Retrieved 2008-08-09. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-19-910205-8. Contribution à l'histoire des idées scientifiques dans l'Islam. Tara E. doi:10. 20. p. [47] Holmyard 1931. "On wine. 36 [43] Glen Warren Bowersock. Philip Ashley. pages 10-17 Leah DeVun. By Fuat Sezgin. p. Harvard University Press. and the End of Time: John of Rupescissa in the late middle ages. revised and augmented throughout ed. Alchemy and Authority in the Holy Roman Empire. 14 [38] Lindsay. 66. p. 46 [36] A History of Chemistry. doi:10. edu/ hopper/ morph?l=xumeia& la=greek#lexicon) (A new edition. pp. 16. p. htm). ISBN 0-07-557141-2.6 [41] F. 123 [68] “Nicolas Flamel. Ahmad Y Hassan. Nummedal. vi. Zygmunt S. 110 [56] Hollister. pp. p. 1987 [30] Garfinkel. [52] Marmura Michael E. "An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines: Conceptions of Nature and Methods Used for Its Study by the Ikhwan Al-Safa'an. chirality and crystallography". James Riddick (1989). Science of the Soul. Oxford: Clarendon Press.246D. Holmyard 1957. [42] Allen G. Robert Scott (1901). for example. March 1976. 4. p. PMID 18156689. both the etymology given in the Oxford English Dictionary and also that for χυμεία in Liddell. Routledge &Kegan Paul.). Trilingual Poet: Language. William Stoddart. ISBN 0-486-65977-1. [31] Yves Bonnefoy. Medieval Europe: A Short History (6th ed. London: Routledge. II. [57] John Read. F. Founders of Modern Chemistry. Isaac Newton and the Transmutation of Alchemy: An Alternative View of the Scientific Revolution. Bensaude-Vincent. A Short History of Chemistry.. Frankfurt. II. 2002: (cf. London: Muller. and Tradition. ISBN 0-19-910205-8. Yeager. chemistry. Henry Stuart Jones (1940). p. New York: Berkley Books [50] Moran. Oleg Grabar. Henry George. Titus (1967).. p. Baltimore: Penguin. C. December 24–31. Carl August Friedrich (1855). Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography 64: 246–258 [247]. 149. Titus (1967). Weisheipl. 1996. Debus. Ethan Allen (1857). p. . New York: Dover Publications. Boydell & Brewer. "Al-Kindi". Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos. Bruce T. Science of the Soul. 109 ISBN 0-906540-96-8. Alchemy. Ethnomethodological Studies of Work. Isabelle Stengers. [39] Hitchcock. ISBN 0-389-01006-5. Geoghegan. Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays. Part I. pp. [29] New Scientist. Warren (1990). Etymologische untersuchungen auf dem gebiete der romanischen sprachen (http:/ / books. Nichols.) [46] Derewenda. Vol. "A licence of Henry VI to practise Alchemy" Ambix. pp. Titus (1967). history-science-technology. William Stoddart. Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos. 2009.2307/2851429. (1965). (2005). Ohio: McGraw–Hill College. PIMS. p. 'Roman and European Mythologies'. [45] Kraus. Henry George. Cairo (1942–1943). Trans. University of Chicago Press. "A Critical Reassessment of the Geber Problem: Part Three" (http:/ / www. Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos. Sherwood Taylor. Mendeleyev's Dream – the Quest for the Elements. Boston: Crosby.. p. Trans. 46. R. [49] Strathern. [33] Linden 1996. The Making of Humanity. Repr. . Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world. Remarks Upon Alchemy and the Alchemists. Speculum 40 (4): 744–6. ISBN 0-906540-96-8. volume 6. p.170 D. Alchemists. pp. F. William Stoddart. Translation. pp. 127. 2009. pp. 196–197. [27] See. Paul.Alchemy [26] See. 2010. 146. History of Islamic Philosophy. p. (2007). 2007.1107/S0108767307054293. 29. Harold (1986). "Roger Bacon's Place in the History of Alchemy. 120–121 Holmyard 1957.). 174. [40] Fanning. p. John Gower. 60 [48] Burckhardt. 1957. p. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Blacklick. 12 [34] Partington. google. . p13 [37] Linden 1996. [35] Linden 2003. Robert Scott. p.187-202 [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] Edmund Brehm. Des Livres et de l'or” by Nigel Wilkins . ISBN 0-674-01495-2. From Prophecy. A Greek-English Lexicon (http:/ / www. Trans. Peter Robert Lamont Brown. Jâbir ibn Hayyân. p. 105–108 [55] Holmyard 1957." Ambix. From Alchemy to Chemistry. Burckhardt.

 401 [113] Principe & Newman 2001. p. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. exeter. (1944). Robert P. William Stoddart. 99. (1962).. p. Tinctures. iii. G. p. 49 Principe & Newman 2001.2 (1984): 70-83. by Lawrence M. oxfordbibliographies. (1901). Hanegraaff.4 [77] Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland. p. Nummedal. 6–12. edu/ DominikWujastyk/ Papers/ 152766/ [93] See bibliographical details and links at http:/ / openlibrary. The Practical Handbook of Plant Alchemy: An Herbalist's Guide to Preparing Medicinal Essences. Cornell University Press. 41. 382. 1995. p. Psychology and Alchemy (2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. 355. Allen G. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Western esotericism and the science of religion. Robert Andrew (2008). 330. 1993 p. MIT Press. 389.120 [102] Jung. Manfred M. p. Alchemy and authority in the Holy Roman Empire. [104] The Jung Cult. London: Routledge. Trans.-G. Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition. [110] Jung. 1998. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5. by Ricard Noll.viii–xvi [97] See Exeter Centre for the Study of Esotericism website (http:/ / centres. 1974.1093/OBO/9780195399318-0046 [96] Antoine Faivre. Aryan Christ. See Dominik Wujastyk. p293-318 Principe & Newman 2001. Terence Dawson. P. p144 [105] Noll. Healing Arts Press 1985 [101] Joscelyn Godwin. [107] C.9 110 [75] William Royall Newman.. 12 ISBN 0-691-01831-6). Alchemy and authority in the Holy Roman Empire. & Jaffe A. ac. 1968 Collected Works Vol. p. Nummedal. ISBN 0-679-72395-1. Science of the Soul. Reflections. New York: Stein and Day.171 [80] Pilkington. London: John Murray. Titus (1967). C. Online at http:/ / univie. P.—Psychology and Alchemy. p. academia. p. The Dark Side of History. 1994. p. 387 Principe & Newman 2001. xml?rskey=skoSqW& result=1& q=rasayana#firstMatch [95] DOI: 10.5 ISBN 0-691-01815-4). "An Alchemical Ghost: The Rasaratnākara of Nāgarjuna" in Ambix 31. p. The Cambridge companion to Jung. Cambridge University Press. p171 [106] C. com/ view/ document/ obo-9780195399318/ obo-9780195399318-0046. 1980. Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). and Multhauf.30 [71] Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. Alchemy and authority in the Holy Roman Empire. 11. Oxford University Press. 2008. 206. ‘’Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe’’.33 [109] Jung. p. p. Gnosis: An Esoteric Tradition of Mystical Visions and Unions. 209. Part 5. p. Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos. (1912). 409. 418 [114] Joseph Needham. 385 [99] Principe & Newman 2001. 27 Eliade 1994. 143 Daniel Merkur. p. & Hinkle. 340. ISBN 0-552-11463-4. Symbols of Transformation. Robert Boyle: Father of Chemistry. Robert P. G. and Elixirs.173. 1997. 341. (revised in 1952 as Symbols of Transformation. 379. 386–7 Kripal & Shuck 2005.55 Multhauf. 47. [74] Joseph Needham. Jung Preface to the translation of The Secret of The Golden Flower. [73] Debus. B.-G. Dreams. [78] Tara E. Spagyrical discovery and invention : magisteries of gold and immortality. Princeton University Press. Cambridge. p. p. 202. Collected Works Vol. pp 188 90 [82] Principe & Newman 2001. p. 388 Principe & Newman 2001. 365. 2001. vol. The Western Esoteric Traditions: A Historical Introduction. Nummedal. a contribution to the history of the evolution of thought. Jung Preface to Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching.60 [72] Edwardes. pp. C. 2007. • • Journal of the History of Ideas. 391 Rutkin 2001. [108] Polly Young-Eisendrath. The Golden Thread: The Ageless Wisdom of the Western Mystery Traditions.85-98 [79] Tara E. 'Princeton University Press'. pp. G. Science & Civilisation in China: Chemistry and chemical technology. University of California. [70] Glenn Alexander Magee. 396 [100] Junius. p210 [112] Principe & Newman 2001. Alchemy. Michael (1977). 2008 p. Wouter J. 386 [83] Principe & Newman 2001. 170–181. pp. uk/ exeseso/ ) [98] Principe & Newman 2001.23 [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] . by Carl Jung. [76] Tara E. Memories. C. G. 399 • The Aspiring Adept: Robert Boyle and His Alchemical Quest. 353. Roger (1959). (1966). This is Jung's autobiography. ISBN 0-906540-96-8. & Gilbert. Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Physiological Alchemy. Principe. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library. M. p. Quest Books. p. [103] Jung. Anthony Grafton. Psychology of the Unconscious : a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libido. p. SUNY Press. Alchemy and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Penguin. pp. org/ works/ OL3266066W/ The_Alchemical_Body [94] http:/ / www. London: Collins.. recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffe. C. [111] Redemption in Alchemy.Alchemy [69] Burckhardt.

William R.ambix.html) – A digital exhibition from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University (http://www. SomeModernControversiesOnTheHistoriographyOfAlchemy#page/n0/mode/2up). Darrel (2001). The Alchemy Reader: from Hermes Trismegistus to Isaac Newton.com/ books?id=eQERmMdykZEC&lpg=PP1&dq=alchemy&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false). Boston: Shambhala Publications.com/books?id=CMuJGpztRFMC). State University of New York Press. Alchemical Active Imagination (http://books. Grafton. • Holmyard. Principe. Alchemy Tried in the Fire (http://books. Alchemy (http://books.com/ books?id=wOVUUMirSnEC&lpg=PP1&dq=alchemy&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false).org) Association for the Study of Esotericism (http://www. SomeModernControversiesOnThe/FlorinGeorgeCalian-AlkimiaOperativaAndAlkimiaSpeculativa. Marie Louise (1997). (1996). • • • • External links • • • • SHAC: Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry (http://www.com/books?id=CMuJGpztRFMC).org/details/ makersofchemistr029725mbp). • Linden.virginia.aseweb. Lawrence M.google.edu/xtf/view?docId=DicHist/uvaBook/tei/ DicHist1. Cambridge University Press.google.co.lib. • Eliade. William R.yale.bbc. Glenn W. Makers of Chemistry (http://www. University of Chicago Press. MIT Press.org) The Alchemy Website. Eric John (1957). Indiana University Press. ( listen now (http:// www. Mircea (1994).yale. ISBN 978-0-262-14075-1. Astrology and Alchemy in Modern Europe. Principe.uk/programmes/p003k9bn) on In Our Time at the BBC. Retrieved 2011-12-17. ISBN 0-87773-589-1. Annual of Medieval Studies at CEU. George (2010). H.google.id=dv1-04) Alchemy • Book of Secrets: Alchemy and the European Imagination. In Newman. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-262-14075-1. • Linden.library. ISBN 978-0-253-34556-1. "Celestial Offerings: Astrological Motifs in the Dedicatory Letters of Kepler's Astronomia Nova and Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius" (http://books. Kripal. pp. Newman. On the Edge of the Future (http://books. William R..bbc. "Some Problems with the Historiography of Alchemy" (http://books. (July 2005).google. Stanton J.org/) ESSWE: European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (http://www.chunk.library.Alchemy 111 Bibliography • Calian. (http://www.. Lawrence M.com) – Adam McLean's online collections and academic discussion. In Newman.google.uk/iplayer/console/p003k9bn/In_Our_Time_Alchemy)) • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: (http://xtf. 1500-2000 (http://beinecke. 133–172. Secrets of Nature. MIT Press. Anthony. Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa. Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy (http://www.edu/beinecke/) . Grafton. University Press of Kentucky. • Holmyard. Anthony.edu/ digitallibrary/alchemy.alchemywebsite. (2002). Jeffrey John.co.. Retrieved 2011-12-17. Secrets of Nature.esswe. 385–432. von Franz.google.org/stream/AlkimiaOperativaAndAlkimiaSpeculativa.archive. Retrieved 2011-12-17. (2003).archive. Courier Dover Publications. Astrology and Alchemy in Modern Europe. • Alchemy (http://www. Shuck. William R. (2001). Eric John (1931).com/books?id=7Bt-kwKRUzUC&lpg=PP1& dq=alchemy&pg=PP1&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false).xml. • Newman.google.com/ books?id=mffc2m9D3REC).com/books?id=isJY9jWdru0C&lpg=PP1&dq=alchemy&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Rutkin. Darke Hierogliphicks: Alchemy in English literature from Chaucer to the Restoration (http://books. pp. Stanton J.. The Forge and the Crucible.

was a prominent Athenian statesman. and politician. son of Cleinias. There he served as an adviser to the satrap Tissaphernes until his Athenian political allies brought about his recall. however. proposing or supervising several major campaigns against Athens. Alcibiades played a significant role in Athens' undoing. the expedition might not have met its eventual disastrous fate. had that expedition been under Alcibiades' command instead of Nicias'.Alcibiades 112 Alcibiades Alcibiades Ἀλκιβιάδης   Alkibiádēs Bust of Alcibiades. and general. During the course of the Peloponnesian War. Alcibiades changed his political allegiance on several occasions. He was the last famous member of his mother's aristocratic family.[1] Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης. c. original from the 4th century BC. The inscription translates "Alcibiades. He played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor. and scholars have argued that. which fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War. but his enemies eventually succeeded in exiling him a second time. orator. In Sparta. Athenian". the Alcmaeonidae. military commander. In his native Athens in the early 410s BC.[2] In the years that he served Sparta. he served as a strategic adviser. he advocated an aggressive foreign policy. 450 BC Athens. Born Died Allegiance c. the capture of Decelea and the revolts . and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition. Greece 404 BC Phrygia Athens (415–412 BC Sparta) (412–411 BC Persia) General (Strategos) Battle of Abydos (410 BC) Battle of Cyzicus (410 BC) Siege of Byzantium (408 BC) Rank Battles/wars Alcibiades. Alcibiades soon made powerful enemies and was forced to defect to Persia. from the deme of Scambonidae (  /ˌælsɪˈbaɪ. In Sparta too. transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs. but fled to Sparta after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him. He then served as an Athenian General (Strategos) for several years.ədiːz/. son of Clinias. 450–404 BC). The Sicilian Expedition was Alcibiades' idea.

was a friend of Cleisthenes. which was mentioned by ancient Greek and Latin writers on several occasions. belonged to the powerful and controversial family of the Alcmaeonidae. the renowned Pericles and his brother Ariphron were Deinomache's cousins.[4] Alcibiades thereby. [13] that Alcibiades was offended Historians Arnold W. his days of political relevance were a bygone memory. by the end of the war he had helped rekindle in the early 410s. frequently winning cities over by treachery or negotiation rather than by siege. He favored unconventional tactics. they alienated themselves from Nicias. whom he admired and respected. but his propensity for making powerful enemies ensured that he never remained in one place for long. Battle of Coronea (447 BC). and could trace her family back to Eurysaces and the Telamonian Ajax.Alcibiades of several critical Athenian subjects occurred either at his suggestion or under his supervision. Alcibiades "feared and reverenced Socrates alone.[5] His maternal grandfather. Hipparete loved her husband. that the Spartans had negotiated that treaty through Nicias and Laches. where Socrates was said to have saved his life[8] and again at the Battle of Delium in 424 BC.[11] Alcibiades was married to Hipparete. Alcibiades had several famous teachers.b[›] Alcibiades took part in the Battle of Potidaea in 432 BC. Pericles and Ariphron became his guardians. Once restored to his native city. including Socrates. 1861. the daughter of Hipponicus.[9][10] According to Plutarch.[6] After the death of Cleinias at the seeking Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia. came at the end of seven years of fighting during which neither side had gained a decisive advantage. but Alcibiades met with them in secret before they were to speak to the ecclesia (the Athenian Assembly) and told them that the Assembly was haughty and had great ambitions. His mother was the daughter of Megacles. 113 Early years Alcibiades was born in ancient Athens. for his unruly behavior.[16] He urged them to renounce their diplomatic authority to represent Sparta.[17] The representatives agreed and. as her father and their mother were siblings. an uneasy truce between Sparta and Athens signed midway through the Peloponnesian War.a[›] He was noted. however.[3] Alcibiades' military and political talents frequently proved valuable to whichever state currently held his allegiance. and Thucydides reports. the famous constitutional Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904): Socrates reformer of the late 6th century BC. through his mother. overlooking him on account of his youth. the son of Cleinias and Deinomache. She lived with him until her death and gave birth to two children. and despised the rest of his lovers".c[›] Alcibiades had a particularly close relationship with Socrates.[7] According to Plutarch. and was well trained in the art of Rhetoric. but she attempted to divorce him because he consorted with courtesans. The Athenians initially received these ambassadors well. Alcibiades the Younger. who genuinely wanted to reach an agreement . That treaty. a daughter and a son.[12] Political career until 412 BC Rise to prominence Alcibiades first rose to prominence when he began advocating aggressive Athenian action after the signing of the Peace of Nicias. however. Gomme and Raphael Sealey believe. he played a crucial role in a string of Athenian victories that eventually brought Sparta to seek a peace with Athens. According to Plutarch. impressed with Alcibiades. and. a wealthy Athenian. also named Alcibiades. and instead allow him to assist them through his influence in Athenian politics.[14][15] Disputes over the interpretation of the treaty led the Spartans to dispatch ambassadors to Athens with full powers to arrange all unsettled matters.

Later his opponents. Elis.[16] The next day. during the Assembly.[18] This alliance.[24] It was at his suggestion that the size of the fleet was significantly increased from 60 ships[25] to "140 galleys. unless you are prepared to change your habits and make them like theirs. Nicias was vehemently opposed to Athenian intervention. and asked to be allowed to stand [29] This request was denied. threatening Sparta's dominance in the region. a complex struggle took place between Hyperbolos on one side and Nicias and Alcibiades on the other.[27] Against his wishes Nicias was appointed General along with Alcibiades and Lamachus. not he.[20] This incident reveals that Nicias and Alcibiades each commanded a personal following. instead of dissuading his fellow citizens. soon after. but Plutarch describes him as a supporter of the decree by which the grown men of Melos were killed and the women and children enslaved. if we cease to rule others. Mantinea. it was Nicias. and destroy their credibility. explaining that the campaign would be very costly and attacking the character and motives of Alcibiades. slingers. During the debates on the undertaking. his analysis made them all the more eager. 5. "it was a grandiose scheme for an Athenian general at the head of a mainly Peloponnesian army to march through the Peloponnese cocking a snook at Sparta when her reputation was at its lowest".[26] Philosopher Leo Strauss underscores that the Sicilian expedition surpassed everything undertaken by Pericles. This was in direct contradiction to what they had said the day before. According to Gomme. that they had not come with full and independent powers.[19] Somewhere in the years 416–415 BC. under penalty of death. This ploy increased Alcibiades' standing while embarrassing Nicias." . who turned a modest undertaking into a massive campaign and made the conquest of Sicily seem possible and safe. Almost certainly Nicias' intention was to shock the assembly with his high estimate of the forces required. Alcibiades was suspicious of their intentions.[21] The orator Andocides alleges that Alcibiades had a child by one of these enslaved women. He took advantage of his increasing power to orchestrate the creation of an alliance between Argos.[22] 114 Sicilian Expedition In 415 BC. and of profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries. in order to clear his name. but often strike the first blow to prevent the attack being made. and Alcibiades was subsequently appointed General. as agreed. enlisted orators to argue that Alcibiades should set sail as planned and stand trial on his return from the campaign. used false witnesses who accused Alcibiades and his friends of mutilating the statues. for.[15] Alcibiades was not one of the Generals involved in the capture of Melos in 416–415 BC. On the other hand. Cimon's son. cast suspicion on their aims. and light armed men".100 men at arms. Hyperbolos tried to bring about the ostracism of one of this pair. with the charges unresolved. a political leader. Alcibiades asked them what powers Sparta had granted them to negotiate and they replied. And we cannot fix the exact point at which our empire shall stop. heads of the god Hermes on a plinth with a phallus. and the fleet set sail trial immediately. chief among them being Androcles and Thessalus. Plutarch explains that Androcles. and Alcibiades seized on this opportunity to denounce their character. however. but. just as the Persian Wars had. we are in danger of being ruled ourselves. in the opinion of most historians) that the Athenians would be able to recruit allies in the region and impose their rule on Syracuse. delegates from the Sicilian city of Segesta (Greek: Egesta) arrived at Athens to plead for the support of the Athenians in their war against Selinus.[30] "Men do not rest content with parrying the attacks of a superior. and about 1300 archers. In his speech Alcibiades predicted (over-optimistically. all three of whom were given full powers to do whatever was in the best interests of Athens while in Sicily. Alcibiades argued that a campaign in this new theatre would bring riches to the city and expand the empire. were mutilated throughout Athens.[23] In spite of Alcibiades' enthusiastic advocacy for the plan.[28] One night during preparations for the expedition.Alcibiades with the Spartans. but Nicias and Alcibiades combined their influence to induce the people to expel Hyperbolos instead. the most powerful city of Sicily. the hermai. would ultimately be defeated at the Battle of Mantinea. This was a religious scandal and was seen as a bad omen for the mission. who had emerged as the supporter of the expedition. we have reached a position in which we must not be content with retaining but must scheme to extend it. and other states in the Peloponnese. whose votes were determined by the wishes of the leaders. Nor can you look at inaction from the same point of view as others.

(VI. after a few early victories. foreseeing that he would be outlawed.[37] Yale historian Donald Kagan believes that Alcibiades knowingly exaggerated the plans of the Athenians to convince the Spartans of the benefit they stood to gain from his help. in Athens he was convicted in absentia and condemned to death. He advised them to build a permanent fort at Decelea.[38] After making the threat seem imminent. however.[32] According to Thucydides. and even Carthage. Alcibiades fell out of favor with the Spartan government at around this time. and they began to accuse him of other sacrilegious actions and comments and even alleged that these actions were connected with a plot against the democracy. command of the Sicilian Expedition fell into the hands of Nicias. the Spartans cut the Athenians off entirely from their homes and crops and the silver mines of Sunium.[37] "Our party was that of the whole people. Alcibiades. As for democracy. as I have the more cause to complain of it. a Spartan commander to discipline and aid the Syracusans. Alcibiades advised the Spartans to send troops and most importantly.[2] Defection to Sparta After his disappearance at Thurii. it found the state trireme Salaminia waiting to bring Alcibiades and the others indicted for mutilating the hermai or profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries back to Athens to stand trial. just over ten miles (16 km) from Athens and within sight of the city. but there is nothing new to be said of a patent absurdity — meanwhile we did not think it safe to alter it under the pressure of your hostility. the men of sense among us knew what it was. whom modern scholars have judged to be an inadequate military leader. Thucydides disclaims verbal accuracy [31] . our creed being to do our part in preserving the form of government under which the city enjoyed the utmost greatness and freedom. was believed by many to be Alcibiades' son.[39] By doing this. In the debate at Sparta over whether to send a force to relieve Syracuse. Alcibiades sailed to Ionia with a Spartan fleet and succeeded in persuading several critical cities to revolt.[38] This was part of Alcibiades'plan to renew the war with Athens in Attica. Seeing Athens thus beleaguered on a second front. members of the Delian League began to contemplate revolt. In the wake of Athens' disastrous defeat in Sicily.[45] It is alleged that Astiochus.[43][44] Alcibiades' influence was further reduced after the retirement of Endius.[34] Meanwhile the Athenian force in Sicily. making them entirely dependent on their seaborne trade for food. Alcibiades quickly contacted the Spartans. moved against Messina. Italy. The move was devastating to Athens and forced the citizens to live within the long walls of the city year round. Alcibiades served as a military adviser to Sparta and helped the Spartans secure several crucial successes. who succeeded in preventing the admission of the Athenians. a Spartan Admiral. the Athenians were always in fear and took everything suspiciously. but in Thurii he escaped with his crew. Thucydides disclaims verbal accuracy [31] . Alcibiades spoke and instilled fear of Athenian ambition into the Spartan ephors by informing them that the Athenians hoped to conquer Sicily. his highly persuasive oratory. and which we had found existing.Alcibiades 'Alcibiades' Oration before the Sicilian expedition as recorded by Thucydides. If accurate. (VI. ruled by Agis II. and I perhaps as well as any.[42] Leotychides. the ephor who was on good terms with him. the son born by Agis' wife Timaia shortly after this. and the Spartans saw him as "a defeated and hunted man" whose policies "produced strategic failures" and brought "no decisive result".[33] Alcibiades told the heralds that he would follow them back to Athens in his ship.[40][41] In spite of these valuable contributions to the Spartan cause." 'Alcibiades' Speech to the Spartans as recorded by Thucydides. Kagan asserts that Alcibiades had not yet acquired his "legendary" reputation. his absence emboldened his enemies. 89])d[›].[36] The Spartans granted this request and received him among them. was sent . "promising to render them aid and service greater than all the harm he had previously done them as an enemy" if they would offer him sanctuary. gave information to the friends of the Syracusans in Messina. As Alcibiades had suspected.[35] With the death of Lamachus in battle some time later. 18) d[›] 115 . this assessment underscores one of Alcibiades' greatest talents.[33] When the fleet arrived in Catana. where the Generals expected their secret allies within the city to betray it to them. His property was confiscated and a reward of one talent was promised to whoever succeeded in killing any who had fled.

"and after docking the Athenian power as much as he could. stating what he had done. and achieved his goal by offering them a threefold plan: the Athenian constitution was to be changed.[53] Phrynichus. on an embassy to Athens to treat for the restoration of Alcibiades and the abolition of the democracy in the city. Alcibiades tried to convince the satrap that it was in Persia's interest to wear both Athens and Sparta out at first. offering him a chance to destroy the . This would allow the dragging Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure. and most importantly. it was merely a means to an end.[54] Phrynichus in desperation wrote again to Astyochus. which would allow them a greater share in determining policy. as the longer the war dragged out the more Jean-Baptiste Regnault (1754–1829): Socrates exhausted the combatants would become. but Alcibiades received warning of this order and defected to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. Alcibiades responded in kind. he exchanged messages with the Athenian leaders at Samos and suggested that if they could install an oligarchy friendly to him he would return to Athens and bring with him Persian money and possibly the Persian fleet of 147 triremes. Thucydides tells us that his real motive was to use his alleged influence with the Persians to effect his restoration to Athens.[47] Although Alcibiades' advice benefited the Persians. Most of the officers in the Athenian fleet accepted the plan and welcomed the prospect of a narrower constitution. Alcibiades won the trust of the powerful satrap and made several policy suggestions which were well received. who had been supporting the Peloponnesian forces financially in 412 BC. he told the satrap to be in no hurry to bring the Persian fleet into the conflict. and requiring that he should be put to death. Thrasybulus. Alcibiades immediately began to do all he could with Tissaphernes to injure the Peloponnesian cause. Lastly. sent a secret letter to the Spartan Admiral. and Alcibiades was to win over Tissaphernes and the King of Persia to the Athenian side.[51] The involvement in the plot of another General. Astyochus went up to Alcibiades and Tissaphernes at Magnesia and communicated to them Phrynichus's letter. Astyochus. Phrynichus. sending to the authorities at Samos a letter against Phrynichus. and thus to make Tissaphernes the friend of the Athenians. one of their number. these were eventually calmed down "by the advantageous prospect of the pay from the king".[52] The members of the group assembled and prepared to send Pisander. remains unclear. opposed the plan and argued that Alcibiades cared no more for the proposed oligarchy than for the traditional democracy. only one of the Athenian Generals at Samos.[50] Alcibiades set about winning over the most influential military officers.[46] Alcibiades next advised Tissaphernes to bribe the Generals of the cities to gain valuable intelligence on their activities. According to Thucydides.Alcibiades orders to kill him. forthwith to rid the country of the Peloponnesians".[46] 116 In Asia Minor On his arrival in the local Persian court. According to Thucydides. and containing an express revelation of the rest of the intrigue. At his urging. but were met with opposition from the majority of the soldiers and sailors. the satrap reduced the payments he was making to the Peloponnesian fleet and began delivering them irregularly. Persians to more easily conquer the region in the aftermath of the fighting. to tell him that Alcibiades was ruining their cause by making Tissaphernes the friend of the Athenians.[49] Therefore. fearing that Alcibiades if restored would avenge himself upon him for his opposition.[48] Recall to Athens Negotiations with the Athenian oligarchs Alcibiades seemed to assume that the "radical democracy" would never agree to his recall to Athens.e[›] These officers of the Athenian fleet formed a group of conspirators. the recall of Alcibiades was to be voted. 1791.

[62] Plutarch claims that the army sent for Alcibiades so as to use his help in putting down the tyrants in Athens. wanting to follow his policy of neutrality.[60] Further. the government of the Four Hundred was overthrown and replaced by a . Pisander and the other envoys of the conspirators arrived at Athens and made a speech before the people. which Alcibiades had hoped to bring about through his own prestige and perceived influence. who had hoped for a glorious return to Athens itself but found himself only restored to the rebellious fleet. Then he sailed to retrieve Alcibiades and returned with him to Samos. The primary motives of his speech were to make the oligarchs at Athens afraid of him and to increase his credit with the army at Samos. which would have sparked civil war and led to the immediate defeat of Athens.[63] Kagan argues that this reinstatement was a disappointment to Alcibiades. In fact. the Samian democrats were able to defeat the 300 Samian oligarchs who attempted to seize power there. The Ecclesia deposed Phrynichus and elected Pisander and ten other envoys to negotiate with Tissaphernes and Alcibiades. Upon hearing his speech the troops immediately elected him General alongside Thrasybulus and the others.[59] 117 Reinstatement as an Athenian General In spite of the failure of the negotiations. Samian democrats learned of the conspiracy and notified four prominent Athenians: the generals Leon and Diomedon.Alcibiades Athenian fleet at Samos. along with Thrasybulus. the recall. deposed their generals.[57] As Kagan points out. putting Alcibiades and his promises at the center.[65] It was primarily Alcibiades. The aim of this policy was to win away Persian support from the Spartans. a similar coup instigated by the conspirators did not go forward so smoothly. Thrasybulus persuaded the assembled troops to vote Alcibiades' recall. was achieved [64] through the patronage of Thrasybulus. where the immunity from prosecution he had been granted "protected him for the time being but not from a reckoning in the future". Alcibiades however gained no credit. however. however. stating that they had not revolted from the city but that the city had revolted from them. resolved to stand by the democracy while continuing to prosecute the war against Sparta.[56] At this point. At his first speech to the assembled troops. as it was still believed that Alcibiades had great influence with Tissaphernes. a policy that he had supported since before the coup. including Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus. the conspirators succeeded in overthrowing the democracy and imposing the oligarchic government of the Four Hundred. Tissaphernes would not make an agreement on any terms. he roused them so much that they proposed to sail at once for Piraeus and attack the oligarchs in Athens. they nevertheless departed with the impression that Alcibiades could have brought about an agreement among the powers if he had chosen to do so. told the army that he had received information of an enemy plan to attack the camp and that they should fortify Samos as quickly as possible. With the support of these men and the Athenian soldiers in general. but that they had not conceded enough to him. attempted to convince them that he had persuaded Tissaphernes to support them. At Samos. Pisander won the argument. at that time a hoplite in the ranks. the Athenian troops at Samos formed themselves into a political assembly. because Phrynichus had anticipated Alcibiades' letter and. Tissaphernes was a prudent leader and had recognized the advantages of wearing each side out without direct Persian involvement. Alcibiades complained bitterly about the circumstances of his exile.[57] The group was convinced that Alcibiades could not deliver his side of the bargain without demanding exorbitantly high concessions of them and they accordingly abandoned their plans to restore him to Athens.[55] Despite these events. The army. the trierarch Thrasybulus. and Thrasyllus.[63] Shortly after Alcibiades' reinstatement as an Athenian general. put an end to the negotiations between the conspirators and Alcibiades. Although the envoys were angered at the audacity of the Persian demands. who calmed the people and showed them the folly of this proposal. before the accusations could arrive. by presenting the Athenians with stiffer and stiffer demands on Tissaphernes' behalf. Alcibiades' scheme encountered a great obstacle. and elected new ones. but the greatest part of the speech consisted of boasting about his influence with Tissaphernes. furthermore.[58] Alcibiades realized this and. This also Astyochus revealed to Alcibiades who informed the officers at Samos that they had been betrayed by Phrynichus. among the leaders of which were Phrynichus and Pisander.[59] This fiasco at the court of Tissaphernes.[61] After a time.

from now on his [74] authority would depend on what he actually could accomplish rather than on what he promised to do. that he had no influence with the Persians.[73] Here the Athenians devised a plot to draw the enemy into battle.[72] Shortly after the battle. Alcibiades succeeded in raising money from Caria and the neighboring area. while Alcibiades turns to face the pursuing force. While Alcibiades was still en route. Concealed by storm and darkness. the supposed purpose of this mission was to stop the Persian fleet from coming to the aid of the Peloponnesians. where the Athenians had intelligence indicating that Pharnabazus and Mindarus. but it is most likely that he waited until 407 BC to actually return to the city. bringing gifts and hoping to once again try to win over the Persian governor.[73] It was now obvious. and. see Battle of Abydos and Battle of Cyzicus Alcibiades was recalled by the "intermediate regime" of The Five Thousand. but as soon as the Athenian fleet was reunited there its commanders led it to Cyzicus. were together plotting their next move. According to Plutarch.[69] While this was certainly his goal. Alcibiades had long known that Tissaphernes never meant to bring the fleet at all.Alcibiades broader oligarchy. it was again a means to an end. the government which succeeded the Four Hundred in 411. and raged for a long time. but Thucydides further speculates that the real reason was to flaunt his new position to Tissaphernes and try to gain some real influence over him.[69] Within a month he would escape and resume command. Alcibiades had remained behind at Samos with a small force while Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus led the greater part of the fleet to the Hellespont.[66] Presently Alcibiades sailed to Tissaphernes with a detachment of ships.[68] Plutarch tells us that. that end being avoiding prosecution upon his return to Athens. According to Diodorus Siculus. a political ally of his. Left: Alcibiades' decoy force (blue) lures the Spartan fleet (black) out to sea. which would eventually give way to democracy. after he successfully deceived Mindarus with this ploy. After an interlude of several months in which the Peloponnesians constructed new ships and the Athenians besieged cities and raised money throughout the Aegean. Alcibiades was resolved to come back with glory. although his recall had already been passed on motion of Critias. Alcibiades advanced with a small squadron in order to draw the Spartans out to battle.f[›][75] The Athenian strategy at Cyzicus. The next significant part he would play in the war would occur at the Battle of Abydos. The battle was evenly matched. the two fleets clashed at Abydos.[70] After the Athenian victory at Cynossema. the squadrons of Thrasybulus and Theramenes came to join him.[63] Thucydides is in agreement with Plutarch that the Persian fleet was at Aspendus and that Alcibiades told the troops he would bring the fleet to their side or prevent it from coming at all. the combined Athenian force reached the vicinity without being spotted by the Peloponnesians. Tissaphernes had arrived in the Hellespont and Alcibiades left the fleet at Sestos to meet him. the next major sea battle took place the spring of 410 BC at Cyzicus. During this period. cutting off the Spartans' retreat. and he was arrested on arrival.[69][71] The Persian satrap Pharnabazus. Right: Thrasybulus and Theramenes bring their squadrons in behind the Spartans to cut off their retreat towards Cyzicus. Alcibiades had been forced to flee from Sestos to Cardia to protect his small fleet from the rebuilt Peloponnesian navy. . both fleets summoned all their ships from around the Aegean to join them for what might be a decisive next engagement. who had replaced Tissaphernes as the sponsor of the Peloponnesian fleet. where the Peloponnesians had set up their main naval base. moved his land army to the shore to defend the ships and sailors who had beached their ships. the Peloponnesian fleet commander. Evidently Alcibiades had gravely misjudged his standing with the satrap. however. but the balance tipped towards the Athenians when Alcibiades sailed into the Hellespont with eighteen triremes.[67] 118 Battles of Abydos and Cyzicus For more details on this topic. Only the support of the Persian land army and the coming of night saved the Peloponnesian fleet from complete destruction. with which he was able to pay the rowers and gain their favor.[65] According to the historian.

[80] Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese (now known as the Gallipoli Peninsula) and surrounding area. Mindarus is dead. but despite this Alcibiades was still forced to depart in search for more booty to pay the soldiers and oarsmen of the fleet. but merely took a sum of money from it. Alcibiades was exceedingly careful in his return. His performance is judged as skillful by historians. Return to Athens. The Spartans and Persians.Alcibiades The Spartan fleet suffered losses in the flight and reached the shore with the Athenians in close pursuit. overwhelmed by the arrival of multiple forces from several directions. Alcibiades traveled to the Chersonese in 408 BC and attacked the city of Selymbria on the north shore of the Propontis. He plotted with a pro-Athenian party within the city and offered the Selymbrians reasonable terms and imposed strict discipline to see that they were observed. were defeated and driven off. instead of going straight home. the charges still technically hanging over him. The portion of the citizenry that remained loyal to the Peloponnesians fought so savagely that Alcibiades issued a statement in the midst of the fighting which guaranteed their safety and this persuaded the remaining citizens to turn against the Peloponnesian garrison. Alcibiades and Thrasybulus began the siege of Chalcedon in 409 BC with about 190 ships.[80] Afterwards they concluded a temporary alliance with Pharnabazus which secured some much needed immediate cash for the army. partly about the reported preparations of the Spartans there. A portion of the citizens of the city. vice-admiral under Mindarus. and partly about the feelings in Athens about his return. [3] the Selymbrians surrendered hostages until the treaty was ratified in Athens. first went to Samos to pick up 20 ships and proceeded with them to the Ceramic Gulf where he collected 100 talents.[76] Thrasybulus landed his own force to temporarily relieve pressure on Alcibiades. and meanwhile ordered Theramenes to join up with Athenian land forces nearby and bring them to reinforce the sailors and marines on the beach. On the designated night the defenders left their posts. since it saved time. and the great injury he had done to Athens.[3][82] From here Alcibiades joined in the siege of Byzantium along with Theramenes and Thrasyllus.[78] 119 Further military successes After their victory. Dismissal and Death Return to Athens It was in the aftermath of these successes that Alcibiades resolved to finally return to Athens in the spring of 407 BC. but their appeals were ultimately rejected by the Athenians. which was nearly totally destroyed. decided to surrender the city to Alcibiades for similar terms as the Selymbrians had received. Even in the wake of his recent victories. demoralized and hungry. set a garrison in it and left. and lives and still fully achieved his goal. and the Athenians captured all the Spartan ships which were not destroyed. Thus Alcibiades. and the Athenians attacked the Peloponnesian garrison in the city and their boats in the harbor. was intercepted and taken to Athens. In pursuit of these funds he traveled to the Thracian Chersonese and attacked Selymbria. resources. The men are starving. and Pharnabazus's troops came up to support them. it ran as follows: "The ships are lost. He finally sailed to Gytheion to make inquiries. Alcibiades was able to win a small tactical land battle outside of the city gates and Theramenes concluded an agreement with the Chalcedonians.[79] Although unable to attain a decisive victory or induce the city to surrender. He did their city no injury [81] Epigraphical evidence indicates whatsoever. mindful of the changes in government.[76] A short time later Sparta petitioned for peace.[84] .[83] His inquiries assured him that the city was kindly disposed towards him and that his closest friends urged him to return. leading the Athenian pursuit. Alcibiades' troops. We know not what to do". The Peloponnesians fought to prevent their ships from being towed away.[75][77] A letter dispatched to Sparta by Hippocrates. landed and attempted to pull the Spartan ships back out to sea.

but this year Alcibiades used a detachment of soldiers to escort the traditional procession. was radically different than that at Cyzicus.[94] Antiochus's ship was sunk. Upon arriving on shore he was greeted with a hero's welcome. desiring to see the famous Alcibiades. the extravagant hopes that his successes of the previous summer had created were a decisive element in his downfall. His enemies took note of this and kept it in mind for a future occasion.[97] .[95] Responsibility for the defeat ultimately fell on Alcibiades. This new revenue started to attract Athenian deserters to the Spartan navy. where the main Athenian force was caught unprepared by the sudden arrival of the whole Spartan fleet.[86] Nevertheless. Alcibiades soon returned and desperately tried to undo the defeat at Notium by scoring another victory. In search of funds and needing to force another decisive battle. The situation at Notium.[88] All the criminal proceedings against him were canceled and the charges of blasphemy were officially withdrawn. He failed to take Andros and then he went on to Samos. it occasioned the removal of not only Alcibiades but also his allies like Thrasybulus. who was given express orders not to attack. some saw an evil omen in the fact that he had returned to Athens on the very day when the ceremony of the Plynteria (the feast where the old statue of Athena would get cleansed) was being celebrated.[96] Diodorus reports that. but Lysander could not be compelled to attack the fleet again. The implications of the defeat were severe for Athens.Alcibiades Therefore he finally sailed into Piraeus where the crowd had gathered.[89] The procession had been replaced by a journey by sea. Alcibiades was able to assert his piety and to raise Athenian morale by leading the solemn procession to Eleusis (for the celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries) by land for the first time since the Spartans had occupied Decelea. although some modern scholars believe that Alcibiades was unfairly blamed for Antiochus's mistake. and Lysander had been well informed about their fleet by deserters.[75] According to Anthony Andrewes. Lysander gained an entire victory. professor of ancient history. Antiochus disobeyed this single order and endeavored to draw Lysander into a fight by imitating the tactics used at Cyzicus. the Athenians possessed no element of surprise. however. in addition to his mistake at Notium. Additionally the Spartans had replaced Mindarus with Lysander. and he was killed by a sudden Spartan attack. and his enemies used the opportunity to attack him and have him removed from command. Alcibiades was discharged on account of false accusations brought against him by his enemies.[75] Never again returning to Athens. Theramenes and Critias.500 hoplites and a hundred ships.[87] This was regarded as the unluckiest day of the year to undertake anything of importance.[92] In the meanwhile Tissaphernes had been replaced by Cyrus the Younger (son of Darius II of Persia) who decided to financially support the Peloponnesians. he sailed north to the castles in the Thracian Chersonese.[93] Alcibiades was aware the Spartan fleet was nearby. These factors caused the rapid growth of the Peloponnesian fleet at the expense of the Athenian. the remaining ships of the decoy force were then chased headlong back toward Notium. who invited him to land.[85] He entered the harbor full of fear till he saw his cousin and others of his friends and acquaintance.[91] These were likely the most capable commanders Athens had at the time and their removal would help lead to the Athenian surrender only two years later after their complete defeat at Aegospotami. closer to the enemy at Ephesus. which he had secured during his time in the Hellespont.[91] 120 Defeat at Notium In 406 BC Alcibiades set out from Athens with 1. a very capable Admiral.[92] Consequently Alcibiades condemned himself to exile.[90] His property was restored and the ecclesia elected him supreme commander of land and sea (strategos autokrator). Alcibiades left Notium and sailed to help Thrasybulus in the siege of Phocaea. In the ensuing fighting. Later he moved to Notium. Although the defeat had been minor. so he left nearly eighty ships to watch them under the command of his personal helmsman Antiochus.

as there are conflicting Alcibiade (Death of Alcibiades) (1839 circa).[99] Diodorus. Alcibiades crossed the Hellespont and took refuge in Phrygia. details cannot be independently corroborated. as he was about to set out for the Persian court. being "exceedingly ambitious".h[›] In 404 BC. but by personal service. Alcibiades epitomized the figure of the great man during the glorious days of the Athenian democracy and became a rhetorical symbol. daughter of Alcibiades. the Generals of the Athenians. After the Battle of Aegospotami. displaying his patriotism. and thus before long to ruin the [104] Epitaph for Ipparetea. saying that he had taken arms in the cause of democracy. Alcibiades was a polarizing figure. since "his habits gave offence to every one. with the object of securing the aid of Artaxerxes against Sparta. Plutarch regards him as "the least scrupulous and most city". accounts. asked him to leave and not come near the camp ever again.[103] Michele de Napoli (1808–1892): Morte di Assessments Political career In ancient Greece.[106] Sharon Press of Brown University points out that Xenophon emphasizes Alcibiades' service to the state. Alcibiades is not held responsible by Thucydides for the destruction of Athens. Much about Alcibiades' death is now uncertain. [105] Kerameikos Cemetery (Athens). and was killed by a shower of arrows. According to the oldest of these. Alcibiades. According to Thucydides.[109] For Demosthenes and other orators. Diodorus argues that he was "in spirit brilliant and intent upon great enterprises". Alcibiades' role in the war ended with his command. his residence was surrounded and set on fire. not by gifts of money or by speeches. On the other hand. a mountain in Phrygia. arguing instead that Alcibiades offered the Generals Thracian aid in exchange for a share in the command. Plutarch's version is this: Lysander sent an envoy to Pharnabazus who then dispatched his brother to Phrygia where Alcibiades was living with his mistress.[98] Alcibiades recognized that the Athenians were anchored in a tactically disadvantageous spot and advised them to move to Sestus where they could benefit from a harbor and a city. and caused the Athenians to commit affairs to other hands. entirely careless of human beings". does not mention this advice.g[›] In any case. Timandra. "considering that in case of defeat the blame would attach to them and that in case of success all men would attribute it to Alcibiades".[107][108] Demosthenes defends Alcibiades's achievements. proposed the expedition in Sicily in order "to gain in wealth and reputation by means of his successes".[110] .[102] According to Aristotle. rather than the harm he was charged with causing it. Prior to the Battle of Aegospotami. in the last attested fact of his career.[99][100] Days later the fleet would be annihilated by Lysander. Seeing no chance of escape he rushed out on his assassins.Alcibiades 121 Death With one exception. the Spartans and [101] Though many of his specifically Lysander were responsible. dagger in hand. Naples National Archaeological Museum. the site of Alcibiades’ death was Elaphus. however.

a prominent Greek philologist. Athanasios G.[123] Writing from a different perspective. Alcibiades divides scholars. Andocides said of him that "instead of holding that he ought himself to conform with the laws of the state. Platias and Constantinos Koliopoulos. underlines his "spiritual virtues" and compares him with Themistocles. Fotiadis. Paparrigopoulos believes that the Sicilian Expedition.[114][115] Alcibiades excited in his contemporaries a fear for the safety of the political order. Salter cites Alcibiades as exhibiting "all the classic features of psychopathy. a major modern Greek historian. he expects you to conform with his own way of life".[104] Diodorus and Demosthenes regard him as a great general. Platias and Koliopoulos underscore the fact that the Sicilian expedition was a strategic blunder of the first magnitude. resulting from a "frivolous attitude and an unbelievable underestimation of the enemy". but he then asserts that all these gifts created a "traitor. on the other hand. Paparrigopoulos. asserts that the Athenian statesman was absolutely unscrupulous despite his great charm and brilliant abilities.[120] Walter Ellis believes that his actions were outrageous. argues that the statesman deserved the Athenians' gratitude for the service he had given them. For Malcolm F. a Greek Academician. wherever he went. Lysander would have lost and Athens would have ruled Greece. prompted by Pietro Testa (1611–1650): The Drunken Alcibiades Interrupting the Symposium (1648). Aristotle does not include Alcibiades in the list of the best Athenian politicians. had he led the army in Sicily.[118] Even today.[6] K. as some people still believe". an audacious and impious man". was a strategic mistake.[121] For his part. Alcibiades. Nevertheless his spiritual powers were not counterbalanced with his magnificent mind and he had the hard luck to lead a people susceptible to demagoguery. victory followed him. but they were performed with panache. David Gribble argues that Alcibiades' actions against his city were misunderstood and believes that "the tension which led to Alcibiades' split with the city was between purely personal and civic values". argued in one of his orations that the Athenians should regard Alcibiades as an enemy because of the general tenor of his life.[42] Even more critically. asserts that Alcibiades was "a first class diplomat" and had "huge skills". state that Alcibiades' own arguments "should be sufficient to do away with the notion that Alcibiades was a great statesman. had his countrymen followed his advice at Aegospotami. professors of strategic studies and international politics.[125] In agreement with Paparrigopoulos. but in Posterior Analytics he argues that traits of a proud man like Alcibiades are "equanimity amid the vicissitudes of life and impatience of dishonor". Angelos Vlachos. former head of the Department of Classics in the University of British Columbia.[116] Therefore. Alcibiades was an invincible general and. Alcibiades was rather a shrewd gambler than a mere opportunist. The same scholar underscores the fact that "his example of restless and undisciplined ambition strengthened the charge brought against Socrates". as "he repays with injury the open assistance of any of his friends".[117] Central to the depiction of the Athenian statesman is Cornelius Nepos' famous phrase that Alcibiades "surpassed all the Athenians in grandeur and magnificence of living".[111] Lysias. According to Meiggs his actions were dictated by selfish motives and his feud with Cleon and his successors undermined Athens.[119] Evangelos P.[106][109] According to Fotiadis.[6] On the other hand. 122 Military achievements Despite his critical comments. underlines the constant interest of Athens for .Alcibiades One of Isocrates' speeches.[112][113] In the Constitution of the Athenians. the Athenians would have avoided disaster and. psychologist Anna C. delivered by Alcibiades the Younger. Thucydides admits in a short digression that "publicly his conduct of the war was as good as could be desired". a British ancient historian. McGregor."[124] A similar assessment is made by Hervey Cleckley at the end of chapter 5 in his The Mask of Sanity.[23] For his part.[122] Russell Meiggs.

[128] The initial decision of the ecclesia provided however for a reasonable military force.[129] In this judgement. made his talk persuasive and full of charm. believes that the orator Alcibiades seemed to be whatever his audience needed on any given [135][136] According to Habinek.[127] Kagan criticizes Alcibiades for failing to recognize that the large size of the Athenian expedition undermined the diplomatic scheme on which his strategy rested.[20] which is to say.[136] According to Aristophanes. but "the strengths of Alcibiades' performance as a General outweigh his faults".i[›] According to Vlachos the expedition had nothing of the extravagant or adventurous and constituted a rational strategic decision based on traditional Athenian aspirations. professor of Classics at the University of Southern California. He thus was capable of important errors and serious miscalculations. Protagoras. Therefore. to seize Italy and Peloponnesus. Antisthenes described Alcibiades' extraordinary physical strength. and hates him too. he would not be considered so on the basis of his performance in Sicily". but in speaking most incapable". courage. whilst Thomas Habinek. and that most of the credit for the brilliant victory at Cyzicus must be assigned to Thrasybulus. Alcibiades committed a serious error in leaving the fleet in the hands of an inexperienced officer. the people responded to Alcibiades' affection with occasion.[133][134] Eupolis says that he was "prince of talkers. more eloquent in his private discourses than when orating before the ecclesia. and beauty. Philosophy. Alcibiades I and II.[132] Even the lisp he had. he would often stumble in the midst of his speech. the orator was "the institution of the city talking to — and loving — itself". after winning these. but wants him back". Kagan argues that at Notium. Museum of Fine Arts of Valenciennes Kagan believes that while Alcibiades was a commander of considerable ability.[107] Professors David McCann and Barry Strauss attempt a comparison between Alcibiades and Douglas MacArthur. as well as the eponymous dialogues by Aeschines Socraticus and Antisthenes). in the field of oratory.Alcibiades Sicily from the beginning of the war. then to attack Italy and. Art and Literature Alcibiades has not been spared by ancient comedy and stories attest to an epic confrontation between Alcibiades and Eupolis resembling that between Aristophanes and Cleon. For his part. who said that the Athenians' extravagant opinion of Alcibiades' abilities and valor was his chief misfortune.[127] He intended to conquer Carthage and Libya. he was no military genius. Nevertheless. but acknowledges that the Athenian statesman could sufficiently support his case.[131] Skill in oratory Plutarch asserts that "Alcibiades was a most able speaker in addition to his other gifts".[120] Kagan acknowledges his rhetorical power. Athens "yearns for him. he was not really . and his confidence and ambitions went far beyond his skills. Kagan agrees with Cornelius Nepos. which was noticed by Aristophanes. Purportedly based on his own personal experience. saying. pointing out that "both men stood out as military leaders to whom a mystique attached itself". Demosthenes underscores the fact that Alcibiades was regarded as "the ablest speaker of the day". which later became unreasonably large and costly because of Nicias' demands. while Theophrastus argues that Alcibiades was the most capable of discovering and understanding what was required in a given case.[110] He also appears as a character in several Socratic dialogues (Symposium. "If Achilles did not look like this.[129] 123 Félix Auvray (1830–1833): Alcibiade with the Courtesans (1833).[126] Vlachos asserts that Alcibiades had already conceived a broader plan: the conquest of the whole West. affection of their own. but then he would resume and proceed with all the caution in the world.[137] References in Comedy.[130] Press argues that "though Alcibiades can be considered a good General on the basis of his performance in the Hellespont.[109] Paparrigopoulos does not accept Demosthenes's opinion.

Buck. he declares in Apology: "I have never been anyone's teacher"." said Alcibiades. second.[143] Alcibiades also figures in the satirical Picture This by Joseph Heller and in William Shakespeare's Timon of Athens.[139] Hence. Gertrude Atherton. the purpose of this tradition was to accuse Socrates. Rosemary Sutcliff. and in Joel Richards' Nebula award-nominated short story The Gods Abandon Alcibiades. but Thucydides acknowledges that: "it was in all cases difficult to carry them word for word in one's memory.[141] He still fascinates the modern world. "to study how not to render his accounts to the Athenians?". Theowuth ith twanthformed. roughly 80 years later. so my habit has been to make the speakers say what was in my opinion demanded of them by the various occasions. The Wasps. of course adhering as closely as possible to the general sense of what they really said. The Daimon. on .[152] Robert J."[117] ^ c: Plutarch and Plato agree that Alcibiades "served as a soldier in the campaign of Potidaea and had Socrates for his tentmate and comrade in action" and "when Alcibiades fell wounded. and in several significant works of modern literature as well. the point of the departure is that Alcibiades commands the Sicilian Expedition to a decisive victory before returning to Athens. in Kurt R. Alcibiades. "Were it not better for him. doing so most notably as the main character in historical novels of authors like Anna Bowman Dodd. and fourth". To smooth the incident over. Long after his death." This action received much disapproval. and three of them came in first. once Alcibiades competed against a man named Taureas as choregos of a chorus of boys and "Alcibiades drove off Taureas with his fists.[12] Another example of his flamboyant nature occurred during the Olympic games of 416 where "he entered seven teams in the chariot race. In it the author writes about Alcibiades ability to mimic the people he is in the presence of such as the Spartans and then the people of Persia. Alcibiades is mentioned in observance II of law 44 " Disarm and infuriate with the mirror effect " in Robert Greene's book The 48 Laws of Power.Alcibiades handsome. including Alcibiades.[140] Aristophanes mocked his heavy lisp in the satirical play. "Look.[146] ^ b: According to Plutarch. In Harry Turtledove's 2002 alternate history story. it was Socrates who stood over him and defended him". Alcibiades continues to appear in art. A. Thothiath.[145] Plutarch describes how Alcibiades "gave a box on the ear to Hipponicus. but was alienated by the extreme actions taken by the plotters.[148] According to Andocides. rather than under the Macedonian. Uniting the Greek city-states. "desired him to scourge and chastise him as he pleased". Giambastiani's time travel novel Unraveling Time. Alcibiades went to Hipponicus's house and."[138] In his trial. who is however criticized for using "implausible or unreliable stories" in order to construct Alcibiades' portrait. The spectators showed their sympathy with Taureas and their hatred of Alcibiades by applauding the one chorus and refusing to listen to the other at all.[145] According to Isocrates. the conquest of the Persian Empire proceeds under the Athenian.[147] Alcibiades once wished to see Pericles. since it was "unprovoked by any passion of quarrel between them".[142] He is also a central character in Paul Levinson's time travel novel The Plot To Save Socrates. more than any private citizen had ever put forward. whose birth and wealth made him a person of great influence. Alexander the Great."[151] ^ e: Kagan has suggested that Thrasybulus was one of the founding members of the scheme and was willing to support moderate oligarchy. Hipponicus not only pardoned him but also bestowed upon him the hand of his daughter. 124 Notes ^ a: Isocrates asserts that Alcibiades was never a pupil of Socrates. a work for voice and small orchestra (the text is composed of excerpts of Victor Cousin's translation of works by Plato).[144] Thus he does not agree with Plutarch's narration.[150] ^ d: Thucydides records several speeches which he attributes to Pericles. because he was studying how to render his accounts to the Athenians. in Erik Satie's Socrate. but he was told that Pericles could not see him. Steven Pressfield and Peter Green. after stripping naked. Daniel Chavarria. The rhetorician makes Alcibiades wholly the pupil of Pericles. He'th a waven!" He is portrayed as one of Cleon's close friends.[145][149] Nonetheless. Socrates must rebut the attempt to hold him guilty for the crimes of his former students. Antisthenes insists that Socrates saved Alcibiades at the Battle of Delium. both in Medieval and Renaissance works.

perseus. "Alcibiades".layout=. 220e (http:/ / www.Alcibiades the other hand. [19] Plutarch. 220d).query=chapter=#15. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. writing that "he rode up on horseback and read the generals a lesson.[160] ^ i: Since the beginning of the war. points out the different accounts given by Xenophon and Diodorus. Vlachos. Alcibiades. tufts.loc=Alc. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. [20] Plutarch.[128] 125 Citations [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] (listen) (http:/ / cougar. 01.query=section=#697. Although most historians prefer the accounts of Xenophon. [9] I. Ancient Siege Warfare. XVI (http:/ / www. [15] R. Alcibiades. perseus.query=chapter=#6. 8 (http:/ / www. Sealey.[154] Jean Hatzfeld remarks that Diodorus' accounts contain many interesting and unique details. He said their anchorage was a bad one. Alcibiades. Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios. A Historical Commentary on Thucydides. tufts. 01. 15.loc=Sym. [17] Thucydides. Symposium. Alcibiades. 1. [13] Thucydides.loc=Alc. the place had no harbor and no city. 0182. according to Diodorus. when the Thirty Tyrants established their rule. [14] A. Introduction to Symposium. 15 (http:/ / www. [11] Plutarch. Plato.loc=Alc. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 88–89. 1layout=. 151. 339.[156][157] B. 159–180. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. [18] A. Commentary of Plato's Alcibiades. 22 (http:/ / www. 144. 45 (http:/ / www. [16] Plutarch. [22] Andocides. tufts.loc=Alc. Robert J. [21] Plutarch. wav) A. Littman.layout=.query=chapter=#14.[158] ^ h: According to Plutarch. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 22). 0182& query=chapter=#8& layout=& loc=Alc. 120e). 7.[161] Plutarch underscores that "on Sicily the Athenians had cast longing eyes even while Pericles was living".W. 13. According to Xenophon.43.loc=Alc. 1). Alcibiades. [10] Plato. the Athenians had already initiated two expeditions and sent a delegation to Sicily. perseus. 1). 01. A History of the Greek City States. perseus. Thucydides' Bias. Symposium. V. tufts. 12. Sykoutris.W. 0182. Perrin regards Xenophon's testimony as impeachable[98] and prefers Diodorus' account. Gomme. 215a–222b (http:/ / www. 70. tufts. but they had to get their supplies from Sestos". 0174& query=section=#726& layout=& loc=Sym. perseus.A. 0018& layout=& loc=4. 1). tufts. Kern. 7. 12. tufts. Cox. professor at Brandeis University. all Greece became unsafe for Alcibiades. maintains that Thrasybulus was probably never involved in the plot. 1). Alcibiades 1. 1952.[102] Thus there are two versions of the story: The assassins were probably either employed by the Spartans or by the brothers of the lady whom Alcibiades had seduced. perseus. 01. 0176& query=section=#88& loc=Alc. because he had seduced a girl belonging to a well-known family. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. Household Interests. 01. + 5. eb.layout=. while. 1). 14. perseus.query=chapter=#16. [12] Plutarch. Alcibiades. 01. 1). 01.[153] ^ f: In the case of the battle of Cyzicus. 1). . A Historical Commentary on Thucydides. C. 215b). com/ soundc11/ bix/ bixalc02. tufts. perseus. 6 (http:/ / www. 0174. 5. perseus. Gomme. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. Against Alcibiades. 01.loc=Alc. it was due to a carefully conceived plan. "The History of the Peloponnesian Wars". 0182. 0182.query=chapter=#13. 13 (http:/ / www. P.[100] According to A.[155] ^ g: Plutarch mentions Alcibiades' advice. 01. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Thuc.B. Denyer. 0182. perseus. 59 &c. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. perseus. some say that Alcibiades himself provoked his death. possibly because he was absent from Samos at the time of its inception.layout=. tufts. 121a (http:/ / www. 01. "it would not have required a cynical reader to infer even from Xenophon's account that he (Alcibiades) was seeking to promote his own interests when he came forward to warn the generals about their tactical mistakes". 14 (http:/ / www. 353. Wolpert. Alcibiades' victory was due to the luck of a rainstorm.layout=. Plato. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?layout=& doc=Perseus:text:1999. 45. tufts.[159] According to Isocrates.layout=. N.

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Mythology and Geography. • Forde. Les Dangers de l'Ambition (in French).B. New York. Cook. Cambridge University Press.. Adcock. • Meiggs. Andrew (2002). Alcibiade. (1927). Arnold. Harper & brothers. The Eye Of Cybele.E. J. The Jealous Gods. Johns Hopkins University Press. A History of Greece (4th ed. "Was Alcibiades a Good General?" (http://www. ISBN 0-8018-6790-8. • Vlachos. • Hughes-Hallett. • Sutcliff. • Pressfield. • Wolpert. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. Akashic Books. ISBN 0-340-15090-4. • Robinson. "Socrates and Teaching". University of California Press. New York: D. New York. Thucydides' Bias. • Bury. • Rhodes. SUNY Press. • Price. Lucy. New York: St. Estia. ISBN 2-253-14196-8.B. Russell (1975). (2005). University of Chicago Press. ou. Steven (1989). The Cambridge Ancient History. A History of the Classical Greek World. Peter (1967). eds. • Smith. Blackwell Publishing.Alcibiades • Platias Athanasios G. ISBN 0-521-38867-8. 131 Further reading • Atherton. Martin's Press.html). Jacqueline (1997). ISBN 960-8187-16-8. Leo (1978). Doubleday. Plato's Socrates as Educator. (1929). (1927).). A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography. 2000. • Press. Appleton Co. F. Achilles his Armour. Knopf. • Bury. New York. Raphael (1976). Simon (1999). S. • Green. The Ambition to Rule Alcibiades and the Politics of Imperialism in Thucydides. • Benson. The Life of Alcibiades: The Idol of Athens. LGF. ISBN 1-4563-0333-3. ISBN 0-631-22564-1. Kessinger Publishing Co. Oxford: Clarendon Press.A.J. 2004. The Days of Alkibiades. Bernard W. ISBN 1-888451-67-X. Ioannis (1934). • Sealey. Flowers of Adonis. . ISBN 1-4179-2807-7. • Sykoutris. Ithaca. New York. In Greek. P.F. Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Ancient Athens.. Koliopoulos Constantinos (2006). Meiggs.brown. The City and Man. 5. • Chavarria. NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-520-03177-6. • Romilly de. Gertrude (2004). Russell (1972). Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Doubleday. ISBN 0-7914-4723-5. Religions of the Ancient Greeks. Thucydides on Strategy. Willian (1851). • Scott. London: Macmillan. Cyril Edward (1916).. ISBN 0-385-49252-9. Estia (in Greek). Gary Alan (2000). Steven. Tides of War: A Novel of Alcibiades and the Peloponnesian War. The Athenian Empire. • Strauss. Angelos (1974). Daniel (2005). A History of the Greek City States. ISBN 0-226-77701-4. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9.. Rosemary (1971).. J. New York: Macmillan. "The Peloponnesian War". Symposium (Introduction and Comments). E. The Great War Between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military History of Thucydides. Eurasia Publications.edu/Departments/Classics/bcj/ 07-Contents. "Religious Places". Alfred A. E. Brown Classical Journal 7. Sharon (1991). 700–338 BC. • Henderson.

britannica.org/web/20060828185600/http://h06. Faulkner.no/files/file46395_robert_faulkner_7final-thuccivil_war.com/65/al/Alcibiad. Texts and analyses • "Good Man.org/ AnnualMeeting/03mtg/abstracts/warren.glbtq.livius. Retrieved 5 August 2006. • "Alcibiades" (http://www. • "Alcibiades. Retrieved 5 August 2006.org/web/20060831114947/http://www.no/ files/file46404_thucydides_draft_henrik_syse.html) from the original on 27 August 2006. Archived (http://web.htm). • "Alcibiades" (http://www.livius. .apaclassics. Brian. Syse. Athens.archive.apaclassics.102.org/aj-al/alcibiades/alcibiades. cgpublisher.archive.fltr.ccc.prio. Henrik.html) from the original on 19 August 2006. Meiggs.ccc. html) from the original on 31 August 2006.com/cs/people/a/ alcibiades.org/aj-al/alcibiades/alcibiades.prio.about.html).edu/colleges/wright/greatbooks/ Program/Symposm/Issue1/Arcan. Bingley.bartleby.+Thucydides&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=27).ucl. Russell. Endres.com/social-sciences/alcibiades. Arcan.be/FE/10/ Lion/Lion2.com/social-sciences/alcibiades.html). Retrieved 5 August 2006. archive. Gabriela.html).doc+ Alcibiades.com/ebc/article-9005499/Alcibiades).bitsofnews. Kathleen. Archived (http://web. Rubio.fltr. Retrieved 5 August 2006.9. Jona.ucl..org/web/ 20060819192700/http://www.be/FE/10/Lion/Lion2.org/web/20060905000755/http://www. Marco-Lendering. • "Alcibiades" (http://concise. • "Alcibiades: Aristocratic Ideal or Antisocial Personality Disorder" (http://h06. Retrieved 5 August 2006.html). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Retrieved 5 August 2006. • "Alcibiades" (http://www.edu/colleges/wright/greatbooks/Program/Symposm/Issue1/Arcan.archive. and Alcibiades" (http://66.Alcibiades 132 External links Biographical • "Alcibiades was an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War" (http://ancienthistory. Archived (http://web.com/proposals/41/ index_html). Marie-Paule. • "Thucydides and Civil War: the Case of Alcibiades" (http://66. Robert. Warren. Evans.archive.ac.104/ search?q=cache:Xj7eK3ojC6AJ:www.htm) from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 22 September 2006.102. 2001–05.org/AnnualMeeting/03mtg/abstracts/warren. Retrieved 5 August 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006. • "Survie d’un lion : Alcibiade" (http://bcs. Archived (http://web. Traitor: Aspects of Alcibiades" (http://faculty.html).html) from the original on 5 September 2006.com/proposals/41/index_html) from the original on 28 August 2006. Archived (http://web. Archived (http://web. Retrieved 5 August 2006.9.+Thucydides&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7). Bad Man. Prins. Nikolai. Thucydides. Retrieved 22 September 2006.glbtq. Alexander G.doc+Alcibiades.ac.104/search?q=cache:o22heq1uEUgJ:www. • "Plato.archive.org/web/20060827081434/http://bcs.com/content/view/3686/42/). and the Human Condition in Thucydides’ History" (http://www. Loicq-Berger. • "Alcibiades and the Sicilian Expedition" (http://www.org/web/ 20060911133925/http://faculty.htm).cgpublisher.

[15] . partly from the traditional lore of the earliest medical science. and outlined the paths of the optic nerves as well as stating that the brain is the organ of the mind.[14] his name seems to have crept into lists of Pythagoreans given us by later writers.[5] He also was the first to dwell on the internal causes of illnesses. Aristotle appears to connect Alcmaeon. nutrition and lifestyle.[3] Calcidius.Alcmaeon of Croton 133 Alcmaeon of Croton Alcmaeon (Gr.[12][13] Pythagorean Although Alcmaeon is often called a pupil of Pythagoras. but distinguishes between the stoicheia (στοιχεῖα) of opposites.[15] Aristotle mentions him as nearly contemporary with Pythagoras." and the word exsectio would apply equally well in either case. However. his theories were not without mistakes. he supposed to arise from its shape.[8] He also wrote several other medical and philosophical works. there is great reason to doubt whether he was a Pythagorean at all.[4] some modern scholars doubt Calcidius' word entirely. 5th century BC) of Croton (in Magna Græcia) was one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity.: Ἀλκμαίωνος.[2] Works He was considered by many an early pioneer and advocate of anatomical dissection and was said to be the first to identify Eustachian tubes.[16] and the double principle of Alcmaeon. Alcmaeon of Croton experimented with live animals by cutting the nerve behind the eye to study vision. which was also eternal. Other doctrines of Alcmaeon have been preserved. with which rather than the Pythagorean. He is said by some to have been a pupil of Pythagoras. of which nothing but the titles and a few fragments have been preserved by Stobaeus.[6][7] and to have invented fables. Nothing more is known of the events of his life. He said that the human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature. His father's name was Peirithus (Peirithos). he also indulged in astrology and meteorology.[10] and Galen. Alkmaiōn.[9] Plutarch. He also stated that the eye contains both fire and water. less extended. although he does not explain the precise difference. and seem to have arisen partly out of the speculations of the Ionian School. merely says "qui primus exsectionem aggredi est ausus. under which the Pythagoreans included all things.[1] Although he wrote mostly on medical topics there is some suggestion that he was not a physician but a philosopher of science. which he said was like a boat. according to Aristotle.[17][18] The eclipse of the moon. but whether his knowledge in this branch of science was derived from the dissection of animals or of human bodies is still a disputed question. and he may have been born around 510 BC. Ἀλκμαίων. on whose authority the fact rests. It was he who first suggested that health was a state of equilibrium between opposing humors and that illnesses were because of problems in environment. because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion. He is said also to have been the first person who wrote on natural philosophy (φυσικὸν λόγον). His celebrated discoveries in the field of dissection were noted in antiquity. He also contributed to the study of medicine by establishing the connection between the brain and the sense organs. He said that sleep occurs when blood vessels in the brain are filled and that waking is caused by the emptying of these vessels. gen.[11] His Concerning Nature might be the earliest example of Greek medical literature. All his doctrines which have come down to us relate to physics or medicine.

Boston: Little. Philos. Dordrecht: Kluwer. p. . New York: Arno Press. 387. Lips. vol. "Alcmaeon of Croton: His Life. 187.. Lambertus Marie. 1." Plinio Prioreschi. • Longrigg. • Sigerist. A History of Medicine: Greek medicine. html). of Ant. 986a] but it would appear that the passage is interpolated. Phys. Stromata i." p. Notes [1] "There is disagreement about the date of his birth: Aristotle says that "Alcmaeon of Croton lived when Pythagoras was old. p. (1931/1932). ante Hippocr. "Tim. et Philol. Kephalaion: Studies in Greek Philosophy and its Continuation Offered to Professor C.. pp. p. Lyons. • Jones. William. Philosoph. Brown and Company. [5] Owen. Comment. "Alcmeon's and Hippocrates's Concept of Aetia". 30. i.. [12] Albert S. M. and in Kühn's Opusc. Geschichte der Philosophie vol.S. James (1993). Decr. 1781. Le Clerc. Biblioth. 4to. de la Med. viii. (1990). J. p. 239.. 83 [7] Clement of Alexandria. Philosophy and Medicine in Ancient Greece. Geoffrey (1975). ed. ad Histor. reprinted in Ackermann's Opusc. Alphonsus Ciacconius ap. vol. Medic. [11] Galen. 1.Alcmaeon of Croton 134 References •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith. 368. 104–105. p. ISBN 0-415-02594-X. A History of Greek Philosophy:The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans. Sudhoffs Archiv 59 (2): 113–147. Simon. "Alcmaeon and the Early History of Dissection".II. [3] Dict. . pp. de Vogel.H. Hist. De Natura Deorum i. [10] Plutarch. Histor.. "Alcmaeon (3)" (http:/ / www. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 25: 1041–1046. 1827-8. Med. Graec. Isensee. "Alcmaeon (2)". 1. In Hornblower. 8vo. [15] Christian August Brandis. Metaphysics A. 83. 1797. com/ smith-bio/ 0113. C. Hist.S. 8vo. Jaap. Assen: Van Gorcum. p. G. 756.Z. W. [14] Jowett.C (1962). 11 Further reading • Andriopoulos. Norimb. in Plat. a [4] Calcidius. i. xiii. der Medicin. 2. vet. and Fragments". A History of Medicine:Early Greek. [viii. . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. and Persian Medicine.D. A.K. (1979). ed. Medicine: An Illustrated History. pp. [2] Greenhill. • Codellas. viii. Benjamin (1867). "The Origin of Experimental Medicine in the School of Alcmaeon from Kroton and the Diffusion of His Philosophy within the Mediterranean Area". "Alcmaeon: 'Physikos' or Physician?". (1867).C. Fabric. Skepsis 13-14: 242–253. Joseph Petrucelli. Fabr. ancientlibrary. 5 [17] Aristotle. (2002). Oxford: Oxford University Press [6] Diogenes Laërtius. Gwilym Ellis Lane (1996). 2 vols. D. 2. "article name needed "." [Metaphysics. Mansfeld. (1961). Hindu. Work. In William Smith. Orig. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Pertinentia. de la Med. • Guthrie. Greek Rational Medicine: Philosophy and Medicine from Alcmaeon to the Alexandrians.. De Philosoph. i. 83] and this could have been possible it we assume that the latter died about 490 and that Alcmaeon was born about 510 BC. In William Smith. 405 [18] Cicero. page 167. ed.S. F. Diogenes Laertius states that he was a disciple of Pythagoras. 39 [9] Stobaeus. R. Greek Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science.. p. 105. (1996). Acad. Medicinae Cultor. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. W. Jaap (1975). Henry E. De Phys. com/ smith-bio/ 0114. In de Vogel. v.D. 48. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29420-7. Lips. • Mansfeld.J. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 192 [13] A further account of his philosophical opinions may be found in Gilles Ménage's Notes to Diogenes Laertius.. ancientlibrary. Kühn.A. Brown and Company. 308 [8] fabulas. 507-508 [16] Aristotle. de Rijk. ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Pantelis. In Nicolacopoulos. P. Sprengel. • Foca. Gesch. PMID 138982. Isid. Boston: Little.. Eclog. "Alcmaeon (3)" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-405-10606-8.. C. 1. William Alexander (1867). de Anima. • Lloyd. html).. i. M. London and New York: Routledge.

translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925).com/doc/ 1G2-2830900075.com.encyclopedia. Life of Alcmaeon. • Diogenes Laërtius. Encyclopedia. . "Alcameon of Crotona" (http://www. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.edu/entries/alcmaeon) entry by Carl Huffman in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Kudlien.Alcmaeon of Croton 135 External links • Alcmaeon (http://plato. Fridolf (2008) [1970-80].html).stanford.

Psychology. logic. Hons) Known for Influences Influenced The Senses and the Intellect. . where he also held Professorships in Moral Philosophy and English Literature and was twice elected Lord Rector of the University of Aberdeen. The Scottish Idealists. Scotland 18 September 1903 (aged 85) Aberdeen. Philosophy of Mind. the first ever journal of psychology and analytical philosophy.Alexander Bain 136 Alexander Bain Regius Professor and Lord Rector Alexander Bain M. Education as a Science. William James. George Grote. George Croom Robertson. (Hons). linguistics. Auguste Comte.A. Linguistics. (Hon) LL. He founded Mind. Bain was the inaugural Regius Chair in Logic and Professor of Logic at the University of Aberdeen. Mind John Stuart Mill.D.A. and was the leading figure in establishing and applying applying the scientific method to psychology. Born 11 June 1818 Aberdeen. Logic. Education University of Aberdeen University of London University of Glasgow Anderson's University Marischal College Died Nationality Fields Institutions Alma mater Marischal College (M. British Empiricism Charles Sanders Peirce. John Stuart Mill Alexander Bain (11 June 1818 – 18 September 1903) was a Scottish philosopher and educationalist in the British school of empiricism who was a prominent and innovative figure in the fields of psychology. The Emotions and the Will. George Henry Lewes. Scotland Scottish Moral Philosophy. William Minto. James Mill. moral philosophy and education reform. Mental and Moral Science.

" published in September 1840. This. His efforts were first directed to the [2] [3] preparation of textbooks: Higher English Grammar and An English Grammar were both published in 1863. Towards the end of his undergraduate degree he became a contributor to the Westminster Review with his first article entitled "Electrotype and Daguerreotype. Philosophy Bain's philosophical writings already published. Academic career In 1845 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Anderson's University in Glasgow. was unable to discharge his academic duties. especially The Senses and the Intellect to which was added in 1861 The Study of Character including an Estimate of Phrenology. These treatises won him a position among independent thinkers. A year later. and Margaret Paul. He succeeded not only in raising the standard of education generally in the North of Scotland. Linguistics Until 1858 neither logic nor English had received adequate attention in Aberdeen. during which he continued writing for the Westminster. due to ill-health. he resigned the position and devoted himself to writing. He also took to lectures at the Mechanics' Institutes of Aberdeen and the Aberdeen Public Library. and in 1874 by the Companion to the Higher Grammar. who. it was based . These works were wide-ranging and their original views and methods met with wide acceptance. a weaver and veteran soldier. The year 1870 saw the publication of the Logic. Professor of Chemistry Thomas Clark and Professor of Natural Philosophy William Knight. and with many important additions. Scotland to George Bain. Bain was also Examiner in Logic and Moral Philosophy from 1857–1862 and 1864–1869 for the University of London and also an Instructor in Moral Science for the Indian Civil Service examinations. followed in 1866 by the Manual of Rhetoric. Bain substituted for Dr. which led to a lifelong friendship. In 1843 he contributed the first review of the book to the London and Westminster. but also in establishing a School of Philosophy at the University of Aberdeen. In 1848 he moved to London to fill a post in the Board of Health under Sir Edwin Chadwick where he worked for social reform and became a prominent member of the intellectual circle which included George Grote and John Stuart Mill. was a work designed for the use of students. and Bain devoted himself to supplying these deficiencies. Accordingly in 1868. Aberdeen and Marischal College by the Scottish Universities Commission of 1858.Alexander Bain 137 Early life and education Alexander Bain was born in Aberdeen. rex philosophorum. he published his Manual of Mental and Moral Science. He was awarded the Blue Ribbon and also the Gray Mathematical Bursary. and in widely influencing the teaching of English grammar and composition in the United Kingdom. which was newly formed after the amalgamation of King's College. This was the beginning of his connection with John Stuart Mill. too. Glennie the Professor of Moral Philosophy. In 1836 he entered Marischal College where he came under the influence of Professor of Mathematics John Cruickshank. He continued to do this three successive terms. The Senses and the Intellect. and also helped John Stuart Mill with the revision of the manuscript of his System of Logic (1842). In 1860 he was appointed by the British Crown to the inaugural Regius Chair of Logic and the Regius Chair of English Literature at the University of Aberdeen. mainly a condensed form of his treatises. His college career and studies was distinguished especially in mental philosophy. with the doctrines re-stated. At age eleven he left school to work as a weaver[1] hence the description of him as Weevir. followed in 1859 by The Emotions and the Will. mathematics and physics and he graduated with a Master of Arts with Highest Honours In 1841. In 1855 he published his first major work. preferring a wider field. in 1872 by A First English Grammar. and in many instances freshly illustrated. were too large for effective use in the classroom.

Subsequent psycho-physical investigations "have all been in" the spirit of his work. he also wrote a memoir prefixed to G Croom Robertson's Philosophical Remains (1894). George Croom Robertson. He also started the philosophical journal. and though his theory of a central innervation sense is no longer held as he propounded it. Further works include editions with notes of Paley's Moral Philosophy (1852). inheres in a person's limbs. and assisted in editing Grote's Aristotle and Minor Works.[5] He was the originator of the theory of psychophysical parallelism which is used so widely as a working basis by modern psychologists. He may justly claim the merit of having guided the awakened psychological interest of British thinkers of the second half of the 19th century into fruitful channels. and to his lead is no doubt due in great measure the position that psychology has now acquired as a distinct positive science. Mind. he collaborated with JS Mill and Grote in editing James Mill's Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1869). comparative psychology and developmental psychology. his reputation rests on his works in psychology. Bain proposed that physiological and psychological processes were linked. and attempted to identify the link between the mind and the body and to discover the correlations between mental and behavioral phenomena. L. and Education as a Science (1879). the value of which was enhanced by his methodical exposition and his command of illustration. In discussing the will. In line with this. but he was in reality the pioneer of the new. . owing to ill-health. Davidson of the University of Aberdeen. from the Higher English Grammar downwards. too. His idea of applying the scientific method of classification to psychical phenomena gave scientific character to his work. were written by Bain during his twenty years as a Professor at the University of Aberdeen. 138 Psychology Although his influence as a logician and linguist in grammar and rhetoric was considerable. and not on spontaneous thoughts and ideas. under the editorship of a former pupil. He sought to chart physiological correlates of mental states but refused to make any materialistic assumptions. independent of consciousness. Dissertations on leading philosophical topics (1903. its value as a suggestion to later psychologists is great. and also the history of the last thirteen years of his life by Professor W. mainly reprints of papers in Mind). To this journal Bain contributed many important articles and discussions. of University College London. he was the first in Great Britain during the 19th century to apply physiology in a thoroughgoing fashion to the elucidation of mental states. Education as a Science (1879). as a more distinct discipline of science through application of the scientific method. namely. published in 1904.[6] Other works Bain's autobiography. At one with the German physiologist and comparative anatomist Johannes Peter Müller in the conviction psychologus nemo nisi physiologus. he was among the first to appreciate the help that may be given to it by social psychology. Bain emphasised the importance of our active experiences of movement and effort. His thought that a belief is but a preparation for action is respected by both pragmatism and functionalism. he favoured physiological over metaphysical explanations. and that traditional psychology could be explained in terms of this association. and in fact he bore the whole expenses of it till Robertson. contains a full list of his works. Moreover he proposed that all knowledge and all mental processes had to be based on actual physical sensations. pointing to reflexes as evidence that a form of will. resigned the editorship in 1891 and George Stout took up the baton. the first number appeared in January 1876. as influenced by David Hume and Auguste Comte. who further contributed to Mind (April 1904) a review of Bain's services to philosophy. is his demand that psychology should be cleared of metaphysics. but differed from him in many particulars.Alexander Bain on John Stuart Mill.[4] Next came two publications in the "International Scientific Series". and was distinctive for its treatment of the doctrine of the conservation of energy in connection with causation and the detailed application of the principles of logic to the various sciences with a section on the classification of the all sciences. and although he consistently advocated the introspective method in psychological investigation. All these works. Mind and Body (1872). William James calls his work the "last word" of the earlier stage of psychology. Bain established psychology.

a book On Teaching English. 1. with Personal Recollections. Vol. Moreover. Green & Co. A Biography [13] (1 ed. especially in the teaching of sciences. Later life and death Bain retired from his Chair and Professorship from the University of Aberdeen and was succeeded by William Minto. • • • • • • • Education as a Science. 1. remained as keen as ever. 1884 [11] Practical Essays Dissertations on Leading Philosophical Topics Autobiography by Alexander Bain. New York: D. Lewes and the Postulates of Experience" [10]. and along with it. Vol. Appleton and Company. It is rare to find a philosopher who combines philosophical with educational and practical interests. from Mind. • Review of Herbert Spencer's Principles of Sociology [9]. 1. he as an avid supporter for Student rights and in 1884 the Aberdeen University Debating Society took the first steps towards the introduction of a Students' Representative Council and later Aberdeen University Students' Association under his support. where he died on 18 September 1903. being an exhaustive application of the principles of rhetoric to the criticism of style.). Accordingly. He married twice but left no children.. but so too has education and practical reform. A marble bust of him stands in the Aberdeen Public Library and his portrait hangs in Marischal College. 1882."[7] The University of Aberdeen Philosophy Department established the Bain Medal in 1883. from Mind. and in 1894 he published a revised edition of The Senses and the Intellect. and his desire to complete the scheme of work mapped out in earlier years. and accompanying it John Stuart Mill: a Criticism. he was twice elected Lord Rector of the University of Aberdeen each term of office extending over three years. psychology has sustained a great loss. one of his most brilliant pupils. Furthermore.. Next came (1884) a collection of articles and papers." Bibliography • "Early Life of James Mill" [8]. London: Logmans. which contain his last word on psychology. 1888) by a new edition of the Rhetoric. In 1894 also appeared his last contribution to Mind. Nevertheless his interest in thought. Vol.. No. after his retirement from the Chair of Logic. Green & Co. He was a strenuous advocate of reform. for the use of teachers. Bain's death. 1 (January 1876). most of which had appeared in magazines. retrieved 2012-12-11 . • "Mr. Let us not fail to appreciate it. under the title of Practical Essays. 1 (January 1876). Davidson wrote in Bain's obituary in Mind "In Dr. Such a combination was here. No. This was succeeded (1887. It is awarded annually to the best candidate who gains First Class Honours in Mental Philosophy. 1904 [12] Elements of chemistry and electricity: in two parts Astronomy James Mill.Alexander Bain 139 Social Reform Bain took a keen interest in social justice and development and was frequently an active part in the political and social movements of the day. G. Professor Bain gave lectures and wrote papers for the Mechanics' Institutes of Aberdeen and served as the Secretary of its Committee. No. His last request was that "no stone should be placed upon his grave: his books.D. and who is also an active force in the community in which he dwells. His services to education and social reform in Scotland were recognised by the conferment of the honorary degree of Doctor of Law by the University of Edinburgh in 1871. in 1882 appeared the Biography of James Mill. from Mind. he said. H. As Professor William L. London: Longmans. and supported the claims of modern languages to a place in the curriculum. would be his monument. His last years were spent in privacy at Aberdeen. Bain was a member of the Committee of the Aberdeen Public Library throughout his life as well as the School Board of Aberdeen. LL. 1 (January 1876).

org/ mind/ 1876/ 01/ the-early-life-of-james-mill [9] http:/ / fair-use. London: Longmans. org/ mind/ 1876/ 01/ notes/ mr-gh-lewes-on-the-postulates-of-experience [11] http:/ / archive. org/ stream/ jamesmillabiogr00baingoog#page/ n9/ mode/ 2up [14] http:/ / archive. Green & Co. London: Longmans. Green & Co. org/ stream/ cu31924029045982#page/ n5/ mode/ 2up . newworldencyclopedia. designed as a text-book for high-schools and colleges Moral science: a compendium of ethics [15] Mental and moral science: A compendium of psychology and ethics.. org/ mind/ 1876/ 01/ critical-notices/ the-principles-of-sociology [10] http:/ / fair-use. org/ stream/ educationasscien02bain#page/ n11/ mode/ 2up [12] http:/ / archive. google.Alexander Bain • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Stuart Mill: A Criticism: With Personal Recollections. The true basis for the science of mind The emergence of neuroscience in the nineteenth century: Mind and body : the theories of their relation Pleasure and Pain On the study of character: including an estimate of phrenology Mental science: a compendium of psychology. Jul 30. 1904. ca/ books?vid=ISBN1402181566& id=vVLAFrEvSzoC) [3] An English Grammar at Google Books (http:/ / books. 30 [2] Higher English Grammar at Google Books (http:/ / books. pg. org/ stream/ autobiography00bainuoft#page/ n7/ mode/ 2up [13] http:/ / archive.. 1882 [14] The Art of Study Is There Such a Thing As Pure Malevolence? The Classical Controversy The University Ideal: Past and Present On Teaching English: With Detailed Examples and an Enquiry Into the Definition of Poetry English Composition and Rhetoric: Emotional qualities of style English Composition and Rhetoric: Intellectual elements of style English grammar as bearing upon composition First English Grammar A Higher English Grammar An English grammar English composition and rhetoric: A manual Logic: Induction Logic: Volume 1 Deduction Some Points in Ethics Fragments on ethical subjects The Moral Philosophy of Paley The emotions and the will The senses and the intellect Mind And Body: The Theories Of Their Relation Physiological Expression in Psychology Analysis of the phenomena of the human mind: Volume 1 How to study character. or. New York Times (1857-1922). p. BR514 http:/ / fair-use. 1868 [16] Mental and Moral Science: Psychology and history of philosophy Mental and Moral Science: Theory of ethics and ehtical systems 140 References [1] Kunitz. google. org/ entry/ Alexander_Bain [5] [6] [7] [8] Columbia Encyclopedia Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Alexander Bain: The Story of the Life of the Famous Aberdeen Professor. and the history of philosophy. ca/ books?vid=0Uu3Ii85L5ygbkTV& id=P3ECAAAAQAAJ) [4] http:/ / www.

Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. An Introduction to the History of Psychology.com/moral-science. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Davidson.edu/entries/scottish-19th/ #AleBai181190) . an obituary from Mind (Jan. Alexander".html) • Works by Alexander Bain (http://www. Alexander. ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.org/mind/1904/01/notes/professor-bain). W. Alexander". (1911). • Hattiangadi. Cambridge University Press. org/ stream/ princeton_theological_seminary_287726_microfiche_1986_0003#page/ n0/ mode/ 2up [16] http:/ / archive. Jagdish N. Wikisource • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Alexander Bain (http://plato. Hugh. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 1871 (facsimile ed. Alexander. Stanley. "Bain. 1936." British Authors of the Nineteenth Century. M. and Howard Haycraft.gutenberg. Dent & Sons. R. New York. English Composition and Rhetoric. Dictionary of Scientific Biography.Alexander Bain [15] http:/ / archive. 1904) • Moral Science: A Compendium of Ethics by Alexander Bain (http://virtuescience. Hergenhahn. org/ stream/ mentalmoralscie00bain#page/ n3/ mode/ 2up 141 Further reading • Bain. pp. Sixth Edition • Kunitz.org/author/Alexander_Bain_(1818-1903)) at Project Gutenberg • Cousin. • William L. London: J. External links • Chisholm.stanford. ISBN 978-0-8201-1497-2). "  Bain. (1970). "Bain. "Bain. Alexander". Professor Bain (http://fair-use. John William (1910). • B. H. 1996..). Wilson Company. Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints. 1. 403–404.

The inscription honours his father. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle. He wrote many commentaries on the works of Aristotle. and Metaphysics. fl. Life and career Alexander was a native of Aphrodisias in Caria[1] and came to Athens towards the end of the 2nd century. extant are those on the Prior Analytics. also called Alexander and also a philosopher. between 198 and 209. He was a student of the two Stoic. A recently published inscription from Aphrodisias confirms that he was head of one of the Schools at Athens and gives his full name as Titus Aurelius Alexander. This fact makes it plausible that some of the suspect works that form part of Alexander's corpus should be ascribed to his father.[6] .[1] His full nomenclature shows that his grandfather or other ancestor was probably given Roman citizenship by the emperor Antoninus Pius. and lived and taught in Athens at the beginning of the 3rd century. "the commentator" (ὁ ἐξηγητής). Sense and Sensibilia. and one On the Soul. Topics.[5] At Athens he became head of the Peripatetic school and lectured on Peripatetic Opening paragraph of the treatise On Fate (Pros philosophy. in gratitude for his position at Athens.Alexander of Aphrodisias 142 Alexander of Aphrodisias Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς. while proconsul of Asia. and include a work On Fate.[4] and perhaps of Aristotle of Mytilene. and Caracalla. where he held a position as head of the Peripatetic school. He was a native of Aphrodisias in Caria. Alexander's dedication of On Fate to Septimius Severus tous Autokratoras) by Alexander of Aphrodisias. His commentaries on Aristotle were considered so useful that he was styled. in which he argues against the Stoic doctrine of necessity. Meteorology.[2] or possibly Peripatetic. by way of pre-eminence. indicates a date From an anonymous edition published in 1658. Several original treatises also survive. philosophers Sosigenes[3] and Herminus.

but rather by his pupils on the basis of debates involving Alexander.[17] The work is a discussion of ethical issues based on Aristotle. Sense and Sensibilia.[7] His extant commentaries are on Prior Analytics (Book 1).necessity (Greek: ἀνάγκη). seventeen with psychology.[7] A second book is known as the Supplement to On the Soul (Mantissa).[13] On the Soul (De anima) is a treatise on the soul written along the lines suggested by Aristotle in his own De anima. with God. and are not all problems.[10] In April 2007. as is the commentary on the final nine books of the Metaphysics.[18] Ethical Problems was traditionally counted as the fourth book of the Quaestiones. Meteorology. He defended a view of moral responsibility we would call libertarianism today. and Robert Sharples suggested Alexander as the most likely author. eleven with logic and metaphysics. while others may be exercises by his students. it was reported that imaging analysis had discovered an early commentary on Aristotle's Categories in the Archimedes Palimpsest.[16] Problems and Solutions (Quaestiones) consists of three books which.[9] Simplicius of Cilicia mentions that Alexander provided commentary on the quadrature of the lunes." treat of subjects which are not all physical. and determinism in the sense of a sequence of causes that was laid down beforehand (Greek: προκαταβεβλημένος) or predetermined by antecedents (Greek: προηγουμένος). these include: On the Principles of the Universe. These include: On the Soul. and six with questions of fate and providence. Posterior Analytics. and On Mixture and Growth. and contains responses to questions and problems deriving from Alexander's school.[11] Original treatises Andrea Briosco. and On Fevers.[8] The commentary on the Sophistical Refutations is deemed spurious. and the corresponding problem of squaring the circle. in which he sought to escape a syncretistic tendency and to recover the pure doctrines of Aristotle.[15] The remaining twenty pieces cover problems in physics and ethics. 16th century plaquette.Alexander of Aphrodisias 143 Commentaries Alexander composed several commentaries on the works of Aristotle.[14] Alexander contends that the undeveloped reason in man is material (nous hulikos) and inseparable from the body.[17] It is unlikely that Alexander wrote all of the Quaestiones. Ethical Problems.[8] Additional works by Alexander are preserved in Arabic translation. some may be Alexander's own explanations.[19] On Fate is a treatise in which Alexander argues against the Stoic doctrine of necessity. Physical Problems. and Metaphysics (Books 1-5). but much of the actual material may be his.[8] Three works attributed to him are considered spurious: Medical Questions.[20] . through whose agency the potential intellect in man becomes actual.[7] He identified the active intellect (nous poietikos).[7] In On Fate Alexander denied three things . On Generation and Corruption. The Mantissa is a series of twenty-five separate pieces of which the opening five deal directly with psychology. On the Heavens. Physics. and Against Galen on Motion. On the Soul. Problems and Solutions.[9] The lost commentaries include works on the De Interpretatione.[12] On Providence.[17] Among the sixty-nine items in these three books. although termed "problems and solutions of physical questions.[19] It is likely that the work was not written by Alexander himself. Topics. of which the largest group deals with questions of vision and light. and On Memory.[15] The Mantissa was probably not written by Alexander in its current form. Bode-Museum There are also several extant original writings by Alexander. twenty-four deal with physics. the foreknowledge of fated events that was part of the Stoic identification of God and Nature. and the final four with fate and providence.[7] He argued strongly against the doctrine of the soul's immortality. On Fate. Aristotle and Alexander of Aphrodisias.

without any direct involvement in the lives of individuals. This treatise is not mentioned in surviving Greek sources. which probably targeted the writings of Alexander among others. his De Fato and De Anima were printed along with the works of Themistius at Venice (1534).[7] and he is heavily quoted by Maimonides. Alexander's band. org/ sici?sici=0009-840X(1986)2:36:1<33:AOAOF>2. Notes [1] A.[25] In this treatise. p. 1972. 110. Sharples. in Arist..[24] The topics dealt with are the nature of the heavenly motions and the relationship between the unchangeable celestial realm and the sublunar world of generation and decay. 1824. Orelli. Comm.24 Wallies. 215.[25] Instead. "I heard from Herminus. ISSN 0076-0730. providence is a power that emanates from the heavens to the sublunar region. Venice. the Church Council of Paris issued a condemnation.[25] 144 Influence By the 6th century Alexander's commentaries on Aristotle were considered so useful that he was referred to as "the commentator" (Greek: ὁ ἐξηγητής). Alexander opposes the Stoic view that divine providence extends to all aspects of the world. See Sosigenes the Peripatetic. but it enjoyed great popularity in the Muslim world..20-23 Wallies. is named after him. Cyril of Alexandria. 2.. 1495–1498. 61. but it also has a polemical tone.. Paraphr. n. Comm.[27] In the early Renaissance his doctrine of the soul's mortality was adopted by Pietro Pomponazzi (against the Thomists and the Averroists). This school is known as Alexandrists.s. and Philoponus. Comm. and an exposition of Aristotelian thought on this theme. Metaphysics (book 12). 79-81 [2] J. in his 1984 Budé edition of On Fate. while also presenting a unified picture of the world. See R. Themistius. Chaniotis.P.[24] His principal sources are the Physics (book 7). In 1210. p. Jahrhundert n.[21] It is both an extended discussion (and polemic) on Stoic physics.. other works of his have been translated into English.23 Heinze. he regards this idea as unworthy of the gods. [3] See Alexander's Comm.[22] The main purpose of this work is to give a general account of Aristotelian cosmology and metaphysics. 143.W. καθὰ ἦν καὶ ἐν τοῖς Ἀσπασίου φερόμενον.[23] Alexander was concerned with filling the gaps of the Aristotelian system and smoothing out its inconsistencies.[24] On Providence survives in two Arabic versions. Zürich.13 Hayduck (ὁ διδάσκαλος ἡμῶν Σωσιγένης). 33 (http:/ / links.ἤκουσα.[21] On the Principles of the Universe is preserved in Arabic translation. in Arist.[26] His commentaries were greatly esteemed among the Arabs. [4] Simplicius. pointing out that the text that has been taken to mean this (On Fate.38. was edited by J. and the Pseudo-Aristotelian On the Universe. jstor. may name .32 Heiberg. Ἤκουσα. p. p. and his commentaries on the Metaphysica by H. google. 0. mantissa.. Meteor. 36 (1986).Alexander of Aphrodisias On Mixture and Growth discusses the topic of mixture of physical bodies. and it may be directed at rival views within the Peripatetic school. Ps.[7] and by his successor Cesare Cremonini. p. quoting Alexander: Ἑρμίνου δέ. in Arist. Bonitz. 126.. Anal. has argued against Moraux's identification (Der Aristotelismus im I. Berlin. 'Epigraphic evidence for the philosopher Alexander of Aphrodisias'. Aristotle's School. both physical and ethical. Pr. in Arist.. Pr. com/ books?id=bKYNAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA110).4 Bruns (http:/ / books.παρὰ Ἀριστοτέλους) could refer instead to Alexander's learning from the texts of Aristotle the Stagirite. which has been translated into Latin by Grotius and also by Schulthess. Lynch. Berkeley. C. p. Classical Review. de Anima. in Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. Against Julian 2. v. p. as was said among Aspasius' students. in Arist. 1847. 430. Anal. CO. und II.. Chr. an optical phenomenon. the former work.2-W). who translated many of them." [5] Pierre Thillet. and a large number of copies have survived. 1984) of Aristotle of Mytilene as Alexander's teacher.-Ammonius. Since then. de Caelo. and is responsible for the generation and destruction of earthly things.[7] In 1989 the first part of his On Aristotle Metaphysics was published as part of the Ancient commentators project..47 (2004) pp. Modern editions Several of Alexander's works were published in the Aldine edition of Aristotle. vol. p. 39.

(1960). Philip (1970). Todd. (1965). Text. 2008.but you will not think that the author has been honoured as The Author par excellence. "Alexander Aphrodisiensis". 707. comm. W. Todd. 1926. 21. BRILL. pages 159-160. 1991 [11] "Text reveals more ancient secrets" (http:/ / news. [19] Miira Tuominen. "Alexander of Aphrodisias" (http://www. writings. 126. Ancient Perspectives on Aristotle's de Anima. BRILL [25] Robert W. org/ Alexander_of_Aphrodisias). Todd. bbc. in An. Translation and Commentary. (2001). Alexander of Aphrodisias on Stoic physics: a study of the De Mixtione with Preliminary Essays. Alexander of Aphrodisias on Stoic Physics: A Study of the "De Mixtione" with Preliminary Essays. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 6591221. BRILL [24] Charles Genequand. Alexander of Aphrodisias on Stoic physics: a study of the De Mixtione with Preliminary Essays. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On the Cosmos. (2001). in: Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum: Medieval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commentaries. Alexander of Aphrodisias: Quaestiones 1.org/Alexander_of_Aphrodisias). Théry. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. (1976). Philoponus. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. 1992. 7 ff. 32. BRILL [16] "The two books of the De Anima differ markedly in form and content. sources for his life. De l’Âme. Theophrastus of Eresus. 263. The ancient commentators on Plato and Aristotle." [27] G. Fortenbaugh. (2005). Book II is almost certainly not by Alexander of Aphrodisias in its present form. BRILL [13] N. 2011. 1994. ISBN 90-04-04402-7 . (2001). (1976). Duckworth. Sharples. (1976). Edward Cranz. 117–-120. Aperçu sur l'influence de sa noétique. but the text edited by Burguière and Évieux (Sources Chrétiennes 322. Kain. Daniel Devereux. 1976." F. (1991). The Refutation by Alexander of Aphrodisias of Galen's Treatise on the Theory of Motion. BRILL [18] R. page 19. page 20. page 237. Georg Olms. and R. Olympiodorus. Sharples. Islamic Research Institute [14] Gerd Van Riel. "Alexander of Aphrodisias". Alexander of Aphrodisias on Stoic physics: a study of the De Mixtione with Preliminary Essays. (2003). 1170. Translation and Commentary.. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On the Cosmos.15. BRILL. though much of the material may be his or from his school. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. 1911encyclopedia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. in Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 48 (2005) pp. page 84. ISBN 90-04-09998-0 • Gili Luca. Dufour (trans. [17] Robert B. pp.. at the end of a book review. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. page 18. page 4.). Hugh. 1. BRILL [22] Charles Genequand. (1997). Vrin.). but these phrases are not honorific titles . 1. 145 References • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. in David Furley (editor). Penguin. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On the Cosmos. Text. Hugh. 'Implications of the new Alexander of Aphrodisias inscription'. page 1. Vol. page 174. Sillogistica categorica e sillogistica modale nel commento agli "Analitici Primi" di Aristotele. Text. thought and Influence. you read 'The author deserves our thanks'. 21. [12] Charles Genequand. W. William. informationphilosopher.). and they were not originally a single work. Todd. Translation and Commentary. 33. M. Marmura. . you will rightly take this for praise . . "The Peripatetic school". Textes & Commentaires. 2007-04-26. Text. ed. in Meteor. BRILL [10] Dunham. E. Bergeron. Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy. Rescher. R. [6] R. co. page 6. Alexander of Aphrodisias. Washington. • Alexandre D'Aphrodise. Cambridge University Press. Autour du décret de 1210: II. Leuven University Press [15] Robert B. On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1. Simplicius. [9] William W. 2010. page ix. Cambridge University Press. Ways into the Logic of Alexander of Aphrodisias. Alexandre d'Aphrodise. Journey through Genius. 47-56. Book I is generally recognized as authentic. Belgium. BBC News. If. Sharples. La sillogistica di Alessandro di Afrodisia. ISBN 2-7116-1973-7 • Kevin L. ed. com/ solutions/ philosophers/ alexander/ ) [21] Robert B. University of California Press [20] Alexander of Aphrodisias (http:/ / www. in Phys. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. From Aristotle to Augustine. ISBN 978-3-487-14614-0 • Robert B. Routledge [26] Cf. page 22. (1911). [8] Donald J.1-2. who argue: "In all these texts Alexander is indeed referred to by phrases such as 'the commentator' or 'Aristotle's commentator'. Zeyl. "Alexander of Aphrodisias" (http:/ / www. pp. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On the Cosmos. Phillip Mitsis. Sharples. (2001). stm). pages 3-4. [7] This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. 1985) reads Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀριστοτέλους μαθητὴς. 1176. 13. M. (1911).Alexander of Aphrodisias Aristocles of Messene.1-7. But see Jonathan Barnes et al. BRILL [23] Charles Genequand. Translation and Commentary.1911encyclopedia. Flannery. Pr. page 4. 416 p. (2009).they are ordinary referring expressions. Further reading • Merlan.

2004. Gould. 2006. ISBN 0-7156-2899-2 • V. Mueller. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Metaphysics 5. Alexander of Aphrodisias: Ethical Problems.23-31. ISBN 0-7156-2241-2 • W. Sharples. Duckworth. Rescher. Topics (http://books.32-46. Sharples. 2005. 1992. E. Ierodiakonou. S. ISBN 0-7156-2853-4 • R. Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-3407-0 • I.Alexander of Aphrodisias • N. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Metaphysics 2-3. Duckworth. Madigan. 1993. Mueller.1-7. ISBN 0-7156-2483-0 • E. Marmura. 2001. ISBN 0-7156-2243-9 • W. 2006.2-5. Dooley. 1990. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Metaphysics 1. Flannery.com/ books?id=baRfAAAAMAAJ). Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Meteorology 4. Duckworth. Alexander of Aphrodisias: Quaestiones 1. Sharples. Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-2684-1 • E. K. Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-2372-9 • R. Alexander of Aphrodisias: Quaestiones 2.15. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Metaphysics 4. W. Barnes. 2000. 1983. 1999. J. 1999.google. Gould. ISBN 0-7156-2876-3 • I. Islamic Research Institute. Bobzien. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Topics 1. 1992. .google. 1994. ISBN 0-7156-2855-0 • I. ISBN 90-04-11963-9 • R. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Fate. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle On Coming-to-Be and Perishing 2. ISBN 0-7156-2347-8 • I. Duckworth. 1989. ed.com/solutions/philosophers/ alexander/) • Online Greek texts: • Scripta minora (http://books.edu/entries/alexander-aphrodisias) entry by Dorothea Frede in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Alexander on Information Philosopher (http://www. De sensu and Meteorology (http://books. ISBN 0-7156-2615-9 • R. Madigan. Duckworth. Duckworth. 1993. ISBN 0-19-636065-X 146 English translations • R. Duckworth. W.informationphilosopher.google. BRILL.1-2. 1996. Duckworth.8-13. M. The Refutation by Alexander of Aphrodisias of Galen's Treatise on the Theory of Motion. Sharples. ISBN 0-7156-3236-1 External links • Alexander of Aphrodisias (http://plato. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle On the Soul. W. J. Van Ophuijsen. ISBN 0-7156-2482-2 • W. Towey. 1991. Mueller.stanford. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1. Sharples. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle On Sense Perception. Duckworth. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On the Cosmos. Duckworth. W. Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-3303-1 • A. Duckworth. Caston. Gannagé.com/books?id=06NfAAAAMAAJ).google.google. Dooley. K. 2000.14-22. E.15. ISBN 0-7156-1739-7 • Charles Genequand. Dooley. ISBN 0-7156-3408-9 • J.com/books?id=6PJfAAAAMAAJ).16-3. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1. E. Prior Analytics I (http://books. W. Mueller. Duckworth. Duckworth. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1. M. Duckworth. Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1. (1965). Bruns • Aristotelian commentaries: Metaphysics (http://books. Duckworth. Lewis. 2011. ISBN 0-7156-2373-7 • A. A. Alexander of Aphrodisias: Supplement to On the Soul.com/books?id=bKYNAAAAIAAJ). ISBN 0-7156-3923-4 • J.com/ books?id=taRfAAAAMAAJ).

Aléxandros ho Mégasiii[›] from the Greek ἀλέξω alexo "to defend. was a king of Macedon. help" + ἀνήρ aner "man"). stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας. Lord of Asia Alexander fighting the Persian king Darius III of PersiaDarius III. Naples National Archaeological Museum Alexander fighting the Persian king Darius III. By the age of thirty. Born in Pella in 356 BC. Shahanshah of Persia.[2] Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC). Hegemon of the Hellenic League. Macedon 10 or 11 June 323 BC (aged 32) Babylon Greek polytheism most successful commanders.Alexander the Great 147 Alexander the Great Alexander the Great Basileus of Macedon. a state in northern ancient Greece. From Alexander Mosaic. Naples National Archaeological Museum King of Macedonia Reign Predecessor 336–323 BC Philip II of Macedon • • Alexander IV Philip III of Macedon Pharaoh of Egypt Reign Predecessor Successor 332–323 BC Darius III Alexander IV Philip III King of Persia Reign Predecessor Successor 330–323 BC Darius III Alexander IV Philip III Roxana of Bactria Stateira II of Persia Parysatis II of Persia Spouse Issue Alexander IV Full name Alexander III of Macedon Father Mother Born Died Religion Philip II of Macedon Olympias of Epirus 20 or 21 July 356 BC Pella. From Alexander Mosaic. Pharaoh of Egypt.[1] He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's . Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world.

[10] According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch. without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia.[9] Several legends surround Alexander's birth and childhood. likely a result of giving birth to Alexander. Alexander's surviving generals and heirs. he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. and he features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip.[6][7][8] Although Philip had seven or eight wives. and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. resulting in several states ruled by the Diadochi. aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves. indicated by the sealing of her womb. most notably Alexandria in Egypt. dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt. or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious. Philip is said to have seen himself. Olympias was his principal wife for some time. variously claiming that she had told Alexander.[11] Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant before her Bust of a young Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic era. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles.[5] He was the son of the king of Macedon. He was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's military expansion plans. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage. king of Epirus. most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. In 334 BC. but was eventually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops.[4] in Pella. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC. Seeking to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea". in a dream. Some time after the wedding. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. although the exact date is not known. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name. Olympias. Olympias. or that Alexander's father was Zeus. the capital of the Ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon. British Museum marriage. Upon Philip's death. his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. he invaded India in 326 BC. securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a lion's image.[11] . In the years following his death.i[›] At that point. Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army.[3]ii[›] 148 Early life Lineage and childhood Alexander was born on the 6th day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion. causing a flame that spread "far and wide" before dying away. and his fourth wife. Philip II of Macedon. the daughter of Neoptolemus I.Alexander the Great Alexander succeeded his father. Philip II. to the throne in 336 BC after Philip was assassinated. a series of civil wars tore his empire apart. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization.

[18][19][20] .Alexander the Great On the day that Alexander was born. Alexander was raised by a nurse. you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. and bought the horse for him. Pakistan. in Edinburgh detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow. Another account states that Bucephalus is buried in Phalia. Lanike. Plutarch stated that Philip. a town in Pakistan's Mandi Bahauddin District. kissed his son tearfully. Later in his childhood. at age thirty). Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira. and hunt. Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas. The horse A statue showing Alexander taming Bucephalus refused to be mounted and Philip ordered it away. Bucephalas carried Alexander as far as Pakistan.19. fight. by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris In his early years. Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies. which Philip had razed. a trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse. and possibly at his own instigation. attending the birth of Alexander. Philip chose Aristotle and provided the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. asked to tame the horse. the latter offering to resign to take up the post. the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. according to Plutarch. Alexander named a city after him. and Arrian's Anabasis Alexandri V. Macedon is too small for you". sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black.[10] 149 Aristotle tutoring Alexander. 6. When the animal died (due to old age. In return for teaching Alexander. ride. Bucephala. Alexander however. burnt down. That same day.[15] Alexander named it Bucephalas. which he offered to sell for thirteen talents.</ref> state that Bucephalus died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition. meaning "ox-head". to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception. declaring: "My boy. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away. play the lyre. one of the Seven Wonders of the World.[13] Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths. In the end. and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves.[7][12] Such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king. [10] which he eventually managed. Adolescence and education When Alexander was 13.[14] When Alexander was ten years old. Philip began to search for a tutor. and is buried in Jalalpur Sharif outside of Jhelum. learning to read. Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. which is named after him.[8][16][17] The primary (actually secondary) accounts are two: Plutarch's Life of Alexander. and by Philip's general Lysimachus. and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. a relative of his mother. and considered such academics as Isocrates and Speusippus. in what is now modern Pakistan. or pardoning those who were in exile. It was also said that on this day.

and are often known as the 'Companions'. voted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia. Alexander is reported to have saved his father's life. morals. Still occupied in Thrace. capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes and accepting the city's surrender. Hephaistion. sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes. and Cassander. Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus. Philip then returned to Elatea. Philip waged war against Byzantion.[30][31][32] . He colonized it with Greeks. Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes' favor.[18][21][22] 150 Philip's heir Regency and ascent of Macedon At age 16. the Thracian Maedi revolted against Macedonia. Many of these students would become his friends and future generals. and art.[26] Philip II of Macedon. he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. only a few days' march from both Athens and Thebes. Alexander responded quickly. only to be repelled by Alexander. such as Ptolemy. During this turmoil. and they marched south through Thermopylae. Alexander made it look as though he was preparing to attack Illyria instead. who both rejected it. which Alexander later carried on his campaigns. logic. Under Aristotle's tutelage. philosophy. he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in Greece. the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi.[27][28][29] Philip marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request of the Amphictyonic League).[23][24][25] Upon Philip's return. but Athens won the contest.[10] During Philip's absence.Alexander the Great Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles. They went on to occupy the city of Elatea. Aristotle gave him an annotated copy. and founded a city named Alexandropolis. and in particular the Iliad. Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer. a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs. Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC. leaving Alexander in charge as regent and heir apparent. driving them from their territory. Concerned that other Greek states might intervene. taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. the Illyrians invaded Macedonia. Meanwhile. Aristotle taught Alexander and his companions about medicine. religion. The Athenians. Alexander's education under Aristotle ended. led by Demosthenes. Alexander's father.

[37] The marriage made Alexander's position as heir less secure. At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: "See there. but by good fortune for them both.[40] Accordingly. the Thebans were surrounded." said he. accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals.[41][42] In the following year." said he. describing the feud at Philip's wedding. her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. the two sides fought bitterly for some time. Left to fight alone. Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left. or the wine he had drunk.[37] At the wedding of Cleopatra. offered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother. "the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia. they were defeated. counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat.Alexander the Great As Philip marched south. overturned in passing from one seat to another. so that he fell down on the floor. taking Attalus's part. they were refused. to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter's hand to an illegitimate son.[40] Olympias and several of Alexander's friends suggested this showed Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir. but did not resort to war. Boeotia. his opponents blocked him near Chaeronea. Having damaged the enemy's cohesion. who mediated between the two parties. either his over-hasty rage. Alexander was the first to break the Theban lines. however.[40] He continued to Illyria. However. the Persian satrap (governor) of Caria. This so irritated Alexander. thus breaking their line.[40] where he sought refuge with the Illyrian King and was treated as a guest. When Philip . "You villain." —Plutarch.[34] At Corinth. When Philip returned to Pella. Philip established a "Hellenic Alliance" (modeled on the old anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars). it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. while Alexander was only half-Macedonian. since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be a fully Macedonian heir. Alexander returned to Macedon after six months due to the efforts of a family friend.[38] During the wedding banquet.[39] Alexander fled Macedon with his mother. With the Athenians lost. whom Philip fell in love with and married. "what. am I then a bastard?" Then Philip. a drunken Attalus publicly prayed to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir. but instead to Alexander. Philip was then named Hegemon (often translated as "Supreme Commander") of this league (known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth).[40] Alexander reacted by sending an actor. and announced [35][36] his plans to attack the Persian Empire. According to the ancient sources. Thessalus of Corinth. Philip and Alexander marched unopposed into the Peloponnese. 151 Exile and return Statue of Alexander in Istanbul Archaeology Museum. when they reached Sparta. followed by Philip's generals. she being much too young for him. Pixodarus. capital of the Molossians. which included most Greek city-states except Sparta. Demaratus the Corinthian. dropping her off with her brother.[33] After the victory at Chaeronea. the niece of his general Attalus. he fell in love with and married Cleopatra Eurydice. made his foot slip. Philip Arrhidaeus. King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona. rose up and would have run his son through. Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed them. despite having defeated them in battle a few years before. that throwing one of the cups at his head. welcomed by all cities. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea.

and following Cleopatra's murder.[45][47][50] News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt. her daughter by Philip. and .[40] Philip exiled four of Alexander's friends. if I were not Alexander.[48] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra's uncle. Alexander I of Epirus. as he was blocking the sunlight.000 and rode south towards Thessaly. explaining that he wanted a better bride for him. Thessaly. I would like to be Diogenes.[55] This reply apparently delighted Alexander.[38][43][44] 152 King of Macedon Accession In 336 BC. Harpalus. Ptolemy and Erigyius. He had his cousin. adding their cavalry to Alexander's force. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa. Though advised to use diplomacy. Perdiccas and Leonnatus. and ordered his men to ride over Mount Ossa. while at Aegae attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to Olympias's brother. When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him. Alexander Lyncestes. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus. he was furious. who was by all accounts mentally disabled."[56] At Corinth Alexander took the title of Hegemon ("leader"). he responded quickly. Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. burned alive. When the Thessalians awoke the next day. Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander.[49] Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes. the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side. but spared a third. and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains. they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered. he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers. including two of Alexander's companions. Athens. Alexander may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive. he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian. where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. Alexander mustered the Macedonian cavalry of 3.[51][52][53][54] Alexander stopped at Thermopylae. the former Amyntas IV.Alexander the Great heard of this. including Thebes. regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. throne.vi[›] As Pausanias tried to escape. executed.[49] Alexander spared Arrhidaeus. When Alexander learned about this.[45][46][47] Consolidation of power Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC. and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon. He then continued south towards the Peloponnese. The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth. Nearchus. Pausanias. He found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus and Mount Ossa.[48] He also had two Macedonian princes from the region of Lyncestis killed. Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguards. When news of the revolts reached Alexander. who is reported to have said "But verily. Alexander was proclaimed king by the nobles and army at the age of 20. possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.

Crossing the river at night.[64] drawn from Macedon and various Greek city-states. he secured his northern frontier.000. believed he was superior to others. The Theban resistance was ineffective. With these victories. Paionia. His naivety could be seen through his actions as he was ‘closest to failure and death’ in this battle.100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships with crews numbering 38. the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces manning the heights. Alexander wanted to safeguard his northern borders. he advanced to suppress several revolts. He also received news of a Thracian uprising. and Illyria. 6.[66] He showed his intent to conquer the entirety of the Persian Map of Alexander's empire and his route. Alexander defeated each in turn. forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops. and defeated their army near the Lyginus river[59] (a tributary of the Danube). and Alexander razed the city and divided its territory between the other Boeotian cities. Alexander immediately headed south. the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again.[64] Alexander then set out on his Asian campaign. he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish. Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube. Empire by throwing a spear into Asian soil and saying he accepted Asia as a [64] This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight. Marching west into Illyria. was appointed commander for the coming war against Persia.[62][63] While Alexander campaigned north. he traveled east into the country of the "Independent Thracians".100 soldiers. King of Illyria. due to his royal nature.Alexander the Great like Philip.[60][61] News then reached Alexander that Cleitus. encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore.[58] The Macedonians marched into the country of the Triballi. . It was here that he was learning how to implement the strategies Aristotle had taught him during childhood. ‘Alexander…rejected Parmenion’s advice… to capitalize on the Persians’ error in tactical deployment’. [64] diplomacy. though he was not experienced. in contrast to his father's preference for gift from the gods. Alexander was a wise leader who could see the flaws in military strategy better than even his own military generals. The end of Thebes cowed Athens. mercenaries.[65] Conquest of the Persian Empire Asia Minor Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC with approximately 48. Thebes decided to fight. and at Mount Haemus.[64] While the other cities again hesitated. and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace. which causes speculation that he. leaving Antipater as regent. The Battle of Granicus was one of the first battles he fought on his conquest to rule Asia. Alexander the Great demonstrated extreme hubris in this battle. leaving all of Greece temporarily at peace. Starting from Amphipolis.[52][57] 153 Balkan campaign Before crossing to Asia. and King Glaukias of the Taulanti were in open revolt against his authority. In the spring of 335 BC.

he was forced to attack Tyre. Darius offered all territory as a far the Euphrates… a colossal ransom of 30. Though this did not directly influence the culture of the Persians they did not feel the need to begin a rebellion as their men and rulers were treated with proper respect. who adopted Alexander. attempted to present terms of unconditional surrender but Alexander became ruthless. although a generous man in victory. Alexander "undid" the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot. Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain. 332 BC.[68] Alexander left the government of Caria to Ada. Following the siege of Tyre in 332.[69] From Halicarnassus. to withdraw by sea. the enemy he defeated.[70] At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium. Alexander chose to respect those who died. his mother Sisygambis. Alexander the Great. Whether it was his own warriors of the Persian forces opposing him.[76][77] Alexander massacred the men of military age and sold the women and children into slavery. asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases. Orontobates.[78] .000 talents for his family. to avoid certain death. He even went so far to set up statues to honor and respect these people. ‘To the relatives of his fallen.”[75] Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria.Alexander the Great After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus. Alexander granted immunity from taxation and public service’. collapse. ‘This time the offer was impressive. Darius. He realized that he had control and could receive much more. causing Darius to panic. and a ransom of 10. it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. This led to some barbarian cultures choosing to merely abdicate power to Alexander. Alexander successfully waged the first of many sieges. and left behind his wife.[74] He offered a peace treaty that included the lands he had already lost. From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander moved inland. from the House of the Faun.[73] Darius fled the battle. eventually forcing his opponents. Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone and hacked it apart with his sword. eventually recognized the power that he was capable of when he would defeat an enemy in war. showing Battle of Issus. causing his army to Detail of Alexander Mosaic. and a fabulous treasure. which he captured after a long and difficult siege. the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria. This new changed in diplomatic relations induced panic among the leaders of the surrounding nations. Although he was chased by some troops ‘Alexander treated them (his family) with the respect out of consideration’ which demonstrated his continued generosity and kindness towards those he conquered. and most of the coast of the Levant. in Caria. his two Pompeii. Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.[72] 154 The Levant and Syria Alexander journeyed south but was met by Darius’ significantly larger army which he easily defeated. Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis and proceeded along the Ionian coast.000 talents for his family…invited to marry his eldest daughter’. daughters. [67] At Halicarnassus. At Termessos. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia. Darius was thus forced to come back. a feat said to await the future "king of Asia".[69] In the following year. Though Alexander believed in his divine power to fight with the lives of men he did experience sorry as those who died were rewarded generously. as they feared a similar defeat.[71] According to the story.

presumably chapter 8. and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. and subsequent currency depicted him adorned with rams horn as a symbol of his divinity. one of the Achaemenid capitals. but not right to left). and according to Josephus. The stronghold at Gaza was heavily fortified and built on a hill. Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city.[89] Alexander stayed in Persepolis for five months. men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children sold into slavery. Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.[83] Henceforth. most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated.[84] During his stay in Egypt. Alexander came upon the city only to be met with a surprising resistance and fortification.[88] On entering Persepolis. where he was regarded as a liberator. while Alexander captured Babylon.[87] Persia From Babylon. he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt. Alexander went to Susa. He had to storm the pass of the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains) which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury. [79] After three Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written from unsuccessful assaults. Alexander marched eastward into Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and again defeated Darius. As in Tyre.Alexander the Great 155 Egypt When Alexander destroyed Tyre. Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel's prophecy.[81] Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC.[87] He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Royal Road.[90] During his stay a fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city.[82] He was pronounced the new "master of the Universe" and son of the deity of Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert. The divine right that Alexander believed he had gave him confidence of a miracle occurring.[91] . at the Battle of Gaugamela. When ‘his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible… this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt’ .[86] Darius once more fled the field. Egypt. which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death. before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound. Louvre Museum. c. He spared Jerusalem and pushed south into Egypt. 330 BC. the stronghold fell. requiring a siege. Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan). Possible causes include a drunken accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War. and captured its legendary treasury.[85] Assyria and Babylonia Leaving Egypt in 331 BC.[80] Jerusalem instead opened its gates in surrender. with the exception of Gaza.

[92] The Persian king no longer controlled his own destiny.[96] The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with Darius. Silver coin of Alexander wearing the lion scalp of Herakles. Alexander took the Persian title "King of Kings" (Shahanshah) and adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court. The campaign took Alexander through Media. Once the Greek ruler was able to control this area. and overstates the sophistication of Alexander’s cities…a mass movement by the new colonists back to Greece ‘out of longing for Greek upbringing and culture’. they simply could not live without the constant present of the new Greek culture and traditions. the Greek culture was installed there by keeping some troops and military leaders there. and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. Problems and plots During this time. Spitamenes.[101] The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. and then Parthia. was executed for failing to alert Alexander. and he eventually abandoned it. Philotas. British Museum. Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V.[95] He claimed that. The cultural effects of Alexander’s conquests of the Persian Empire was great. After the defeat. Following the death of Alexander. who had been charged with guarding the . defeating him in the Battle of Gabai. before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander. while dying. Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne. either a symbolic kissing of the hand. and one of his officers.[93] As Alexander approached. Bactria [98] (North and Central Afghanistan).[100] The empire began falling as military leaders and eventually Alexander died. in 329 BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy. Alexander was on the Jaxartes dealing with an incursion by a horse nomad army. This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen. turned into a grand tour of central Asia. This campaign. He was so successful at hybridizing the Greek culture with their prior one. all called Alexandria.Alexander the Great 156 Fall of the Empire and the East Alexander then chased Darius. Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt. and states that they mitigated the primitive savagery of the natives. who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana. and Bessus was executed. many people who were conquered felt that the Greek society that they had grown accustomed to was not as strong. The death of the son necessitated the death of the father. who then sued for peace.[94] Alexander buried Darius' remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral. Alexander founded a series of new cities. initially against Bessus. Spitamenes was killed by his own men. Parthia. at some point later. and was taken prisoner by Bessus. including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan. Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan).[102] A plot against his life was revealed. when. his Bactrian satrap and kinsman. or prostration on the ground. and thus Parmenion. Thus many of the people who were in the vast empire Alexander the Great has created throughout his conquests chose to migrate back to the Greek homeland and strengthen their new culture. that Persians showed to their social superiors. Drangiana. notably the custom of proskynesis. Although the immediate effects of the campaign were not well documented it can be seen that the impact was substantial and long-lasting. This does scant justice to the culture of the Achaemenids.[97] Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. Aria (West Afghanistan). Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes. ‘Plutarch simply lists Alexander’s principal foundations.[99] However. and Scythia. first into Media. one of Alexander's trusted companions.

which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his empire.[107] Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest.[108] However. was assassinated at Alexander's command. and ultimately led to its subjugation by Rome. however. of having forgot the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle. who chose to pardon them. an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II's "Old Guard". historians have yet to reach consensus regarding this involvement. Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. Callisthenes of Olynthus. in the Central Asian campaign.[106] In general.[105] There was also considerable friction between Antipater and Olympias. was implicated in the plot. and each complained to Alexander about the other. Cleitus the Black. in which Cleitus accused Alexander of several judgemental mistakes and most especially. greatly weakening it in the years after Alexander. during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda (modern day Samarkand in Turkmenistan).[14] Indian campaign Invasion of the Indian subcontinent .[65] Alexander's sacking of Thebes ensured that Greece remained quiet during his absence. a second plot against his life was revealed. he left his general Antipater. Alexander personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus.Alexander the Great treasury at Ecbatana. His official historian.[65] The one exception was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC. Most infamously.[104] 157 Macedon in Alexander's absence When Alexander set out for Asia.[103] Later. whom Antipater defeated and killed in battle at Megalopolis the following year. to prevent attempts at vengeance. Alexander's constant demands for troops and the migration of Macedonians throughout his empire depleted Macedon's manpower. in charge of Macedon.[65] Antipater referred the Spartans' punishment to Alexander. this one instigated by his own royal pages. Callisthenes had fallen out of favor by leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis.

He appointed Porus as satrap. to come to him and submit to his authority.[109] After Aornos. Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent. who died around this time. but the chieftains of some hill clans. and made him an ally. but eventually the Aspasioi lost. whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes. who fought in the strongholds of Massaga. in the north of what is now Pakistan. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi.[112] Alexander was impressed by Porus's bravery. Ora and Aornos.[110] A fierce contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander was wounded in the shoulder by a dart. in honor of his horse. Alexander personally led a campaign against these clans. Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and won an epic battle against King Porus.[109] The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody The phalanx attacking the centre in the battle of the Hydaspes by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899) fighting. Choosing a local helped him control these lands so distant from Greece. the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley. Punjab. numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora. but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble". in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC.[114] The other was Nicaea (Victory) located at the site of modern day Mong.[109] In the winter of 327/326 BC. According to Curtius.[113] Alexander founded two cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river. including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas). "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga. and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara. in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle.[111] A similar slaughter followed at Ora. and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.Alexander the Great After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Roshanak in Bactrian) to cement relations with his new satrapies. Omphis. who ruled a region in the Punjab. complied.[115] 158 . Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days. ruler of Taxila. refused to submit. naming one Bucephala.

horsemen and elephants. and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus. its depth a hundred fathoms.[116] As for the Macedonians.[120] .[119] Alexander reached Susa in 324 BC. marching along the Indus. they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also. Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River. "longed to again see their parents. refusing to march farther east. Along the way his army conquered the Malli clans (in modern day Multan) and other Indian tribes.Alexander the Great 159 Revolt of the army East of Porus' kingdom. the width of which. while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran (now part of southern Iran and Pakistan).[118] Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with general Craterus. as they learned. their homeland". Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse. eight thousand chariots. he said. were the Nanda Empire of Magadha and further east the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal. the men. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests. but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return. Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning. however. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen. two [117] hundred thousand footmen. was thirty-two furlongs. while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent. near the Ganges River. and six thousand war elephants. their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. their wives and children. but not before losing many men to the harsh desert. Alexander eventually agreed and turned south.

but few of those marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year. After Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. he paid off the debts of his soldiers. Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units. Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication. in Babylon. Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa. and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.[132] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death. The common soldiers. led by Craterus. London) 19th century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession based on the description of Diodorus . at age 32. Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus. unable to persuade his men to back down. but he would not have a chance to realize them.[126] Back in Babylon. His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis.[126][127] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander.[41] He developed a fever.Alexander the Great 160 Last years in Persia Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence.[133] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness. Diodorus. left. Arrian also mentioned this as an alternative. and Hephaestion. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum. as well as a decree for public mourning. Plutarch. Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II. which Alexander accepted. Hephaestion. as he died shortly thereafter. beginning with an invasion of Arabia. and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together. upon his return.[131][134] A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness.[124] In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects.[129] Details of the death differ slightly – Plutarch's account is that roughly 14 days before his death. but Plutarch specifically denied this claim. and died after some agony. and swiftly executed them.[121][122] As a gesture of thanks. right Death and succession On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC. [125] Alexander learned that guards of the tomb of Cyrus the Great had desecrated it. his closest friend and possible lover.[130] Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck with pain after downing a large bowl of [131] unmixed wine in honour of Hercules. Alexander held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen at Susa.[128] Alexander.[123] After three days. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units. anxious about his health. and he ordered the preparation of an expensive funeral pyre in Babylon. Alexander planned a series of new campaigns.[41] Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination. died of illness or poisoning. which worsened until he was unable to speak. Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. and announced that he would send over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedon.[122] Meanwhile.

visited the tomb during his own reign. but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting. Caracalla.[139] Another recent analysis suggested pyrogenic spondylitis or meningitis. Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria. transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria.[149] Pompey. In c.[137] In 2010. the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy. a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to rest "would be happy and unvanquishable forever".[138] Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested.[140] Other illnesses fit the symptoms.[143][144] 161 After death Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey. replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage. AD 200.[148] While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus.[134] The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death. who was Alexander's wine-pourer.[134][136] There was even a suggestion that Aristotle may have participated. the king of Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331. which is deadly in large doses.[141][142] Natural-cause theories also tend to emphasise that Alexander's health may have been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and severe wounds. such long-acting poisons were probably not available. it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymus' death.[149] The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus". The latter allegedly accidentally knocked the nose off the body. where it remained until at least late Antiquity. Macedon. is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains.[147] Perhaps more likely.[150][151] However. Ptolemy II Philadelphus. more recently. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC). details on the fate of the tomb are hazy. which was in turn placed in a gold casket. His son and successor. Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence. discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. Ptolemy stole it and took it to Memphis. however. After this. including malaria and typhoid fever.[136] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas.[135] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas. Ptolemy IX Lathyros. a dangerous compound produced by bacteria. . Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use.Alexander the Great The accounts were nevertheless fairly consistent in designating Antipater. including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus. a new theory proposed that the circumstances of his death were compatible with poisoning by water of the river Styx (Mavroneri) that contained calicheamicin. recently removed as Macedonian viceroy. since burying the prior king was a royal prerogative.[145][147] His successor. Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexander's tomb to the public. The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion's death may also have contributed to his declining health.[145][146] According to Aelian. a great admirer. as the head of the alleged plot. A 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.[139] The most likely possible cause is an overdose of medication containing hellebore. and at odds with Olympias. one of Ptolemy's final successors.

and Macedonia (green). Also show are the Roman Republic (light blue). Amphipolis.Alexander the Great 162 Division of the empire Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece.[65] The testament called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean. In the process. in front of witnesses. his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexander's death. and the Kingdom of Eprius (red). Kingdom of Pergamon (orange). Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point. in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties. Dium. thereby nominating him. the Seleucid Empire in the east. but the successors chose not to further implement them. Leonnatus.[131] Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 281 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue).[153] Diodorus. monumental constructions. It included: • Construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip. Craterus. the infantry. and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations. they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Alexander's companions asked him on his deathbed to whom he bequeathed his kingdom. and Macedon. implying that this was an apocryphal story. rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. the Carthaginian Republic (purple).[65] Alexander had no obvious or legitimate heir. and 40 years of war between "The Successors" (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocks: the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. under the command of Meleager. the two sides reconciled.[155] Testament Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Delphi. the Seleucid Empire (yellow).[131][152] Perdiccas initially did not claim power. however."[157] . a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry. they were not immediately believed. on the grounds they were impractical and extravagant. Curtius and Justin offered the more plausible story that Alexander passed his signet ring to Perdiccas.[156] Craterus started to carry out Alexander's commands. and Antipater as guardians. and a monumental temple to Athena at Troy[65] • Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean Basin[65] • Circumnavigation of Africa[65] • Development of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia. albeit in name only. instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king. if male. his laconic reply was "tôi kratistôi"—"to the strongest".[152] According to Diodorus. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC. with himself. Eventually. However. Macedonian unity collapsed. both Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered.[156] Nevertheless. he and Philip III were appointed joint kings. "to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt"[65] • Erection of great temples in Delos. Perdiccas read Alexander's will to his troops. and after the birth of Alexander IV. the Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor. Instead. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power. Dodona.[154] Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians.

perhaps 13. Alexander arranged a double phalanx. about 3 km (1. Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style. and the fierce loyalty of his troops.[159] and Alexander used its speed and maneuverability to great effect against larger but more disparate Persian forces.[160] Alexander personally led the charge in the center. he used the same deployment. Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements.[159] Alexander also recognized the potential for disunity among his diverse army. He overcame this by being personally involved in battle.[158][159] In his first battle in Asia.Alexander the Great 163 Character Generalship Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. bold strategy. despite typically being outnumbered. the Macedonians opened their ranks to envelop the elephants and used their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the elephants' handlers. Alexander placed the phalanx at the center and cavalry and archers on the wings.[64] This was due to use of terrain.[158] In India. causing the latter to flee once again. with the center advancing at an angle. This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked. armed with the sarissa. such as in Central Asia and India. against a much larger Persian force of 40. Alexander used only a small part of his forces. had a considerable advantage over the Persian's scimitars and javelins.86 mi).[90] in the manner of a Macedonian king. The advance was successful and broke Darius' center. a spear 6 metres (20 ft) long. Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to break up the phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes. in Bactria and Sogdiana. the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. 334 BC The Battle of Issus. phalanx and cavalry tactics. parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.[160] When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques.[158] At the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela. at Granicus. Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. and again the central phalanx pushed through. By contrast. his first confrontation with Darius.000 cavalry. armed with long pikes. 333 BC At Issus in 333 BC. which employed various languages and weapons.[64] He never lost a battle. so that his line matched the length of the Persian cavalry line. while massing his cavalry at the center. confronted by Porus' elephant corps.[124] . while his phalanx.000 infantry with 5.[160] The Battle of the Granicus. Thus. routing the opposing army. had been developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training.000.[158][159] The Macedonian phalanx.

this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus. His neck was in some way twisted. His beard was scanty.[165] Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image. in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt. and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire. so that his garments were filled with it. and it was by this artist alone that Alexander himself thought it fit that he should be modelled.[169] and Plutarch tells us that his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years". 3rd century BC mosaic. however. Louvre Museum. more static pose. his father Philip was Alexander's most immediate and influential role model. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short. 3 Apelles. winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds.[166] Lysippos had often used the Contrapposto sculptural scheme to portray Alexander and other characters such as Apoxyomenos.[165] Olympias' influence instilled a sense of destiny in him. though stocky and tough.[167] Lysippos' sculpture. this artist has accurately observed. 4 Moreover. His eyes (one blue. 86 – 160) described Alexander as: [T]he strong. Pella Museum. 45–120 AD) describes Alexander's appearance as: The outward appearance of Alexander is best represented by the statues of him which Lysippus made. namely. as opposed to a stiffer.[162][163] The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander suffered from heterochromia iridum: that one eye was dark and the other light. 2 For those peculiarities which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate. and in his face. and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly. .[168] 1 Roman copy of a statue by Lysippos. and the melting glance of his eyes. Plutarch reports that sculptures by Lysippos were the most faithful. is thought to be the most faithful depiction. but made it too dark and swarthy.[164] British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance. handsome commander with one eye dark as the night and one blue as the sky. as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year. Hermes and Eros. and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. feminine quality. Whereas he was of a fair colour. Alexander was not prepossessing. did not reproduce his complexion.[161] Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' c. famous for its naturalism. which was bent slightly to the left. as they say. that a very pleasant odour exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. based on his review of statues and some ancient documents: Physically. Personality Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. the poise of the neck.[165] His mother had huge ambitions.[48] Alexander's relationship with Alexander (left) fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail). so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle.Alexander the Great 164 Physical appearance Greek biographer Plutarch (c.[170] However. one brown) revealed a dewy.

rather than megalomania.[178] Alexander adopted elements of Persian dress and customs at court. he had little interest in sports or the Olympic games (unlike his father).[135] His extraordinary achievements.[90][180] 165 .[179] However. Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. he was open to reasoned debate.[176] His delusions of grandeur are readily visible in his testament and in his desire to conquer the world.Alexander the Great his father forged the competitive side of his personality. many of whom lived in kingdoms where the king was divine.[135] He appears to have believed himself a deity. coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions. characteristics which made him a great leader.[178] He began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon.[48][169] He had great charisma and force of personality. his behavior may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping his empire together. among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash.[165] According to Plutarch. may have combined to produce this effect. a love for philosophy.[102][180] Thus. in contrast with his lack of self control with alcohol. Alexander was intelligent and quick to learn. or at least sought to deify himself.[165] His intelligent and rational side was amply demonstrated by his ability and success as a general.[135] Olympias always insisted to him that he was the son of Zeus.[172] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions. and especially after the death of Hephaestion. and were loath to perform.[175] Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.[170][174] However. notably proskynesis.[165] Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond well to orders from his father.[101] This behavior cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen. and calculating. he had a need to out-do his father. seeking only the Homeric ideals of honor (timê) and glory (kudos).[173] He had a calmer side—perceptive.[171] he also downplayed his father's achievements to his companions. Alexander also was a pragmatic ruler who understood the difficulties of ruling culturally disparate peoples.[165] While Alexander worried that his father would leave him "no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world".[174] This was no doubt in part due to Aristotle's tutelage. and was an avid reader. logical. illustrated by his reckless behavior in battle. a practice that Macedonians disapproved. impulsive nature. He had a great desire for knowledge.[172] He had great self-restraint in "pleasures of the body".[177] a theory apparently confirmed to him by the oracle of Amun at Siwa.[152][172] His unique abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death – only Alexander had the ability to do so.[152] During his final years.

the latter riddling that he was a beloved [188] of Alexander. or that Alexander's relationship with A mural in Pompeii. Plutarch described how Alexander was infatuated by Roxana while complimenting him on not forcing himself on her. Noting that the word eromenos (ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning. but he used it rather sparingly.Alexander the Great 166 Personal relationships The central personal relationship of Alexander's life was with his friend.[165] However. and bodyguard Hephaestion. the son of a Macedonian noble. Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine. depicting the marriage of Hephaestion was sexual. who adopted him. which in his time was not controversial. who supposedly died from grief upon hearing of Alexander's death. Alexander had many more female companions. a Persian princess and daughter of Darius III of Persia. The couple are apparently dressed as Ares and to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles and Aphrodite.[165] . writes of Alexander's visit Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC.[175] Nevertheless.[187] No ancient sources stated that Alexander had homosexual relationships.[190] Apart from wives.[189] Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women. Hephaestion that of Patroclus. for political reasons. and Ogden suggests that Alexander's matrimonial record is more impressive than his father's at the same age. Aelian.[185][186] Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy. and even Darius's mother Sisygambis.[126][165][181] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander.[184] He apparently had two sons. He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.[191] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body". possibly.[126][182] This event may have contributed to Alexander's failing health and detached mental state during his final months.[192] Green suggested that. general.[183] and Stateira II. out of love. Alexander may have been bisexual. daughter of the Bactrian nobleman Oxyartes. he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life. however. Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings. including Ada of Caria. Alexander IV of Macedon of Roxana and. he was relatively young when he died. Alexander formed quite strong friendships with women. in the context of the period. in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles".[135][139] Alexander married twice: Roxana.

a century or so after Alexander's death. was Alexandria in Egypt. while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean. and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence. many of the Alexandrias were thriving. little more than defensive garrisons. Mediterranean cities. Hellenistic kingdoms Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West. most of them [102][197] The first. dominant forces. Alexander founded Plan of Alexandria in antiquity some twenty cities that bore his name. and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic period. which would become one of the leading east of the Tigris.Alexander the Great 167 Legacy Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. and greatest. At the time of his death. with elaborate public buildings and substantial populations that included both Greek and local peoples.[102] Following Alexander's death. Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos"). The successor states that emerged were. and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire. Alexander's empire covered some 5.[194] and was the largest state of its time. many surviving into the 21st century.000.[102] The cities locations' reflected trade routes as well as defensive positions.[195] The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime. of relatively humble origin. incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander and [193] his successors.[152] However.000 sq mi). at least initially. His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched. At first the cities must have been inhospitable.[14] The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). took control of the Punjab. Many of these areas remained in Macedonian hands or under Greek influence for the next 200–300 years.200.[196] Founding of cities Over the course of his conquests. Taking advantage of this. the power vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history.[14] Some of the cities he founded became major cultural centers.[102] .[102][197] However. many Greeks who had settled there tried to return to Greece.000 km2 (2.

[199] Alexander sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and attempted to Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time. Hellenization occurred throughout the region. becoming the lingua franca of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor of modern Greek. Antioch[198] and Seleucia (south of modern Baghdad). or "common" Greek dialect. culture.[202] Koine spread throughout the Hellenistic world. education.[195] That this export took place is undoubted. covering approximately 5. and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals.[203][204] . Nevertheless. This million square km.2 hybridize Greek and Persian culture. The core of Hellenistic culture was essentially Athenian. However. and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest. and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of. evolving into distinct new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic. culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the [198][200] Successor states. local government.[202] Furthermore. Alexandria.[198] Aspects of Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. town planning.[198][201] The close association of men from across Greece in Alexander's army directly led to the emergence of the largely Attic-based "koine". his successors explicitly rejected such policies. for instance.Alexander the Great 168 Hellenization Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language.

and thereafter Roman leaders saw him as a role model.Alexander the Great Some of the most unusual effects of Hellenization can be seen in India. and especially Buddhist. Influence on Rome Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans. where ideas from Greek astronomy filtered eastward and had profoundly influenced Indian astronomy by the early centuries [208] For example.[205] The process of Hellenization extended to the sciences.[211] Polybius began his Histories by reminding Romans of Alexander's achievements. Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). Greek astronomical instruments dating to AD. The first realistic portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time. a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus briefly ascended to the imperial throne.[205] Several Buddhist traditions may have been influenced by the ancient Greek religion: the concept of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes.[205] There. Tokyo National Museum. and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced by the ancient Greeks. influences.[207] One Greek king. and was immortalized in Buddhist literature as 'Milinda'. isolated from Europe. either on jewelry. probably became Buddhist. Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anatole-type haircut. 1st–2nd century AD. while Octavian visited Alexander's tomb in Alexandria and temporarily changed his seal from a sphinx to Alexander's profile. they were modeled on Greek statues of Apollo.[212] . Greek culture apparently hybridized with Indian. as did Nero and Caracalla. Zen Buddhism draws in part on the ideas of Greek stoics.[211] The Macriani. kept images of Alexander on their persons. Menander I. and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's 260-year-old cloak.[206] and some Mahayana ceremonial practices (burning incense. especially generals.[211] Julius Caesar dedicated a Lysippean equestrian bronze statue but replaced Alexander's head with his own.[208][210] The Yavanajataka and Paulisa Siddhanta texts in particular show Greek influence. which he then wore as a sign of greatness. 169 The Buddha. gifts of flowers. the 3rd century BC were found in the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modern-day Afghanistan[209] while the Greek concept of a spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets was adopted in India and eventually supplanted the long-standing Indian cosmological belief of a flat and circular earth. or embroidered into their clothes. in Greco-Buddhist style. in the region of the relatively late-arising Indo-Greek kingdoms. such as Zeno.[211] The emperor Trajan also admired Alexander. who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.

probably encouraged by Alexander himself. This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages.[218] The colloquial form of his name in Alexander the Great depicted in a 14th century modern Greek ("O Megalexandros") is a household name. took over Alexander's legacy in the east by again invading India. and establishing the Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BC–10 AD). at the time.[214] His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in proskynesis. queen of the mythical Amazons.Alexander the Great On the other hand. used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values. "I wonder where I was The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (reigned c. Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped. 200–180 BC).[213] Alexander was used by these writers as an example of ruler values such as amicita (friendship) and clementia (clemency). invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris. has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures. but also iracundia (anger) and cupiditas gloriae (over-desire for glory). some Roman writers.[214] and was translated into numerous languages.[218] One well-known fable among Greek seamen involves a solitary mermaid who would grasp a ship's prow during a storm and ask the captain "Is King Alexander alive?". in particular. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea. another participant. meaning "accursed".[219] .[218] In pre-Islamic Persian (Zoroastrian) literature. The correct answer is "He is alive and well and rules the world!". When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron. from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek. particularly Republican figures. The Alexander Romance. more so than any other ancient figure. probably in Alexandria.[216] containing many dubious stories. all hands aboard. Writing shortly after Alexander's death. wearing an elephant scalp.[217] In ancient and modern culture Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures.[217] Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore. later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. and he is the Byzantine manuscript only ancient hero to appear in the Karagiozis shadow play.[213] 170 Legend Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great. Onesicritus. and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism. causing the mermaid to vanish and the sea to calm. many deriving from his own lifetime. Alexander is referred to by the epithet "gojastak"."[215] In the first centuries after Alexander's death. a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day.

more specifically the Punjab.[222] He then traveled the known world in search for the Water of Life and Immortality.[222] His defeat of Darius was depicted as Egypt's salvation. adding it to Macedon's European territories. and Onesicritus.[222] 171 15th century Persian miniature painting from Herat depicting Alexander the Great In India and Pakistan.[221] Later Persian writers associate him with philosophy. Arrian (1st to 2nd century AD). Arrian is generally considered the most reliable."[232] ^ iv: "In the early 5th century the royal house of Macedon. texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost. to defend"[230] and the noun "ἀνδρός" (andros). Alexander's chief helmsman.[14] Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life included Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes. a more positive portrayal of Alexander emerges. Alexander was portrayed as the son of Nectanebo II. the last pharaoh before the Persian conquest. the name "Sikandar".[223] In medieval Europe he was made a member of the Nine Worthies. he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire. the biographer Plutarch (1st to 2nd century AD). a junior officer on the campaigns. Aristobulus. Plato and Aristotle. see Hecataeus world map.Alexander the Great In Islamic Iran.[227] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander'. followed by Quintus Curtius Rufus (mid-to-late 1st century AD). portraying him at a symposium with figures such as Socrates. was recognised as Greek by the . due to parallels with the Alexander Romance. a group of heroes who encapsulated all the ideal qualities of chivalry. genitive of "ἀνήρ" (anēr).[14] Notes ^ i: By the time of his death. this was most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks (the 'Ecumene'). ^ ii: For instance. Their works are lost.[220] Firdausi's Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings") includes Alexander in a line of legitimate Iranian shahs. closely followed by Diodorus. since he had achieved so little by the same age.[224][225] An approximate view of the world known to Alexander can be seen in Hecataeus of Miletus's map. but later works based on these original sources have survived. "man"[231] and means "protector of men. "to ward off. whose work dated as late as the 4th century.[220] In Egypt.[228] the young Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander.[226] Julius Caesar wept on seeing a statue of Alexander. a mythical figure who explored the far reaches of the world in search of the fountain of youth. given that he used Ptolemy and Aristobulus as his sources. "proving" Egypt was still ruled by an Egyptian. to avert. The earliest of these is Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC). eventually becoming a prophet.[229] ^ iii: The name Αλέξανδρος derives from the Greek verb "ἀλέξω" (alexō).[222] The figure of Dhul-Qarnayn (literally "the Two-Horned One") mentioned in the Quran is believed by some scholars to represent Alexander. Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general. he was a heroic figure who built a wall to defend against the nations of Gog and Magog. in search of immortality. derived from Persian. the Temenidae. according to some modern writers.[14] Of these.[220] The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God".[220] In this tradition. and finally Justin. Historiography Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments. under the influence of the Alexander Romance. Alexander's generals Ptolemy and Nearchus. denotes a rising young talent.

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com/?id=WbrcVcT-GbUC). 533–633. ISBN 90-04-09630-2. Ernst (1958). Whitby. John Wiley and Sons. 14. Maurice (1994). ISBN 0-14-139076-X. Tritle. • Studniczka. Ashmole. (1994).uchicago. In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia (http://books. BRILL. (2009). Mary (2001). • Stoneman. London: English Universities Press. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. Penguin. History of Ancient India (http://books. • Renault. google. ISBN 978-0-230-61915-9. Retrieved 16 November 2009. In Schmeling. "History of Mathematical Astronomy in India". • Morkot. • Stoneman. Robert (1996). • • • • • . • Engels. Daniel (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. (1932). Alexander the Great: A New History. The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare: Greece.ca. 1994–1996. The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage. Beazley. H. ISBN 978-1-4051-3082-0. Bill (2010). the Hellenistic World and the Rise of Rome. eds. K. M (2007). (1951). B.Alexander the Great ISBN 0-415-00340-7. Alexander the Great: Lessons From History's Undefeated General.ca/ books?id=6_ctAAAAIAAJ&q=Nicaea+Mong&dq=Nicaea+Mong). • Wood. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Routledge.google. Laurier Books. Lawrence A. Waldemar Heckel. ISBN 1-4051-7936-8. The Novel in the Ancient World. • Pratt. pp. ISBN 1-85799-122-2. Encyclopædia Britannica (http://books. Franz (1894). Retrieved 28 December 2010. • Ring.google. ISBN 0-415-29187-9. 47–48. James Bissett (1996). "Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind". D. Richard (2004). Rama Shankar (1999). Wiley-Blackwell. Lawrence A. David (1995)... Berney. pp. In Alice Heckel. et al. pp. A. (Latin) • Encyclopædia Britannica (1910). ISBN 978-0-520-23192-4. Berkeley: University of California Press.. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. ISBN 0-415-31932-3. Ian (2003). 332. History of Alexander the Great" (http://penelope. ISBN 1-4051-3082-2. Alexander the Great: Greece and Rome–12. Cambridge University Press. Burn.google. Waldemar. University of California Press. Penguin. P. International dictionary of historic places.edu. (1978). Richard (1996). Routledge. JD. "Curtius Rufus. Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. eds. Greek Sculpture and Painting. • Heckel. 601–612. Tritle. A. Gareth L. Bowra.html). AK (1965). Phoenix Books.com/ books?id=lkYFVJ3U-BIC).google.com/?id=OiM51I7_A1gC& pg=PA175&dq=Alexander+Nicaea+Punjab#v=onepage&q=Alexander Nicaea Punjab&f=false). ISBN 0-09-475270-2. Alexander the Great. Trudy..google. 179 Further reading Badian. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. penelope. "Alexander's Sex Life". The Greek Experience. Worthington. Constable and Co. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire (2 ed.com/?id=5wDWn1dL6HMC&pg=PA226&dq=alexander+the+great+++fever#v=onepage& q=alexander the great +fever&f=false). • Roisman.R. Curtius.). Robert M. • Yenne. Cambridge University Press. Salkin.google. • Ogden. • Worthington. Joseph. Retrieved 29 January 2011. ISBN 81-206-1196-9. Alexander the Great: A Reader (http://books.. Donald W. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2. • Tripathi. • Sacks. Michael (2001). (1978). Palmgrave McMillan.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/ Texts/Curtius/home.uchicago. • Pingree. • Sabin. • Narain. The Nature of Alexander the Great. A Companion to Ancient Macedonia (http://books. van Wees. "The Metamorphoses of Alexander Romance". Historia 7: 425–444. 15. Ian (2010). Books. com/?id=jbaPwpvt8ZQC&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=callisthenes+of+olynthus+conspiracy&q=callisthenes of olynthus conspiracy). ISBN 0-521-78273-2. Achäologische Jahrbook 9. Alexander the Great: A New History (http://books. pp.

• Stewart. J. W. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Co. 11.F. Social. • Hammond. 134. British Death March Under Asiatic Impulse: Epic of Anglo-Indian Tragedy in Afghanistan. London: Bristol Classical Press. Pearson. • O'Brien..: D. Institutions. • Hammond. Alexander the Great. (1998). 17. London: Routledge. 180 . A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. London: Barrie and Rockliff. Bill. Hellenistic Culture and Society. A Historical Biography. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. • Fuller. Richard A. • Singh. Penguin Books. Andrew (1993). Problems in European Civilization.G. S. S. Alexander of Macedon: 356–323 B. Alexander the Great. Roberts. Commander. • Roisman. Diodorus.. ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.Alexander the Great • Fawcett. How To Lose A Battle: Foolish Plans and Great Military Blunders.com/books?id=A9YNAAAAIAAJ). • Justin (1853). Katula. ISBN 0-06-076024-9. Robert (2000). Plutarch. (1948). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • Savill. translator(English) • McCrindle. Kambojas Through the Ages.org. Dolan. The Macedonian State: Origins. (1893). forumromanum.. • Greene. Alexander the Great: A Life in Legend. • Tarn. • Pomeroy. J. (1994). New York: W. p. ISBN 0-393-00381-7. Bhavan.org/ literature/justin/english/index. John Selby Watson..G. ISBN 1-880393-35-2. Hill. ISBN 81-7276-301-8. University of California Press. The 48 Laws of Power. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. J. Ian (2004).forumromanum.L. • Nandan. MA. Rev. (1958). Oxford University Press.C. • Murphy. Ancient Greece: A Political. Y. Faces of Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic Politics. and Statesman (3 ed. Agnes (1959). ISBN 0-19-814883-6. and Cultural History. p. Q Curtius. • Stoneman.W.). Ochs (2003). The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian. Joseph. Donovan J. "Justin: Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus" (http://www. Harper. • Wilcken. Oxford University Press. Peter (1992). W. Yale University Press.google. N. Forbes I. Alexander the Great and His Time (3 ed. 351. (1997). The Generalship of Alexander the Great (http://books. Retrieved 14 November 2009. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2. Heath. The Genius of Alexander the Great. • Hammond. Lexington.com/ books?id=q3M0NE2RJgYC&printsec=frontcover).L. Alexander the Great: King. (2006).C. Kirpal (2005).W. Burstein. N. ISBN 978-0-300-11203-0. and Justin (http://books. Alexander the Great Ancient and Modern Perspectives. (1995). • Green.L. Ulrich (1997) [1932]. James Jerome. Alexander the Great: Man And God. • Worthington. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode. ed. ISBN 978-1-4058-0162-1. p.G. W. and History. N.).C. ISBN 0-14-028019-7.google. John Maxwell (1992).html). ISBN 0-19-509742-4. Norton & Company. Alexander the Great: The Invisible Enemy. Richard (2008). (1989). BV (2003).

com/booked/2011/01/10/ how-great-a-general-was-alexander/?boxes=financechannelforbes).html) from Livius. html) • Two Great Historians On Alexander the Great (conversations between historians James Romm and Paul Cartledge). Part 2 (http://blogs. Part 4 (http://blogs.National Geographic Documentary (http://www.com/booked/2010/12/20/ two-historians-talk-alexander-the-great-part-3/).forbes.org/online/features/alexander/tomb.forbes.com/booked/2010/12/17/ two-great-historians-on-alexander-the-great-part-two/).forbes.forbes.com/booked/ 2011/01/28/two-great-historians-talk-alexander-the-great-part-6/) • Alexander the Great.Alexander the Great 181 External links • Alexander the Great (http://www.archaeology. Part 6 (http://blogs.org/aj-al/alexander/ alexander_z1b.org • The Elusive Tomb of Alexander the Great: (http://www.livius. Part 5 (http://blogs.com/watch?v=ZkZk4JCVXOw) .com/booked/2011/01/03/ two-great-historians-talk-alexander-the-great-part-4/).forbes. Part 3 (http://blogs.dmoz.youtube.com/booked/2010/12/12/ two-great-historians-on-alexander-the-great-part-one/). on Forbes: Part 1 (http://blogs.org/Society/History/By_Time_Period/Ancient/Greece/People/ Alexander_the_Great//) at the Open Directory Project • Alexander the Great: An annotated list of primary sources (http://www.forbes.

mathematician and philosopher. Quine Karl Popper Patrick Suppes Erich Leo Lehmann Alfred Tarski (January 14. United States Polish Mathematics.Alfred Tarski 182 Alfred Tarski Alfred Tarski Born Alfred Teitelbaum January 14. Berkeley University of Warsaw Stanisław Leśniewski Died Nationality Fields Institutions Alma mater Doctoral advisor Doctoral students Solomon Feferman Haim Gaifman Bjarni Jónsson Howard Jerome Keisler Roger Maddux Richard Montague Andrzej Mostowski Julia Robinson Robert Vaught Known for Work on the foundations of modern logic Formal notion of truth Development of model theory logic of relations Influences Influenced Charles Sanders Peirce Kenneth J. Arrow W. California. he emigrated to the USA in 1939. V. Berkeley. 1901 Warsaw.[1] . Congress Poland October 26. 1901 – October 26. 1983) was a Polish logician. from 1942 until his death. philosophy of language University of California. and taught and carried out research in mathematics at the University of California. 1983 (aged 82) Berkeley. O. logic. Educated at the University of Warsaw and a member of the Lwow-Warsaw School of Logic and the Warsaw School of Mathematics and philosophy.

[7] Tarski applied for a chair of philosophy at Lwów University. Tarski left reluctantly.[6] before World War II. During the war. His biographers Anita and Solomon Feferman state that. City College of New York (1940). metamathematics. and served as Łukasiewicz's assistant. and seemed unused. Thus he left Poland in August 1939. and became the only person ever to complete a doctorate under Leśniewski's supervision. and met Kurt Gödel. on the last ship to sail from Poland for the United States before the German and Soviet invasion of Poland and the outbreak of World War II. In 1930. as was mutual. Tarski applied for a chair at Poznań [8] University but the chair was abolished. he changed the face of logic in the twentieth century. Alfred met another Alfred Tarski in northern California. to parents who were Polish Jews in comfortable circumstances. Poland's dominant religion. Tarski held a number of temporary teaching and research positions: Harvard University (1939). and a daughter Ina who married the mathematician Andrzej Ehrenfeucht. Tarski not only wrote several textbooks and many papers.Alfred Tarski A prolific author best known for his work on model theory.[4] Henceforth Tarski attended courses taught by Łukasiewicz. he entered the University of Warsaw in 1918 intending to study biology. In 1937. He was so oblivious to the Nazi threat that he left his wife and children in Warsaw. topology. Warsaw University came under the leadership of Jan Łukasiewicz. mathematical logic. Because these positions were poorly paid.[5] Tarski was a Polish nationalist who saw himself as a Pole and wished to be fully accepted as such . Leśniewski recognized Tarski's potential as a mathematician and encouraged him to abandon biology. geometry. he spoke Polish at home. Once in the United States. Stanisław Leśniewski and Wacław Sierpiński and quickly became a world leading research institution in logic. Tarski and Leśniewski soon grew cool to each other.later. mathematics and logic at the University. After becoming the youngest person ever to complete a doctorate at Warsaw University. a name they invented because it sounded more Polish.) The Tarski brothers also converted to Roman Catholicism. Sierpiński. he was able to return to Vienna during the first half of 1935 to work with Menger's research group. nearly all his extended family died at the hands of the German occupying authorities. but also did so while supporting himself primarily by teaching high-school mathematics. Alfred Teitelbaum and his brother Wacław changed their surname to "Tarski". From Vienna he traveled to Paris to present his ideas on truth at the first meeting of the Unity of Science movement. measure theory. he did not see them again until 1946. especially through his work on the concept of truth and the theory of models. Tarski visited the University of Vienna. and algebraic logic. was simple to spell and pronounce. foundational mathematics. Hence between 1923 and his departure for the United States in 1939. at Warsaw's Szkoła Mazowiecka. Tarski also taught mathematics at a Warsaw secondary school. (Years later. They had two children. She had worked as a courier for the army during Poland's fight for independence. He first manifested his mathematical abilities while in secondary school. In 1923. but on Bertrand Russell's recommendation it was awarded to Leon Chwistek. in America. creating a vacancy which Tarski hoped to fill. a Pole of Catholic background. and analytic philosophy. Tarski taught logic at the Polish Pedagogical Institute. However. a son Jan who became a physicist. Tarski reserved his warmest praise for Kotarbiński. Tarski's ties to the Unity of Science movement saved his life. an outgrowth of the Vienna Circle. set theory. lectured to Karl Menger's colloquium. because Leśniewski had died a few months before. because they resulted in his being invited to address the Unity of Science Congress held in September 1939 at Harvard University. in later life. Kurt Gödel. he also contributed to abstract algebra. the Institute for Advanced Study . Stefan Mazurkiewicz and Tadeusz Kotarbiński.[4] After Poland regained independence in 1918. In 1929 Tarski married a fellow teacher Maria Witkowska. a number of them ground-breaking. it was not uncommon for European intellectuals of research caliber to teach high school. "Along with his contemporary."[2] 183 Life Alfred Tarski was born Alfred Teitelbaum (Polish spelling: "Tajtelbaum"). Alfred did so even though he was an avowed atheist. and thanks to a Guggenheim Fellowship. and the philosophy of mathematics. Thanks to a fellowship.[3] Nevertheless.

always demanding the highest standards of clarity and precision. and closure algebras. not logic. In 1942. . Donald Pigozzi and Roger Maddux. Tarski was elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences. Richard Montague.[17] 184 Mathematician Tarski's mathematical interests were exceptionally broad for a mathematical logician. from Marseilles' Paul Cézanne University in 1977 and from the University of Calgary. Tarski's first paper. he taught until 1973 and supervised Ph. as well as Chen Chung Chang and Jerome Keisler. the British Academy and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. a subject to which he returned throughout his life.[13] Indeed. because Alonzo Church proved in 1936 that Peano arithmetic (the theory of natural numbers) is not decidable. Berkeley. Tarski acquired a reputation as an awesome and demanding teacher. London (1950. a remarkable fact given that men represented an overwhelming majority of graduate students at the time. it dates back to 1930 and was mentioned in Tarski (1931).Alfred Tarski in Princeton (1942). most of them on mathematics. including lattice theory. but a circle of disciples remained. In A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. the Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris (1955). he and Stefan Banach proved that. Tarski became an American citizen in 1945. the University of California at Los Angeles (1967). and then reassembled into a ball of larger size. (While this result appeared only in 1948. strong-willed. This result is now called the Banach–Tarski paradox. energetic. the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science in Berkeley (1958–1960). 1966). received honorary degrees from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in 1975. that the first-order theory of the real numbers under addition and multiplication is decidable. Tarski had intimidatingly high standards for students. showed that many mathematical systems. by the method of quantifier elimination. if one accepts the Axiom of Choice. many of whom became world-renowned leaders in the field. His students.[14] a classic text in the field. 1956-57. and particularly so to women — in contrast to the general trend.D.D. He was also an honorary editor of Algebra Universalis.[15][16] He also strongly influenced the dissertations of Alfred Lindenbaum. He preferred his research to be collaborative — sometimes working all night with a colleague — and was very fastidious about priority. Julia Robinson. Peano arithmetic is also incomplete by Gödel's incompleteness theorem.[9] Although emeritus from 1968. as well as the Berkeley Citation in 1981. or alternatively it can be reassembled into two balls whose sizes each equal that of the original one.[12] A charismatic leader and teacher. where he spent the rest of his career. dissertations including (in chronological order) those of Andrzej Mostowski. recall the awesome energy with which he would coax and cajole their best work out of them. Five of Tarski's students were women. where he again met Gödel. authors of Model Theory (1973). known for his brilliantly precise yet suspenseful expository style.) This is a very curious result. Tarski joined the Mathematics Department at the University of California. and sharp-tongued.[11] Tarski was extroverted. Bjarni Jónsson. In his 1953 Undecidable theories. For a concise survey of Tarski's mathematical and logical [18] accomplishments by his former student Solomon Feferman. His collected papers run to about 2500 pages. Robert Vaught. candidates until his death. Tarski et al. 1944–46. Tarski supervised twenty-four Ph. Tarski showed. Tarski presided over the Association for Symbolic Logic. but at the same time he could be very encouraging. Haim Gaifman. James Donald Monk. and Steven Givant.[16] Tarski lectured at University College. Dana Scott. Among many distinctions garnered over the course of his career. In 1924. see "Interludes I-VI" in Feferman and Feferman.[10] At Berkeley. abstract projective geometry. a ball can be cut into a finite number of pieces. and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (1974–75). and the International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science. quick-witted. a fact noted by many observers: His seminars at Berkeley fast became a power-house of logic. published when he was 19 years old. Some students were frightened away. Solomon Feferman. many of them now distinguished mathematicians. was on set theory.

among other things. whose individuals are points.. . In the late 1940s. Gottlob Frege. Tarski wrote a very long letter. Cardinal Algebras studied algebras whose models include the arithmetic of cardinal numbers. see Maddux (2006). Henkin. and Kurt Gödel. the algebra of logic. imply that containment partially orders the spheres. in 1926 Tarski devised an original axiomatization for plane Euclidean geometry."[21] Tarski's 1936 article "On the concept of logical consequence" argued that the conclusion of an argument will follow logically from its premises if and only if every model of the premises is a model of the conclusion. he published a paper presenting clearly his views on the nature and purpose of the deductive method. Not only its concepts and results can be mathematized. and two axioms that.. summarizing his work on geometry. In 1937. While that exploration (and the closely related work of Roger Lyndon) uncovered some important limitations of relation algebra. Tarski's axioms form a first-order theory devoid of set theory. namely his first-order theory of the real numbers. Ordinal Algebras sets out an algebra for the additive theory of order types.[2][19][20] However. which began the work on relation algebra and its metamathematics that occupied Tarski and his students for much of the balance of his life. and the theory of definability. This work culminated in the two monographs by Tarski. Tarski destroyed the borderline between metamathematics and mathematics. The theory of Abelian groups is decidable. and the role of logic in scientific studies. but not ordinal.along with Aristotle. published as Tarski and Givant (1999). he proved this theory decidable because it can be mapped into another theory he had already proved decidable. one considerably more concise than Hilbert's. has ranked Tarski as one of the four greatest logicians of all time --. and finally in a 1941 English translation as Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences. and worked on deductive systems. Near the end of his life. Cardinal. which culminated in the model theory he and a number of his Berkeley students developed in the 1950s and 60s. In 1930. Tarski's 1969 "Truth and proof" considered both Gödel's incompleteness theorems and Tarski's undefinability theorem. In the 1920s and 30s. His semantic methods. "In [Tarski's] view. and mulled over their consequences for the axiomatic method in mathematics. For an introduction to relation algebra. In 1929 he showed that much of Euclidean solid geometry could be recast as a first-order theory whose individuals are spheres (a primitive notion). particularly for his pioneering work in the logic of relations.Alfred Tarski are all undecidable. Tarski often taught high school geometry. Tarski also showed (Tarski and Givant 1987) that relation algebra can express most axiomatic set theory and Peano arithmetic. 1985). . which are to first-order logic what the two-element Boolean algebra is to classical sentential logic. published first in Polish. Vaught. and Monk (1971. Relaxing the requirement that all individuals be spheres yields a formalization of mereology far easier to exposit than Lesniewski's variant. His high school and undergraduate teaching on logic and axiomatics culminated in a classic short text. a single primitive binary relation "is contained in". then in German translation. He objected to restricting the role of metamathematics to the foundations of mathematics. radically transformed Hilbert's proof-theoretic metamathematics. In 1941. metamathematics became similar to any mathematical discipline. Tarski often expressed great admiration for Charles Sanders Peirce. Tarski published an important paper on binary relations. Tarski and his students devised cylindric algebras. addition commutes. but that of non-Abelian groups is not. Tarski produced axioms for logical consequence. and having only two primitive relations. Using some ideas of Mario Pieri. but they actually can be integrated into mathematics. 185 Logician Tarski's student.

etc. topology. This enormously cited paper is a landmark event in 20th-century analytic philosophy. The 1935 German translation was titled "Der Wahrheitsbegriff in den formalisierten Sprachen". John Etchemendy stimulated much of the recent discussion about Tarski's treatment of varying domains. anticipated Tarski in applying the Erlangen Program to logic. Tarski (2002). an important contribution to symbolic logic. An English translation had to await the 1956 first edition of the volume Logic. What are logical notions? Another theory of Tarski's attracting attention in the recent philosophical literature is that outlined in his "What are Logical Notions?" (Tarski 1986). Semantics. Metamathematics. see Convention T (and also T-schema). Though it is important to realize that Tarski's theory of truth is for formalized languages so giving examples in natural language has no validity according to Tarski's theory of truth. For a brief discussion of its content. and possibly an article by the Portuguese mathematician Sebastiao e Silva. and corrects a number of mistranslations in Tarski (1983). This question is a matter of some debate in the current philosophical literature. The debate centers on how to read Tarski's condition of material adequacy for a truth definition. or at least the basis for it. This is the published version of a talk that he gave in 1966. (Mautner 1946. Felix Klein. and the philosophy of language. such as "Snow is white" is true if and only if snow is white as expressing merely a deflationary theory of truth or as embodying truth as a more substantial property (see Kirkham 1992).) by the type of one-one transformation of space onto itself that left the objects of that geometrical theory invariant. models with domains of different cardinalities).[23] Tarski ends by pointing out that his definition of logical consequence depends upon a division of terms into the logical and the extra-logical and he expresses some skepticism that any such objective division will be forthcoming. That condition requires that the truth theory have the following as theorems for all sentences p of the language for which truth is being defined: 'p' is True if and only if p. (The concept of truth in formalized languages). affine geometry. highlights the many differences between the German and Polish versions of the paper. "What are Logical Notions?" can thus be viewed as continuing "On the Concept of Logical Consequence". semantics. it was edited without his direct involvement. This publication set out the modern model-theoretic definition of (semantic) logical consequence. Some recent philosophical debate examines the extent to which Tarski's theory of truth for formalized languages can be seen as a correspondence theory of truth. A new English translation of this paper.Alfred Tarski 186 Truth in formalized languages In 1933. The suggested criteria were derived from the Erlangen programme of the German 19th century Mathematician. (where p is the proposition expressed by "p") The debate amounts to whether to read sentences of this form.[22] setting out a mathematical definition of truth for formal languages. Tarski published a very long (more than 100pp) paper in Polish. Tarski published Polish and German versions of a lecture he had given the preceding year at the International Congress of Scientific Philosophy in Paris.) That program classified the various types of geometry (Euclidean geometry. sometimes shortened to "Wahrheitsbegriff". Logical consequence In 1936. titled "Pojęcie prawdy w językach nauk dedukcyjnych". Tarski proposed a demarcation of the logical operations (which he calls "notions") from the non-logical. (A . Whether Tarski's notion was entirely the modern one turns on whether he intended to admit models with varying domains (and in particular. In the talk.

which says "More things have F than have G. As the range of permissible transformations becomes broader.) So.g. equilateral triangles from non-equilateral triangles).b> where a and b are distinct members of the domain • n-ary predicates in general: all predicates definable from the identity predicate together with conjunction. and so on. Truth-functions: All truth-functions are admitted by the proposal. If one identifies the truth value True with the domain set and the truth-value False with the empty set. bending. 6. the range of objects one is able to distinguish as preserved by the application of the transformations becomes narrower. "More(x.) He pointed out that set membership is logical if set theory is developed along the lines of type theory. provided the domain has at least two members. and "Between four and 9 million". the question of whether most or all of mathematics is a part of logic.. the former having the set of all ordered pairs of domain members as its extension and the latter with the empty set as extension • the two-place identity predicate. While Tarski does not enter into the issue. there is nothing about his proposal that necessarily restricts it to first-order logic. (Given the reduction of (most of) mathematics to set theory. compression. it is also clear that polyadic quantifiers are admitted under the proposal. Logical notions of higher order: While Tarski confined his discussion to operations of first-order logic." 5.) 2. the former having all members of the domain in its extension and the latter having no members of the domain in its extension • two-place total and null predicates. This includes. 3. then the following operations are counted as logical under the proposal: 1. and twisting. Set membership: Tarski ended his lecture with a discussion of whether the set membership relation counted as logical in his sense. with the set of all order-pairs <a. disjunction and negation (up to any ordinality. Similarity transformations are fairly narrow (they preserve the relative distance between points) and thus allow us to distinguish relatively many things (e. intersection and union applied to subsets of the domain are logical in the present sense. Individuals: No individuals. but is extralogical if set theory is set out axiomatically. By domain is meant the universe of discourse of a model for the semantic theory of a logic. similarity transformations to those of Euclidean geometry. (Tarski likely restricted his attention to first-order notions as the talk was given to a non-technical audience. "rotate 30 degrees" and "magnify by a factor of 2" are intuitive descriptions of simple uniform one-one transformations. in effect. with the set of all order pairs <a. finite or infinite) 4. for example. These include the standard universal and existential quantifiers as well as numerical quantifiers such as "Exactly four". given two predicates Fx and Gy. "Finitely many". (It also admits of truth-functions with any infinite number of places. y)". 7.) Continuous transformations give rise to the objects of topology. Tarski's proposal was to demarcate the logical notions by considering all possible one-to-one transformations (automorphisms) of a domain onto itself. as in the canonical Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. but no ripping or glueing) allow us to distinguish a polygon from an annulus (ring with a hole in the centre). Set-Theoretic relations: Relations such as inclusion. higher-order quantifiers and predicates are admitted as well. These are quantifiers like. Continuous transformations (which can intuitively be thought of as transformations which allow non-uniform stretching. this was. "Uncountably many". where a is a member of the domain • the two-place diversity predicate. So.Alfred Tarski one-to-one transformation is a functional map of the space onto itself so that every point of the space is associated with or mapped to one other point of the space. Quantifiers: Tarski explicitly discusses only monadic quantifiers and points out that all such numerical quantifiers are admitted under his proposal. 187 . all n-ary truth-functions for finite n. but do not allow us to distinguish two polygons from each other. but is not limited to.a> in its extension. Predicates: • the one-place total and null predicates.

1936. R. ed.. • 1994 (1941).. In essence. VII. • 1983 (1956). Actes du Congrès international de philosophie scientifique. Scientific American 220: 63-77. S.. "Untersuchungen uber den Aussagenkalkul" ["Investigations into the Sentential Calculus"]. Logique. 1–11. Original publications of Tarski • 1930 Une contribution a la theorie de la mesure. Dover. Phenomenological Research 4: 341-75.Alfred Tarski In some ways the present proposal is the obverse of that of Lindenbaum and Tarski (1936). Semantics. Comptes Rendus des seances de la Societe des Sciences et des Lettres de Varsovie. Paris 1935. Feferman's proposal results in a radical restriction of logical terms as compared to Tarski's original proposal. Feferman (1999) raises problems for the proposal and suggests a cure: replacing Tarski's preservation by automorphisms with preservation by arbitrary homomorphisms. 23 (1930) Cl. Press. "A simplified formalization of predicate logic with identity". Language et pseudo-problèmes. 42-50. • 1971 (with Leon Henkin and Donald Monk). [24] . North-Holland. Hermann. 1st edition edited and translated by J. "The Semantical Concept of Truth and the Foundations of Semantics. Paris. it ends up counting as logical only those operators of standard first-order logic without identity. pp. Corcoran. "Über den Begriff der logischen Folgerung" [25]. "Sur les ensembles définissables de nombres réels I". eds. "On the Limitations of Deductive Theories" in Tarski (1983): 384-92. Logic. McGee (1996) provides a precise account of what operations are logical in the sense of Tarski's proposal in terms of expressibility in a language that extends first-order logic by allowing arbitrarily long conjunctions and disjunctions. III. vol. • Givant. Undecidable theories. Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences. North-Holland. [26] " Philosophy and • 1944. this suggestion circumvents the difficulty Tarski's proposal has in dealing with sameness of logical operation across distinct domains of a given cardinality and across domains of distinct cardinalities. • 1941. Archiv für Mathematische Logik und Grundlagenforschung 7: 61-79 • 1969. Oxford Univ. The present proposal is also employed in Tarski and Givant (1987). 188 Works Anthologies and collections • 1986. Hackett. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51: 913-41. • 1949. Metamathematics: Papers from 1923 to 1938 by Alfred Tarski. including The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages and On the Concept of Logical Consequence discussed above. pp. 31–32 • 1931. North Holland. • 1948. • 1985 (with Leon Henkin and Donald Monk). J. 4 vols. III. Ordinal algebras. • 1936 (with Adolf Lindenbaum). and McKenzie. R. pp. "On the calculus of relations". H. A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. (with Jan Łukasiewicz). N. Sorbonne. 1986. This collection contains translations from Polish of some of Tarski's most important papers of his early career. North-Holland. In particular. Cylindric Algebras: Part II. Paris 1935. . Fund Math 15 (1930). Steven. Paris: Hermann. Santa Monica CA: RAND Corp. Press. • 1936. Birkauser. • 1965. Actes du Congrès international de philosophie • 1936. who proved that all the logical operations of Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica are invariant under one-to-one transformations of the domain onto itself. Sorbonne. • 1956. Cylindric Algebras: Part I. "Arbitrarily" includes a countable infinity. Solomon Feferman and Vann McGee further discussed Tarski's proposal in work published after his death. "Truth and Proof". Vol. Woodger. Oxford Uni. The Collected Papers of Alfred Tarski. "Bibliography of Alfred Tarski". • 1930. • 1953 (with Mostowski and Raphael Robinson). and quantification over arbitrarily many variables. vol. Givant. 1–8. Journal of Symbolic Logic 6: 73-89. "Grundlegung der wissenschaftlichen Semantik" scientifique. Cardinal Algebras. Fundamenta Mathematica 17: 210-239.

st-andrews. ac. mcs. doi:10. (Text in Polish in the Digital Library WFISUW-IFISPAN-PTF) (http:/ / www. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 5: 175-214. fr/ ark:/ 12148/ bpt6k38370h/ f5. Model Theory. fr/ ark:/ 12148/ bpt6k383668/ f5. ISSN 00397857.. id=div00159& toc. University of California (System) Academic Senate. . pp. • 1987 (with Steven Givant). Chap. and Keisler. [21] Sinaceur. Retrieved 2008-12-26. trans. History and Philosophy of Logic 7: 143-54. 239–242. Archived (http:/ / web. . archiwum. "Alfred Tarski" in Dictionary of Scientific Biography [13] Feferman [14] Chang. archive. pp. php?id=13347) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project [16] Feferman & Feferman. ac. Warszawa. J. wfis. 5. pdf). Hourya (2001). "Alfred Tarski: Semantic Shift. st-and. New York. "POJĘCIE PRAWDY W JĘZYKACH NAUK DEDUKCYJNYCH". 109-123. r=. uk/ Biographies/ Tarski. Providence RI: American Mathematical Society. Journal of Symbolic Logic (ASL) 51 (4): 869–882. C. A Formalization of Set Theory Without Variables. [24] http:/ / gallica. com/ tarski/ tarski. math. 1973. [18] Feferman & Feferman. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=129:a-tarski-pojcie-prawdy-w-jzykach-nauk-dedukcyjnych& catid=56:marginalia& Itemid=106).1 [3] Feferman & Feferman. [23] Etchemendy. 334-342 [19] Vaught.. 1986). Amsterdam.. [8] Feferman & Feferman. image.43-52. [11] Obituary in Times. doi:10. html) [12] Gregory Moore.) History and Philosophy of Logic 23: 155-96. pl/ bibfis/ index.26 [5] Feferman & Feferman.17-18 [4] Feferman & Feferman. Edmund F..C. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. 189-195. uk/ ~history/ Obits/ Tarski. Synthese (Springer Verlag) 126 (1–2): 49–65. Retrieved 8 February 2012.124-149 [10] "Alfred Tarski. • 1999 (with Steven Givant). p. ndsu. id=). "Tarski's system of geometry" [27]. Robertson. 189 References [1] Feferman A. ist. p. html . Greg (2002-2006). • 2002. 1985. The Concept of Logical Consequence. edu/ 434679. . "Great Moments in Logic" (http:/ / consequently. . pp. Retrieved 2009-01-03. r=. org/ xtf/ view?docId=hb4d5nb20m& doc. reproduced here (http:/ / www-groups. John (1999). p. Corcoran. ditext.294 [6] "The Newsletter of the Janusz Korczak Association of Canada" (http:/ / www. Mathematics: Berkeley" (http:/ / content. view=frames& chunk.J. 1933. bnf. html [27] http:/ / citeseer. John J. pp. North-Holland. Number 5. "What are Logical Notions?".102-103 [9] Feferman & Feferman. Towarszystwo Naukowe Warszawskie. html). depth=1& toc. 385-386 [17] O'Connor.Alfred Tarski • 1986.. cdlib. Stanford CA: CSLI Publications. [7] Feferman & Feferman (2004). Robert L. ed. org/ web/ 20081206052240/ http:/ / consequently. American Elsevier. September 2007. uw. H. 69-75. langFR [26] http:/ / www. "On the Concept of Following Logically" (Magda Stroińska and David Hitchcock. Heuristic Shift in Metamathematics". edu/ id. ISBN 1-57586-194-1. nodak. [22] Alfred Tarski. "Alfred Tarski's Work in Model Theory". 277-287. [15] Alfred Tarski (http:/ / genealogy. image.. januszkorczak. org/ writing/ logicians/ ) from the original on 6 December 2008. org/ writing/ logicians/ ). [20] Restall. "Alfred Tarski" (http:/ / www-history. JSTOR 2273900. langFR [25] http:/ / gallica. bnf. ca/ bulletins/ Bulletin #5.2307/2273900. [2] Feferman & Feferman.1023/A:1005268531418. pp. edu. pp. (Dec. dcs. University of St Andrews. psu.

Feferman. and Keisler. American National Biography.J.Alfred Tarski 190 Further reading Biographical references • Feferman. 2000. Mautner. (http://math. Jan. The Concept of Logical Consequence. H.. Ed. I. H. "Definitions and Nondefinability in Geometry". Journal of Philosophical Logic 25: 567-80. real closed fields (Lou Van Den Dries). ISBN 978-0-19-512800-0.. 2010. with particular attention to influences from his teachers Stanislaw Lesniewski and Tadeusz Kotarbinski. Anita Burdman. truth and logical consequence (John Etchemendy). 53. 1972.C. 1946. Reidel/Kluwer. J. Vol. ISBN 1-57586-194-1 Solomon Feferman. Wolenski.. Roger D. American Journal of Mathematics 68: 345-84. vol. MIT Press.edu/~feferman/papers/ logiclogicism. Solomon (2004). Synthese 126: 49-65. The March 1988 issue of the same journal surveys his work on axiomatic set theory (Azriel Levy). Douglas.. Maddux. "An Extension of Klein's Erlanger Program: Logic as Invariant-Theory". " Logic. Oxford University Press. Chang. algebraic logic (Donald Monk). 21.. American Elsevier. • Givant. decidable theory (Doner and Wilfrid Hodges). Elsevier Science. Pigozzi.org/ • • • • • • • • • • • • stable/2274426). James T. and general philosophy (Patrick Suppes). Press. No. Stanford CA: CSLI Publications. Mathematical Intelligencer 13: 16-32. "Alfred Tarski: Semantic shift. Karl R. W. 1999. 1992.pdf)" Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40: 31-54. American Mathematical Monthly 117:475–89. F. pp. 36–50 Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Don. . 2006. • Blok. biography focused on his work from the late-1920s to the mid-1930s. Cambridge University Press. 1973. Alfred Tarski: Philosophy of Language and Logic (Palgrave Macmillan. 150 in "Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics". The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870-1940. 1979. Smith.. New York. Model Theory. Logics. Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic.jstor. 1988).. Princeton Uni.. Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov–Warsaw School. Sinaceur. and Logicism. 1996. 1989. Anita Burdman (1999). Theories of Truth. Oxford: 319-340. 2001. "Logical Operations".stanford. undecidable theories (McNulty). Relation Algebras. Rev. algebra (Jonsson). pp. • Patterson. Objective Knowledge. 1 (Mar. "A portrait of Alfred Tarski". "Alfred Tarski". Van. Etchemendy. Popper. John. Amsterdam. McGee. 2012) 262 pages. Kirkham. heuristic shift in metamathematics". The Journal of Symbolic Logic. Logic literature • The December 1986 issue of the Journal of Symbolic Logic surveys Tarski's work on model theory (Robert Vaught). 1991. • Feferman. 330–332. with Addendum. OCLC 54691904. ISBN 978-0-521-80240-6. "Philosophical Comments on Tarski's Theory of Truth". Steven. metamathematics (Blok and Pigozzi). "Alfred Tarski's Work on General Metamathematics" (http://www. 1999. Richard. C. North-Holland. and geometry (Szczerba).

mcs. while other writers. both within the United States and abroad. • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Tarski's Truth Definitions (http://plato. John J.iep. and there was also an emphasis on the relationship between the individual and the community. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.uk/ Biographies/Tarski. began at the time of the European colonization of the New World.[1] The Puritan arrival in New York set the earliest American philosophy into the religious tradition.stanford. American philosophy American philosophy is the philosophical activity or output of Americans. • Tarski’s Semantic Theory (http://www.Alfred Tarski 191 External links • O'Connor.edu/entries/tarski-truth/) by Wilfred Hodges.. "Alfred Tarski" (http://www-history. This is evident by the early colonial documents such as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) and the Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641). • Alfred Tarski (http://plato.[1] Thinkers such as John Winthrop emphasized the public life over the private.st-andrews.[2] . such as Roger Williams (co-founder of Rhode Island) held that religious tolerance was more integral than trying to achieve religious homogeneity in a community. American Philosophy can nevertheless be seen as both reflecting and shaping collective American identity over the history of the nation..stanford. • Propositional Consequence Relations and Algebraic Logic (http://plato.html). Robertson.edu/entries/ consequence-algebraic/) by Ramon Jansana."[1] 17th century Painting by Howard Chandler Christy of the scene at the Philadelphia Convention which led to the signing of the United States Constitution. Edmund F. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy notes that while American philosophy lacks a "core of defining features.edu/entries/tarski/) by Mario Gómez-Torrente. holding that the former takes precedence over the latter.stanford.utm.ac. Includes a fairly detailed discussion of Tarski's work on these topics.edu/truth/#H4) on the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. University of St Andrews. an important document in American The American philosophical tradition political and legal philosophy.

a belief in the perfectibility of human beings. Four of the Founding Fathers. the Founding Fathers debated the interrelationship between God. neither good works nor self-originating faith lead to salvation. ratified in 1776 and 1788.[1] Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale. Age of Enlightenment While the early 18th century American philosophical tradition was decidedly marked by religious themes. that leads to Edwards' fundamental metaphysical category of Resistance. The non-material mind consists of understanding and will. laissez-faire economics. Edwards emphasized "the absolute sovereignty of God and the beauty of God's holiness. where an object is "unwilling" to change its current state of motion."[3] Noted for his energetic sermons. However. saying that "we can do as we please. himself an empiricist. In continuing with the chief concerns of the Puritans in the 17th century. and it is understanding." According to Edwards. but we cannot please as we please.[4] While the Declaration of Independence does contain within it references to the Creator.[5] The most notably and self-consciously Christian of the Founding Fathers was John Adams. François-Marie Arouet (better known by his pen name. John Adams. and James Madison. such as Maximilien Robespierre. Voltaire). as was characteristic of other European Enlightenment thinkers. states that "the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion". in step with the thought of the Age of Enlightenment. respectively."[3] Working to unite Christian Platonism with an empiricist epistemology. the Founding Fathers were decidedly not exclusively theistic. the 1796 Treaty of Tripoli. some openly professing personal concepts of deism. an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion. Whatever features an object may have. with the aid of Newtonian physics. the earlier half being marked by Puritan Calvinism. interpreted in a Newtonian framework. Resulting from this were the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" (which is said to have begun the First Great Awakening). and it can be seen in Newton's laws of motion. the latter half saw a reliance on reason and science. the state. and Edwards derived his importance of the immaterial for the creation of human experience from Bishop Berkeley. and the latter characterized by the American incarnation of the European Enlightenment that is associated with the political thought of the Founding Fathers. 1800. As a Calvinist and hard determinist. and a legislative branch composed of a bicameral legislature where the House of Representatives is the lower house and the Senate is the upper house. and. The Constitution sets forth a federated republican form of government that is marked by a balance of powers accompanied by a checks and balances system between the three branches of government: a judicial branch. it has these properties because the object resists. but rather it is the unconditional grace of God which stands as the sole arbiter of human fortune. signed by John Adams.[1] Calvinism Jonathan Edwards is considered to be "America's most important and original philosophical theologian. and the individual. an executive branch led by the President. Jonathan Edwards also rejected the freedom of the will.[6] . Thomas Jefferson. and Rousseau. and a general focus on political matters. Resistance itself is the exertion of God's power.American philosophy 192 18th century 18th century American philosophy is often broken into two halves. Benjamin Franklin. Edwards was deeply influenced by George Berkeley. wrote extensively on political issues.

Darwin's biological theory was also integrated into the social and political philosophies of English thinker Herbert Spencer and American philosopher William Graham Sumner. setting a precedent for evolutionary psychology and evolutionary ethics. Louis. reductionistic worldview in particular. pamphleteer. Herbert Spencer. The 19th century also saw the rise of the school of pragmatism. and that groups within society are where they are because of some level of fitness. 1857 . This struggle is Ralph Waldo Emerson. though the influence of American pragmatism far outstripped that of the small Hegelian movement. Transcendentalism is marked by the holistic belief in an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical. The most notable transcendentalist writers include Ralph Waldo Emerson. Common Sense. Transcendentalism Transcendentalism in the United States was marked by an emphasis on subjective experience. Henry David Thoreau. 193 19th century The 19th century saw the rise of Romanticism in America. Life in the Woods where transcendence is achieved through immersion in nature and the distancing of oneself from society. political institutions. true knowledge is intuitive and personal and arises out of personal immersion and reflection in nature. and Margaret Fuller. The American incarnation of Romanticism was transcendentalism and it stands as a major American innovation. along with a smaller. They both wanted to understand morality and the mind in Darwinian terms. and this perfect state can only be attained by one's own intuition and personal reflection. This is found in Henry David Thoreau's Walden.[1] Other reactions to materialism included the "Objective idealism" of Josiah Royce. Darwinism in America The release of Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory in his 1859 publication of On the Origin of Species had a strong impact on American philosophy. as opposed to scientific knowledge that is the result of empirical sense experience. Hegelian philosophical movement led by George Holmes Howison that was focused in St.[9] Things such as scientific tools.[8] Henry David Thoreau. and the "Personalism. and revolutionary who wrote Common Sense and Rights of Man was an influential Enlightenment thinker and American Founding Father." believed that societies were in a struggle for survival. ca. and believed that real. or. as opposed to either industrial progress and scientific advancement or the principles and prescriptions of traditional. 1856 The transcendentalist writers all desired a deep return to nature.American philosophy Thomas Paine. organized religion." sometimes called "Boston personalism. which has been described as “the most incendiary and popular pamphlet of the entire revolutionary era"[7] provides justification for the American revolution and independence from the British Crown. the intellectual. and the conventional rules of morality as dictated by traditional religion need to be transcended." of Borden Parker Bowne. who coined the oft-misattributed term "survival of the fittest. and can be viewed as a reaction against modernism and intellectualism in general and the mechanistic. John Fiske and Chauncey Wright both wrote about and argued for the re-conceiving of philosophy through an evolutionary lens.

logician.[14] Typical of Peirce is his concern with inference to explanatory hypotheses as outside the usual foundational alternative between deductivist rationalism and inductivist empiricism.. though he himself was a mathematician of logic and a founder of statistics. To that needful but confined step. logic. Sumner. mathematician. Those conceivable practical implications are the conception's meaning. In "The Fixation of Belief" Peirce argues for the superiority of the scientific method in settling belief on theoretical questions. Peirce emphasized that a conception is general. William Sumner. such that its meaning is not a set of actual.[11] Charles Sanders Peirce Polymath. and mathematics. definite effects themselves.[12] He was a member of The Metaphysical Club. In "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" Peirce argued for pragmatism as summed up in that which he later called Charles Sanders Peirce. and another early figure of pragmatism. by distinctions that make formal but not practical differences. and scientist. Traditionally one analyzes an idea into parts (his example: a definition of truth as a sign's correspondence to its object). Then. [13] arriving at conceptions in It is the heart of his pragmatism as a method of experimentational mental reflection terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances — a method hospitable to the formation of explanatory hypotheses. the pragmatic maxim: "Consider what effects. 1839–1914) coined the term "pragmatism" in the 1870s.[10] 194 Pragmatism Perhaps the most influential school of thought that is uniquely American is pragmatism. William James. philosopher.American philosophy beneficial to human kind. which was a conversational club of intellectuals that also included Chauncey Wright. in addition to his advocacy of free markets. the maxim adds a further and practice-oriented step (his example: a definition of truth as sufficient investigation's destined end). "The Fixation of Belief" (1877) and "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" (1878). and conducive to the use and improvement of verification. and scientist Charles Sanders Peirce (  /ˈpɜrs/ like "purse". The maxim is intended to help fruitfully clarify confusions caused. This position is often referred to as Social Darwinism. our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object". that might conceivably have philosopher. believed along with the industrialist Andrew Carnegie that the social implication of the fact of the struggle for survival is that laissez-faire capitalism is the natural political-economic system and is the one that will lead to the greatest amount of well-being. Pragmatism begins with the idea that belief is that upon which one is willing to act. much influenced by Spencer. mathematician. . as in the long run the weak will be weeded out and only the strong will survive. for example. and advocated for the gold standard. logician. an American pragmatist. It began in the late nineteenth century in the United States with Charles Sanders Peirce. William James. It holds that a proposition's meaning is the consequent form of conduct or practice that would be implied by accepting the proposition as true. Peirce wrote what are considered to be the founding documents of pragmatism. we conceive the object of our conception to have. future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. practical bearings. though it is distinct from the eugenics movements with which social darwinism is often associated. also espoused anti-imperialism (having been credited with coining the term "ethnocentrism").[11] In addition to making profound contributions to semiotics. Jr. The laissez-faire beliefs of Sumner and Spencer do not advocate coercive breeding to achieve a planned outcome. and John Dewey. Instead the conception of an object is equated to a conception of that object's effects to a general extent of their conceivable implications for informed practice.

and creative love as principles operative in the cosmos and as modes of its evolution. while still engaging in the lofty academic philosophical work of James and Peirce before him. modes of inference.[19] Dewey argued against the individualism of classical liberalism. and belief in the reality of continuity of space. theism. He rejected the correspondence theory of truth and instead held that truth involves a belief. both fallibilism and anti-skeptical belief that truth is discoverable and immutable. John Dewey was one of the founders of functional psychology and was a leading figure of the progressive movement in U. James paraphrased Peirce's pragmatic maxim as follows: 195 William James. and is neither mental nor physical. To attain perfect clearness in our thoughts of an object."[20] He held that individuals are not things that should be accommodated by social institutions. asserting that social institutions are not "means for obtaining something for individuals. instead. facts about the world. and his presence in the public sphere was much greater than his pragmatist predecessors. . These social arrangements are a means of creating individuals and promoting individual freedom. other background beliefs. we need only consider what conceivable effects of a practical kind the object may involve — what sensations we are to expect from it. his monumental tome Principles of Psychology.[18] John Dewey John Dewey (1859–1952). along with Peirce. Later in his life James would also come to adopt neutral monism. Scholastic realism. social institutions are prior to and shape the individuals. the view that the ultimate reality is of one kind.American philosophy Peirce's philosophy includes a pervasive three-category system. William James William James (1842–1910) was "an original thinker in and between the disciplines of physiology.S. preferring to describe the pragmatic maxim only as a maxim of logic and pragmatism as a methodological stance. objective idealism. truth or otherwise. and in the reality of absolute chance. ” He then went on to characterize pragmatism as promoting not only a method of clarifying ideas but also as endorsing a particular theory of truth. and his lecture "The Will to Believe. then. mechanical necessity. In addition to being one of the founding members of pragmatism. is that there is no one of them so fine as to consist in anything but a possible difference of practice.[17] James is also known for his radical empiricism which holds that relations between objects are as real as the objects themselves. however subtle. logic as formal semiotic (including semiotic elements and classes of signs. and what reactions we must prepare.[16] saw pragmatism as embodying familiar attitudes elaborated into a radical new philosophical method of clarifying ideas and thereby resolving dilemmas. and methods of inquiry along with pragmatism and critical common-sensism). an American pragmatist and psychologist." James. and law. schooling during the first half of the 20th century."[15] He is famous as the author of The Varieties of Religious Experience. explicitly denying that it was a substantive doctrine or theory about anything. In his 1910 Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. Peirce rejected this latter move by James. time. “ [T]he tangible fact at the root of all our thought-distinctions. and future consequences of those beliefs. James was also a pluralist in that he believed that there may actually be multiple correct accounts of truth. They are means for creating individuals. psychology and philosophy. also wrote extensively on political and social matters.

and the result will be skepticism.[1] Rejection of idealism Pragmatism continued its influence into the 20th century.[24] Charles Hartshorne was also responsible for developing the process philosophy of Whitehead into process theology. which he termed "animal faith. According to Santayana. by the beginning of the 20th century began to be accompanied by other philosophical schools of thought. while very popular in Europe in the 20th century. He held that. . For example.American philosophy Dewey is well known for his work in the applied philosophy of the philosophy of education. what he referred to as "concresences" are a conjunction of events that maintain a permanence of character. and its main proponents include Alfred North Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne. if something must be certain in order to be knowledge. and that children would be better suited to learn by engaging in real-life activities." In his book Scepticism and Animal Faith he asserts that knowledge is not the result of reasoning. such as Ralph Barton Perry. Santayana was a harsh critic of epistemological foundationalism. and was eventually eclipsed by them. while the meaning and value of this action should be studied by philosophers. George Santayana. then it seems no knowledge may be possible. a Spanish-American philosopher. The 20th century saw the emergence of process philosophy. The explanation of events in the natural world is within the realm of science. Existentialism and phenomenology. knowledge involved a sort of faith. Dewey's philosophy of education is one where children learn by doing. in math.[23] Whitehead asserted in his book The Concept of Nature that the things in nature. students could learn by figuring out proportions in cooking or seeing how long it would take to travel distances with certain modes of transportation. Dewey believed that schooling was unnecessarily long and formal. Instead. and Spanish-born philosopher George Santayana was one of the leading proponents of pragmatism in this period. The core belief of process philosophy is the claim that events and processes are the principal ontological categories. Process philosophy Process philosophy embraces the Einsteinian world-view. itself influenced by the scientific world-view and Einstein's theory of relativity.[21] 196 20th century Pragmatism. The middle of the 20th century was witness to the increase in popularity of the philosophy of language and analytic philosophy in America. though only temporarily. Santayana was accompanied in the intellectual climate of 'common sense' philosophy by the thinkers of the New Realism movement. never achieved the level of popularity in America as they did in continental Europe.[22] As a naturalist. He held that idealism was an outright contradiction and rejection of common sense. Process philosophy is Heraclitan in the sense that a fundamental ontological category is change. knowledge is what is required in order to act and successfully engage with the world. which began in the 19th century in America.

and those of science are empirically verifiable. published in several essays beginning while he was still in his teens. which is referred to by Kuhn as a paradigm shift. as some have put it. and the logical positivists. the truths of logic and mathematics are tautologies. had begun in Europe with the work of Gottlob Frege. "made metaphysics respectable again".O. many positivists fled Germany to Britain and America. Kripke was ranked among the top ten most important philosophers of the past 200 years in a poll conducted by Brian Leiter (Leiter Reports: a Philosophy Blog.[25] Saul Kripke. Quine is also famous for inventing the term "gavagai" as part of his theory of the indeterminacy of translation. one of the most cited academic works of all time. He criticized the logical positivists and the analytic/synthetic distinction of knowledge in his essay "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" and advocated for his "web of belief. Thomas Kuhn was an important philosopher and writer who worked extensively in the fields of the history of science and the philosophy of science. (2) His 1970 Princeton lectures Naming and Necessity (published in 1972 and 1980). while not a logical positivist. since no experiences occur in isolation. Quine. and ontology. An image of Quine as seen on his passport. open access poll)[26] Kripke is best known for four contributions to philosophy: (1) Kripke semantics for modal and related logics.V.[1] W. theology. has profoundly influenced analytic philosophy. prior to its arrival in America. advocacy of modal realism. Any other claim.[27] (4) His theory of truth. and a shift in world views occurs. Ludwig Wittgenstein. In Quine's epistemology. Bertrand Russell. a student of Quine at Harvard. was ranked as one of the greatest philosophers of the [28] He is well known for his controversial 20th century in a poll conducted by Brian Leiter (open access poll). (3) His interpretation of the philosophy of Saul Kripke at Juquehy Beach Wittgenstein." which is a coherentist theory of justificiation. There follows a widespread struggle to find answers to questions. He has also made important contributions to set theory (see admissible ordinal and Kripke-Platek set theory) David Kellogg Lewis. With the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. the position which holds that there is an infinite number of concrete and causally isolated possible worlds. that significantly restructured the philosophy of language and. shared their view that philosophy should stand shoulder to shoulder with science in its pursuit of intellectual clarity and understanding of the world. another student of Quine at Harvard. are meaningless (this theory is called verificationism). including the claims of ethics. metaphysics. of which ours is one. According to logical positivism. .American philosophy 197 Analytic philosophy The middle of the 20th century was the beginning of the dominance of analytic philosophy in America. Analytic philosophy. The book argues that science proceeds through different paradigms as scientists find new puzzles to solve.[30] The work is considered a milestone in the sociology of knowledge.[29] These possible worlds arise in the field of modal logic. and this helped reinforce the dominance of analytic philosophy in the United States in subsequent years. aesthetics. He is famous for writing The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. there is actually a holistic approach to knowledge where every belief or experience is intertwined with the whole.

and Utopia in 1974. State. which says that if everyone in society has acquired their holdings in accordance with the principles of acquisition. Rawls employs the use of a conceptual mechanism called the veil of ignorance to outline his idea of the original position. The book puts forth Rawls' view of justice as fairness.[37] In Rawls' philosophy. which makes these persons unaware of their individual characteristics and their place in society. then any pattern of allocation. . the original position is the correlate to the Hobbesian state of nature. The two principles of justice are the equal liberty principle and the principle which governs the distribution of social and economic inequalities. religion.[38] Viewing Rawls as promoting excessive government control and rights violations. Outside academic philosophy. is just. one of whom was a young Alan Greenspan. a moral theory first propounded by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. political and social concerns took center stage with the Civil Rights Movement and the writings of Martin Luther King. He holds that "modern philosophy and modern life are characterized by the absence of any coherent moral code. Rawls argues for a system of distributive justice in accordance with the Difference Principle. Jr. and other private institutions operating in a free market. He is responsible for the resurgence of interest in virtue ethics. which says that all social and economic inequalities must be to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged. and rectification. such as their race. The principles of justice are chosen by rational persons while in this original position."[40] Alasdair MacIntyre. no matter how unequal the distribution may be. etc. charities.[41][42] He is considered the preeminent Thomist political philosopher. He argues that the role of government should be limited to "police protection. and the administration of courts of law. From this.[43] He recommends a return to genuine political communities where individuals can properly acquire their virtues. with all other tasks commonly performed by modern governments – education. who promoted ethical egoism (the praxis of the belief system she called Objectivism) in her novels. transfer.[32] Academic philosophers have been highly critical of the quality and intellectual rigor of Rand's work. wealth. while he was born and educated in the United Kingdom.[33][34] but she remains a popular. figure within the American libertarian movement. These two novels gave birth to the Objectivist movement and would influence a small group of students called The Collective. The book advocates for a minimal state and defends the liberty of the individual. that human beings should act in accordance with their own rational self-interest. and American philosophy did not fully return to social and political concerns (that dominated American philosophy at the time of the founding of the United States) until the 1970s. welfare. one which is based on a form of social contract theory. social insurance. libertarian Robert Nozick published Anarchy. national defense. albeit controversial. While in the original position. The Fountainhead in 1943 and Atlas Shrugged in 1957. and that the proper form of economic organization is laissez-faire capitalism. has spent around forty years living and working in the United States.[35][36] In 1971 John Rawls published his book A Theory of Justice.American philosophy 198 Return to political philosophy The analytic philosophers troubled themselves with the abstract and the conceptual. a self-described libertarian who would become Chairman of the Federal Reserve. The entitlement theory of justice holds that the "justice of a distribution is indeed determined by certain historical circumstances (contrary to end-state theories). and so forth – taken over by religious bodies. The return to political and social concerns included the popularity of works of Ayn Rand. and that the vast majority of individuals living in this world lack a meaningful sense of purpose in their lives and also lack any genuine community"."[39] Nozick asserts his view of the entitlement theory of justice. persons are said to be behind the veil of ignorance. but it has nothing to do with fitting any pattern guaranteeing that those who worked the hardest or are most deserving have the most shares.[31] Objectivism holds that there is an objective external reality that can be known with reason.

[52] Hilary Putnam In the early 21st century.[45] his challenge of the brain in a vat thought experiment. the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s.[44] The popular mind was taken with Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique. [48] [49] [50] Dennett. as well as Patricia and Paul Churchland[51] continue the discussion of such issues as the nature of mind and the hard problem of consciousness. These philosophers critiqued basic assumptions and values of philosophy.[53] Noted American legal philosophers Ronald Dworkin and Richard Posner work in the fields of political philosophy and jurisprudence. John Searle. embodied cognition has gained strength as a theory of mind-body-world integration. as well as his associations with pragmatism and transcendentalism. Philosophers such as Shaun Gallagher and Alva Noë. also known as second-wave feminism. gender. Rea has developed Plantinga's thought by claiming that both naturalism and supernaturalism are research programmes that [57] have to be adopted as a basis for research. and class issues.American philosophy 199 Feminism While there were earlier writers who would be considered feminist. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. for example. and his modal version of the ontological argument for the existence of God. . such as objectivity and what they believe to be masculine approaches to ethics. Alvin Plantinga is a Christian analytic philosopher known for his free will defense with respect to the logical problem of evil. Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty among others. together with British philosophers such as Andy Clark defend this view. a philosophical problem indicated by the Australian philosopher David Chalmers. and Anne Hutchinson. Posner is famous for his economic analysis of law. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Betty Friedan Contemporary philosophy Towards the end of the 20th century there was a resurgence of interest in pragmatism. a theory which uses microeconomics to understand legal rules and institutions. Largely responsible for this are Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty. seeing it as a natural development of pragmatism. is notable for its impact in philosophy. Rorty is famous as the author of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature and Philosophy and Social Hope. such as Alicia Ostriker and Adrienne Rich. Michael C. Donald Davidson. Hilary Putnam is well known for his quasi-empiricism in mathematics. such as Sarah Grimké. Douglas Hofstadter.[55][56] African-American philosopher Cornel West is known for his analysis of American cultural life with regards to race. the position that belief in the existence of God is properly basic. the evolutionary argument against naturalism. The debates that occur within the philosophy of mind have taken center stage. rights-based political theories. and philosophy of science. They wrote that there is no such thing as a value-neutral inquiry and they sought to analyze the social dimensions of philosophical issues. [47] Daniel American philosophers such as Hilary Putnam. philosophy of language.[54] Dworkin is famous for his theory of law as integrity and legal interpretivism. and of the thinking of Kant.[46] and his other work in philosophy of mind. This was accompanied by other feminist philosophers.

5. 2010 . html) Retrieved September 9. [20] "Dewey's Political Philosophy" at SEP (http:/ / plato. 1906. html) Retrieved September 9. 2008 [12] "Pragmatism . Collected Papers v. princeton.nndb. textlog. 2009 [33] "The Winnowing of Ayn Rand" by Roderick Long (http:/ / www. html). htm) Retrieved on July 30. 2009 [24] "Process Philosophy and the New Thought Movement" (http:/ / websyte. edu/ p/ pragmati.. edu/ entries/ transcendentalism/ ) Retrieved September 9. de/ 4220. ISBN 0-07-298556-9. html) (March 11. 2009). law. 5 (1934). com/ the-philosophical-art-of-looking-out-number-one-1. iep. paragraphs 11-12. Lewis" . utm. 2009 [25] "UNDERSTANDING QUINE'S THESES OF INDETERMINACY" by Nick Bostrom (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ so-who-is-the-most-important-philosopher-of-the-past-200-years. html) (in "The Spirit of Scholasticism"). stanford.American philosophy 200 References [1] "American philosophy" at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / www. School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. 6. 2009 [30] "Thomas Kuhn" at the SEP (http:/ / plato. c. Emily (September 15. where Peirce ascribes the success of modern science less to a novel interest in verification than to the improvement of verification. 2009 [3] Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. edu/ entries/ neutral-monism/ ) Retrieved September 9. stanford. . nndb. org/ special/ threewomen/ rand. htm) Retrieved on May 24. Mass. htm) Retrieved September 7. Leiter Reports: A Philosophy Blog. yale. com/ old/ quine. especially the portion published in Collected Papers v. 2010 [36] "Profile of Ayn Rand at the Cato Institute (http:/ / www.com (http:/ / www. "Jonathan Edwards. 2009 [9] "Transcendentalism" at the SEP (http:/ / plato. [27] 1982.. html) Retrieved July 10. stanford. paragraph 34. [15] "William James" at SEP (http:/ / plato. Eprint (http:/ / www. Senese. utm. iep. org/ pages/ 10825/ Pragmatism-Charles-Sanders-Peirce. paragraphs 18.com (http:/ / www. pbs. v. nickbostrom. A1. html) Retrieved September 7. wsj. 2002. 2010 [34] "The philosophical art of looking out number one" at heraldscotland (http:/ / www. 2009) and "So who *is* the most important philosopher of the past 200 years?" (http:/ / leiterreports. Steel. [18] "Neutral Monism" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. typepad. 2009 [16] See "Pragmatism (Editor [3])". edu/ david_lewis. about. 2009 [6] "The Avalon Project" at Yale Law School Library (http:/ / avalon. edu/ 18th_century/ bar1796t. [28] "Let's Settle This Once and For All: Who Really Was the Greatest Philosopher of the 20th-Century?" (http:/ / leiterreports. stanford. html) Retrieved September 7. [14] See Collected Papers. 2. html) Retrieved September 9. 2009 [31] Ip. 2002). 2010 [35] "Ayn Rand" at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / www. org/ site/ PageServer?pagename=objectivism_intro) Retrieved on September 7. org/ 2010/ 01/ 20/ roderick-long/ the-winnowing-of-ayn-rand/ ) Retrieved July 10. stanford. edu/ entries/ process-philosophy/ ) Retrieved on September 7. Tozer. 2010 [7] Gordon Wood. edu/ entries/ thomas-kuhn/ #3) Retrieved on September 7.Freedom: A History of US: PBS. adherents. edu/ entries/ santayana/ ) Retrieved September 9. asp) Retrieved August 2. com/ experiential/ JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation. 2009 [5] "Declaration of Independence & Christianity Myth" (http:/ / atheism. v. stanford. Steven." First published Tue Jan 15. Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language: an Elementary Exposition. 2009 [23] "Process Philosophy" at the SEP (http:/ / plato. Cambridge. edu/ rand/ ) Retrieved July 10. "The last poll about philosophers for awhile--I promise!" (http:/ / leiterreports. com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ the-last-poll-about-philosophers-for-awhilei-promise. edu/ a/ american. html) Retrieved on July 29. heraldscotland. justia. html) Retrieved on September 7. ISBN 0-674-95401-7. 55 [8] "Famous Transcendentalists" (http:/ / www. paragraph 13. The American Revolution: A History (New York: Modern Library. 2009 [13] Peirce (1902). Guy B. note 1. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. 5. 2009 [10] "William Graham Sumner" . Greg. utm. edu/ entries/ edwards/ ) [4] "Bicameralism and Enumerated. Implied. stanford. 2009 [29] "David K. Resulting. 2007). org/ wnet/ historyofus/ web03/ segment2. and Inherent Powers" (http:/ / supreme. 835066) Retrieved July 10.: Harvard University Press. com/ constitution/ article-1/ 02-bicameralism. html) Retrieved on July 30. v. com/ alan/ process. edu/ entries/ dewey-political/ #2) Retrieved on July 30. typepad. htm) Retrieved September 7. cato-unbound. [32] "INTRODUCING OBJECTIVISM" by Ayn Rand (http:/ / www. html) (March 7. iep. jrank. com/ article/ SB118978549183327730. 2009 [26] Brian Leiter. [17] Peirce (1903). Paul C. com/ largecom/ fam_transcendentalist. 2009 [21] John Dewey: Philosophy of Education" (http:/ / wilderdom.Charles Sanders Peirce" (http:/ / science. 2009 [22] "George Santayana" at the Stanford Encylclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. stanford. aynrand. 2009 [11] "Pragmatism" at IEP (http:/ / www. com/ people/ 882/ 000165387/ ) Retrieved September 9. p.Princeton University Department of Philosophy (http:/ / philosophy. 1. typepad. cato. substantive revision Tue Nov 7. Collected Papers v. 2006 (http:/ / plato. 195. paragraph 99. 121. com/ blog/ 2009/ 03/ lets-settle-this-once-and-for-all-who-really-was-the-greatest-philosopher-of-the-20thcentury. Wall Street Journal: p. See relevant quote at Pragmatic maxim#6. Sets out his interpretation of Wittgenstein aka Kripkenstein. edu/ entries/ james/ ) Retrieved on July 30. 2009 [19] Violas. paragraph 482. com/ od/ churchstatemyths/ a/ doi. 2009 [2] "Religious Tolerance" . "Greenspan Book Criticizes Bush And Republicans" (http:/ / online.

edu/american) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy American Philosophical Association (http://www. utm. edu/ nozick/ ) Retrieved January 5. 2009 [49] Douglas Hofstadter's page at Indiana.com (http:/ / www. (eds). uwaterloo. 2009 [52] "Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness" . pdf) Retrieved 3 July 2012 .2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (http:/ / pegasus. Cambridge University Press. UK. blog-city. 2009 [56] Allan. S. Mind. uwaterloo. 2009 [51] "Eliminative Materialism" at the Stanford Encylclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. 2009 [42] "Virtue Ethics" at SEP (http:/ / plato. edu/ p-macint/ ) Retrieved December 22. R. htm) Retrieved September 10. edu/ entries/ feminism-topics/ ) Retrieved September 7. net/ papers/ facing.iep. "Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition". stanford. 2001. com/ article/ 2007/ 09/ 004-the-virtues-of-alasdair-macintyre-6) Retrieved on September 7. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (Oxford University Press) 8 (2): 266–277.org/browse/american-philosophy) at PhilPapers American philosophy (http://www.David Chalmers (http:/ / consc. 2008(in press).American philosophy [37] "Philosophy: John Rawls vs. ISSN 01436503. 2009 [38] "Distributive Justice" at SEP (http:/ / plato. Volume 2. Cambridge. 2009 [53] Gallagher. edu/ entries/ materialism-eliminative/ #BriHis) Retrieved September 10. Rea: World Without Design: Ontological Consequences of Naturalism. html) Retrieved September 10. edu/ entries/ justice-distributive/ ) Retrieved December 18.1093/ojls/8. ucf. html) Retrieved September 10. edu/ ~gallaghr/ situated08. M. htm) Retrieved September 7. Robert Nozick" (http:/ / jeffersonswall. html) Retrieved September 10. edu/ entries/ legal-econanalysis/ ) Retrieved September 11.utm. edu/ research/ iep/ d/ davidson.org/) Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy (http://www. and Aydede. iep. [57] Michael C. 2009 [45] Putnam. indiana. utm. com/ john_rawls_vs_robert_nozick. Hilary. stanford. 201 External links • • • • • American philosophy (http://philpapers. utm. S. "Philosophical antecedents to situated cognition". In Robbins.apaonline. stanford. iep. edu/ nozick/ ) Retrieved September 7.org/) American Philosophical Society (http://www. stanford. 2010 [41] "The Virtues of Alasdair MacIntyre" (http:/ / www.american-philosophy.amphilsoc. 2009 [55] "Interpretivist Theories of Law" by Nicos Stavropoulos at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. edu/ entries/ brain-vat/ ) Retrieved September 10. [54] "The Economic Analysis of Law" by Lewis Kornhauser at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. 2009 [43] "Political Philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre" at IEP. 2009 [40] "Robert Nozick" at IEP (http:/ / www. 2009 [39] "Robert Nozick (1938—2002)" at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / www. ca/ MindDict/ dennett. stanford. Philosophical Papers.266. ISBN 88-459-0257-9 [46] "Brains in a Vat" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. edu/ entries/ ethics-virtue/ ) Retrieved on September 7. 2009 [48] "Daniel Dennett" at the Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind (http:/ / philosophy. P. 2009 [50] "John Searle" at the Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind (http:/ / philosophy. firstthings. (1988). Oxford.edu (http:/ / www. utm. Clarendon Press. html) Retrieved September 10. "Review: Dworkin and Dicey: The Rule of Law as Integrity". doi:10. stanford. stanford. Language. T. cc. JSTOR 764314. iep. 2009 [47] "Donald Davidson" at the Internet Encylclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / www. and Reality. ca/ MindDict/ searle. edu/ ~alldrp/ members/ hofstadter.org/) . edu/ entries/ law-interpretivist/ ) Retrieved September 11. 1975. 2009 [44] "Topics in Feminism" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato.

He was still teaching in 515. there are some notes of Ammonius' lectures written by various students which also survive: • On Aristotle's Categories (anonymous writer) • On Aristotle's Prior Analytics I (anonymous writer) • On Aristotle's Metaphysics 1-7 (written by Asclepius) • On Nicomachus' Introduction to Arithmetic (written by Asclepius) • On Aristotle's Prior Analytics (written by John Philoponus) • On Aristotle's Posterior Analytics (written by John Philoponus) • On Aristotle's On Generation and Corruption (written by John Philoponus) • On Aristotle's On the Soul (written by John Philoponus) He was also an accomplished astronomer. who scolds Ammonius for the agreement that he made. c. and the son of the Neoplatonist philosophers Hermias and Aedesia. since it is the activity of the knower concerning the known. A commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge may also be his. and taught at Alexandria for most of his life. writing commentaries on Plato. He was a pupil of Proclus in Athens. and other philosophers. Like Boethius in his second Commentary and The Consolation of Philosophy. where Ammonius.[3] In addition. only his commentary on Aristotle's De Interpretatione survives intact. they returned to Alexandria. Hermias. In De Interpretatione. Writings Of his reputedly numerous writings. lectured on Plato and Aristotle for the rest of his life. Aedesia. during the persecution of the pagans at Alexandria in the late 480's. this argument maintains the effectiveness of prayer. Heliodorus. but it may have involved limitations on the doctrines he could teach or promote. Life Ammonius' father. Ammonius contends that divine foreknowledge makes void the contingent. since Olympiodorus heard him lecture on Plato's Gorgias in that year. Eventually. 440-c.[1] Damascius. When they reached adulthood. Ammonius cites Iamblichus who said knowledge is intermediate between the knower and the known.Ammonius Hermiae 202 Ammonius Hermiae Ammonius Hermiae (Greek: Ἀμμώνιος ὁ Ἑρμείου. Ammonius made concessions to the Christian authorities so that he could continue his lectures. in Alexandria. Venice 1500 . Aristotle.[2] He also taught Asclepius of Tralles. he lectured on Ptolemy and is known to have written a treatise on the astrolabe. John Philoponus. and his mother. but it is somewhat corrupt and contains later interpolations. does not say what the concessions were. as head of the Neoplatonist school in Alexandria. died when he was a child. According to Damascius. raised him and his brother. Damascius and Simplicius. First page of the first edition of the Isagoge commentary. Aedesia accompanied her sons to Athens where they studied under Proclus. 520) was a Greek philosopher.

• Andron. 137. Routledge. 128. translated by W. Berlin. (1992) The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. J. London and Ithaca 1996. F.asp?curTab=DESCRIPTION&id=& parent_id=&sku=&isbn=9780415340205&pc=). R. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. Blank.archive.4. M.6-2. London and Ithaca 1999 • John Philoponus: On Aristotle On Coming-to-be and Perishing 1. A. 199. Vol. Martindale. pp. Williams. Cambridge University Press. Charlton. • Ammonius: On Aristotle's On Interpretation 9. (1911). The Philosophy of the Commentators. . pages 71–72. Matthews. • Sorabji.Ammonius Hermiae 203 Notes [1] Damascius.4-8).org/details/ commentariainari04akaduoft).1-6. Philosophos Historia.. John Inglis. 8-10 [3] Medieval Philosophy and the Classical Tradition. Charlton. London and Ithaca 1991. London and Ithaca 1999. London and Ithaca 1992.1-5. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists (http://www. "Ammonius. Cornell University Press. Charlton. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Phillip (1970).com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail. Son of Hermias". ISBN 0-684-10114-9. translated by D.. Cohen and G. translated by W. • Merlan. Further reading • Ammonius: On Aristotle Categories. London and Ithaca 2005 • John Philoponus: On Aristotle On the Soul 3. Hugh. London and Ithaca 2005 • John Philoponus: On Aristotle On the Soul 2. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Cambridge University Press. ed. translated by W.routledge-ny. • John Philoponus: On Aristotle On the Soul 2. Curzon Press.. with Boethius: On Aristotle's On Interpretation 9. eds. in Gorgias. Kretzmann (Boethius).7-12. translated by W. References • Jones. London and Ithaca 1998 • John Philoponus: On Aristotle On Coming-to-be and Perishing 1. translated by C.. pg. Cosmin (2008).1-8. 200-600 AD. Charlton. • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. 118B. (2005). 2002. "Ammonios of Alexandria". translated by C. Blank (Ammonius) and N. J. J. J. Morris. Williams. translated by D.stanford.). Athanassiadi [2] Olympiodorus. • Ammonius: On Aristotle's On Interpretation 1-8. 2005-10-19 • Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca. 4 parts 2-6 (http://www. 1. Georgia Irby-Massie and Paul Keyser. Akademie der Wissenschaften. F. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae (1882).edu/entries/ammonius) entry by David Blank in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. External links • Ammonius (http://plato. B. translated by S. London and Ithaca 2000 • John Philoponus: On Aristotle On the Intellect (de Anima 3.

Scandinavia.[1] The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to: • A broad philosophical tradition[2][3] characterized by an emphasis on clarity and argument (often achieved via modern formal logic and analysis of language) and a respect for the natural sciences. of being able to tackle its problems one at a time. the work of Bertrand Russell. elite science that investigates the fundamental reasons and principles of everything. Moore.[14] . to achieve definite answers.Analytic philosophy 204 Analytic philosophy Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century.[12] According to a characteristic paragraph by Bertrand Russell: "Modern analytical empiricism [."[13] Analytic philosophy is often understood in contrast to other philosophical traditions. it is by such methods that it must be sought. It has the advantage. the vast majority of university philosophy departments identify themselves as "analytic" departments. and New Zealand. which considers philosophy as a special. narrower sense. by these methods.. analytic philosophers disagree widely about the correct logical form of ordinary language.. I have no doubt that. Australia. in so far as philosophical knowledge is possible. G.[11] or ordinary language. Berkeley. I have also no doubt that. analytic philosophy is identified with specific philosophical commitments (many of which are rejected by contemporary analytic philosophers). In the United States. instead of having to invent at one stroke a block theory of the whole universe. and also Indian philosophy. which have the quality of science rather than of philosophy. United Kingdom. Its methods. and the logical positivists.[9] The logical form of a proposition is a way of representing it (often using the formal grammar and symbolism of a logical system) to display its similarity with all other propositions of the same type. many ancient problems are completely soluble. Canada.[7] As a result. Gottlob Frege. resemble those of science.[10] • The rejection of sweeping philosophical systems in favour of attention to detail.] differs from that of Locke.g. and Marxism.. those of the natural sciences. in this respect. such as: • The logical positivist principle that there are not any specifically philosophical truths and that the object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts. or subordinate to. in regard to certain problems. It is thus able. This may be contrasted with the traditional foundationalism. E.[8] • The principle that the logical clarification of thoughts can only be achieved by analysis of the logical form of philosophical propositions. and Hume by its incorporation of mathematics and its development of a powerful logical technique. In this latter. many analytic philosophers have considered their inquiries as continuous with. Ludwig Wittgenstein. Thomism.[4][5][6] • The more specific set of developments of early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the broad sense: e. However. most notably continental philosophy. as compared with the philosophies of the system-builders.

H. During this phase. a basic principle of analytic philosophy has been conceptual clarity. For example. Their Principia Mathematica (1910–1913) encouraged many philosophers to renew their interest with the development of symbolic logic. often made philosophy invalid.[15] in the name of which Moore and Russell rejected Hegelianism. E. Russell and Wittgenstein sought to understand language.[18] Frege sought to show that mathematics and logic have their own validity. which they accused of obscurity and idealism. the is of existence means that "there is an x" (∃x). Since its beginning. • For the sentence 'three is half of six'. G. In contrast to Husserl's 1891 book Philosophie der Arithmetik. Russell sought to resolve various philosophical issues by applying such definite distinctions. Bradley and Thomas Hill Green. in their opinion. Ludwig Wittgenstein developed a comprehensive system of logical atomism in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.[16][17] Inspired by developments in modern logic. . Additionally. during his early career. by using formal logic to formalize the way in which philosophical statements are made. articulated the program of early analytic philosophy. independent of the judgments or mental states of individual mathematicians and logicians (which were the basis of arithmetic according to the "psychologism" of Husserl's Philosophie). the English word “is” has three distinct meanings by predicate logic: • For the sentence 'the cat is asleep'. Frege was also an influential philosopher of mathematics in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. So a picture of the world can be made by expressing atomic facts as atomic propositions. as taught by philosophers such as F. analytic philosophers like Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein emphasized creating an ideal language for philosophical analysis.Analytic philosophy 205 History Late 19th-century English philosophy was dominated by British idealism. which attempted to show that the concept of the cardinal number derived from psychical acts of grouping objects and counting them. and linking them using logical operators. was much influenced by Gottlob Frege. Moore and Bertrand Russell. most famously in his [19] analysis of definite descriptions in "On Denoting. Like Frege. He thereby argued that the world is the totality of actual states of affairs and that these states of affairs can be expressed by the language of first-order predicate logic. Bertrand Russell adopted Frege's predicate logic as his primary philosophical method. This philosophical trend can be called "ideal-language analysis" or "formalism". which would be free from the ambiguities of ordinary language that. the is of predication means that "x is P" (denoted as P(x)) • For the sentence 'there is a cat'. Frege further developed his philosophy of logic and mathematics in The Foundations of Arithmetic and The Basic Laws of Arithmetic where he provided an alternative to psychologistic accounts of the concept of number.[15] Russell. a method he thought could expose the underlying structure of philosophical problems. along with collaborator Alfred North Whitehead. which allowed a much greater range of sentences to be parsed into logical form than was possible by the ancient Aristotlean logic. Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead attempted to show that mathematics is reducible to fundamental logical principles. the is of identity means that "x is the same as y" (x=y). who developed predicate logic." Ideal language analysis From about 1910 to 1930. the early Russell claimed that the problems of philosophy can be solved by showing the simple constituents of complex notions. It was against this intellectual background that the founders of analytic philosophy. and hence philosophical problems.

anything else was nonsense. known as "Oxford philosophy". philosophy concerned the clarification of thoughts. Ordinary language philosophy often sought to disperse philosophical problems by showing them to be the result of misunderstanding ordinary language. as meaningless. While schools such as logical positivism emphasize logical terms. which helped to reinforce the dominance of logical positivism and analytic philosophy in the Anglophone countries. neither true nor false. The positivists adopted the verification principle. during the late 1940s and 1950s. For them. Moore. into a doctrine known as logical positivism (or logical empiricism).Analytic philosophy 206 Logical positivism During the late 1920s. and '40s. See for example Ryle (who attempted to dispose of "Descartes' myth") and Wittgenstein. Some have argued that ordinary language philosophy is of a more sociological grounding. L. One followed in the wake of Wittgenstein's later philosophy. historical conditions). ordinary language philosophy emphasizes the use of language by ordinary people. simply meaningless. ordinary language philosophers claimed that ordinary language already represented a large number of subtle distinctions that had been unrecognized in the formulation of traditional philosophical theories or problems. which departed dramatically from his early work of the Tractatus. Karl Popper's insistence upon the role of falsification in the philosophy of science was a reaction to the logical positivists. These two constituted the entire universe of meaningful judgments. pseudo-statements. Austin.[22] Logical positivists typically considered philosophy as having a very limited function. analytic philosophy took a turn toward ordinary-language analysis. . aesthetics and theology were. Ordinary language analysis After World War II.[21] With the coming to power of Adolf Hitler and National Socialism in Germany and Austria. This movement had two main strands. This caused the logical positivists to reject many traditional problems of philosophy. supposed to be universal and separate from contingent factors (such as culture. most commonly to Britain and America. Russell and Wittgenstein's formalism was developed by a group of philosophers in Vienna and Berlin. accordingly. among others. and those of science were verifiable empirical claims. Some say that this movement marked a return to the common sense philosophy advocated by G. claimed that the truths of logic and mathematics were tautologies. who were known as the Vienna Circle and Berlin Circle respectively.E. Logical positivism used formal logical methods to develop an empiricist account of knowledge. as it essentially emphasizes on the use of language within social contexts. according to which every meaningful statement is either analytic or is capable of being verified by experience. The other. involved J.[20] Philosophers such as Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach. along with other members of the Vienna Circle. The best-known ordinary language philosophers during the 1950s were Austin and Gilbert Ryle. rather than having a distinct subject matter of its own. many members of the Vienna and Berlin Circles fled Germany. In contrast to earlier analytic philosophers (including the early Wittgenstein) who thought philosophers should avoid the deceptive trappings of natural language by constructing ideal languages. language. especially those of metaphysics or ontology. The claims of ethics. '30s.

John Searle suggests that the obsession with linguistic philosophy of the last century has been superseded by an emphasis on the philosophy of mind."[23] In the 1950s. in its contemporary state. And while there is a general consensus for the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness.. and its opponents would say that it grossly downplays the role of Wittgenstein in the sixties and seventies. and resistance to "imprecise or cavalier discussions of broad topics. assumptions. Following 1960. Those definitions often include a focus on conceptual analysis: A. theories that identified mental states with brain states. analytic philosophy has featured a few philosophers who were dualists."[24] Steven D. views. I think. and analytic philosophy"."[1][4] Largely. in favor of type physicalism or functionalism. behaviorism was the most prominent theory of mind in analytic philosophy for the first half of the twentieth century. There is.. and recently forms of property dualism have had a resurgence. a central focus for research in the philosophy of mind has been consciousness. logical positivism was influentially challenged by Wittgenstein in the Philosophical Investigations.[28] in which functionalism is currently the dominant theory. Many philosophers and historians have attempted to define or describe analytic philosophy. he says. ideological philosophy. and methods. Finally.P. and Sellars in Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind. Behaviorism later became far less popular. systematic questions in abeyance". has "an implicit commitment—albeit faltering and imperfect—to the ideals of clarity.Analytic philosophy 207 Contemporary analytic philosophy Although contemporary philosophers who self-identify as "analytic" have widely divergent interests. with David Chalmers as the most prominent [27] representative.[26] A few of the most important and active fields and subfields in analytic philosophy are summarized in the following sections. characterized by precision and thoroughness about a narrow topic and opposed to "imprecise or cavalier discussions of broad topics".[23] This interpretation of the history is far from universally accepted.[25] Scott Soames agrees that clarity is important: analytic philosophy. Behaviorists tended to hold either that statements about the mind were equivalent to statements about behavior and dispositions to behave in particular ways or that mental states were directly equivalent to behavior and dispositions to behave. Quine in "Two Dogmas of Empiricism". The best known theories are Daniel Dennett's heterophenomenology. Philosophy of mind and cognitive science Motivated by the logical positivists' interest in verificationism. a widespread presumption within the tradition that it is often possible to make philosophical progress by intensively investigating a small. Anglophone philosophy began to incorporate a wider range of interests. many philosophers in Britain and America still consider themselves to be "analytic philosophers. Soames also states that analytic philosophy is characterised by "a more piecemeal approach.[29] there are many views as to how the specifics work out. Hales described analytic philosophy as one of three types of philosophical method practiced in the West: "[i]n roughly reverse order by number of proponents. is usually taken to be defined by a particular style[4] characterized by precision and thoroughness about a narrow topic. Martinich draws an analogy between analytic philosophy's interest in conceptual analysis and analytic chemistry.] the goal in analytic philosophy is to discover what is true. Still. During this period. In recent years. as opposed to moral or spiritual improvement [. and methods—and have often rejected the fundamental premises that defined the analytic movement before 1960—analytic philosophy. Fred Dretske and Michael Tye's . rigor and argumentation" and it "aims at truth and knowledge. they have done so by expanding the notion of "analytic philosophy" from the specific programs that dominated Anglophone philosophy before 1960 to a much more general notion of an "analytic" style. which "aims at determining chemical compositions. topics in the philosophy of mind were often in close contact with issues in cognitive science such as modularity or innateness. they are phenomenology. not to provide a useful recipe for living one's life". circumscribed range of philosophical issues while holding broader.

the logical positivists adopted an emotivist position. J. was equivalent to saying. and judgments. An alternative higher-order theory. Urmson's article "On Grading" called the is/ought distinction into question. is offered by Robert van Gulick. and evolved into more sophisticated non-cognitivist positions such as the expressivism of Charles Stevenson. and deontology. During this time.g. • Normative ethics whose function is the examination and production of normative ethical judgments • Meta-ethics whose function is the investigation of moral terms and concepts. Moore's investigation into the nature of ethical terms (e. L. or saying the word "murder" with a particular tone of disapproval. The logical positivists held that statements about value—including all ethical and aesthetic judgments—are non-cognitive. Austin's philosophy of speech acts. Meta-ethics Twentieth-century meta-ethics has two roots. emotivism had many deficiencies. Rosenthal—who advocates a higher-order thought (HOT) model—or David Armstrong and William Lycan—who advocate a higher-order perception (HOP) model. and instead began meta-ethical investigations into the nature of moral terms. and neglect of. it had the side effect of making (ethical and aesthetic) value judgments (as well as religious statements and beliefs) meaningless. the naturalistic fallacy was a central point of investigation for analytical philosophers. At present. These positions were not without their critics.[30] 208 Ethics in analytic philosophy Philosophers working in the analytic tradition have gradually come to distinguish three major branches of moral philosophy. "Killing is wrong". which had its foundations in J. and the higher-order theories of either David M. which identified the naturalistic fallacy. contemporary normative ethics is dominated by three schools: utilitarianism. it became incumbent on logical positivism to develop an explanation of the nature and meaning of value judgements. While non-cognitivism was generally accepted by analytic philosophers. they thought. moved to the fringes of English-language philosophy during this period. Instead. Although that attitude was adopted originally as a means to promote scientific investigation of the world by rejecting grand metaphysical systems. As a result. "Boo to murder". G. The first is G.Analytic philosophy representationalism. Hare. Phillipa Foot contributed several essays attacking all these positions. analytic philosophers avoided normative ethics. Normative ethics The first half of the twentieth century was marked by skepticism toward. . statements. often cases created by the appearance of new technologies or new scientific knowledge. the higher-order global states (HOGS) model. The second is in logical positivism and its attitude that statements which are unverifiable are meaningless. However. Related subjects. virtue ethics. • Applied ethics whose function is the investigation of how existing normative principles should be applied in difficult or borderline cases. which held that value judgments expressed the attitude of the speaker. Along with Hume's famous is/ought distinction. utilitarianism was the only non-skeptical approach to ethics to remain popular. M.M. as the influence of logical positivism began to wane mid-century. Saying. But since value judgments are obviously of major importance in human life. Anscombe’s 1958 Modern Moral Philosophy sparked a revival of Aristotle's virtue ethical approach and John Rawls’s 1971 A Theory of Justice restored interest in Kantian ethical philosophy.E. that is. normative ethics. and the universal prescriptivism of R. aesthetics. they make no statements that can be objectively verified or falsified. E. good) in his Principia Ethica (1903). O. contemporary analytic philosophers began to have a renewed interest in ethics. and philosophy of history. such as social and political philosophy.

declared the "is-ought" impasse to be a dead end. Mackie and Flew debated the logical validity of the free will defense as a way to solve the problem of evil.[41] Political philosophy Liberalism Current analytic political philosophy owes much to John Rawls. Alvin Plantinga. Analytic philosophy of religion has also been preoccupied with Ludwig Wittgenstein.[34] The collapse of logical positivism renewed interest in philosophy of religion. Areas of special interest for applied ethics include environmental issues. Peter Winch and D. "Wittgensteinian Fideism." and which includes Wittgensteinians such as Rush Rhees. and Antony Flew not only to introduce new problems. A favorite student and close friend of Ludwig Wittgenstein. and led to a revival in virtue ethics. Kai Nielsen and D. philosophers such as Peter Winch and Norman Malcolm developed what has come to be known as contemplative philosophy. prompting philosophers like William Alston. and is widely regarded as a masterpiece of moral psychology.[35] Plantinga. among others. Perhaps most influential in this area was Elizabeth Anscombe.[37] Analytic epistemology and metaphysics has formed the basis for a number of philosophically-sophisticated theistic arguments. the problem of evil. Z. The name "contemplative philosophy" was first coined by D. worked on the nature of religious language. Phillips in Philosophy's Cool Place. early analytic philosophy tended to avoid the study of philosophy of religion. Applied ethics A significant feature of analytic philosophy since approximately 1970 has been the emergence of applied ethics—an interest in the application of moral principles to specific practical issues. Phillips. Z. a defence of free-market libertarianism. this is especially true of D. and Utopia.Z. and many more. her 1958 article "Modern Moral Philosophy" introduced the term "consequentialism" into the philosophical lexicon. who in a series of papers from the 1950s onward (most notably "Two Concepts of Rules" and "Justice as Fairness") and his 1971 book A Theory of Justice. largely dismissing (as per the logical positivists view) the subject as part of metaphysics and therefore meaningless. John Mackie. Robert Merrihew Adams. and the naturalistic fallacy began to be called into question.[38] Using first-hand remarks (which was later published in Philosophical Investigations. Phillips position." by Kai Nielsen but those who consider themselves Wittgensteinians in the Swansea tradition have relentlessly and repeatedly rejected this construal as caricature of Wittgenstein's considered [40] Responding to this interpretation. like those of the reformed epistemologists like Plantinga. became two of the most prominent philosophers on Wittgenstein's philosophy of religion. and other works). and the many challenges created by advancing medical science. whose landmark monograph "Intention" was called by Donald Davidson "the most important treatment of action since Aristotle". Richard Swinburne. Isaiah Berlin has had a notable influence on both analytic political philosophy and Liberalism with his lecture the Two Concepts . This was followed in short order by Rawls's colleague Robert Nozick's book Anarchy. theistic arguments.[31][32][33] 209 Analytic philosophy of religion As with the study of ethics.[36] Alston. the is/ought distinction.Analytic philosophy As non-cognitivism. which rests on an interpretation of a passage from Wittgenstein's "Culture and Value. but to re-open classical topics such as the nature of miracles. grappling with the consequences of analytic philosophy of language. Adams worked on the relationship of faith and morality. State."[39] This interpretation was first labeled. (see existence of God) the rationality of belief in God. Culture and Value. Phillips. concepts of the nature of God. analytic philosophers began to show a renewed interest in the traditional questions of moral philosophy. Z. as well as his interpretation of Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy of religion. animal rights issues. produced a sophisticated and closely argued defence of a liberalism in politics. a Wittgensteinian school of thought rooted in the "Swansea tradition.

possibility and necessity. In particular. and the multiculturalist critiques of Amy Gutmann and Charles Taylor. Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence is generally taken as representing the genesis of this school. and the debate over existence's status as a property have all risen out of relative obscurity to become central concerns.J.[43][44] Science has also played an increasingly significant role in metaphysics. and abstract objects.Analytic philosophy of Liberty. such as Rawls. the social scientist Jon Elster. Other prominent Analytical Marxists include the economist John Roemer. The best-known member of this school is Oxford University philosopher G. In that book. Communitarians challenge the Liberal assumption that the individual can be viewed as fully autonomous from the community in which he lives and is brought up. Consequentialist libertarianism also derives from the analytic tradition. The theory of special relativity has had a profound effect on the philosophy of time. possible worlds. he points to Marx's principle of from each according to his ability. including the feminist critiques of Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin. and then challenges these assumptions. The philosophy of fiction. they push for a conception of the individual that emphasizes the role that the community plays in shaping his or her values. Analytical Marxism Another development in the area of political philosophy has been the emergence of a school known as Analytical Marxism. thought processes and opinions. In particular.[45] The . Although not an analytic philosopher. And though many were inherited from previous decades. such as rational choice theory. Among the developments that led to the revival of metaphysical theorizing were Quine's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction. Members of this school seek to apply the techniques of analytic philosophy. Cohen himself would later engage directly with Rawlsian political philosophy to advance a socialist theory of justice that stands in contrast to both traditional Marxism and the theories advanced by Rawls and Nozick. causation. Recent decades have also seen the rise of several critiques of liberalism. to supplement Cohen's use of analytic philosophical techniques in the interpretation of Marxian theory. the communitarian critiques of Michael Sandel and Alasdair MacIntyre (though it should be noted both shy away from the term). The work of these later philosophers have furthered Cohen's work by bringing to bear modern social science methods. Charles Taylor. while perennial issues such as free will. along with tools of modern social science such as rational choice theory to the elucidation of the theories of Karl Marx and his successors. Ayer and the logical positivists. 210 Analytic metaphysics One striking break with early analytic philosophy was the revival of metaphysical theorizing in the second half of the twentieth century. and the philosophy of time have had new life breathed into them. whose social theory is a blend of social science. the debate remains fierce. Marxism.[42] Metaphysics remains a fertile area for research. neo-Kantianism. which was generally taken to undermine Carnap's distinction between existence questions internal to a framework and those external to it. having recovered from the attacks of A. Communitarianism Communitarians such as Alasdair MacIntyre. Michael Walzer and Michael Sandel advance a critique of Liberalism that uses analytic techniques to isolate the key assumptions of Liberal individualists. Jürgen Habermas is another important—if controversial—figure in contemporary analytic political philosophy. whose 1978 work. to each according to his need. Philosophers such as David Kellogg Lewis and David Armstrong developed elaborate theories on a range of topics such as universals. Instead. the problem of empty names. Cohen applied the tools of logical and linguistic analysis to the elucidation and defense of Marx's materialist conception of history. and the sociologist Erik Olin Wright.A. and quantum physics is routinely discussed in the free will debate. Cohen. and American pragmatism.

and W. Bertrand Russell. Alfred Tarski. analytic philosophers were slow in taking on analyses of art and aesthetic judgment. Daniel Dennett and his 1995 book Darwin's Dangerous Idea stand at the foreground of this debate. Aesthetics In the wake of attacks on the traditional aesthetic notions of beauty and sublimity from post-modern thinkers. 211 Philosophy of language Philosophy of language is another area that has slowed down over the course of the last four decades. Here again. the nature of evidence. In Naming and Necessity. Austin. it is still strongly under the influence of those figures from the first half of the century: Gottlob Frege. Kripke influentially argued that flaws in common theories of proper names are indicative of larger misunderstandings of the metaphysics of necessity and possibility. resulting in new analytic theories of love.L. J.V. Susanne Langer[46] and Nelson Goodman[47] addressed these problems in an analytic style in the 1950s and 60s.[49] and beauty. discussions in philosophy of science in the last forty years were dominated by social constructivist and cognitive relativist theories of science.[50] .O. A large portion of current epistemological research aims to resolve the problems that Gettier's examples presented to the traditional justified true belief model of knowledge. and treating knowledge as a primitive concept. epistemology saw a resurgence in analytic philosophy over the last 50 years. epistemic luck. the role of intuitions in justification. Philosophy of biology has also undergone considerable growth. Thomas Samuel Kuhn is one of the major philosophers of science representative of the former theory. particularly due to the considerable debate in recent years over evolution. Epistemology Owing largely to Gettier's 1963 paper "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?". while Paul Feyerabend is representative of the latter theory. Quine. Ludwig Wittgenstein. By wedding the tools of modal logic to a causal theory of reference. the value of knowledge. Kripke was widely regarded as reviving theories of essence and identity as respectable topics of philosophical discussion. Other areas of contemporary research include basic knowledge.Analytic philosophy weight given to scientific evidence is largely due to widespread commitments among philosophers to scientific realism and naturalism. Philosophy of science Reacting against the earlier philosopher of science Sir Karl Popper.[48] sublimity. Rigorous efforts to pursue analyses of traditional aesthetic concepts were undertaken by Guy Sircello in the 1970s and 80s. Indeed. who had suggested the falsifiability criterion on which to judge the demarcation between science and non-science. while the debate remains fierce. as evidenced by the fact that few major figures in contemporary philosophy treat it as a primary research area. virtue epistemology.

e." [15] Mautner. see ibid. 2003). [. Mind 14: 473–93. the most influential advocate of the continuity of philosophy with science was Willard Van Orman Quine: see.] This tradition emphasizes clarity. Dallas. his papers "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" and "Epistemology Naturalized".g. p. de/ ~harsch/ anglica/ Chronology/ 20thC/ Russell/ rus_deno." H. all but a tiny handful would be classified as analytic philosophers." [3] See Hans-Johann Glock." See also.111 [11] Scott Soames. ISBN 0-415-27844-9. p. Grayling (ed. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century Vol. Nor is it particularly concerned with 'philosophy of life. 2: "Analytic philosophy is mainly associated with the contemporary English-speaking world.). truth. p." [5] H. 2002). sections on "Bertrand Russell" at p. com/ analytic. the best philosophy departments in the United States are dominated by analytic philosophy. Tsui-James (eds." in Martinich & D.g. like phenomenology. pp. 1986). Karl R. and often identify.: "analytical philosophy [is] too narrow a label. [8] This is an attitude that begins with John Locke...C.E...g. theory. Austin." [10] Wittgenstein. [21] Popper. philosophicalgourmet. ISSN 1566-5399. a widespread presumption within the tradition that it is often possible to make philosophical progress by intensively investigating a small. Ars Disputandi 3. This kind of philosophy is more like science than religion. The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy. circumscribed range of philosophical issues while holding broader.. more thorough and more rigorous. . p. In this volume two other immensely rich and important such traditions are introduced: Indian philosophy. Hegel.' though parts of it are. 100ff." Jonkers. or at other times. xv: "There is. asp)." Also. (1928). "G. 1967). Quote on the definition: "'Analytic' philosophy today names a style of doing philosophy. "Philosophical Analysis" (catalogued under "Analysis. Martinich.. pp. p." [4] Brian Leiter (2006) webpage “Analytic” and “Continental” Philosophy (http:/ / www.P. 2003). 4. Routledge.Analytic philosophy 212 Notes [1] "Without exception. [20] Carnap. p.. or from the large amount of philosophizing that has also gone on in the present century within frameworks deriving from other influential thinkers like Aquinas. [18] Willard. Kenny (1973) p. "Husserl on a Logic that Failed". What Is Analytic Philosophy? (Cambridge University Press.. the works of G.P.] [W]e are dealing with a family resemblance concept. cit. is that analytic philosophy is a tradition held together both by ties of mutual influence and by family resemblances. or existentialism. ?. rigor. 2000). [14] A.-J.. then. aim for argumentative clarity and precision. The Making of a Philosopher: My Journey through Twentieth-Century Philosophy (HarperCollins. It is not a tradition that aims primarily for inspiration or consolation or ideology. but rather the acceptance of a wealth of smaller... or Marxism—feel it necessary to define their position in relation to analytic philosophy. The Logic of Scientific Discovery.. Moore and J. p. [. more like mathematics than poetry – though it is neither science nor mathematics. 102ff. analytical philosophy is not difficult to distinguish broadly [. 1 (Princeton UP. Philosophical Review 89 (1): 52–53. 1: "To use a general name for the kind of analytic philosophy practiced during the first half of the twentieth century. During the twentieth century.' Nearly every proposed definition has been challenged by some scholar. "Perspectives on Twentieth Century Philosophy:A Reply to Tom Rockmore" (http:/ / www. more closely with the sciences and mathematics. What distinguishes twentieth-century analytical philosophy from at least some philosophy in other traditions. Cohen. The Dialogue of Reason: An Analysis of Analytical Philosophy (Oxford University Press. [19] Russell. not a philosophical program or a set of substantive views. 86: "Most non-analytic philosophers of the twentieth century do not belong to continental philosophy. and among the leading philosophers in the United States. draw freely on the tools of logic. 5: "So. 2008). Analytic philosophers. Thomas (editor) (2005) The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. 1 (Macmillan." John Searle (2003) Contemporary Philosophy in the United States in N. Philosophy 2: Further through the Subject (Oxford University Press. despite a few overlaps. Peter (2003).22–3 [16] See for example Moore's A Defence of Common Sense and Russell's critique of the Doctrine of internal relations. [12] See. investigations that need not be tied to any overarching philosophical view. 834. [9] A. 2001). [. org/ publish/ articles/ 000129/ article. e. A Companion to Analytic Philosophy (Blackwell. op. 2nd ed. I think. "Introduction. since [it] is not generally a matter of taking a word or concept and analyzing it (whatever exactly that might be). R. 1. Philosophical") in Encyclopedia of Philosophy . entry for 'Analytic philosophy. esp. Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy (Columbia University Press. 35:4 (2004). and "Logical Positivism" at p.J. e. The Logical Structure of the World. classical pragmatism. (2002). fh-augsburg. Metaphilosophy. systematic questions in abeyance. [6] Colin McGinn. . It did not only criticize the latter's denial of the existence of an external world (anyway an unjust criticism)." L. e. html). 205: "The answer to the title question. or Marx.. 7: "I think Sluga is right in saying 'it may be hopeless to try to determine the essence of analytic philosophy.E.L. 419–444. [2] See." [7] See Aristotle Metaphysics (Book II 993a).] from other modern movements. [17] "Analytic philosophy opposed right from its beginning English neo-Hegelianism of Bradley's sort and similar ones.g. Bunnin and E. obscure style of Hegel's writings. 230. Vol. p. 1945). professionally and intellectually. pdf). is not a categorical rejection of philosophical systems. who described his work as that of an "underlabourer" to the achievements of natural scientists such as Newton. 5: "[I]t is difficult to give a precise definition of 'analytic philosophy' since it is not so much a specific doctrine as a loose concatenation of approaches to problems. 2008).). "Was Wittgenstein an Analytic Philosopher?". Practitioners of types of philosophizing that are not in the analytic tradition—such as phenomenology. crudely speaking. Bertrand (1905). p.. 97ff. Glock.. Sosa (eds. 1998). arsdisputandi. and philosophical thought in Europe from the time of Hegel.). p. existentialism. Avrum Stroll. but also the bombastic. p. say. Moore" at p. What Is Analytic Philosophy (Cambridge University Press.] 'conceptual analysis' aims at breaking down complex concepts into their simpler components. argument. Glock. xi. (Blackwell. than with the humanities. "On Denoting" (http:/ / www. [13] A History of Western Philosophy (Simon & Schuster. but it is by no means the only important philosophical tradition. .

P." In Gennaro. Yablo and A. London 1957 Kenny. ISBN 0-691-11573-7.). Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (1953) [47] Nelson Goodman. A companion to analytic philosophy. A. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. (1999). ISBN 0-631-21415-1. [26] Soames. A New Theory of Beauty. 4 (Autumn. stanford. [34] (a notable exception is the series of Michael B. Supplementary Volumes. Wittgenstein and Kierkegaard: Religion. [25] Hales. Robert M. Anthony and Thomas Hofweber (eds.P. Mental Acts. 1975. Mass. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. NJ: Princeton Univ. London 1973. Peter.) (1998).. Cambridge.: Blackwell. Princeton. and Dean Zimmerman (eds. Rosalind (2003). Does Ontology Rest on a Mistake?. Belmont. 1989. Malden. (1998). [49] Guy Sircello "How Is a Theory of the Sublime Possible?" The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.). ISBN 0-534-51277-1. Daniel C. [44] Van Inwagen. Searle at http:/ / www. print. Wittgenstein. Vol..utm. John L. (2005). htm) [24] A. (1989). R. stanford. (2003). pp. stanford. (1982)..edu//a/analytic. edu/ entries/ feminist-bioethics/ )" in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Princeton Essays on the Arts. 2nd ed.J.J. [30] For summaries and some criticism of the different higher-order theories. (2002). [35] Peterson. see Van Gulick. Metaphysics: The Big Questions. (2001) "Are We Explaining Consciousness Yet?" Cognition 79 (1–2):221-37. The final draft is also available here (http:/ / web. 541-550 [50] Guy Sircello. edu/ a/ analytic. Robert. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus . edu/ entries/ fideism) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [41] Nielsen. edu/ entries/ ethics-virtue/ #3). [23] Analytic Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (http:/ / www. pp. MA: MIT Press. Phillips. Princeton. D. Empty Names. html [29] Dennett. Lori (2003). "Higher-Order Global States HOGS: An Alternative Higher-Order Model of Consciousness. The dawn of analysis (2nd print. pp. ed. 72. February 2000. Metaphysics Geach. Analytic philosophy : classic readings. in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Donchin. Based on his 1960-61 John Locke lectures.) (2000). reason. 51. No. Charles. Cornell University Press. Karl Popper might also be included. 229-261+263-283 first part (http:/ / www.. pdf). NJ: Princeton University Press. The Virtue of Faith And Other Essays in Philosophical Theology [38] Creegan. Michael et al. [32] Gruen. [27] Dualism (http:/ / plato.htm) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Aaron Preston • Wittgenstein. Scott (2003). Princeton. 1st paperb. pdf) [43] Everett. CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. The Miracle of Theism: Arguments For and Against the Existence of God [37] Adams. P. xiii-xvii. 213 References • • • • Aristotle. Forest's 1934–36 Mind articles involving the Christian doctrine of creation and the rise of modern science). com/ news/ show/ 27599. stanford. [48] Guy Sircello. edu/ ~yablo/ om. [46] Susanne Langer. NJ: Princeton University Press.Z. [33] See Hursthouse. utm. Philosophy's Cool Place. edu/ entries/ ethics-environmental/ #2). final. "Virtue Ethics" §3 (http:/ / plato. Love and Beauty. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Press.iep. (ed. " Feminist Bioethics (http:/ / plato. pp. mit. syr. 1. since despite his rejection of the term his method is similar to the analytic tradition. 1–5. Anne (2004). Reality Principles: An Interview with John R. stanford. Robert (2006) "Mirror Mirror—Is That All?" In Kriegel & Williford (eds. 1–10. Self-Representational Approaches to Consciousness. (1987). " The Moral Status of Animals (http:/ / plato. 1993). Andrew and Yeuk-Sze Lo (2002). edu/ entries/ moral-animal/ ). ed. edu/ ~rnvangul/ mirror-mirror. Indianapolis: Hackett. Gallois. iep. A temple providing a setting for the passions without meddling with them. Analytic philosophy (http://www. edu/ entries/ dualism) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [28] Postrel and Feser. pp. Wittgensteinian Fideism? [42] S. Vol. Fiction and the Puzzles of Non-Existence. [45] Ibid. Z. 1968. [31] Brennan. Reason and Religious Belief [36] Mackie.) Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness: An Anthology. For Van Gulick's own view.Analytic philosophy [22] Important amongst these were Ludwig Wittgenstein and Rudolf Carnap. [40] Fideism (http:/ / plato. The quote is from Wittgenstein's Culture and Value (2e): "My ideal is a certain coolness. Martinich. Kai and D. stanford." in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2001). Steven D. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. see Van Gulick. Individuality and Philosophical Method [39] Phillips. "Environmental Ethics" §2 (http:/ / plato. 1976.

New York: Basic Books. 1990.htm).ac.edu/analytic) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Analytic philosophy (http://plato. Clare Hay.htm) • Dummett. Russell. New York: Free Press.uk/philosophy/LPSG/) offers many suggestions on what to read.lutterworth. Johannes.ac. Michael. depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Frege. Cambridge. and the Emergence of Analytic Philosophy. • Hirschberger. Princeton: Princeton University Press.iep.org/Society/Philosophy/Analytic_Philosophy//) at the Open Directory Project . ed.ucl. • Passmore. External links • Analytic philosophy (http://www. Idealism. 1966. A (http://www. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century: Volume 1. A Hundred Years of Philosophy. A Short History of Western Philosophy. revised ed. Morris. John.dmoz.Analytic philosophy 214 Further reading • The London Philosophy Study Guide (http://www. Peter.uk/philosophy/LPSG/FRW. ed.utm. 1966.com/lp/titles/shwphil. 1993. MA: Harvard University Press. Russell. • Soames. • Weitz.stanford. The Origins of Analytical Philosophy. Scott. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7188-3092-2 • Hylton. The Dawn of Analysis. Twentieth Century Philosophy: The Analytic Tradition. Short History of Western Philosophy. and Wittgenstein (http:// www.edu/entries/analysis/s6) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Analytic philosophy (http://www.ucl.

Anaxagoras

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Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras

Anaxagoras, part of a fresco in the National University of Athens Born c. 500 BC Clazomenae c. 428 BC (aged around 72) Lampsacus Ancient philosophy Western Philosophy Pluralist school Natural philosophy Cosmic mind (Nous) ordering all things

Died

Era Region School Main interests Notable ideas

Anaxagoras (Ancient Greek: Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; c. 500 – 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Born in Clazomenae in Asia Minor, Anaxagoras was the first philosopher to bring philosophy from Ionia to Athens. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a fiery mass larger than the Peloponnese. According to Diogenes Laertius and Plutarch he fled to Lampsacus due to a backlash against his pupil Pericles. Anaxagoras is famous for introducing the cosmological concept of Nous (mind), as an ordering force. He regarded material substance as an infinite multitude of imperishable primary elements, referring all generation and disappearance to mixture and separation respectively.

Biography
Anaxagoras appears to have had some amount of property and prospects of political influence in his native town of Clazomenae in Asia Minor. However, he supposedly surrendered both of these out of a fear that they would hinder his search for knowledge. Valerius Maximus preserves a different tradition: Anaxagoras, coming home from a long voyage, found his property in ruin, and said: "If this had not perished, I would have." A sentence, denoted by Maximus, as being "possessed of sought-after wisdom!"[1][2] Although a Greek, he may have been a soldier of the Persian army when Clazomenae was suppressed during the Ionian Revolt. In early manhood (c. 464–461 BC) he went to Athens, which was rapidly becoming the centre of Greek culture. There he is said to have remained for thirty years. Pericles learned to love and admire him, and the poet Euripides derived from him an enthusiasm for science and humanity. Anaxagoras brought philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry from Ionia to Athens. His observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order. He attempted to give a

Anaxagoras scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. He was the first to explain that the moon shines due to reflected light from the sun. He also said that the moon had mountains and believed that it was inhabited. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the earth and ignited by rapid rotation. He explained that though both sun and the stars were fiery stones, we do not feel the heat of the stars because of their enormous distance from earth. He thought that the earth is flat and floats supported by 'strong' air under it and disturbances in this air sometimes causes earthquakes.[3] These speculations made him vulnerable in Athens to a charge of impiety. Diogenes Laertius reports the story that he was prosecuted by Cleon for impiety, but Plutarch says that Pericles sent his former tutor, Anaxagoras, to Lampsacus for his own safety after the Athenians began to blame him for the Peloponnesian war.[4] About 450 BC, according to Laertius, Pericles spoke in defense of Anaxagoras at his trial.[5] Even so Anaxagoras was forced to retire from Athens to Lampsacus in Troad (c. 434–433 BC). He died there in around the year 428 BC. Citizens of Lampsacus erected an altar to Mind and Truth in his memory, and observed the anniversary of his death for many years. Anaxagoras wrote a book of philosophy, but only fragments of the first part of this have survived, through preservation in work of Simplicius of Cilicia in the sixth century AD.

216

Cosmological theory
All things have existed from the beginning. But originally they existed in infinitesimally small fragments of themselves, endless in number and inextricably combined. All things existed in this mass, but in a confused and indistinguishable form. There were the seeds (spermata) or miniatures of wheat and flesh and gold in the primitive mixture; but these parts, of like nature with their wholes (the homoiomereiai of Aristotle), had to be eliminated from the complex mass before they could receive a definite name and character. Mind arranged the segregation of like from unlike; panta chremata en omou eita nous elthon auta diekosmese. This peculiar thing, called Mind (Nous), was no less illimitable than the chaotic mass, but, unlike the logos of Heraclitus, it stood pure and independent (mounos ef eoutou), a thing of finer texture, alike in all its manifestations and everywhere the same. This subtle agent, possessed of all knowledge and power, is especially seen ruling in all the forms of life.
Anaxagoras, depicted as a medieval scholar in the Nuremberg Chronicle

Mind causes motion. It rotated the primitive mixture, starting in one corner or point, and gradually extended until it gave distinctness and reality to the aggregates of like parts, working something like a centrifuge, and eventually creating the known cosmos. But even after it had done its best, the original intermixture of things was not wholly overcome. No one thing in the world is ever abruptly separated, as by the blow of an axe, from the rest of things. It is noteworthy that Socrates (Plato, Phaedo, 98 B) accuses Anaxagoras of failing to differentiate between nous and psyche, while Aristotle (Metaphysics, Book I) objects that his nous is merely a deus ex machina to which he refuses to attribute design and knowledge. Anaxagoras proceeded to give some account of the stages in the process from original chaos to present arrangements. The division into cold mist and warm ether first broke the spell of confusion. With increasing cold, the former gave rise to water, earth and stones. The seeds of life which continued floating in the air were carried down with the rains and produced vegetation. Animals, including man, sprang from the warm and moist clay. If these things be so, then the evidence of the senses must be held in slight esteem. We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but reflection tells us that decease and growth only mean a new aggregation (synkrisis) and

Anaxagoras disruption (diakrisis). Thus Anaxagoras distrusted the senses, and gave the preference to the conclusions of reflection. Thus he maintained that there must be blackness as well as whiteness in snow; how otherwise could it be turned into dark water? Anaxagoras marked a turning-point in the history of philosophy. With him speculation passes from the colonies of Greece to settle at Athens. By the theory of minute constituents of things, and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of order, he paved the way for the atomic theory.

217

Literary references
Anaxagoras appears as a character in The Ionia Sanction, by Gary Corby

Notes
[1] Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia : a text and translation with notes and essays (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=PA6HMrSrjfkC& pg=PA90& dq="Valerius+ Maximus"+ "anaxagoras"& hl=en& sa=X& ei=sjY_T-zuMsSniQLa7ZmHAQ& ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q="Valerius Maximus" "anaxagoras"& f=false). University of Toronto Press. 2007. . [2] Val. Max., VIII, 7, ext., 5: Qui, cum e diutina peregrinatione patriam repetisset possessionesque desertas vidisset, "non essem - inquit "ego salvus, nisi istae perissent." Vocem petitae sapientiae compotem! [3] Burnet J. (1892) Early Greek Philosophy A. & C. Black, London, OCLC 4365382 (http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 4365382), and subsequent editions, 2003 edition published by Kessinger, Whitefish, Montana, ISBN 0-7661-2826-1 [4] Plutarch, Pericles (http:/ / classics. mit. edu/ Plutarch/ pericles. 1b. txt) [5] A.E. Taylor, "On the date of the trial of Anaxagoras" Classical Quarterly 11 (1917), pp 81–87.

References
• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Further reading
• Bakalis Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC., ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 • Barnes J. (1979). The Presocratic Philosophers, Routledge, London, ISBN 0-7100-8860-4, and editions of 1982, 1996 and 2006 • Burnet J. (1892). Early Greek Philosophy A. & C. Black, London, OCLC 4365382 (http://worldcat.org/oclc/ 4365382), and subsequent editions, 2003 edition published by Kessinger, Whitefish, Montana, ISBN 0-7661-2826-1 • Cleve, Felix M. (1949). The Philosophy of Anaxagoras: An attempt at reconstruction King's Crown Press, New York OCLC 2692674 (http://worldcat.org/oclc/2692674); republished in 1973 by Nijhoff, The Hague, as The Philosophy of Anaxagoras: As reconstructed ISBN 90-247-1573-3 • Curd, Patricia (2007). Anaxagoras of Clazomenae : Fragments and Testimonia : a text and translation with notes and essays University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, ISBN 978-0-8020-9325-7 • Davison, J. A. (1953). "Protagoras, Democtitus, and Anaxagoras". Classical Quarterly 3 (N.s): 33–45. • Gershenson, Daniel E. and Greenberg, Daniel A. (1964) Anaxagoras and the birth of physics Blaisdell Publishing Co., New York, OCLC 899834 (http://worldcat.org/oclc/899834) • Graham, Daniel W. (1999). "Empedocles and Anaxagoras: Responses to Parmenides" Chapter 8 of Long, A. A. (1999) The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 159–180, ISBN 0-521-44667-8 • Guthrie, W. K. C. (1965). "The Presocratic tradition from Parmenides to Democritus" volume 2 of A History of Greek Philosophy Cambridge University Press, Cambridge OCLC 4679552 (http://worldcat.org/oclc/ 4679552); 1978 edition ISBN 0-521-29421-5

Anaxagoras • Guthrie, W. K. C. (1962). A History of Greek Philosophy. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Kirk G. S.; Raven, J. E. and Schofield, M. (1983) The Presocratic Philosophers: a critical history with a selection of texts (2nd ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-25444-2; originally authored by Kirk and Raven and published in 1957 OCLC 870519 (http://worldcat.org/oclc/870519) • Mansfield, J. (1980). "The Chronology of Anaxagoras' Athenian Period and the Date of His Trial". Mnemosyne 33: 17–95. doi:10.1163/156852580X00271. • Sandywell, Barry (1996). Presocratic Reflexivity: The Construction of Philosophical Discourse, c. 600-450 BC. 3. London: Routledge. • Schofield, Malcolm (1980). An Essay on Anaxagoras. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Taylor, A.E. (1917). "On the Date of the Trial of Anaxagoras". Classical Quarterly 11 (2): 81–87. doi:10.1017/S0009838800013094. • Taylor, C. C. W. (ed.) (1997). Routledge History of Philosophy: From the Beginning to Plato, Vol. I, pp. 192 – 225, ISBN 0-203-02721-3 Master e-book ISBN, ISBN 0-203-05752-X (Adobe eReader Format) and ISBN 0-415-06272-1 (Print Edition). • Teodorsson, Sven-Tage (1982). Anaxagoras' theory of matter. Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Göteborg, Sweden, ISBN 91-7346-111-3, in English • Wright, M.R. (1995). Cosmology in Antiquity. London: Routledge. • Zeller, A. (1881). A History of Greek Philosophy: From the Earliest Period to the Time of Socrates, Vol. II, translated by S. F. Alleyne, pp. 321 – 394

218

External links
• Anaxagoras (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/anaxagoras) entry by Patricia Curd in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Anaxagoras" (http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ Biographies/Anaxagoras.html), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. • Translation and Commentary (http://www.classicpersuasion.org/pw/burnet/egp.htm?chapter=6#124) from John Burnet's Early Greek Philosophy. • Diogenes Laërtius, Life of Anaxagoras, translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925).

According to available historical documents. he tried to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies in relation to the Earth. Museo Nazionale Romano). Probably Roman copy of an earlier Greek original. Naturalism Metaphysics. 611 BC c. In astronomy. This is the only existing image of Anaximander from the ancient world. His knowledge of geometry allowed him to introduce the gnomon in Greece. his postulation that the indefinite (or apeiron) was the source of all things led Greek philosophy to a new level of conceptual abstraction. although only one fragment of his work remains. just like human societies. He . geography The apeiron is the first principle Earth floats unsupported Mechanical model of the sky Water of rain from evaporation Anaximander (  /əˌnæksɪˈmændər/. Anaximander's contributions to philosophy relate to many disciplines. a city of Ionia. Little of his life and work is known today. claiming that nature is ruled by laws. He belonged to the Milesian school and learned the teachings of his master Thales. He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography. Pythagoras amongst his pupils. 610 – c. and anything that disturbs the balance of nature does not last long. with a particular interest in its origins. the period from approximately 700 BC to 200 BC. and Ancient Greece. Anaximander was one of the earliest Greek thinkers at the start of the Axial Age. In physics. Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros. 546 BC (aged around 64) Pre-Socratic philosophy Western Philosophy Ionian Philosophy. Born Died Era Region School Main interests Notable ideas c. astronomy. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus. geometry.[2] Like many thinkers of his time. Milet in modern Turkey. during which similarly revolutionary thinking appeared in China. Fragmentary testimonies found in documents after his death provide a portrait of the man. he is the first philosopher [1] known to have written down his studies. He was an early proponent of science and tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe. the Near East. c.Anaximander 219 Anaximander Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος) Relief representing Anaximander (Roma. India. He succeeded Thales and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and arguably. Iran. Milesian school.

One thing that is not debatable is that even the ancient Greeks considered Anaximander to be from the Monist school which began in Miletus with Thales followed by Anaximander and finished with Anaximenes. By the time of Plato. his philosophy was almost forgotten. Carl Sagan claims that he conducted the earliest recorded scientific experiment. they didn't hesitate to speak for a 'Greek miracle'. his successor Theophrastus and a few doxographers provide us with the little information that remains. and hence some have inferred that he was a prominent citizen. precedes Anaximander. was born in Miletus during the third year of the 42nd Olympiad (610 BC). and died shortly afterwards. and by some ideas of Thales – the father of philosophy – as well as by observations made by older civilizations in the East (especially by the Babylonian astrologists). mentions that he was the "first of the known Greeks to publish a written document on nature. we will notice that there was not such an abrupt break as initially appears. and Aristotle. But if we follow carefully the course of Anaximander's ideas.[5] According to Apollodorus of Athens. fire. he assumed like traditional religion the existence of a cosmic order and in elaborating his ideas on this he used the old mythical language which ascribed divine control to various spheres of reality. Their collision produced what the mythical tradition had called cosmic harmony.Anaximander was also involved in the politics of Miletus and was sent as a leader to one of its colonies. at least in the Western world. earth) which the first Greek philosophers believed that constituted the universe represent in fact the primordial forces of previous thought. Detail of Raphael's painting The School of Athens.[6] Establishing a timeline of his work is now impossible.[8] All these were elaborated rationally. Theories Anaximander's theories were influenced by the Greek mythical tradition.[9] Some scholars saw a gap between the existing mythical and the new rational way of thought which is the main characteristic of the archaic period (8th to 6th century BC) in the Greek city states. therefore they could fit their ideas into a tolerably elastic system. but there is no doubt that Anaximander was influenced by Thales' theory that everything is derived from water. 17) explains that philosophers sometimes also dealt with political matters. a 4th-century Byzantine rhetorician. son of Praxiades.[3] 220 Biography Anaximander. It is debatable whether Thales actually was the teacher of Anaximander. However. also from Miletus. This was a common practice for the Greek philosophers in a society which saw gods everywhere. The basic elements of nature (water.[7] 3rd-century Roman rhetorician Aelian depicts him as leader of the Milesian colony to Apollonia on the Black Sea coast. In the old cosmogonies – Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) and Pherecydes (6th century BC) – Zeus establishes his order in the . Various History (III. Indeed. we know from Aristotle that Thales. Themistius.[10] Because of this. since no document provides chronological references. This could be a representation of Anaximander leaning towards [4] Pythagoras on his left. It is very likely that leaders of Miletus sent him there as a legislator to create a constitution or simply to maintain the colony’s allegiance. he was sixty-four years old during the second year of the 58th Olympiad (547–546 BC). Greek grammarian of the 2nd century BC. 1510–1511. In his desire to find some universal principle. air. Anaximander claimed that an "indefinite" (apeiron) principle gives rise to all natural phenomena." Therefore his texts would be amongst the earliest written in prose.

and it has generally been understood (e. nor could any of the other candidates. the term archế (ἀρχή).[11] In this space there is isonomy (equal rights) and all the forces are symmetrical and transferrable. the principle of things. He was the first philosopher to employ. who had claimed that the primary substance was water. that perpetually yielded fresh materials from which everything we perceive is derived. The decisions are now taken by the assembly of demos in the agora which is lying in the middle of the city. This is the projection on nature of a new political order and a new space organized around a centre which is the static point of the system in the society as in nature. For him. which [20] describes the balanced and mutual changes of the elements: Whence things have their origin. The indefiniteness is spatial in early usages as in Homer (indefinite sea) and as in Xenophanes (6th century BC) who said that the earth went down indefinitely (to apeiron) i. is nothing determined and not an element such as water in Thales' view. It embraces the opposites of hot and cold.[15] 221 Apeiron The bishop Hippolytus of Rome (I. Anaximander explains how the four elements of ancient physics (air. subject to neither old age nor decay. The one surviving fragment of Anaximander's writing deals with this matter. but a source that could perpetually give birth to whatever will be. Thales. or between air and fire. an entire host of shapes and differences then grow that are found in "all the worlds" (for he believed there were many). This arche is called "eternal and ageless". Unlike other Pre-Socratics. Simplicius transmitted it as a quotation. he never defines this principle precisely. infinite. the constituent of all substances. attribute to Anaximander the earliest use of the word apeíron (ἄπειρον infinite or limitless) to designate the original principle.I. Neither is it something halfway between air and water.DK B2)[18] For Anaximander. I III 3–4) that the Pre-Socratics were searching for the element that constitutes all things. While each pre-Socratic philosopher gave a different answer as to the identity of this element (water for Thales and air for Anaximenes). although not directly perceptible to us. that could create without experiencing decay. it became no longer a mere point in time. water can only be wet. 5). which until then had meant beginning or origin.[16] Aristotle writes (Metaphysics. beyond the imagination or concept of men. Anaximander maintains that all dying things are returning to the element from which they came (apeiron).[14] It also takes notice of the mutual changes between the four elements. so that genesis would never stop. unlimited[13]) as an origin of the universe.[12] The same rational way of thought led him to introduce the abstract apeiron (indefinite. . by Aristotle and by Saint Augustine) as a sort of primal chaos. formless state) of the mythical Greek cosmogony from which everything else appeared.[19] Anaximander argues that water cannot embrace all of the opposites found in nature — for example. wet and dry.. Origin. According to him. and directs the movement of things. Thence also their destruction happens. water and fire) are formed. and the later 6th century Byzantine philosopher Simplicius of Cilicia. never dry — and therefore cannot be the one primary substance. abyss. Anaximander understood the beginning or first principle to be an endless. (the Titans). must be something else unlimited in its source. (Hippolitus I. The notion of temporal infinity was familiar to the Greek mind from remote antiquity in the religious concept of immortality and Anaximander's description was in terms appropriate to this conception. could explain the opposites he saw around him. the Universe originates in the separation of opposites in the primordial matter. then. boundless.[17] He proposed the theory of the apeiron in direct response to the earlier theory of his teacher.Anaximander world by destroying the powers which were threatening this harmony.g.6. a concept that is probably influenced by the original Chaos (gaping void.e. and how Earth and terrestrial beings are formed through their interactions. Anaximander claimed that the cosmic order is not monarchic but geometric and this causes the equilibrium of the earth which is lying in the centre of the universe. unlimited primordial mass (apeiron). in a philosophical context. He postulated the apeiron as a substance that. or more subtle than water and earth. earth. thicker than air and fire.

It remains "in the same place because of its indifference".[26] Anaximander was the first to conceive a mechanical model of the world. as is ordained. in On the Heavens. stated that Anaximander viewed ". His major contribution to history was writing the oldest prose document about the Universe and the origins of life. a wrong for which destruction is the only penance. Simplicius mentions that Anaximander said all these "in poetic terms". an alternate translation[21] by Bertrand Russell is:[22] Into that from which things take their rise they pass away once more."[24] Friedrich Nietzsche. meaning that he used the old mythical language."[31] Such a model allowed the concept that celestial bodies could pass under the Earth. opening the way to Greek astronomy. pseudo-Plutarch states that he still viewed celestial bodies as deities. for this he is often called the "Father of Cosmology" and founder of astronomy. the Earth floats very still in the centre of the infinite.Anaximander According to necessity. and most portentous ideas in the whole history of human thinking.[27] Its curious shape is [28] with a height one-third of its diameter. in his Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. which is that of a cylinder surrounded by a circular oceanic mass. This concept of returning to the element of origin was often revisited afterwards. For they give to each other justice and recompense For their injustice In conformity with the ordinance of Time."[25] 222 Cosmology Anaximander's bold use of non-mythological explanatory hypotheses considerably distinguishes him from previous cosmology writers such as Hesiod. However. not supported by anything. Popper calls this idea "one of the boldest. most revolutionary. In his model. all coming-to-be as though it were an illegitimate emancipation from eternal being. . notably by Aristotle. for they make reparation and satisfaction to one another for the injustice according to the appointed time.. but false.. a point Map of Anaximander's universe of view that Aristotle considered ingenious.[23] and by the Greek tragedian Euripides: "what comes from earth must return to earth. Anaximander's realization that the Earth floats free without falling and does not need to be resting on something has [29][30] Karl been indicated by many as the first cosmological revolution and the starting point of scientific thinking. The goddess Justice (Dike) keeps the cosmic order. The flat top forms the inhabited world. It confirms that pre-Socratic philosophers were making an early effort to demythify physical processes.

Empedocles and Diogenes).[35] In addition to Simplicius. continuous or non-continuous (Anaximenes. Hippolytus[36] reports Anaximander's claim that from the infinite comes the principle of beings. which themselves come from the heavens and the worlds (several doxographers use the plural when this philosopher is referring to the worlds within. there can be no generation.[38] This theory places Anaximander close to the Atomists and the Epicureans who. similar to atomists Leucippus and Democritus. This invention undoubtedly made him the first to realize the obliquity of the Zodiac as the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder reports in Natural History (II. located closer. and that some were born when others perished. but his knowledge and work on astronomy confirm that he must have observed the inclination of the celestial sphere in relation to the plane of the Earth to explain the seasons. In the timeline of the Greek history of thought. On the left. more than a century later. no destruction". Cicero writes that he attributes different gods to the countless worlds. Consequently. These thinkers supposed that worlds appeared and disappeared for a while. on twenty-eight. and the first to present a system where the celestial bodies turned at different distances. sources)[32] and the lunar wheel. Anaxagoras and Archelaus). after the separation of hot and cold. Aristotle. according to Diogenes Laertius (II. 223 Multiple worlds According to Simplicius. nighttime in winter. It is a little early to use the term ecliptic. to realize how far from Earth it might be. 8). thus explaining lunar phases. eighteen (or nineteen) times. whose fire was less intense. Heraclitus. It resembled a system of hollow concentric wheels.[33] followed the same model. a ball of flame appeared that surrounded Earth like bark on a tree. and consequently.[37] which are often infinite in quantity). 2). They claimed that this movement was eternal. This ball broke apart to form the rest of the Universe. Anaximander already speculated on the plurality of worlds. daytime in summer. while others instead speculated on the existence of a series of worlds. depending on the the right. Its hole could change shape. "for without movement. and later philosopher Epicurus. with the rims pierced by holes like those of a flute. filled with fire.[34] Anaximander was the first astronomer to consider the Sun as a huge mass. some thinkers conceptualized a single world (Plato. he built a celestial sphere. Furthermore.Anaximander At the origin. The diameter of the solar wheel was twenty-seven times that of the Earth (or Illustration of Anaximander's models of the universe. The doxographer and theologian Aetius attributes to Pythagoras the exact measurement of the obliquity. . also claimed that an infinity of worlds appeared and disappeared. The stars and the planets. and an eclipse corresponded with the occlusion of that hole. the Sun was the fire that one could see through a hole the same size as the Earth on the farthest wheel.

[42] He explained rain as a product of the humidity pumped up from Earth by the sun.[40] He saw the sea as a remnant of the mass of humidity that once surrounded Earth. According to Aristotle's Meteorology (II.[47] . thus causing the winds and even the rotation of the celestial bodies. only then.Anaximander 224 Meteorological phenomena Anaximander attributed some phenomena. could men and women come out. considering humans' extended infancy. but strong enough to produce a sound. Inside these animals. which someday would go dry as well.[44] Anaximander put forward the idea that humans had to spend part of this transition inside the mouths of big fish to protect themselves from the Earth's climate until they could come out in open air and lose their scales. The 3rd century Roman writer Censorinus reports: Anaximander of Miletus considered that from warmed up water and earth emerged either fish or entirely fishlike animals.[39] In his system. 3). Origin of humankind Anaximander speculated about the beginnings and origin of animal life. now able to feed themselves. Thunder without lightning is the result of the wind being too weak to emit any flame. men took form and embryos were held prisoners until puberty. but as they got older. such as thunder and lightning. Democritus also shared this opinion. after these animals burst open. humankind had to adapt. in time. the loudness of the sound is proportionate with that of the shock. some people consider him as evolution's most ancient proponent. Even though he had no theory of natural selection. Thunderbolts are the result of a thicker and more violent air flow. thunder results from the shock of clouds hitting each other.[5] For him. he claimed that animals sprang out of the sea long ago. the bark would dry up and break. which he believed were attracted to places where water is more abundant. the Earth was slowly drying up and water only remained in the deepest regions. The first animals were born trapped in a spiny bark. rather than to divine causes. we could not have survived in the primeval world in the same manner we do presently. to the intervention of elements. A flash of lightning without thunder is a jolt of the air that disperses and falls. Taking into account the existence of fossils. allowing a less active fire to break free. dry land emerged and.[45] He thought that.[41] A part of that mass evaporated under the sun's action.[43] As the early humidity evaporated.[46] These pre-Darwinian concepts illustrate the beginning of a phenomenon sometimes called the "Greek miracle": men try to explain the nature of the world with material (rather than mythical) principles.

also notably in Egypt. Anaximander's innovation was to represent the entire inhabited land known to the ancient Greeks. Strabo viewed both as the first geographers after Homer. . borders. Anaximander was the first to publish a map of the world. according to the geographer Eratosthenes. Thales would probably have found it easier to convince the Ionian city-states to join in a federation in order to push the Median threat away if he possessed such a tool. he may have designed his map on a slightly rounded metal surface. Finally.Anaximander 225 Other accomplishments Cartography Both Strabo and Agathemerus (later Greek geographers) claim that. Surely aware of the sea's convexity. Only some small examples survived until today. around the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. the Middle East. and Babylon. Maps were produced in ancient times. themselves located in the middle of the ocean and isolated like islands by sea and rivers. separating Libya (which was the name for the part of the then-known African continent) from Asia. Anaximander most likely drew this map for three [49] First. The Nile flowed south into the ocean. [48] Possible rendering of Anaximander's world map Such an accomplishment is more significant than it at first appears. but is more likely in Anaximander's time to have been located near Miletus. Lydia. Europe was bordered on the south by the Mediterranean Sea and was separated from Asia by the Black Sea. either by the Phasis River (now called the Rioni) or the Tanais. These maps indicated directions. towns. and geological features. it could be used to improve navigation and trade between Miletus's colonies and other colonies reasons. the philosophical idea of a global representation of the world simply for the sake of knowledge was reason enough to design one. and. The map probably inspired the Greek historian Hecataeus of Miletus to draw a more accurate version. further east. the Lake Maeotis. The Aegean Sea was near the map's centre and enclosed by three continents. roads. The unique example of a world map comes from late Babylonian tablet BM 92687 later than 9th century BCE but is based probably on a much older map. Second. The centre or “navel” of the world (ὀμφαλός γῆς omphalós gẽs) could have been Delphi.

who did not associate the prediction with divination. that where there was fire. § 4) The world of individual objects. equinoxes do not correspond to the middle point between the positions during solstices.. anything definite has to eventually pass back into indefiniteness. which is shortest at noon. the gnomon was simply a vertical pillar or rod mounted on a horizontal plane. Interpretations Bertrand Russell in the History of Western Philosophy interprets Anaximander's theories as an assertion of the necessity of an appropriate balance between earth. In accordance with this. and water. The position of its shadow on the plane indicated the time of day. 81).. a wrong for which destruction is the only penance".[50] Indeed. As it moves through its apparent course. In his time. he became the first Greek to accurately determine the equinoxes. As the Suda seems to suggest.all coming-to-be as though it were an illegitimate emancipation from eternal being. 112). Cicero states that Anaximander convinced the inhabitants of Lacedaemon to abandon their city and spend the night in the country with their weapons because an earthquake was near. The variation in the tip’s position at noon indicates the solar time and the seasons. fire. 50. Pliny the Elder also mentions this anecdote (II. as well as the division of days into twelve parts. all of which may be independently seeking to aggrandize their proportions relative to the others. came from the Babylonians. he participated in the construction. of sundials to indicate solstices and equinoxes. claimed that Anaximander was a pessimist who asserted that the primal being of the world was a state of indefiniteness. It also mentions his interest in the measurement of time and associates him with the introduction in Greece of the gnomon. who gave the Greeks the art of time measurement. an important influence on the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. In other words. a gnomon required adjustments from a place to another because of the difference in latitude. and delivered a lecture entitled "Anaximander's Saying" which was subsequently included in Off the Beaten Track.. as opposed to Cicero.Anaximander 226 Gnomon The Suda relates that Anaximander explained some basic notions of geometry. In Lacedaemon. the shadow is longest on the winter solstice and shortest on the summer solstice. Anaximander viewed ". The lecture examines the ontological difference and the oblivion of Being or Dasein in the context of the Anaximander fragment.[52] His Greek peers echoed this sentiment with their belief in natural boundaries beyond which not even the gods could operate. the sun draws a curve with the tip of the projected shadow. according to Herodotus' Histories (II. Anaximander seems to express his belief that a natural order ensures balance between these elements. when pointing due south. suggesting that it came from an "admirable inspiration". in this way of thinking. in Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks.[55] . 109).[51] The city collapsed when the top of the Taygetus split like the stern of a ship. It is likely that he was not the first to determine the solstices. the invention of the gnomon itself cannot be attributed to Anaximander because its use. has no worth and should perish. or at least in the adjustment.[54] Heidegger's lecture is. (Ibid. ashes (earth) now exist. in turn. Friedrich Nietzsche. However. because no calculation is necessary. it is very likely that with his knowledge of geometry.[53] Martin Heidegger lectured extensively on Anaximander. It is they. On the other hand. as the Babylonians thought. Prediction of an earthquake In his philosophical work De Divinatione (I.

" In Ancient Greek quotes usually blend with surrounding text. Cambridge University Press. M. google. p 128. δῆλον δὲ ὅτι τὴν εἰς ἄλληλα μεταβολὴν τῶν τεττάρων στοιχείων οὗτος θεασάμενος οὐκ ἠξίωσεν ἕν τι τούτων ὑποκείμενον ποιῆσαι. 24 [11] C. ISBN 978-0-521-29420-1. as reported by Diogenes Laërtius. J. htm for a description of the characters in this painting. Edition du Seuil. G. ποιητικωτέροις οὕτως ὀνόμασιν αὐτὰ λέγων. P. . The Doctrines of the Philosophers (I.3 [ Pseudo-Plutarch. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (II. 5.] λέγει δ' αὐτὴν μήτε ὕδωρ μήτε ἄλλο τι τῶν καλουμένων εἶναι στοιχείων. World publishing Company. 04. p168. pg 143–144. Comments on Aristotle's Physics (24. A History of Greek Philosophy (http:/ / books. P. I.p 110 [17] Pseudo-Plutarch. google. ἀλλ' ἑτέραν τινὰ φύσιν ἄπειρον. McKirahan. David (2005) The Grand Contraption. [18] William Keith Chambers Guthrie (2000). Aristotle. On Generation and Corruption (II. Volume 1 pg. Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-12133-8 [3] Sagan. ἀλλ' ἀποκρινομένων τῶν ἐναντίων διὰ τῆς αἰδίου κινήσεως. 1998 Retrieved 2012-03-10 [22] (Lord) Russell A history of western philosophy (http:/ / books. uk/ books?id=ntczsA7GusAC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q=The sayong belongs to the Greek thinker Anaximander.169. A Greek-English Lexicon. [13] ἀπείρων (http:/ / www. 204 b 33–34 [24] EuripidesSupplices. uk/ books?id=iQZ6Xk9VdtAC& printsec=frontcover#v=snippet& q=Anaximander& f=false) Simon and Schuster. ἐξ ἧς ἅπαντας γίνεσθαι τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτοῖς κόσμους· ἐξ ὧν δὲ ἡ γένεσίς ἐστι τοῖς οὖσι. [10] Herbert Ernest Cushman claims Anaximander has "the first European philosophical conception of god" . 2). III. H. on Perseus [14] The Theogony of Hesiod. but Anaximander's writing. in "somewhat poetic terms" as it is mentioned by Simplicius. 983 b 8–11. Ch 5. A beginner's history of philosophy. Nietzsche and Diel).204b 23sq. καὶ τὴν φθορὰν εἰς ταῦτα γίνεσθαι κατὰ τὸ χρεών· διδόναι γὰρ αὐτὰ δίκην καὶ τίσιν ἀλλήλοις τῆς ἀδικίας κατὰ τὴν τοῦ χρόνου τάξιν. 32–34 [8] C.E. Consequently. co. deciding where they start and where they end is often difficult.]. Cambridge University Press. Edition du Seuil. Philosophy before Socrates.Raven and M.] [16] G. [DK 12 A 16. Γ5. [4] This character is traditionally associated with Boethius. mlahanas. However. p83 [19] Aristotle. it is generally accepted that this quote is not Simplicius' own interpretation. Phys. perseus. ISBN 978-0-521-27455-5. See http:/ / www. however his face offering similarities with the relief of Anaximander (image in the box above). Bowra (1957) The Greek experience. google. §317 [2] Park.Kirk. ISBN 0-345-33135-4. 1945 (reprint) ISBN 0-671-20158-1 Retrieved 2012-03-10 [23] Aristotle. Mosse (1984) La Grece archaique d' Homere a Eschyle. 3. Henry George Liddell. The Presocratic Philosophers (http:/ / books. Cornell University Press.S. 736–740 [15] Aetios. google. Oratio 36. [7] Richard D.Schofield (2003). co. Physics. Robert Scott. de/ Greeks/ SchoolAthens2. [5] Hippolytus. Ballantine Books. I 3. 5) [20] Simplicius.. plus a copy of the Greek original is shown) Martin Heidegger Basic concepts (http:/ / books. p236 [9] C. PUF Pariw. 13): "Ἀναξίμανδρος [. Evelyn White.Anaximander 227 Works According to the Suda:[56] • • • • On Nature (Περὶ φύσεως / Perì phúseôs) Around the Earth (Γῆς περίοδος / Gễs períodos) On Fixed Bodies (Περὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν / Perì tỗn aplanỗn) The Sphere (Σφαῖρα / Sphaĩra) Footnotes [1] Themistius. com/ ?id=ogUR3V9wbbIC& pg). Carl (1985) Cosmos. 3). Vernart (1982) Les origins de la pensee grecque. Transl. Vernart (1982) The origins of the Greek thought. 5) [6] In his Chronicles. & f=false) Indiana University Press. com/ ?id=kFpd86J8PLsC& pg).J. 532 . Refutation of All Heresies (I. p 235 [12] J. v. it could be a representation of the philosopher.. DK 12 A 14. Mosse (1984) La Grece archaique d'Homere a Eschyle. . Cleveland and New York. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. tufts. [21] (this source is given as a reference due to the provision of three versions of translation (Heidegger. 0057:entry=a)pei/ rwn2). ἀλλά τι ἄλλο παρὰ ταῦτα· οὗτος δὲ οὐκ ἀλλοιουμένου τοῦ στοιχείου τὴν γένεσιν ποιεῖ. Metaphysics.

3. Counterfeit Money (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. 15. gods were born. [29] Carlo Rovelli. 13 [28] "A column of stone". 3. introduction (p. like that of the Sun".] [The eclipse] is when the mouth from which comes the fire heat is closed. 2002). 1962). 8). "Explaining the Cosmos: The Ionian Tradition of Scientific Philosophy" (Princeton. and not the effect of the satellite's movement. shtml) [52] Bertrand Russell. [46] Evolution and Paleontology in the Ancient World (http:/ / www. or "similar to a pillar-shaped stone"." "For Anaximander. Anaximander thought the latter were the cause. com/ viewArticle. gather. pp. 25): "Anaximandri autem opinio est nativos esse deos longis intervallis orientis occidentisque. 5-9 [36] Hippolytus. 20-28): 228 "[The Sun] is a circle twenty-eight times as big as the Earth. 1.. Commentary on Aristotle's Physics. (I. Anaximandre. 6) [34] Most of Anaximander's model of the Universe comes from pseudo-Plutarch (II. 2006). NJ: Princeton University Press. pg 186. [31] Karl Popper. p. com/ cicero/ divinatione1. i. for when it happens to be enclosed in a thick cloud. thelatinlibrary. [30] Daniel W. De Die Natali. 28. [49] As established by Marcel Conche. feeding like sharks." in John Sallis (ed. this list is incomplete since the Suda ends it with ἄλλα τινά. 1992). edu/ history/ ancient. 3. 66–7.. 14. Naturales quaestiones (II. Derrida. creates the light. [54] Martin Heidegger. Fragments et témoignages.] [The Moon] is a circle nineteen times as big as the whole earth. 7 [45] Plutarch also mentions Anaximander's theory that humans were born inside fish. pp. [50] These accomplishments are often attributed to him. 11). on which appears a mouth in certain places and through which it exposes its fire.. On the Heavens.] the Sun is equal to the Earth. "Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge" (New York: Routledge. Preparation for the Gospel (X. 18). 10. 1998). Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (1873) § 4. I. II. 1946).. they were thrown ashore to live on dry land. 1.: Regnery Gateway. as through the hole on a flute. 12. 1). Hippolytus reports that the circle of the Sun is twenty-seven times bigger than the Moon. 7. D. [53] Friedrich Nietzsche. Deconstruction and Philosophy (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. with the outline similar to that of a fire-filled chariot wheel. the rupture produces the sound. Furthermore. notably by Diogenes Laertius (II. Jacques Derrida. Graham. html). no one can tell because there is no punctuation sign in Ancient Greek. "Geschlecht II: Heidegger's Hand. 2011). [41] Pseudo-Plutarch (III. ii. [55] Cf. 1121. 2) and Aetius. because of the darkness of the cloud. 181–2. 1987). eosque innumerabiles esse mundos. 7. [26] Pseudo-Plutarch. [. Doctrines of the philosophers. Again. . A History of Western Philosophy and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (New York: Simon and Schuster. Aetius reports in De Fide (III. [35] Simplicius. [51] Da Divinatione (in Latin) (http:/ / www. Berkeley [47] http:/ / www. 1968.Anaximander [25] Friedrich Nietzsche. Off the Beaten Track (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.C. IV. 1) and by the Roman historian Eusebius of Caesarea. action?articleId=281474976719745 [48] According to John Mansley Robinson. [. [33] Aetius. pseudo-Plutarch (III. [. but the time is long between their birth and their death.." [40] According to Seneca. 159. 7 [27] Aristotle. II. The list could refer to book titles or simply their topics. all filled with fire. Refutation I. "The First Scientist.. An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy. Anaximander and his Legacy" (Yardley: Westholme. then by its subtlety and lightness. n. 10). berkeley. 6 [37] Notably pseudo-Plutarch (III. De Fide (II.. Margins of Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 3): "Anaximander claims that all this is done by the wind. ucmp. 1982). and the worlds are countless. and that when they could defend themselves. Given Time: I. [43] Pseudo-Plutarch (V. 16) [42] It is then very likely that by observing the moon and the tides. [38] On the Nature of the Gods (I. [56] Themistius and Simplicius also mention some work "on nature". 43-47). Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (Washington. Derrida.). 19) [44] Censorinus. Houghton and Mifflin. thus implying "other works". and the scattering. [32] In Refutation. but the circle on which it breathes and on which it's born is twenty-seven times as big as the whole earth." [39] Pseudo-Plutarch (III.

uchicago. Reginald E. H.perseus.adelaide.adelaide. V. 18) Simplicius: Comments on Aristotle's Physics (24.0125) Hippolytus: Refutation of All Heresies (I. Marcel (1991) (in French). 10.edu.au/e/ euripides/suppliants/) Eusebius of Caesarea: Preparation for the Gospel (X. Early Greek Philosophy (http://classicpersuasion.htm) (3rd ed. Anaximander in Context: New Studies in the Origins of Greek Philosophy. New York: Thomas Y. Trans.stoa.edu. II. 3) Translated by E.uchicago. anything not otherwise attributed should be in Conche.7. L.0138:toc) Pseudo-Plutarch: The Doctrines of the Philosophers (I. 5-9) Strabo: Geography (I. Gerard Naddaf (2003).edu. John (1920). Wikisource. 109) See original text in Perseus project (http://www. Joachim (http://etext.edu/Thayer/E/ Roman/Texts/Strabo/home. Jones (http://penelope. Wikisource. Anaximander's Book: PAAAS. 25) Diogenes Laërtius. V) Agathemerus: A Sketch of Geography in Epitome (I. 5) Translated by Roberts and Donaldson (http://www. translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925). Life of Anaximander. (III. 5. 1921. 11) Translated by E. Stocks (http://etext. 7.tufts. vol. Dirk L.au/a/aristotle/ meteorology/) Aristotle: On Generation and Corruption (II. 17) Aëtius: De Fide (I-III. 1) Books 1‑7.adelaide. I. Euripides: The Suppliants (532) Translated by E. 1121. 13-25. 5) Translated by H. au/a/aristotle/corruption/) Aristotle: On the Heavens (II. London: Routledge. (1964). 15‑17 translated by H.library. 1.org/pw/burnet/index. • Furley.adelaide. 112) Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods (I. ISBN 2-13-043785-0. ISBN 0-7914-5538-6.htm#Praeparatio_Evangelica_(The_Preparation_of_the_Gospel)) Heidel. Crowell. L.au/a/aristotle/ heavens/) Aristotle.).Anaximander 229 References Primary sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aelian: Various History (III. 239–288.edu/cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.edu/Thayer/L/ Roman/Texts/Censorinus/text*. n. 1) Aristotle: Meteorology (II.library. org/fathers/index. 20-28. Webster (http://etext.perseus.tufts.  Physics.edu/ cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.htm#TopOfPage) Pliny the Elder: Natural History (II. David J. Albany: State University of New York Press. vol. • Burnet. 317) The Suda Search for Anaximander online (http://www. 14. 204 b 33-34) Censorinus: De Die Natali (IV.library. Coleridge (http://etext. Allen (1970). Charles Duke Yonge. 3. 13) Translated by J. 50. 2-16. Herodotus: Histories (II. The Philosopher's of Greece.tertullian. W.ccel..library. Gifford (http://www. Studies in Presocratic Philosophy. W.A.org/ fathers2/ANF-05/anf05-06.org/sol/) Secondary sources • Brumbaugh. 19) Seneca the Younger: Natural Questions (II. 7) See original text at LacusCurtius (http://penelope.02.html) Themistius: Oratio (36. OCLC 79496039. • Couprie. Robert S. 8) See original text in Perseus project (http://www. pp. . The default source.html) Cicero (1853) [original: 44 BC]. London: Black. Robert Hahn. Anaximandre: Fragments et témoignages. 56. III.edu.  On divination. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. (I..H. P.01. • Conche.

ed.wolfram. Chicago: Regnery. M. Anaximander of Miletus (610-ca.utm. Anaximander and the Origins of Greek Cosmology. Raven. Hugh.. John Mansley (1968). • Heidegger. ISBN 978-1-59416-131-5. Friedrich (1962).nl/Anaximander-bibliography. 3. ISBN 0-89526-944-9.htm) • Extensive bibliography by Dirk Couprie (http://www. New York: Macmillan.edu/research/iep/a/anaximan. • Ross. (1966). New York: Columbia University Press. c.Anaximandre: Fragments (http://philoctetes. Bertrand (1945) [1946]. • Nietzsche. (1983). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Anaximander and his Legacy. Eric W. Off the Beaten Track. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: Simon and Schuster.). "Anaximander". Yardley: Westholme. • Wheelwright. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. London: Routledge. • Vernant. ISBN 0-7914-1670-4.). The Presocratic Philosophers (2nd ed. • Kahn. (1960). • Kirk. (1962). Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-8014-9293-9. • Robinson. ISBN 0-521-80114-1. Carlo (2011). 1. . Martin (2002). Paul (1962).fr/unianaximandre. • Rovelli. Philip.com/biography/ Anaximander.htm) ((Grk icon)) (French) (English) • The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy . The Presocratics. Cambridge University Press. (1911). ISBN 0-671-20158-1. The "Apeiron" of Anaximander. Geoffrey S.free. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Injustice and Restitution: The Ordinance of Time.. W.R.dirkcouprie. London: Athlone Press. ISBN 0-395-05316-1. Jean-Pierre (1982). • Seligman. Charles H. Attribution • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. Cosmology in Antiquity.Anaximander • Guthrie. Stephen David (1993). Philosophy in the tragic age of the Greeks. A History of Greek Philosophy. 546 BC) (http://scienceworld. • Sandywell.htm) • Weisstein. • Russell. An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy. 600-450 BC. ed. John E.Anaximander (http://www. • Wright. The Origins of Greek Thought.C. Presocratic Reflexivity: The Construction of Philosophical Discourse. History of Western philosophy: and its connection with political and social circumstances from the earliest times to the present day. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (1995).K. The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans. Barry (1996). 230 External links • Philoctete . The First Scientist.html) from ScienceWorld. Houghton and Mifflin. London: Routledge.

Since 1896. 1 Corinthians 13. the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. and recent excavations conducted by the Greek Ministry of Culture have brought important new facets of antiquity to light. roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta. they are among the books in the New Testament whose authorship by Paul the Apostle is generally regarded by scholars as being undisputed. systematic archaeological investigations of the Corinth Excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens have revealed large parts of the ancient city.Ancient Corinth 231 Ancient Corinth Corinth Κόρινθος ← 700 BC–200 BC → The Theban hegemony. . First Corinthians and Second Corinthians are letters written to the early Christian churches in Corinth. or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος. power-blocks in Greece in the decade up to 362 BC. Capital Languages Religion Government Historical era Founding Cypselus Dissolution Corinth Doric Greek Greek Polytheism Oligarchy Classical Antiquity 700 BC 700 BC 657–627 BC 200 BC Corinth. Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth.1 mi) northeast of the ancient ruins. The modern town of Corinth is located approximately 5 kilometres (3. First Corinthians includes one of the most famous and beloved passages in the Christian Bible. Two of the books in the New Testament.

Corinth established colonies at Corcyra and Syracuse. the settlement acted as a centre of trade[2] However.[5] The Bacchiadae (Ancient Greek: Βακχιάδαι Bakkhiadai). it seems likely that Corinth was also the site of a Bronze Age Mycenaean palace-city.5. Aristotle tells the story of Philolaus of Corinth. In a Corinthian myth related in the 2nd century AD to Pausanias. According to myth. During the Trojan War. In 747 BC (a traditional date) an aristocratic revolution ousted the Bacchiad kings. governing the city by electing annually a prytanis who held the kingly position[7] for his brief term. They both lived for the rest of their lives in Thebes. a Bacchiad who was a lawgiver at Thebes. a descendant of the god Helios (the Sun). but refused to give information to the seeker before he had a spring given him on the Acrocorinthus. While pottery dating to the Mycenaean period is negligible at the site of Corinth. By 730 BC. a period of expanding Corinthian cultural power.[3] According to Hellenic myth. were the ruling kinship group of archaic Corinth in the 8th and 7th centuries BC. abandoned Medea.[11] who had been polemarch. Acrocorinth. from 747 to 650 BC. a tightly-knit Doric clan. In 733 BC. such as Korinthos. so runs the legend." (Pausanias. a daughter of the Titan Oceanus. while other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra. The Upper Peirene spring is located within the walls of the acropolis. thus the ancient name of the city (also Ephyra). was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios. there was a settlement on the coast near Lechaion which traded across the Corinthian Gulf. Their tombs were built near one another and Philolaus' tomb points toward the Corinthian country while Diocles' faces away. He interpreted it to mean that he should take over Corinth. 2. thus it appears that the area was very sparsely inhabited in the period immediately before the Myceanaean period. one of the Hecatonchires. Corinth became a unified state.[10] In 657 BC the Bacchiadae were expelled in turn by the tyrant Cypselus. and continually occupied into the Early Bronze Age.Ancient Corinth 232 History Prehistory and founding myths Neolithic pottery suggests that the site of Corinth was occupied from at least as early as 6500BC. "The spring. Corinth emerged as a highly advanced Greek city. The exiled Bacchiadae fled. it has been suggested. the site of Corinth itself was likely not heavily occupied again until around 900BC.[8] no doubt a council (though none is specifically documented in the scant literary materials) and a polemarchos to head the army.1). the city was founded by Corinthos. Some ancient names for the place. the leader of the Argonauts. numbering perhaps a couple of hundred adult males took power from the last king.[4] Briareus. and only sparse ceramic remains in the EHIII and MH phases. Large scale public buildings/monuments were constructed at this time. there is a dramatic drop in ceramic remains during the Early Helladic II phase. between the sea and the sun: his verdict was that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth. when the royal clan of Bacchiadae. He became the lover of Diocles. the winner of the Olympic games. to Helios.[1] when. Telestes. they say was the gift of Asopus to Sisyphus. the Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon. Corinth under the Bacchiadae Corinth had been a backwater in 8th-century Greece. which is behind the temple. that Zeus had ravished Aegina. During Bacchiad rule. Sisyphus was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth. like Mycenae. "Pelasgian" language. There is evidence that the city was destroyed around 2000 BC. The latter knew.[6] They dispensed with kingship and ruled as a group.[9] Cypselus obtained an oracle from Delphi. when it is believed the Dorians settled there. . Tiryns or Pylos. derive from a pre-Greek. the daughter of Asopus. It was also in Corinth that Jason. Thus Greeks of the Classical age accounted for archaic cult of the sun-titan in the highest part of the site.

Accordingly. Periander also founded Apollonia in Illyria (modern day Fier. and when the men had composed themselves and returned to kill it. He also expelled his other enemies. . but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece. Corinth had been involved in wars with Argos and Corcyra. 657–627 BC) and his son Periander (r. Aristotle reports that "Cypselus of Corinth had made a vow that if he became master of the city.Ancient Corinth 233 Corinth under the tyrants Cypselus or Kypselos (Greek: Κύψελος) was the first tyrant of Corinth. during the reign of Pharaoh Psammetichus I of the 26th dynasty. worked with mythological narratives and adorned with gold. 627–585 BC). Albania) and Potidaea (in Chalcidice). they could not find it. he would offer to Zeus the entire property of the Corinthians. He also increased trade with the colonies in Italy and Sicily. Cypselus. From 658–628 BC. Ambracia (modern day town of Lefkas). was a votive offering at Olympia. became tyrant and expelled the Bacchiadae. Cypselus was polemarch.) The ivory chest of Cypselus. He was a popular ruler. the son of Eëtion and a disfigured woman named Labda. the archon in charge of the military. who was a member of the Bacchiad kin usurped the power in archaic matriarchal right of his mother. Greece. and he used his influence with the soldiery to expel the king. Naucratis was founded to accommodate the increasing trade volume between the Greek world and pharaonic Egypt. to account for the name Cypselus (cypsele. led the way. Corinth was also one of the nine Greek sponsor-cities to found the colony of Naukratis in Ancient Egypt. thus maintaining stability with little risk to their own personal security. Cypselus removed the Bacchiad aristocracy from power and ruled for three decades. the city sent forth colonists to found new settlements: Epidamnus (modern day Durrës. he did not need a bodyguard and died a natural death. "chest") accounted how Labda then hid the baby in a chest.[14] When Cypselus had grown up. richly Temple of Apollo. he commanded them to make a return of their possessions. However. Corinth. According to Herodotus the Bacchiadae heard two prophecies from the Delphic oracle that the son of Eëtion would overthrow their dynasty. and they planned to kill the baby once it was born. Greek city-states tended to overthrow their traditional hereditary priest-kings. and the Corinthians were unhappy with their rulers. As in Renaissance Italy. in the 7th century BC."[12] In the 7th century BC. he fulfilled the prophecy. a cult of personality naturally substituted for the divine right of the former legitimate royal house. At the time.[13] Like the signori of late medieval and Renaissance Italy. and none of them could go through with the plan. Often the tyrants upheld existing laws and customs and were highly conservative as to cult practices. Syracuse. Herodotus says that the newborn smiled at each of the men sent to kill it. Ancient Corinth. An etiological myth-element. (Compare the infancy of Perseus. He built temples to Apollo and Poseidon in 650 BC. the richest archaic polis. Albania). where Pausanias gave it a minute description in his 2nd century AD travel guide. and unlike many later tyrants. when Corinth was ruled by the tyrants Cypselus (r. Corcyra (modern day town of Corfu) and Anactorium. With increased wealth and more complicated trade relations and social structures. around 657 BC. the tyrants usually seized power at the head of some popular support.

Corinth mediated between Athens and Thebes. He presents himself to Periander and the sailors are found to be guilty. who succeeded Periander. the inhabitants started to use silver coins called 'colts' or 'foals.[17] 234 Periander (Περίανδρος) (r. His son was finally convinced to come home on the condition that Periander go to Corcyra while he goes back to Corinth.[20] . This brought Corinth's dictatorship to come to an end. Corinth became the ally of Sparta. was assassinated. This ship design would become widespread in the navies of the Mediterranean area until the late Roman period. Around 500 BC.[19] Archaic Corinth after the Tyrants In 581 BC. was the golden age of the city of Corinth. and the chest of Cypselus was seen by the traveler Pausanias at Olympia in the 2nd century AD. Periander killed his wife Melissa. Syracuse.[15] The treasury Cypselus built at Delphi was apparently still standing in the time of Herodotus. but he created the Diolkos (a stone-build overland ramp) instead. ending with Periander's nephew Psammetichus. Periander brought Corcyra to order in 600 BC. His son found out and refused to talk [16] Periander later to him. The Corcyreans heard about this and killed Lycophron in order to keep Periander out of their country. Just before the beginning of the classical period. Corinth was also one of the nine Greek sponsor-cities to found the colony of Naukratis in Ancient Egypt. Periander was considered one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. The era of the Cypselids. During his reign the first Corinthian coins were struck. Periander also founded Apollonia in Illyria (modern day Fier. Corinth formed a conciliatory alliance with Sparta against Argos. named after the hellenophile Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus I (see above). the trireme was developed here.' In 550 BC. Albania). Periander's nephew. the city sent forth colonists to found new settlements: Epidamnus (modern day Durrës. He abandoned the venture due to the extreme technical difficulties he met. Corcyra (modern day town of Corfu) and Anactorium. Ambracia (modern day town of Lefkas).627–585 BC).[18] Herodotus relates that the harpist Arion was sailing home on a Corinthian vessel when the Corinthians decide to kill him and steal his money. Arion begs them to let him sing a last song and then he will kill himself. Albania) and Potidaea (in Chalcidice). Corinth took part in the first naval battle on record. He was the first to attempt to cut across the Isthmus to create a seaway to allow ship traffic between the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulf.Ancient Corinth He ruled for thirty years and was succeeded as tyrant by his son Periander in 627 BC. during the reign of Pharaoh Psammetichus I of the 26th dynasty. In 525 BC. Naucratis was founded to accommodate the increasing trade volume between the Greek world and the pharaohnic Egypt. when Corinth was ruled by the tyrants. He threw himself overboard and escaped to Taernarus on the back of a dolphin. wanted his son Lycopron to replace him as sovereign of Corinth. In 519 BC. During the 7th century BC. Periander sent his son away to Corcyra. In 570 BC. Athenians and Corinthians entreat Spartans not to harm Athens by restoring the tyrant. against the Hellenic city of Corcyra. In 581 BC the Isthmian Games established by leading families.

while in the Saronic Gulf the port of Kenchreai served the ships coming from Athens. one in the Corinthian Gulf and one in the Saronic Gulf. showing the accumulation of wealth and the luxurious lifestyle in the ancient city-state. In the Corinthian Gulf lay Lechaion. respectively. All information to and from the Peloponnese traveled through Corinth. which connected the city to its western colonies (Greek: apoikoiai) and Magna Graecia. the goddess of love. The most famous of them. Ionia. Until the mid-6th century Corinth was a major exporter of black-figure pottery to city-states around the Greek world. the Corinthians developed the trireme. against the Hellenic city of Corcyra. Mediterranean. . and the Ionic was a balance between those two following the philosophy of harmony of Ionians like the Athenians. This ship design would become widespread in the navies of the Mediterranean area until the late Roman period. During this era Corinthians developed the Corinthian order. Corinth was the first place in Hellas to build triremes. It was once believed that Corinth housed a great temple on its ancient acropolis dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite. Koppa symbolised the archaic writing of the city (Ϙόρινθος). Corinth rivaled Athens and Thebes in wealth. was said to have extraordinary abilities and charged tremendous fees for her favours.[22] Corinth was also the host of the Isthmian Games. Corinth took part in the first naval battle on record. this was likely not accurate as the story rests on a misunderstanding. Corinthian stater. Athenian potters later came to dominate the market. while the Doric order was analogous to the strict and simplistic lifestyle of the older Dorians like the Spartans.Obverse:Pegasus with Koppa ( ) (or Qoppa) beneath. because many travelers came through delivering messages and goods. yet excavations of the temples of Aphrodite in Corinth reveal them to be small in stature. Both ports had docks for the large war fleet of the city-state. the third order of the classical architecture after the Ionic and the Doric. [23] due to which translates as "Not everyone is able to go to Corinth".[18] According to Thucydides. Reverse:Athena wearing Corinthian helmet. The Corinthian order was the most complicated of the three. based on the Isthmian traffic and trade. Lais. The Corinthians were also known for their wealth because of its location on the isthmus. serving the trade routes of the western and eastern Corinthian order columns in ancient Corinth. The city had two main ports.Ancient Corinth Just before the beginning of the classical period.[21] 235 Classical Corinth In classical times. the expensive living standards that prevailed in the city. Cyprus and the rest of the Levant. Statues in the Archaeological Museum of Ancient Corinth. Horace is quoted as saying: "non licet omnibus adire Corinthum". The city was renowned for the temple prostitutes of Aphrodite.[22] Despite the mythical story from Strabo of there being more than one thousand temple prostitutes employed at the Temple of Aphrodite. who served the wealthy merchants and the powerful officials living in or traveling in and out of the city.

[27] In 433 BC. Corinth mediated between Syracuse and Gala. sending 400 soldiers to try to defend the Thermopylae[24] and offering forty war ships in the sea Battle of Salamis under the admiral Adeimantos and 5.[28] The Corinthian war against the Corcycraeans was the first recorded naval war in history. During the years 481–480 BC. Demosthenes noted that the Athenians of yesteryear had had good reason to bear malice against the Corinthians and the Thebans for their conduct during the last part of the [31] but they bore no malice whatever.[32] Peloponnesian War. one of the factors leading to the Peloponnesian War was the dispute between Corinth and Athens over the Corinthian colony of Corcyra (Corfu). frequently an enemy of Athens and an ally of Sparta in the Peloponnesian League. Athens allied with Corcyra against Corinth. Corinth was defeated by Athens at Megara.[25] Herodotus. the Conference at Isthmus of Corinth (previous conference had been at Sparta) established the Hellenic League. went upon their daily tasks. a Corinithinan helmsman had the idea to move the market down to the sea which would allow the commanders to have a full meal. and Athens against Sparta in the Corinthian War.000 hoplites (wearing their characteristic Corinthian helmets) in the following Battle of Plataea but afterwards was Street in ancient Corinth. the Syracusan troops claimed victory and the Athenians retreated. The Peloponnesian War In 435 BC. Three Syracusan generals went to Corinth and Lacedaemon to acquire allies for the Sicilian War. [29] With the Syracusan troops in Athens. Pausanias took them to Corinth where they were put to death. The city was a major participant in the Persian Wars. To convince his countrymen to behave objectively. expecting the Syracusan troops to be busy at the market.[30] In 404 BC. Ariston. Boeotia. . which allied under the Spartans in the Greco-Persian Wars against Persia. Corinth joined Argos. The Greeks demanded the surrender of Thebans who had aided the Persians.[26] In 458 BC. A messenger was sent to the market and the plan was carried through. This refusal caused bad relations with Corinth. who was believed to dislike the Corinthians. Corinth and Corcyra went to war over Epidamnus. In the end. The Athenians. Sparta refused to destroy Athens. Suddenly the Athenians realized the Syracrusan troops were waging battle upon them so they scrambled to meet the Syracusans at the sea for battle. unprepared for battle. mentions that Corinthians were considered the second best fighters to the Athenians. 236 Corinthian order. In 431 BC. which probably stemmed from the traditional trade rivalry between the two cities. and then attack the Athenians while they were least expecting it.Ancient Corinth In 491 BC.

237 Hellenistic period By 332 BC. He notes the importance of a citizen army as opposed to one made up of mercenary soldiers. From there the Syracusans. which were former allies with Sparta in the Peloponnesian League. however. This weakness allowed for the subsequent invasion of the Macedonians of the north and the forging of the Corinthian League by Philip II of Macedon against the Persian Empire.[37] The Corinthian heralds opened their gates to the defeated Athenian army and refused to betray them to the victorious Lacedaemonian army.[33] Isocrates wrote of the formation of the anti-Spartan alliance made in 395 BC in Corinth. After a convincing speech from Alcibiades. Corinth and as part of the Peloponnesian League joins Sparta in an attempt to defeat Thebes and eventually take over Athens. the city was captured from the Antigonids by Ptolemy I. Demosthenes recounted information he heard from elders who we can assume had been alive during the event in question. before the Achaean League attacked and successfully took the city in 249BC. Greece was contested ground. including Corinth.[34] Xenophon chronicled a detailed description of the events of the Corinthian war which started in 395 BC.[36] 379-323BC In 379 BC. The city was recaptured by Demetrius in 304BC. which further weakened the city-states of the Peloponnese. in a war with Persia. who had been engaged in battle. citizens fought alongside mercenaries and beat the Lacedaemonians. the Athenian Assembly ordered Chares to occupy the Athenian ally and install a democratic government. Alexander the Great was in control of Greece. Aristotle used the example of the Argives who were forced to confront the Spartans in the battle at the Long Walls of Corinth in 392 BC.[38] Demosthenes acknowledged that Philip’s military force exceeded that of Athens and thus they must develop a tactical advantage. never quite had autonomy. In 308BC. rather than without you to enjoy a safety that involved no danger. and Corinth was occasionally the battleground for contests between the Antigonids. The Corinthians "voted at once to aid them [the Syracusans] heart and soul themselves".Ancient Corinth The Corinthian War After the end of the Peloponnesian War. the Second congress of Corinth established Common Peace.[40] Corinth remained in Antigonid control for half a century. like many other Greece cities. had grown dissatisfied with the hegemony of Sparta and started the Corinthian War against it. Philip II created the League of Corinth to unite the Greeks. the Lacedaemonians agreed to send troops to aid the Sicilians. Under the successors of Alexander the Great. Corinth and Thebes. Phlius and Epidaurus allied with Boeotia backing Corinth up in the swar. During the Hellenistic period. However. in the spring. Regarding Corinthian exiles.[39] In 338 BC. Corinth. In 366 BC. The city decided not to harbor the defeated Athenian troops. Athens had fought the Lacedaemonians in a great battle near Corinth. after having defeated Athens and its allies. Demosthenes notes that they “chose along with you.[35] As an example of facing danger with knowledge. as hegemon. In this particular force. This failed when Corinth. In 337 BC. before being permanently brought into the Achaean League in 243BC.” These actions saved the Athenian troops and their allies. based in Macedonia. Corinthians and Alcibiades convinced the Lacedaemonians to join their forces. Philip was named hegemon of the League. which he claimed was part of his plan to free Greece from the Antigonids. to suffer whatever might betide. Corinth did not remain in Achaean control for long. but instead sent heralds to the Lacedaemonians.[41] . citing a previous mercenary force in Corinth. as it was retaken by Antigonus II Gonatas in about 244BC. They also sent a group to Lacedaemon where they found Alcibiades. and other Hellenistic powers.

Paul resided here for eighteen months (see Acts  18:1–18). It had a large mixed population of Romans. Gallio. was proconsul. Greeks. An apocryphal Third Epistle to the Corinthians was rejected from the canon. the Romans under Lucius Mummius besieged Corinth. many as four epistles to the church at Corinth. and after victories over league forces in the summer of that year.[43] Based on clues within the Corinthian epistles themselves some scholars have concluded that Paul wrote possibly as [44] Only two of them. The first Epistle occasionally reflects the conflict between the thriving Christian church and the surrounding community. . Julius Caesar refounded the city as Colonia laus Iulia Corinthiensis in 44 BC shortly before his assassination. When the apostle Paul first visited the city (AD 51 or 52). for which he was given the cognomen Achaicus as the conqueror of the Achaean League. Under the Romans. After writing the second epistle he stayed in Corinth for about three months[Acts 20:3] in the late winter.[42] While there is archeological evidence of some minimal habitation in the years afterwards. Biblical Corinth Corinth is mentioned many times in the New Testament. and Jews. and there wrote his Epistle to Ancient Roman statue in the Archaeological Museum of Ancient Corinth. Some scholars believe that Paul visited Corinth for a brief intermediate "painful visit" (see 2Corinthians  2:1). Corinth was rebuilt as a major city in Southern Greece or Achaia. are contained within the Canon of Holy Scripture. Rome declared war on the Achaean League. between the first and second epistles. the brother of Seneca. in an action known as the battle. when he entered the city Mummius put all the men to the sword and sold the women and children into slavery before he torched the city. Here he first became acquainted with Priscilla and Aquila with whom he worked and travelled. The ancient Roman fountain. the First Epistle to the Corinthians (written from Ephesus) and the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (written from Macedonia).Ancient Corinth 238 Roman era In 146BC. largely in connection with Paul the apostle's mission there. the Romans. the First and Second Epistles to the Corinthians. Paul wrote at least two epistles to the Christian community.

After the collapse of the resistance and for the years to come. The Ottomans renamed it Gördes. In 1208 Leo Sgouros killed himself by riding off the top of Acrocorinth. Principality of Achaea In 1204. Geoffrey I de Villehardouin. who plundered it in 1147. the wealth of the city. the Turks of the Ottoman Empire conquered the city and its mighty castle. with the title of Prince of Achaea. governed by the Villehardouins from their capital in Andravida of Elis. five years after the final Fall of Constantinople. attracted the attention of the Sicilian Normans under Roger of Sicily. In November 856. an earthquake in Corinth killed an estimated 45. restored the Hexamilion wall across the Isthmus of Corinth in 1415. During this era Corinth was the seat of the Thema of Hellas (representing modern day Greece). From 1205–1208 the Corinthians resisted the Frankish domination from their stronghold in Acrocorinth. under the command of the Greek general Leo Sgouros. Theodore II Palaiologos. in 395–396. protecting the city and the Peloponnesean peninsula from the barbarian invasions of the north. but from 1208 to 1210 the Corinthians continued to resist the enemy forces.000. was granted Corinth after the sack of Constantinople. During the reign of Emperor Justinian I. who was Despot of Morea. The walled gates of Acrocorinth. In the 12th century (during the reign of the Comnenus dynasty). Corinth was the last significant town of Achaea on its northern borders with another crusader state. During Alaric's invasion of Greece. The Byzantines reconquered the city and it became part of the despotate of Morea in 1388. a large stone wall was erected from the Saronic to the Corinthian gulf. The Venetians captured it in 1687 and it fell under the control of the Republic of Venice according to Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Ottoman Rule In 1458. Corinth was one of the cities he despoiled. It was the capital of Mora Province between 1715–1731 and the Sanjak centre between 1731–1821. It became the Sanjak centre of Morea in Rumelia Province. Ottomans retook the city in 1715. Corinth became a full part of the Principality of Achaea. nephew of the homonymous famous historian of the Fourth Crusade. The stone wall was about six miles (10 km) long and was named Examilion (meaning six miles: exi=six in Greek). generated from the silk trade to the Latin states of western Europe. The Byzantines captured it again in 1403. selling many of its citizens into slavery. The French knight William of Champlitte led the crusader forces. The Ottomans captured it in 1395.Ancient Corinth 239 Byzantine era The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 375 and again in 551. the Duchy of Athens. .

was further heavily fortified during the Byzantine Empire as it became the seat of the strategos of the Thema of Hellas. and was the main trading station for Italy and Sicily. Modern Corinth In 1858. Lechaeum was the principal port. the village surrounding the ruins of Ancient Corinth was totally destroyed by an earthquake. the site was considered among the candidates for the new capital city of the recently founded Kingdom of Greece. where there were many Corinthian colonies. The highest peak on the site was home to a temple to Aphrodite which was Christianized as a church. is a monolithic rock that was continuously occupied from archaic times to the early 19th century. the Venetians and the Ottoman Turks. while Cenchreae served the commerce with the Eastern Mediterranean.9 mi) NE of the ancient city. connected to the city with a set of long walls of about 2 miles (3. Later it was a fortress of the Franks after the Fourth Crusade. . 1821–1830 the city was destroyed by the Turkish forces. Acrocorinth's fortress was used as the last line of defense in southern Greece because it commanded the isthmus of Corinth. Acrocorinth is one of the most important medieval castle sites of Greece. The city was officially liberated in 1832 after the Treaty of London. and then became a mosque. With its secure water supply. the acropolis Acrocorinthis. Three circuit walls formed the man-made defense of the hill.2 km) length. due to its historical significance and strategic position. "Corinth with Acrocorinth" by Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann. leading to the establishment of New Corinth 3 km (1. repelling foes from entry into the Peloponnesian peninsula. Nafplio was chosen initially then Athens. Currently. The American School began excavations on it in 1929. Ships could be transported between the two harbours by means of the diolkos constructed by the tyrant Periander. The city's archaic acropolis. already an easily defensible position due to its geomorphology. 1847 The ancient city and its environs Acrocorinth.Ancient Corinth 240 Independence During the Greek War of Independence. The walled gates of Acrocorinth. The two ports: Lechaeum and Cenchreae Corinth had two harbours: Lechaeum on the Corinthian Gulf and Cenchreae on the Saronic Gulf. the acropolis of ancient Corinth. In 1833.

American Journal of Aarchaeology 24(1). Although such corrupted stories do not tell us exact history. The writing that is available is either not interested in discussing the economy at all or is irritatingly vague. Dunbabin. Édouard Will.4. Subsequently. for reasons of cult. Diogenes of Sinope. they can provide insight into the culture and concerns of former times. Periander (7th century BC). 'Corinth in Prehistoric Times'. 1920. Furthermore.) See: rex sacrorum. poet. Euphranor (4th century BC). in order to piece together the history of an ancient culture such as that found in Corinth. etc. To what extent this early "history" is genealogical myth is debated. Description of Greece ii. Pausanias. "Cypselus the Bacchiad" Classical Philology 67. Eumelus (8th century BC). who were themselves Bacchiads. Notable people Ancient • • • • • • • Archias (8th century BC). philosopher. Thucydides.6. listed as one of the Seven Sages of Greece. T. It is thought that they would pad out a story to make it more enjoyable if the true history was not interesting enough. 10–30) p. orator and logographer. Medieval • William of Moerbeke (13th century AD). They can also compare evidence to cultural phenomena in the present in order to make more exact interpretations. Many ancient historians were also entertainers and were concerned with their number of viewers and listeners. different parts of those stories were changed. is establishing the border between myth and historical events. While archaeological evidence is highly useful and informative. C. 2003. 4th century BC. as a king was normally an essential intercessor with the gods. References [1] Lavezzi. Much of the archaeological evidence can be interpreted using cross cultural comparison to sites with similar evidence and much more detailed histories. 10f. sculptor and painter. [6] Telestes was murdered by Arieus and Perantas.Ancient Corinth 241 Problems in the History A problem faced by historians in the study of Corinth is the lack of written material regarding social life and economy. the entire city was rebuilt. 'The Early History of Corinth. [7] Perhaps the designation "king" was retained. one of the world's best known cynics. 1948. Dinarchus (4th century BC). first translator of Aristotle's works into Latin. (Smith. natural disasters such as earthquakes and destruction by the Romans under Lucius Mummius in 146 BC almost completely obliterated the Corinth of the Ancient Greeks. The current remains of Corinth may reflect a city that was much different from what the Ancient Greeks – or even the Roman invaders – would have seen. . Korinthiaka: recherches sur l'histoire et la civilisation de Corinth des origines aux guerres médiques (Paris: Boccard) 1955. it is also speculative and subject to error in interpretation. (Stewart Irvin Oost. Xeniades (5th century BC). Historians are able to use this evidence in combination with the primary sources they have such as Herodotus. As stories were transmitted. Pausanias 2. possibly giving rise to a story that is totally different from the original account. J.1 (January 1972.6 and 4.' The Journal of Hellenic Studies 68. 'Corinth before the Myceneans.' Corinth 20. founder of Syracuse. W. vol. 59-69. Another problem historians face in the study of not only Corinth but the Ancient World in general. 450). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. I p. Historians have turned to archaeological evidence in order to answer questions about these institutions of Corinthian culture.7. 1. C. 7. [8] Diodorus Siculus. 63-74 [2] [3] [4] [5] Blegen. 1-13.4. pp. Xenophon.9. J.

and James Arthur Walther (1976). [15] Histories. 1346a.edu. A. Herodotus. Books 3–7.upenn. Wealthy Corinth. jsp?obj_id=15661) • Excavations at Ancient Corinth (http://www.C. Thucydides. Book 5. Thucydides. Salmon.html) . Herodotus. Today's Dictionary of the Bible. section 68 Hellenica. [12] Economics. Book 6:88 On the Peace. Volume 1. New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. London: Routledge (pg 384-385). [14] Pausanias. Bryant. (1982). Speech 68. London: Routledge (pg 121-122). 5. married outside the clan. 1274a [10] Histories. [24] Histories. I Corinthians: A New Translation (Anchor Bible). 2000.92F [16] Histories.96 Thucydides. Jon R. The Greek World After Alexander 323-30BC. Book 7:202 [25] Histories. Book 5. B. Book 3.52 Book 20.culture. Doubleday. Book 1:45 Thucydides. Xenophon Nicomachean Ethics. Shipley. 120. G. Book 5.52 [17] Histories. 76. Herodotus [26] Histories. [23] Stone. Book 9:105 [27] The Peloponnesian War.53 Philippic I. Herodotus.gr/index. Book 3. Herodotus. William F. London: Routledge (pg 137-138).53 [18] Thucydides 1:13 [19] Herodotus Histories Book 1. Herodotus. G. Aristotle [13] J. pg. 2000. (2004). Isocrates.ascsa.24 Shipley. NY. A History of the City to 338 B.93 [21] Thucydides. T. 242 External links • Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Fortress of Acrocorinth (http://odysseus. p. (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 1984.7.24 [20] Histories. ISBN 0-415-96909-3. Book 7:39 Called the Decelan War On The Crown Book 18. 2000. p. Book 1:13 [22] Jerome Murphy-O'Connor.18.92 E [11] His mother had been of the Bacchiadae. Herodotus.Ancient Corinth [9] Politics.php/excavationcorinth/) (American School of Classical Studies at Athens) • Online database of the Corinth Excavations (http://ascsa. Bethany House Publishers. G. The Greek World After Alexander 323-30BC. Book 6:73 Thucydides.8 Against Leptines Book 20.gr/h/3/eh355. Book 4.edu/hist.net/research?q=collection:Corinth) (American School of Classical Studies at Athens) • History timeline (http://corinth. Orr. Book 9:88. Herodotus. 733.sas. Book 1:29 [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] The Peloponnesian War. Shipley. The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations. Book 3. The Greek World After Alexander 323-30BC. Book 2. but being lame.

is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and Classical Greek culture. Oxford: Clarendon press. Paris : de Boccard. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. 1986. New York: Cornell University Press. Princeton. Amyx. archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric style of designs on pottery. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. • "Adkins. Classical Archaeology Malden: Blackwell Publishing." • "Salmon. • "Del Chiaro. The Fall of the Athenian Empire. Lesley and Roy A. 2007.B. for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture. J. a temple dedicated to Athena. Phoenician and Egyptian cultures. 1897 • Salmon. succeeded by the Orientalizing Period. 1997. BA1093. influence on the Roman Empire. Assyrian. Wealthy Corinth: A History of the City to 338 BC. which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great. which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe. Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. E. B.300 years. A History of Greece. 1955." • Alcock. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece New York: Facts on File. Mario A (ed). Oxford University Press. 1987. and Robin Osborne (ed. . • Excavation reports and articles in Hesperia (journal). or for about 1. 1987. J. • Partial text from Easton's Bible Dictionary.[1] Included in Ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece. Donald. 1984. a strong influence of Syro-Hittite. The Rise of the Greeks. "History of Greece. Corinthiaca: Studies in Honor of Darrell A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. especially philosophy. [2][3][4][5] Chronology There are no fixed or universally agreed upon dates for the beginning or the end of Classical Antiquity. • "Kagan." • "Grant." • "Hammond. • Will. located on the Acropolis in Athens. BA1600 Ancient Greece Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 1997. Recherches sur l'histoire et la civilisation de Corinthe des origines aux guerres médiques. It is typically taken to last from the 8th century BC until the 6th century AD. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages (c. Adkins. 1100 – c. Susan E. including Corinth from "the early civilizations" (6000–850) to "the splitting of the empire and Antipater's occupation of Greece" (323–321). Wealthy Corinth : a history of the city to 338 BC.Ancient Corinth 243 Further reading • Results of the American School of Classical Studies Corinth Excavations published in Corinth Volumes I to XX. 750 BC). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. The Parthenon. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Korinthiaka.s). had a powerful sophistication of the ancient Greeks." • British Admiralty charts:BA1085. 1967. Michael. 600 AD). Princeton.

the Archaic period of ancient Greece is taken in the wake of this strong Orientalizing influence during the 8th century BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC. taken to be complete with the closure of the Neoplatonic Academy by Justinian I in 529 AD. military and diplomatic history. Most of these authors were either Athenians or pro-Athenians. which among other things brought the alphabetic script to Greece. Written between the 450s and 420s BC. Cambyses II and Psamtik III. 244 Historiography The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography. • The Hellenistic period (323–146 BC) is when Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. The Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens in 510 BC. Politically. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides. 750 – c. which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than of many other cities. Demosthenes. discussing 6th-century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia. his Histories being eponymous of the entire field. Xenophon. such as annals or king lists. the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD. while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence. the scope of Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past. • the final phase of Antiquity is the period of Christianization during the later 4th to early 6th centuries. 500 – 323 BC) is characterised by a style which was considered by later observers to be exemplary (i.Ancient Greece Traditionally. Hesiod). marking the beginning of Greek literature (Homer. 500 BC) follows. 'classical')—for instance the Parthenon. • The Classical period (c. in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period at the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest. The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may thus be subdivided into the following periods:[6] • The Archaic period (c. ignoring economic and social history. displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC. before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and finally to the League of Corinth led by Macedon. Plato and Aristotle. Herodotus is widely known as the "father of history". and alludes to some 8th-century ones such as Candaules.[7] History Archaic period . hieratic poses with the dreamlike 'archaic smile'.e. Their scope is further limited by a focus on political. • Roman Greece. in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff. and pragmatic epigraphy.

[13] The subjugated population. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war. whilst every Spartan male citizen became a soldier of the Spartan Army in a permanently militarized state. This practice allowed a social revolution to occur.650 BC) was an ongoing conflict with the distinction of being the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten. In Sparta.[11][12] 245 Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period. modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Archon (chief magistrate) Draco made severe reforms to the law code in 621 BC (hence "draconian").[9] The Lelantine War (c. meaning 'illegitimate ruler'. improving the lot of the poor but firmly entrenching the aristocracy in power. who in turn desired political power. farmed and laboured for Sparta. the Messenian Wars resulted in the conquest of Messenia and enserfment of the Messenians. beginning in the latter half of the 8th century BC.710–c. Political geography of ancient Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods A growing population and shortage of land also seems to have created internal strife between the poor and the rich in many city-states.Ancient Greece In the 8th century BC. From 650 BC onwards. shown by the [10] This seems to have introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. The word derives from the non-pejorative Greek τύραννος tyrannos. though Chalcis was the nominal victor. The aristocratic regimes which generally governed the poleis were threatened by the new-found wealth of merchants. again resulting in civil strife. Athens suffered a land and agrarian crisis in the late 7th century. gave Athens some stability. These reforms.[8] Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities. thenceforth known as helots. or the beginning of the Archaic period. the aristocracies had to fight not to be overthrown and replaced by populist tyrants. A mercantile class rose in the first half of the 7th century. but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet. a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography. an act without precedent or antecedent in ancient Greece. ca. although this was applicable to both good and bad leaders alike. 750 BC. Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. where every island. but these failed to quell the conflict. introduced tension to many city-states. Even the elite were obliged to live and train as soldiers. attributed to the shadowy Lycurgus of Sparta. Eventually the moderate reforms of Solon (594 BC). were probably complete by 650 BC. From about the 9th century BC written records begin to appear. valley and plain is cut off from its neighbours by the sea or mountain ranges. It was fought between the important poleis (city-states) of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. . this equality between rich and poor served to defuse the social conflict.

Cleisthenes responded by proposing to his fellow citizens that Athens undergo a revolution: that all citizens share in political power. After suppressing the Ionian Revolt. Afterwards. in 510 BC. a rebellion of the Greek cities of Ionia. although they often retained religious and commercial links with them. 246 Classical Greece 5th century Athens and Sparta would soon have to become allies in the face of the largest external threat ancient Greece would see until the Roman conquest. depicting the head of Athena on the obverse and her owl on the reverse—5th century BC . culturally and linguistically. which indicates a large increase in the average income of the population. So enthusiastically did the Athenians take to this idea that. There was a large improvement in the living standards of the population. The emigration effectively ceased in the 6th century by which time the Greek world had. Early Athenian coin. at the instigation of the Athenian aristocrat Cleisthenes. His invasion in 490 BC was ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon under Miltiades the Younger. Rapidly increasing population in the 8th and 7th centuries had resulted in emigration of many Greeks to form colonies in Magna Graecia (Southern Italy and The Greek world in the mid 6th century BC. Sicily). Darius I of Persia. Athens fell under the tyranny of Peisistratos and then his sons Hippias and Hipparchos. Each of them had brought the surrounding rural areas and smaller towns under their control. advent of the democracy cured many of the ills of Athens and led to a 'golden age' for the Athenians. and Thebes. In this period. Some studies estimate that the average size of the Greek household. the Spartan king Cleomenes I helped the Athenians overthrow the tyranny. they were easily able to repel a Spartan-led three-pronged invasion aimed at restoring Isagoras. However. and Athens and Corinth had become major maritime and mercantile powers as well. regardless of status: that Athens become a "democracy".Ancient Greece By the 6th century BC several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens. decided to subjugate Greece. Sparta and Athens promptly turned on each other. In the second half of the 6th century. Greek colonies were not politically controlled by their founding cities. Asia Minor and further afield. at which point Cleomenes I installed Isagoras as a pro-Spartan archon. in the period from 800 BC to 300 BC. having overthrown Isagoras and implemented Cleisthenes's [14] The reforms. increased five times. huge economic development occurred in Greece and also her overseas colonies which experienced a growth in commerce and manufacturing. become much larger than the area of present-day Greece. Sparta. Corinth. King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire. Eager to prevent Athens from becoming a Spartan puppet.

kylix by the Triptolemos Painter. whereupon other city-states defected from the Spartan cause. at the Battle of Mantinea in 362 BC. A demographic crisis meant Sparta was overstretched. The Greco-Persian Wars continued until 449 BC. her fleet.Ancient Greece Xerxes I of Persia. during which time the Macedon. 4th century Greece thus entered the 4th century under a Spartan hegemony. The dominant position of the maritime Athenian 'Empire' threatened Sparta and the Peloponnesian League of mainland Greek cities. Sparta declined to a second-rank power. this led to conflict. the Spartans suffered a decisive defeat at Leuctra in 371 BC. An estimated one-third of Athenians [15] died. resulting in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Another war of stalemates. Argos. Forced to attack. The Spartan hegemony lasted another 16 years. attempted his own invasion 10 years later. Louvre) . and by 395 BC Athens. Athens suffered a number of setbacks. it ended with the status quo restored. immediately before the Peloponnesian War in Athenian ability to wage war. the crippled Athenian fleet was decisively defeated by the Spartans under the command of Lysander at Aegospotami. The decisive 431 BC moment came in 405 BC when Sparta cut off the grain supply to Athens from the Hellespont. and much of her 247 Attic red-figure pottery. Inevitably. but despite his larger army he suffered heavy casualties after the famous rearguard action at Thermopylae and victories for the allied Greeks at the Battles of Salamis and Plataea. Thrace. resulting in the Corinthian War (395-387 BC). including Pericles. Deprived of land and its serfs. The Plague of Athens in 430 BC followed by a disastrous military campaign known as the Sicilian Expedition severely weakened Athens. The Thebans were thus able to march into Messenia and free the population. Thebes. The Theban general Epaminondas then led Theban troops into the Peloponnese. and Sparta dictated a predictably stern settlement: Athens lost her city walls (including the Long Walls). until. but it was clear from the start that this was weak. In 404 BC Athens sued for peace. further reducing the Delian League ("Athenian Empire"). after the threat of Persian intervention on behalf of the Spartans. Sparta was able to foment rebellion amongst Athens's allies. and all of her overseas possessions. Though effectively a stalemate for much of the war. and Corinth felt able to challenge Spartan dominance. son and successor of Darius I. Epaminondas. Thebes lost her key leader. The Theban hegemony thus established was short-lived. led by the Athenians and their Delian League. their leader. 480 BC (Paris. when attempting to impose their will on the Thebans. the Aegean Islands and Ionia were all liberated from Persian influence. ca.

annexing it to Macedon and earning himself the epithet 'the Great'. Alexander. He compelled the majority of the city-states to join the League of Corinth. led by Philip II. Not shown: Indo-Greeks. The kingdom of territory of modern Greece) within the Pergamon occupied some of this area. The conquests of Alexander had numerous consequences for the Greek city-states. there had been a fundamental shift away from the fierce independence and classical culture of the poleis—and instead towards the developing Hellenistic culture. expanded it north and west at the expense of Illyrian tribes. capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. he became de facto hegemon of all of Greece. the importance of "Greece proper" (that is. Decisively defeating an allied army of Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC). His success stemmed from his innovative reforms to the Macedon army. particularly of the young and ambitious. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch. Alexander defeated Darius III of Persia and completely destroyed the Achaemenid Empire. When Alexander died in 323 BC. the (non-Greek)The orange areas were often in dispute after 281 BC. In fact such were the losses to all the great city-states at Mantinea that none could establish dominance in the aftermath. even though they were victorious in battle. to the new Greek empires in the east. In twenty years.Ancient Greece manpower. and preventing them from warring with each other. culminating in his invasion of 338 BC. allying them to him. Phillip intervened repeatedly in the affairs of the southern city-states. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture. The weakened state of the heartland of Greece coincided with the Rise of Macedon. to the annexation of Greece by the Roman Republic in 146 BC. son and successor of Philip. Greek power and influence was at its zenith. Philip had unified his kingdom. 248 Hellenistic Greece The Hellenistic period lasted from 323 BC. It greatly widened the horizons of the Greeks and led to a steady emigration. Philip then entered into war against the Achaemenid Empire but was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis early on in the conflict. except Sparta. During the Hellenistic period. and then conquered Thessaly and Thrace. which marked the end of the Wars of Alexander the Great. continued the war. it did mark the end of Greek political independence. However.[17] Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria. Greek-speaking world declined sharply. which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity. Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in The major Hellenistic civilizationHellenistic realms included the DiadochiDiadochi kingdoms:   Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter  Kingdom of Cassander  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator  EpirusAlso shown on the map:   Greek colonies  Carthage (non-Greek)  Ancient RomeRome .

Athens and other Greek cities revolted in 88 BC. and sided with the Seleucids in the Roman-Syrian War. Macedonia became a Roman province while southern Greece came under the surveillance of Macedonia's praefect. until Augustus organized the peninsula as the province of Achaea in 27 BC. and/or allied to different sides in the conflicts between the Diadochi (the successor states to Alexander's empire). divided amongst his generals. as the Roman culture had long been in fact Greco-Roman. The Aetolian league grew wary of Roman involvement in Greece. some Greek poleis managed to maintain a partial independence and avoid taxation. in typical fashion. and many Greek intellectuals such as Galen would perform most of their work in Rome. The Greek language served as a lingua franca in the East and in Italy. 249 [16] Territories and expansion of the Indo-Greeks. The Antigonid Kingdom became involved in a war with the Roman Republic in the late 3rd century. The city-states formed themselves into two leagues. the league was effectively absorbed into the Republic. however. and the peninsula was crushed by the Roman general Sulla. In the intervening period. The Roman civil wars devastated the land even further. The Aegean islands were added to this territory in 133 BC. Corinth and Argos) and the Aetolian League (including Sparta and Athens). After the death of Alexander his empire was. For much of the period until the Roman conquest. when the Romans were victorious. when it too was conquered by the Romans.Ancient Greece Alexander's wake. continued to make war on Macedon until it was completely absorbed into the Roman Republic (by 149 BC). In the east the unwieldy Seleucid Empire gradually disintegrated. Roman Greece The Greek peninsula came under Roman rule in 146 BC conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. the Achaean League (including Thebes. after quite some conflict. it was also soon defeated and absorbed by the Romans in 146 BC. although still nominally subject to the Macedonian Kingdom. the Seleucid Empire (based on the Levant. although a rump survived until 64 BC. Mesopotamia and Persia) and the Antigonid dynasty based in Macedon. the poleis of Greece were able to wrest back some of their freedom. whilst the Ptolemaic Kingdom continued in Egypt until 30 BC. resulting in the Ptolemaic Kingdom (based upon Egypt). . these leagues were usually at war with each other. Although the Achaean league outlasted both the Aetolian league and Macedon. the Romans. bringing an end to the independence of all of Greece. where the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom survived until the end of the 1st century BC. as far away as what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan. Although the First Macedonian War was inconclusive. Greece was a key eastern province of the Roman Empire.

These names survive to the present day as regional units of modern Greece. Locris. Epirus stretched from the Ambracian Gulf in the south to the Ceraunian mountains and the Aoos river in the north. Northeast lay Thessaly. into Eordaia. Mainland Greece to the north. lands inhabited by independent Macedonian tribes like the Lyncestae and the Elmiotae and to the West. such as Elimeia. Molossia (center). and Almopia. while in the east lay Boeotia. . and adjacent "barbarian" lands. while Epirus lay to the northwest. Achaia (north). Lower Macedonia and its regions. with whom the Macedonians were frequently in conflict. and Orestis. Pieria. Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon. and as a result.[19] To the north of Macedonia lay various non-Greek peoples such as the Paeonians due north. and Thesprotia (south). in Anatolia. Argolis (east). Regionalism and regional conflicts were a prominent feature of ancient Greece. Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece. regions settled by Thracian tribes. or on coastal plains. the Thracians to the northeast. Chalcidice was settled early on by southern Greek colonists and was considered part of the Greek world. beyond the Axius river. and the Illyrians. and Megaris. consisted of Aetolia and Acarnania in the west. Korinthia (northeast). Messenia (southwest). In the south lay the Peloponnese. and Phocis in the center. nowadays known as Central Greece. Mygdonia. to the northwest. and dominated a certain area around them. Doris. and identity. Bottiaea. Elis (west). Attica.Ancient Greece 250 Geography Regions The territory of Greece is mountainous. the Argead kings of Macedon started to expand into Upper Macedonia. cultural peculiarities. In the northeast corner was Macedonia. ancient Greece consisted of many smaller regions each with its own dialect. though with somewhat different boundaries. while from the late 2nd millennium BC substantial Greek settlement also occurred on the eastern shores of the Aegean. itself consisting of the regions of Laconia (southeast). and Arcadia (center). and consisted of Chaonia [18] originally consisting (north). Cities tended to be located in valleys between mountains.

Marseille and Istanbul had their beginnings as the Greek colonies Syracusae (Συρακούσαι). same basic culture. This was a situation unlike that in most other contemporary societies. the Sea of Marmara and south coast of the Black Sea. Sicily and Southern Italy were settled. the population of Greece grew beyond the capacity of its limited arable land (according to one estimate. Neapolis (Νεάπολις). and even northeastern Spain. increasing from a population of 800. Massalia (Μασσαλία) and Byzantion (Βυζάντιον). 550 BC. Cities and towns of ancient Greece . Herodotus was able to extensively categorise the city-states by tribe. followed by Southern France. although these higher-level relationships existed. followed by Cyprus and the coasts of Thrace. Greek colonies were also founded in Egypt and Libya. or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories. they seem to have rarely had a major role in Greek politics. which were either tribal. Politics and society Political structure Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred more or less independent city-states (poleis). Eventually Greek colonization reached as far northeast as present day Ukraine and Russia (Taganrog). On the one hand. and also aided in the establishment of long-distance trading networks between the Greek city-states. mountains and rivers—contributed to the fragmentary nature of ancient Greece. boosting the economy of ancient Greece. Naples. Undoubtedly the geography of Greece—divided and sub-divided by hills. the Aegean coast of Asia Minor was colonized first. the population of ancient Greece increased by a factor larger than ten during the period from 800 BC to 400 BC. The independence of the poleis was fiercely defended. These colonies played an important role in the spread of Greek influence throughout Europe.000 to a total estimated population of 10 to 13 million). settling Greek cities & colonies c. Furthermore. Modern Syracuse. and same language. the Greeks were very aware of their tribal origins.Ancient Greece 251 Colonies During the Archaic period. Corsica. Yet. they had the same religion. colonies in all directions. To the west the coasts of Illyria.[20] From about 750 BC the Greeks began 250 years of expansion. To the east. the ancient Greeks had no doubt that they were 'one people'.

during the second Persian invasion of Greece. and after the Persian defeat. often a populist agenda would help sustain them in power. Athens fell under a tyranny in the second half of the 6th century. Inevitably smaller poleis might be dominated by larger neighbours. descendants respectively of Eurysthenes and Procles. membership of which was in a constant state of flux. Both dynasty founders were believed to be twin sons of Aristodemus. 252 Government and law Initially many Greek city-states seem to have been petty kingdoms. but conquest or direct rule by another city-state appears to have been quite rare. there was often a city official carrying some residual. Instead the poleis grouped themselves into leagues. for the discussion of city policy. Sparta and Thebes). but two hereditary monarchs. all citizens were permitted to attend after the reforms of Solon (early 6th century). The Kings of Sparta belonged to the Agiads and the Eurypontids. non-citizens. the domination of politics and concomitant aggregation of wealth by small groups of families was apt to cause social unrest in many poleis. The peculiarities of the Greek system are further evidenced by the colonies that they set up throughout the Mediterranean Sea. would at some point seize control and govern according to their own will. When this tyranny was ended. and away from a single individual. most had already become aristocratic oligarchies.[21] Thus. the major peculiarities of the ancient Greek political system were. fragment of the 11th column. This was a form of diarchy. ceremonial functions of the king (basileus). With the establishment of the democracy. the assembly became the de jure mechanism of government. Later in the Classical period. the Athenians founded the world's first democracy as a radical solution to prevent the aristocracy regaining power. the archon basileus in Athens. the allies quickly returned to infighting. were completely independent of the founding city. firstly. but simply compelled most of the poleis to join his own Corinthian League. in Athens. After the rise of the democracy in Athens. many retained more traditional forms of government. the leagues would become fewer and larger. lifelong chief magistracy (archon) by c. A citizens' assembly (the Ecclesia). ruled through the whole period by not one. e. had existed since the reforms of Draco in 621 BC.Ancient Greece unification was something rarely contemplated by the ancient Greeks. As so often in other matters. and often poleis would be compelled to join under threat of war (or as part of a peace treaty). though they might count a certain Greek polis as their 'mother' (and remain sympathetic to her). However. Crete. which. its fragmentary nature. government by a 'strongman' was often the best solution. For instance. other city-states founded democracies. such as metics (foreigners living in Athens) or slaves.g.[22] However. Through each stage more power would have been transferred to the aristocracy as a whole. However. be dominated by one city (particularly Athens. In a system racked with class conflict. but the poorest citizens could not address the assembly or run for office. Sparta was a notable exception to the rest of Greece. all citizens had equal privileges in the assembly. part of the Law Code of Gortyn. Even when. elected archonship. a Heraclid ruler. It is unclear exactly how this change occurred. by the Archaic period and the first historical consciousness. the vast majority of poleis remained neutral. However. or unify it into a new province. a group of city-states allied themselves to defend Greece. and that this does not particularly seem to have tribal origin. the kingship had been reduced to a hereditary. and finally by 683 BC an annually elected archonship. by 753 BC this had become a decennial. the powers of these Inheritance law. he did not attempt to annex the territory. had no political rights at all. 1050 BC. In many cities a tyrant (not in the modern sense of repressive autocracies). Inevitably. Limestone. 5th century BC . Even after Philip II of Macedon 'conquered' the heartlands of ancient Greece. and secondly the particular focus on urban centres within otherwise tiny states.

c. Helots raised food and did household chores so that women could concentrate on raising strong children while men could devote their time to training as hoplites. These public slaves had a larger measure of independence than slaves owned by families. and Gravestone of a woman with her slave even poor families might have owned a few slaves. and helots often resorted to slave rebellions. In Athens. Two-fifths (some authorities say four-fifths) of the population of Classical Athens were slaves. the population was divided into four social classes based on wealth. subject to their master's goodwill and permission. Unlike in Rome. but this ordinarily did not give any extra power in the government. Instead. In Sparta. However. . all male citizens were given the title of equal if they finished their education. came from two families. By 600 BC chattel slavery had spread in Greece. Their masters treated them harshly (every Spartiate male had to kill a helot as a right of passage). 253 Social structure Only free. land owning. unlike the situation in Rome. but they had no political rights. Spartan kings. Slavery Slaves had no power or status. In most city-states. social prominence did not allow special rights. Sparta had a special type of slaves called helots.Ancient Greece kings was trammeled by both a council of elders (the Gerousia) and magistrates specifically appointed to watch over the kings (the Ephors). 100 BC allowed to beat or kill their slaves. Helots were Messenians enslaved during the Messenian Wars by the state and assigned to families where they were forced to stay. who served as the city-state's dual military and religious leaders. freedmen did not become citizens. City-states legally owned slaves. which included people from foreign countries or other city-states who were officially allowed to live in the state. People could change classes if they made more money. Owners were not child-attendant. In Athens. Most families owned slaves as household servants and labourers. public slaves were trained to look out for counterfeit coinage. Sometimes families controlled public religious functions. They had the right to have a family and own property.[23] Slaves outside of Sparta almost never revolted because they were made up of too many nationalities and were too scattered to organize. Owners often promised to free slaves in the future to encourage slaves to work hard. they were mixed into the population of metics. while temple slaves acted as servants of the temple's deity and Scythian slaves were employed in Athens as a police force corralling citizens to political functions. By the 5th century BC slaves made up one-third of the total population in some city-states. living on their own and performing specialized tasks. native-born men could be citizens entitled to the full protection of the law in a city-state (later Pericles introduced exceptions to the native-born restriction).

During the Hellenistic period. The education system of the wealthy ancient Greeks is also called Paideia. sciences. Boys went to school at the age of seven. Girls also learned to read. They also learned to sing and play one musical instrument and were trained as athletes for military service. A small number of boys continued their education after childhood. or went to the barracks.Ancient Greece 254 Education For most of Greek history. Classes were held in teachers' private houses and included reading. some city-states established public schools. A crucial part of a wealthy teenager's education was a mentorship with an elder. write and quote literature. a household slave selected for this task who accompanied the boy during the day. helping him perform his public duties. except in Sparta. The [24] schooling ended at age 18. and the arts. running. Only wealthy families could afford a teacher. mathematics. writing. which in a few places and times may have included pederastic love. education was private. if they lived in Sparta. The teenager learned by watching his mentor talking about politics in the agora. and Paedotribae for sports. and throwing discus and javelin. They studied not for a job but to become an effective citizen. followed by military training in the army usually for one or two years. Mosaic from Pompeii depicting Plato's academy Boys from wealthy families attending the private school lessons were taken care of by a paidagogos. as in the Spartan agoge. They almost never received education after childhood. Some of Athens' greatest such schools included the Lyceum (the so-called Peripatetic school founded by Aristotle of Stageira) and the Platonic Academy (founded by Plato of Athens). music. Boys learned how to read. and playing the lyre and flute. kitharistes for music and dancing. When the boy became 12 years old the schooling started to include sports such as wrestling. . In Athens some older youths attended academy for the finer disciplines such as culture. exercising with him in the gymnasium and attending symposia with him. write and do simple arithmetic so they could manage the household. singing. The richest students continued their education by studying with famous teachers. The three types of teachings were: grammatistes for arithmetic.

as well as modern science. Athens owned one of the largest war fleets in ancient Greece. Neither reason nor inquiry began with the Greeks. they were usually set piece and intended to be decisive. it had an important influence on modern philosophy. about 3. These changes greatly increased the number of casualties and the disruption of Greek society. Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. . for example. According to some economic historians.000 oars men-because it owned a lot of silver mines that were worked by slaves. Defining the difference between the Greek quest for knowledge and the quests of the elder civilizations. increased the frequency of conflict. the city-states relied on their own citizens to fight. Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. It had over 200 triremes each powered by 170 oarsmen who were seated in 3 rows on each side of the ship. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. farmers). The city could afford such a large fleet-it had over 34. allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. in terms of wheat. Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers. In many ways. with many competing city-states.Ancient Greece 255 Economy At its economic height. the fragmentary nature of ancient Greece. it was one of the most advanced preindustrial economies. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of city-states (the exact composition changing over time). This is demonstrated by the average daily wage of the Greek worker which was. rarely amounting to more than 5% of the losing side. in the 5th and 4th centuries BC.75 kg. but the slain often included the most prominent citizens and generals who led from the front. 5th century BC The scale and scope of warfare in ancient Greece changed dramatically as a result of the Greco-Persian Wars. but conversely limited the scale of warfare. This was more than 3 times the average daily wage of an Egyptian worker during the Roman period. Unable to maintain professional armies. When battles occurred. strategy and tactics. on an ancient kylix. about 12 kg. This inevitably reduced the potential duration of campaigns. naval battle and blockades and sieges. to medieval Muslim philosophers and Islamic scientists. Culture Philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. Although alliances between city-states occurred before this time. the increased manpower and financial resources increased the scale. Casualties were slight compared to later battles. and allowed the diversification of warfare. such as the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians. to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment. Set-piece battles during the Peloponnesian war proved indecisive and instead there was increased reliance on attritionary strategies. Fought between leagues of cities dominated by Athens and Sparta.[25] Warfare At least in the Archaic Period. ancient Greece was the most advanced economy in the world. has long been a topic of study by theorists of civilization. The rise of Athens and Sparta as pre-eminent powers during this conflict led directly to the Peloponnesian War. nothing on this scale had been seen before. to the secular sciences of the modern day. which saw further development of the nature of warfare. as citizens would need to return to their own professions (especially in the case of.

300 years and beyond—and his works such as Medea. Aristophanes. Other refiners of playwriting were Sophocles and Euripides. conversely. who defined. love and hatred. Notable among later Greek poets was Sappho. They have aided in information about ancient Greek society through writings such as The Republic. most famously in his play Oedipus the King. gender. Euripedes. but his greatest contribution to literature was likely his Poetics. he essentially invented "drama": his Oresteia The theatre of Epidauros. honor and disgrace. in many ways. Socrates. . and many others. which remain giants in the literary canon for their skillful and vivid depictions of war and peace. A playwright named Aeschylus changed Western literature forever when he introduced the ideas of dialogue and interacting characters to playwriting. Philosophy entered literature in the dialogues of Plato. wrote dozens of works on many scientific disciplines.Ancient Greece Some well known philosophers of Ancient Greece were Plato. who converted the give and take of Socratic questioning into written form. lyric poetry as a genre. 4th century BC trilogy of plays is seen as his crowning achievement. In doing so. defines and shapes the idea of comedy almost as Aeschylus had shaped tragedy as an art form—Aristophanes' most famous plays include the Lysistrata and The Frogs. which lays out his understanding of drama. a comic playwright. The Bacchae and The Trojan Women are still notable for their ability to challenge our perceptions of propriety. Plato's student. Many authors consider the western literary tradition to have begun with the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. by Plato. and war. 256 Literature and theatre Ancient Greek society placed considerable emphasis upon literature. Sophocles is credited with skillfully developing irony as a literary technique. and thereby establishes the first criteria for literary criticism. used plays to challenge societal norms and mores—a hallmark of much of Western literature for the next 2. Aristotle.

[26] Eratosthenes. The original mechanism is displayed in the Bronze collection of the National Archaeological Museum of Athens. It was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera. The word music derives from the name of the Muses. The discoveries of several Greek mathematicians. a device for calculating the movements of planets. and the miniaturization and complexity of its parts. The Antikythera mechanism. from marriages and funerals to religious ceremonies. establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy). three-dimensional models to explain the apparent motion of the planets The Antikythera mechanism was an analog were developed in the 4th century BC by Eudoxus of Cnidus and computer from 150–100 BC designed to calculate Callippus of Cyzicus. In the 3rd century BC Aristarchus of Samos was the first to suggest a heliocentric system. The ancient Greeks also made important discoveries in the medical field. mathematical analysis. are still used in mathematical teaching today. using the angles of shadows created at although only fragmentary descriptions of his idea survive. theatre. Euclid. and Archimedes. proposed that the Earth rotates around its axis. including the first measurement of precession and the compilation of the first star catalog in which he proposed the modern system of apparent magnitudes.[31][32] . to a highly sophisticated level. estimated the circumference of the Earth with great accuracy. the idea of formal mathematical proof. including Pythagoras. including the basic rules of geometry. Greek art depicts musical instruments and dance. Hippocrates was a physician of the Classical period. accompanied by a replica. The Greeks developed astronomy. between Kythera and Crete. folk music and the ballad-like reciting of epic poetry. widely separated regions.Ancient Greece 257 Music and dance Music was present almost universally in Greek society. and discoveries in number theory. and was the first ancestor of the astronomical computer. There are significant fragments of actual Greek musical notation as well as many literary references to ancient Greek music. applied mathematics. thus making medicine a profession. and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. The first geometrical. Science and technology Ancient Greek mathematics contributed many important developments to the field of mathematics. dates from about 80 BC. which they treated as a branch of mathematics. comparable to a clock made in the 18th century. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece. the daughters of Zeus who were patron goddesses of the arts. previously believed to have been invented in the 16th century. Their younger contemporary Heraclides Ponticus the positions of astronomical objects. and approached close to establishing integral calculus. The device became famous for its use of a differential gear.[27] In the 2nd century BC Hipparchus of Nicea made a number of contributions. He is referred to as [28][29][30] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the the "father of medicine" Hippocratic school of medicine.

Persephone and Heracles (a demi-god). Brill. Zeus. philosophy. 1988). the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models. Netherlands: E. his wife Hera. Retrieved 12 June 2011. The Byzantine Empire inherited Classical Greek culture directly. Oxford University Press. google. Helios. Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes / intulit agresti Latio (Epistulae 2. the classical tradition derived from Greece dominated the art of the western world. . Paths from Ancient Greece (http:/ / books. Well into the 19th century. 27–50. A modern revival of Classical Greek learning took place in the Neoclassicism movement in 18th and 19th century Europe and the Americas. Poseidon. J. Legacy The civilization of ancient Greece has been immensely influential on language. . Dionysus. BRILL. As Horace put it. Apollo. References Notes [1] Carol G. Greek Ways: How the Greeks Created Western Civilization. without Latin intermediation. google.1. Hephaestus. Demeter. educational systems. [6] Pomeroy. com/ ?id=INUT5sZku1UC). social. and the arts. 2002 [3] Richard Tarnas. Paths from ancient Greece (http:/ / books. Greek culture came to be foundational to Western culture in general. . 4. The Passion of the Western Mind (http:/ / books. particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. Ares. Hades. and cultural history (http:/ / books. Hestia. google." Via the Roman Empire. com/ books?id=hmweq2TyxvsC& lpg=PT5& pg=PT5#v=onepage& f=false) (Milwaukee: World Almanac Library. The main Greek gods were the twelve Olympians. Zeus's parents were Kronos and Rhea who also were the parents of Poseidon. It became the Leitkultur of the Roman Empire to the point of marginalizing native Italic traditions. google. Other important deities included Hebe. Following the Renaissance in Europe. and Demeter. ISBN 978-90-04-08846-7. Hera. with ramifications as far as Japan. Sarah B.156f. pp. com/ books?id=NAwVAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA27).Ancient Greece 258 Art and architecture The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present. google. com/ books?id=NAwVAAAAIAAJ& lpg=PA1& pg=PA1#v=onepage& f=false) (Leiden. Sicily Religion and mythology Greek mythology consists of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes. [2] Bruce Thornton. and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition further exerted strong influence on the Slavs and later on the Islamic Golden Age and the Western European Renaissance. In the West. com/ books?id=0n2C299jeOMC& lpg=PA25& pg=PP1#v=onepage& f=false) (New York: Ballantine Books. Encounter Books. In the East. Ancient Greece: a political. ISBN 978-0-19-509742-9. politics. 2006). The Temple of Hera at Selinunte. resulting in Greco-Buddhist art. Ancient Greece (http:/ / books. Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek. Hermes. the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their religious practices. Thomas (1988). Artemis. Thomas.) "Captive Greece took captive her fierce conqueror and instilled her arts in rustic Latium. and Hades. the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Aphrodite. [4] Colin Hynson. Central Asian and Indian cultures. [5] Carol G. (1999). Athena. science. 1991).

Persian Fire. University of California Press. Schieder. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. [31] Garrison. ca. [9] Sealey. Abacus. W. 2000. see File:WestermannVerlagIndoGreeks. 218. edu/ gmj/ issues/ jul07/ strong. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Egypt. (http:/ / books. Early Physics and Astronomy.C. Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine 11 (1): 2–4. Fielding H. 45-7 [28] Grammaticos. . uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 6930285. [8] Hall Jonathan M. Archived (http:/ / www. archive. Saunders Company. com/ index. (1988). org/ web/ 20090125013700/ http:/ / dictionary. Britannica Student Encyclopædia. Indian Edition. . reference.Ancient Greece [7] Grant. (http:/ / books. Doctors. com/ comptons/ article-201729/ ANCIENT-GREECE). ISBN 978-0-349-11717-1 [15] Typhoid Fever Behind Fall of Athens (http:/ / www. google. 2005. Westermans "Atlas zur Weltgeschichte" (light blue. PMID 18392218. . com/ encyclopedia_761576397/ Hippocrates. 2006. ISBN 978-0-631-22667-3. stm). Lewis. etymonline. manipal. britannica. D. co. vol. . Ancient Society. (1966). . M. org/ web/ 20081208092317/ http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-521-23348-8. "Real slave prices and the relative cost of slave labor in the Greco-Roman world".C. BBC News. John Boardman. [10] Slavoj Žižek (18 April 2011). [32] Nuland. continuous line). Living in the End Times (http:/ / books. Wiley-Blackwell. Cambridge University Press. com/ browse/ tyrant). 2007. 723-724. 1995. ISBN 978-0-631-22667-3. pp. Verso. Cook. p. google. "Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine.M1) [20] Population of the Greek city-states (http:/ / www. google. [17] Alexander's Gulf outpost uncovered (http:/ / news. (2008). com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 354266/ Macedonia). . webcitation. Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond.com.com. com/ ?id=kAvbhZrv4gUC& dq=). 1200-479 BCE (http:/ / books. Lewis et al. p94 ISBN 978-0-349-11717-1 [23] Slavery in Ancient Greece (http:/ / student. Retrieved 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2009-01-06. Routledge. [18] "Macedonia" (http:/ / www. html). Archived (http:/ / web. [11] "Online Etymology Dictionary" (http:/ / www. htm) [21] Holland.M. dotted line. A. T. Retrieved 2009-01-06. [26] Pedersen. pp. ISBN 978-1-84467-702-3. 92–93. Knopf. LiveScience. Cyril John Gadd. . John A.. Greece and Rome. pp. google. ca.. php). The Greek Stones Speak: The Story of Archaeology in Greek Lands. P. Archived (http:/ / web. ISBN 978-0-415-11770-8. (2007). com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 354266/ Macedonia) from the original on 8 December 2008. 94-95. Retrieved 12 June 2011. ISBN 978-0-349-11717-1 [22] Holland T. archive. St. ISBN 978-0-349-11717-1 [14] Holland T. [16] Sources for the map: "Historical Atlas of Peninsular India" Oxford University Press (dark blue. A History of the Archaic Greek World. msn. google. pp. edited by D. Sherwin B. Michael (1995). com/ browse/ Tyrant) from the original on 25 January 2009. php?term=tyrant). edu/ upress/ fall2006/ hansen. 259 Bibliography • Charles Freeman (1996). p. 55-6 [27] Pedersen.B. [29] Hippocrates (http:/ / encarta. History of Medicine. Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus". Global Media Journal. com/ history/ 060123_athens_fall. August 7. UK. com/ ?id=WGNH-oxXiAUC& dq=). Persian Fire. bbc.K. A history of the Greek city states. dotted line. [19] The Cambridge Ancient History: The fourth century B. A. [24] Angus Konstam: "Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece". [30] Strong.F. Persian Fire p131-138. reference. org/ 5kwKKh4qP) 2009-10-31. Etymonline. Early Physics and Astronomy. . britannica.jpg for reference). .jpg for reference). 700–338 B. Thalamus publishing.reference. Philadelphia: W. britannica. 74. ISBN 1-904668-16-X [25] W.com" (http:/ / dictionary. Microsoft Corporation. Diamantis. 10–11. 5. livescience. 2003. Greek and Roman historians: information and misinformation (http:/ / books. C. pp. ISSN: 1550-7521. pp. Narain "The coins of the Indo-Greek kings" (dark blue. Martin's Press. com/ books?id=vx251bK988gC& pg=RA6-PA750& dq=ancient+ macedon& lr=& hl=bg#PRA6-PA719-IA4. "Reviving the Dead Greek Guys" (http:/ / www. [12] "tyrant—Definitions from Dictionary. com/ ?id=IUNxvi0kbd8C& dq=). umsystem. I E S Edwards. • Paul MacKendrick (1962). (July 2007). 2008. see File:Indo-GreekWestermansNarain. [13] Holland T. p. com/ books?id=MIz6BPT23Q4C& pg=PA218). January 23. Dictionary. 35. Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 0-394-55130-3. Persian Fire p69-70. Raphael (1976). html).

edu/drjclassics/lectures/history/history.ca/cmc/ exhibitions/civil/greece/gr0000e.shtml) • Ancient Greece (http://www. Greek and Roman theatre architecture • Illustrated Greek History (http://people. Scythians and ultimately the Romans.com/currency/greekcoinshistory. S.whitman.limenoscope. [2] Etruscans.co.Ancient Greece 260 Further reading • Goodrich. not only to the Greek wine industry but to the development of almost all European wine regions and to the history of wine itself. Janice Siegel. . Italy.gr/index. Virginia Ancient Greece and wine The influence of ancient Greece on wine is significant.htm).asp?sec=4) • Limenoscope (http://www.fleur-de-coin. they markedly influenced the ancient European winemaking cultures of the Celts.ancientgreece.shtm). Along the way.edu/theatre/theatretour/home. through trade and colonization. (1849). Department of Classics. ” The ancient Greeks pioneered new methods of viticulture and wine production that they shared with early winemaking communities in what are now France.net/encyclopedia/article/engen. The importance of viticulture in ancient Greek society is evident in a quote from the Greek historian Thucydides: Greek influence in the 6th century BC “ [1] The peoples of the Mediterranean began to emerge from barbarism when they learned to cultivate the olive and the vine. New York: Huntington & Savage External links • The Canadian Museum of Civilization—Greece Secrets of the Past (http://www. an ancient Greek ports database • The Ancient Theatre Archive (http://www.uk) website from the British Museum • Economic history of ancient Greece (http://eh.ntua.civilization. A pictorial history of Greece (http://books. as well as others. G. Austria and Russia.google.com/books?id=cxPPAAAAMAAJ): Ancient and modern.greece) • The Greek currency history (http://www.cgi?lan=en). Hampden-Sydney College.hsc. Dr.

Sicily and southern Italy formed some of the earliest colonies. With every major trading partner. Etruria . Settlements in Massalia in southern France and along the shores of the Black Sea soon followed. as Spyridon Marinatos demonstrated in excavations just south of the palace site at Archanes. from the Crimea.[7] Early remnants of amphoras show that the Mycenaeans actively traded wine throughout the ancient world in places such as Cyprus. Records inscribed on tablets in Linear B include details of wine. the ancient Greek calendar followed the course of the vintner's year. an influence most likely imparted to Mycenaean Greece. as they were areas already home to an abundance of grapevines. and the Minoan equivalent of a villa rustica devoted to wine production was unearthed at Kato Zakros in 1961. vineyards and wine merchants. Sicily and southern Italy.[2] Colonization and trade As the Greek city-states established colonies throughout the Mediterranean. vines and wine cups that adorn Greek coins from classical times bear witness to the importance of wine to the ancient Greek economy. the name of Oinops ("wine-colored") is twice attested in Linear B tablets at Knossos[4] and repeated twice in Homer. Scythia. Egypt.Ancient Greece and wine 261 Origins Viticulture has existed in Greece since the late Neolithic period. In the Mycenaean period. Through trade with ancient Egypt. The Greeks called the southern part of the Italian Peninsula Oenotria ("land of vines"). Palestine. the Minoan civilization on Crete was introduced to Egyptian winemaking methods. with domestic cultivation becoming widespread by the early Bronze Age. One of the earliest known wine presses was discovered in Palekastro in Crete. Egypt. with the expectation that not only would colonial wine production supply domestic needs.[2] The Minoan palaces had their associated vineyards. as well as an early allusion to Dionysus. Athens itself provided a large and lucrative market for wine. grapes were an important agricultural crop vital to sustenance and community development. Greeks embedded the arrival of winemaking culture in the mythologies of Dionysus and the cultural hero Aristaeus. from which island the Mycenaeans are [6] believed to have spread viticulture to others in the Aegean Sea and quite possibly to mainland Greece. but competing theories suggest that the Phoenicians probably reached those areas first. the Greek god of wine. wine took on greater cultural.[5] Along with olives and grain. the settlers brought grapevines with them and were active in cultivating the wild vines they encountered. wine and the sacred bull were linked in the form of the horn-shaped drinking cups A golden goblet from the Mycenaean period.[6] The Vix Krater The grape clusters. but also create trading opportunities to meet the demand of the nearby city-states.[3] In Minoan culture of the mid-second millennium BC. called rhyta. religious and economic importance. with significant vineyard estates forming in the Attican region and on the island of Thasos to help satisfy demand.[2] Wine historians have theorized that the Greeks may have introduced viticulture to Spain and Portugal.

several—e. Theophrastus also detailed the practice of using suckering and plant cuttings for new vineyard plantings. each then carrying one half around the perimeter of the vineyard in an opposite direction from the other. presumably destined for trade up the Rhone and Saône rivers into Gaul. had over 50 grape varieties planted in different parts of his vineyard. Where they met again. and intentionally limiting agricultural output was exceedingly uncommon in the ancient world.000 litres (260 US gal) of wine. While ampelographers have been unable to identify the exact ancestry of any current Vitis vinifera grape variety among those grown by the ancient Greeks.[1] The 4th-century BC Greek writer Theophrastus left a detailed record of some Greek influences and innovations in viticulture. Millions of amphora pieces bearing the unique seals of various city-states and Aegean islands have been uncovered by archaeologists. and Homer's description of the Shield of Achilles describes that part of its wrought decoration illustrating the grape harvest from a vineyard protectively surrounded by a trench and a fence.[8] The late Dionysiaca of Nonnus recounts the primitive invention of wine-pressing. Vineyard workers grasped the . as well the fruits of their own production. the Greeks traded their knowledge of viticulture and winemaking.000 US gal) of Greek wine. rather than let the grapevines grow untrained in bushes or up trees.g.000 litres (79. It is estimated that the Greeks shipped nearly 10 million liters of wine into Gaul each year through Massalia. For example. father of Odysseus. He also wrote that Laertes. The economics of the time favored high yields for most crops. Some Greek vineyards used mysticism to ward off disease and bad weather. A massive rootstock was carved into a cult image of the Great Goddess and set up on the coast of Phrygia by the Argonauts.Ancient Greece and wine and beyond. the discovery of the Vix Grave in Burgundy included several artifacts demonstrating the strong ties between Greek wine traders and local Celtic villagers.[6] The Greeks practiced an early form of pigeage when grapes were ready for crushing. after their adjective for "tame" (Greek: ἥμερος). Aglianico (also known as Helleniko). designed to hold over 1. credited to Dionysus. the carcass would be buried next to the vineyard. two vineyard workers would tear a live white rooster in two. The Greeks also employed vine training with stacked plants for easier cultivation and harvesting. rather than increased quantity. grapevines. In 1929. Another innovation was the minimization of yields for more intense concentration of flavors and quality.[2] A shipwreck discovered off the coast of southern France included nearly 10. Wicker baskets filled with grapes were placed inside wooden or earthenware vats with a rope or plank above. The most notable of these was a large Greek-made krater.[2] Not all Greek viticulture techniques were widely adopted by other wine regions.000 amphoras containing nearly 300. one of which was the study A terra cotta relief showing Satyrs expressing the juice from trodden of vineyard soils and their proper match to specific grapes in wicker mats in the tropeion.[6] 262 Viticulture and winemaking influences Ancient Greeks called the cultivated vine hemeris (Greek: ἡμερίς). Grechetto. demonstrating the scope of Greek influence. and Trebbiano (also known as Greco)—have distinct Greek heritage. the vines stand in rows supported on stakes. differentiating it from its wild form.

They also believed that undiluted wine could even kill the drinker: the Gallic chieftain Brennus was recorded as having committed suicide by drinking wine full-strength. which sold for between a quarter of a drachma and 2 drachma for a chous worth—about the equivalent of 4 standard 750 ml wine bottles today. inky black to tawny to nearly clear. Lesbos.[10] 263 Greek wine In ancient times.[9] it was recommended that "Kyrie eleison" be substituted. which was probably the same as the modern-day Lemnió varietal.[11] Greeks . If so. the grapes were placed in large pithoi. Khios. The wines most frequently cited as being of good quality were those of Chalkidike. The Greek version of the wine is thought to have originated in Thrace from a grape variety known as Bibline. Other Greek innovations include the harvest of deliberately unripe grapes in producing a more acidic wine for blending. herbs. After crushing. Among individual wines lauded were two with unknown origins: Bibline and Pramnian. a canon was issued expressly forbidding the cries of "Dionysus!" from the wine treaders. Wine was almost always diluted. exactly three centuries after Theodosius closed the temples. Both Hesiod's writings and Homer's Odyssey include some of the earliest mentions of straw wine production: laying out freshly harvested grapes on mats to dry nearly to raisins before pressing. this makes Lemnió the oldest known varietal still in cultivation. a red wine with a bouquet of oregano and thyme. The Greeks believed wine could also be improved by adding resin. who still were masked. Mende. The earliest reference to a named wine is from the lyrical poet Alkman (7th century BC). jars where fermentation took place. However. Pramnian wine was found in several regions. Bibline is believed to have been made in a style similar to the Phoenician wine from Byblos. most notably Lesbos but also Icaria and Smyrna (in present-day Turkey). Ismaros. mulled wine and vermouth are some modern examples of these practices. oil and perfume.Ancient Greece and wine rope for balance to crush the grapes with their feet. brine. Peparethos (present-day Skopelos) and Thasos. usually with water (or snow when the wine was to be served cold). In the 4th century BC. Like early wine critics. the most expensive wine sold in Athens was that from Chios. spice. who praises "Dénthis. Color ranged from dark. the reputation of a wine depended on the region the wine came from rather than an individual producer or vineyard. A wine made on Lesbos known as protropon was among the first known to be made exclusively from "free-run juice. Oxidation was difficult to control. The most common style of wine in ancient Greece was sweet and aromatic. Kos. wines that were stored well and aged were highly prized: Hermippus described the best mature wines as having a bouquet of "violets." A kylix drinking cup was used to serve Greek wine. Aristotle mentions Lemnian wine. Greek poets would extol the virtues of certain wines and review less favorably those not up to their standards. though drier wines were also produced. occasionally to the accompaniment of a flute played in a festive manner. a common wine fault that meant many wines did not retain their quality beyond the next vintage. Naxos.[2] As late as the Second Council of Constantinople in 691 AD." drawn from grape clusters expressing their contents under their own weight. The Greeks believed that only barbarians drank unmixed or undiluted wine and that the Spartan king Cleomenes I was once [2] driven insane after drinking wine this way." a wine from the western foothills of Mount Taygetus in Messenia. highly regarded for its perfumed fragrance by Greek writers like Archestratus. roses and hyacinth. It was suggested by Athenaeus that Pramnian was a generic name referring to a dark wine of good quality [2] and aging potential. Retsina. as "anthosmías" ("smelling of flowers")." Comedic poets noted that Greek women liked "old wine but young men. seawater. The boiling of grape must was discovered as another means of adding sweetness to the wine.

” References [1] H. [8] Argonautica I. February's Anthesteria marked the opening of the wine jars from the previous autumn harvest.375 BC play Semele or Dionysus. inflamed to rape and mayhem because of wine drunk undiluted with water. wine also served important religious."[12][13][14] The cult of Dionysus was very active.1116-39. in medieval images peasants tread the grapes. the eighth is the policeman's. the third to sleep.[2] The Dionysia included theatrical performances of both comedies and tragedies in honor of the God of wine. social and medical purposes in Greek society. and of Amphitryon. The medicinal use of wine was frequently studied by the Greeks.: "they were indeed the wine-treaders in disguise. the seventh to black eyes. the standard 750 ml bottle contains roughly three glasses of wine). who welcomed the god and his gift. the ninth belongs to biliousness. including Hippocrates. 16. ca 530 BC. which involved flinging lees from a wine cup [1] towards a target.32 ("his brace of wine-dark oxen") R. Wine in Greece was never far from its mystical connection to the cult of Dionysus: Attic black-figure kylix. who did extensive research on the topic. Guide for Greece 10.19. The "feast of the wine" (me-tu-wo ne-wo) was a festival in Mycenaean Greece celebrating the "month of the new wine. to ease convalescence and as an antiseptic. Eubulus has Dionysus say: “ Three bowls do I mix for the temperate: one to health. the second to love and pleasure. Athenaeus made frequent mention of wine's ability to induce hangover and suggested various remedies for it. and was immortalized in Euripides's play The Bacchae.[1] In his c. When this bowl is drunk up. whose contrast was embodied in the myth of the battle of Lapiths with the Centaurs. tonic and digestive aid. and the tenth to madness and the hurling of [15] furniture. depicting Dionysus aboard the vine-entangled ship among his would-be abductors transformed to dolphins. which they empty first.[1] Various types of wine were prescribed by Greek doctors for use as an analgesic. The fourth bowl is ours no longer. The quantity of three bowls to represent moderation is a recurring theme throughout Greek writing (today.Ancient Greece and wine asserted that the dilution of wine with water was a mark of civilized behavior. Johnson Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 35-46 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0-671-68702-6 [2] J. Dionysos: Archetypal image of indestructible life 1976:56 notes 15. especially those arising from the consumption of wine beyond moderation. Documents in Mycenaean Greek 1959:130 Iliad XIII. The Greeks were also aware of some negative health effects. if not mysterious. Odyssey XIII. the fifth to uproar. He also studied the effect of wine on his patients' stool.703.9 . Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 29-34 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0-06-621282-0 Wine also plays a leading role in the myths of Ikarios/Semachos. but belongs to violence. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 326-329 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6 [3] Noted in Karl Kerenyi. who taught the civilized technique of mixing wine and water.4-23.[2] The poet Eubulus noted that three bowls (kylikes) were the ideal amount of wine to consume. He used wine as a cure for fevers. wise guests go home." Kerenyi observes. [11] Pausanias. which sometimes included the game of kottabos. the lack of which aroused the centaurs and resulted in the conflict of Lapiths and centaurs. [9] In representations of Antiquity. their shifts tucked into their belts. [10] Noted in Kerenyi 1976:67 and notes. featuring wine-drinking contests and a procession through Athens carrying wine jars. [4] [5] [6] [7] Michael Ventris and John Chadwick. Wine was a frequent component at the symposium. the wine-treaders are invariably satyrs and sileni. diuretic. Several festivals were held throughout the year in honor of the God of wine. the sixth to drunken revel. 264 Wine in Greek culture In addition to its significance as a trade commodity.

shtml) • All about Greek wine History (http://www. the town council building (bouleuterion).Ancient Greece and wine [12] Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture (http:/ / webcache. the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order.. in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order. From the Renaissance. Wright. The second The Parthenon under restoration in 2008 important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre.. Palaima.[3] The formal vocabulary of Ancient Greek architecture. edu/ history/ bronze_age/ lessons/ les/ 26. ac. fr. Dartmouth College [13] T. Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples. many of which are found throughout the region. and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD. with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from [1] around 600 BC. on Google books (http:/ / books. 265 External links • Greek wine history Greek winemakers (http://www.htm) Ancient Greek architecture The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus. dartmouth. revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture.allaboutgreekwine. the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa).com/czone/history/2ancient. most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of [2] light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics. pdf). googleusercontent. Semele or Dionysus. google. com/ books?id=VJ6vBrYKPnMC& pg=PA203& dq=me-tu-wo-ne-wo& lr=& ei=bk_-S5yfLqrSyQTQ_KmgDQ& cd=17#v=onepage& q=me-tu-wo-ne-wo& f=false) [15] Eubulus. both of structure and decoration. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon). but also its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion. the public monument. The Last days of Pylos Polity (http:/ / www2. the Aegean Islands.. the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium. be/ archgrec/ IMG/ aegeum/ aegaeum12(pdf)/ Palaima. html+ me-tu-wo-ne-wo& cd=8& hl=en& ct=clnk& client=firefox-a). ulg. was to have profound effect on Western architecture of later periods.G.greekwinemakers. The Mycenaean feast. Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the [Greek] temple.placed before us with a physical presence more intense. Université de Liège [14] James C. with the earliest dating from around 350 BC.. The architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. more alive than that of any later building". 93. mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed . American School of Classical Studies. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape. 2004.com/history. com/ search?q=cache:7N7ObBQ_AyIJ:projectsx.

[5] The gleaming marble surfaces were smooth. This finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail. Limestone was readily available and easily worked. In this characteristic environment. pale rocky outcrops and seashore. or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms. The light is often extremely bright.Ancient Greek architecture and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. cast graded shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day. but also roof tiles and architectural decoration. curved. fluted. both architectural and sculptural. It was used not only for pottery vessels. This led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors. while theatres were often an enhancement of a naturally occurring sloping site where people could sit. their exteriors designed as a visual focus of gatherings and processions. the Ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail. rather than a containing structure.[4] There is an abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands. and rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests. or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun.[5] Deposits of high quality potter's clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands. that adorned Ancient Greek architecture.[5] The light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of Ancient Greek architecture. particularly Paros and Naxos. Attica The Theatre and Temple of Apollo in mountainous country at Delphi . Hence temples were placed on hilltops. The rugged indented coastline at Rhamnous. with major deposits near Athens. The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape. with deeply indented coastline. with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes.[6] The climate of Greece is maritime. The most freely available building material is stone. This clarity is alternated with periods of haze that varies in colour to the light on it. Colonnades encircling buildings. with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. 266 Influences Geography The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky.

In this cultural diversity. and that of Mycenae because of invasion from Dorian people of the Greek mainland. the Hellenic and the Hellenistic. is high above the city on a natural prominence. 2800–1100 BC). Already at this period it is created with a sense of proportion.500 BC) and the Classical (500 .[1] The first signs of the particular artistic character that defines Ancient Greek architecture are to be seen in the pottery of the Dorian Greeks from the 10th century BC. The towns established by the Dorian people were ruled initially by aristocracy. two civilizations had existed within the region. firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander.[7] The Hellenic period commenced circa 900 BC. the Archaic (700 . Art Black figure Amphora. symmetry and balance not apparent in .323 BC)[10] with sculpture being further divided into Severe Classical. and decorating their pottery with bands of marching soldiers rather than octopus and seaweed.AD 30. was influenced by the influx of Ionian people from Asia Minor. Hellenic culture was spread widely. High Classical and Late Classical. and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture. Athens. Minoan is the name given by modern historians to the people of ancient Crete (c. maintained a strongly ordered and conservative character. 267 The Islands of the Aegean from Cape Sounion History The history of the Ancient Greek civilization is divided into two eras.Ancient Greek architecture The Acropolis. Athens. and with it the notion of democracy. building citadels. fortifications and tombs rather than palaces. Atalante painter (500-490 BC). Both these civilizations came to an end around 1100 BC. shows proportion and style that are hallmarks of Ancient Greek art The art history of the Hellenic era is generally subdivided into four periods. known for their elaborate and richly decorated palaces. leaders who rose from the merchant or warrior classes. the Minoan and the Mycenaean. During the Hellenistic period. (with substantial works of architecture appearing from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.[1][8] Prior to the Hellenic era. The Mycenaean culture occurred on the Peloponnesus (c. such as Sparta. the Protogeometric (1100-900 BC). Some cities. and for their pottery painted with floral and marine motifs.1500–1100 BC) and was quite different in character. and later by “tyrants”. the art of logic developed. the Geometric (900-700 BC). and thus often referred to as a Dark Age. 323 BC . that of Crete possibly because of volcanic devastation.[9] This led to a period with few remaining signs of culture. on the other hand. like that of the Mycenae.

Hera. the highest mountain in Greece. but also in the architecture that was to emerge in the 6th century. the gods were often represented by large statues and it was necessary to provide a building in which each of these could be housed. Their humanist philosophy put mankind at the centre of things. The Classical period was marked by a rapid development towards idealised but increasingly lifelike depictions of gods in human form.[15] The Ancient Greeks perceived order in the universe. Athens. music and poetry.[11] The major development that occurred was in the growing use of the human figure as the major decorative motif. but as its sublime product. god of the sun. and very human behaviour.[1] The development in the depiction of the human form in pottery was accompanied by a similar development in sculpture.[13] and many of the largest recorded statues of the age. the hunt and the wilderness. god of the sea. Artemis.[12] This development had a direct effect on the sculptural decoration of temples. god of fire and metalwork. Aphrodite.[8] The natural elements were personified as gods of completely human form. However. The decoration is precisely geometric. were once housed in them. These qualities were to manifest themselves not only through a millennium of Greek pottery making. man was no longer perceived as being threatened by nature. god of commerce and medicine.Ancient Greek architecture similar pottery from Crete and Mycenae. This led to the development of temples. as many of the greatest extant works of Ancient Greek sculpture once adorned temples. Demeter. and promoted well-ordered societies and the development . applied order and reason to their creations. such as the lost chryselephantine statues of Zeus at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and Athena at the Parthenon.[14] 268 Religion and philosophy above: Modern model of ancient Olympia with the Temple of Zeus at the centre right: Recreation of the colossal statue of Athena. goddess of wisdom. The tiny stylised bronzes of the Geometric period gave way to life-sized highly formalised monolithic representation in the Archaic period. reason. goddess of the earth. The most important deities were: Zeus. like many other activities. in the open.[5] The home of the gods was thought to be Olympus. with sculptor Alan LeQuire The religion of Ancient Greece was a form of nature worship that grew out of the beliefs of earlier cultures. unlike earlier cultures. However. Hermes. Ares. the supreme god and ruler of the sky. Athena. activities and passions were depicted. God of war. was done in community. and the increasing surety with which humanity. once housed in the Parthenon. and in turn. and ordered neatly into zones on defined areas of each vessel. goddess of the moon. goddess of love. Poseidon. and Hephaestus. law. by 600 BC. its mythology. both over 40 feet high.[5] Worship. his wife and goddess of marriage. Apollo.

The domestic architecture of ancient Greece employed walls of sun dried clay bricks or wooden framework filled with fibrous material such as straw or seaweed covered with clay or plaster. and problem solving. It is probable that many early houses had an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment.Ancient Greek architecture of democracy. The completely restored Stoa of Attalos can be seen in Athens. but the columns were of very different form to Doric columns. temple architecture. According to Aristotle. and as a place for devotees of the god to leave their votive offerings.[17] During the late 5th and 4th centuries BC.[2] Types of buildings The rectangular temple is the most common and best-known form of Greek public architecture. helmets and weapons. which gives good elevation to virtue and towers over the [2] neighbourhood".[4] Roofs were probably of thatch with eaves which overhung the permeable walls.[19] The propylon or porch. Temples served as the location of a cult image and as a storage place or strong room for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question. Ancient Greek domestic architecture centred on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. with towns such as Paestum and Priene being laid out with a regular grid of paved streets and an agora or central market place surrounded by a colonnade or stoa. responds to these challenges with a passion for beauty. but reappeared about 400 BC in the interior of large monumental tombs such as the Lion Tomb at Cnidos (c. The temple did not serve the same function as a modern church. was of trabeated form like that of Ancient Greece. where water could be collected for household use. 350 BC). such as statues. This form was adapted to the construction of hypostyle halls within the larger temples. rather than a simple application of a set of working rules.[4] Mycenaean art is marked by its circular structures and tapered domes with flat-bedded.[9] This architectural form did not carry over into the architecture of Ancient Greece.[8] At the same time. and were sited so that they related to each other architecturally. town planning became an important consideration of Greek builders. the techniques and an understanding of their style being lost when these civilizations fell.[16] The temple was generally part of a religious precinct known as the acropolis. challenge. Some Greek temples appear to have been oriented astronomically. The bouleuterion was a large public building with a hypostyle hall that served as a court house and as a meeting place for the town council (boule). The Minoan architecture of Crete. as well as small temple-like buildings that served as treasuries for specific groups of donors. formed the entrance to temple sanctuaries and other significant sites with the best-surviving example being the Propylaea on the Acropolis of Athens. first and foremost the temple. tholos were also constructed. and promoted a passion for enquiry. The development of regular town plans is associated with Hippodamus of Miletus. rather than towards grand domestic architecture such as had evolved in Crete.[9] The earliest forms of columns in Greece seem to have developed independently. . and in particular. on a base of stone which protected the more vulnerable elements from damp.[7] The evolution that occurred in architecture was towards public building. 269 Architectural character Early development There is a clear division between the architecture of the preceding Mycenaean culture and Minoan cultures and that of the Ancient Greeks. since the altar stood under the open sky in the temenos or sacred precinct. The architecture of the Ancient Greeks.[18][19][20] Public buildings became "dignified and gracious structures". It employed wooden columns with capitals. As with Minoan architecture. Little is known of Mycenaean wooden or domestic architecture and any continuing traditions that may have flowed into the early buildings of the Dorian people. a pupil of Pythagoras. Small circular temples. '"the site should be a spot seen far and wide. and for order and symmetry which is the product of a continual search for perfection. cantilevered courses. often directly before the temple. Towns were also equipped with a public fountain house. the respect for human intellect demanded reason. logic. being narrow at the base and splaying upward.

by the architect Polykleitos the Younger. Italy The reconstructed Stoa of Attalos.[21] Other buildings associated with sports include the hippodrome for horse racing. was restored in the 19th century and was used in the 1896. while the Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens. of which examples exist at Olympia. Behind the orchestra was a low building called the skênê. the latter having held up to 1200 people.[21] Every Greek town had an open-air theatre. and had rows of tiered seating set in a semicircle around the central performance area. A number of Greek theatres survive almost intact. Delphi. Athens The Bouleuterion. which seats 45. Epidarus and Ephesus. a street (3rd century BCE) Velia. which served as a store-room. of which only remnants have survived. and also as a backdrop to the action taking place in the orchestra. Olympia and Miletus.[21][22] 270 Porta Rosa.[18] Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium. the best known being at Epidaurus. the social centre for male citizens which included spectator areas.Ancient Greek architecture Remnants of bouleuterion survive at Athens. and the stadium for foot racing. at Priene The Stadium at Epidauros . the orchestra. a dressing-room. toilets and club rooms. baths. The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town. 600 feet in length. These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. 1906 and 2004 Olympic Games. the Agora.000 people.

Athens Pebble mosaic floor of a house at Olynthos.Ancient Greek architecture 271 The Palaestra at Olympia. depicting Bellerophon The Altar of Hiero II at Syracuse . used for boxing and wrestling The Theatre of Dionysus.

Tympanum. The part of the capital that rises from the column itself is called the “echinus”.[7] The earliest temples. being square and called the “abacus”. The triglyphs are vertically grooved like the Doric Parts of an Ancient Greek temple of the Doric Order: 1. Echinus 17. Abacus 16.[2] The stone columns are made of a series of solid stone cylinders or “drums” that rest on each other without mortar. Taenia 13. and meet each other at a joint directly above the centre of each column. at least was the interpretation of the historian Pausanias looking at the Temple of Hera at Olympia in the 2nd century AD. Resting on the columns is the architrave made of a series of stone “lintels” that spanned the space between the columns. Triglyph 9. Metope 10. Each column has a capital of two parts. the relief decoration runs in a continuous band. such as the Temple of Zeus Olympus and the Olympieion at Athens being well over 300 feet in length. or filled with sun dried bricks. it is divided into sections called “metopes” which fill the spaces between vertical rectangular blocks called “triglyphs”. fluted in the Ionic and foliate in the Corinthian. the entablature and the pediment. the spaces might be filled with rubble. This.e. Architrave 14. 3. Capital 15. Doric and usually Ionic capitals are cut with vertical grooves known as “fluting”. A few of these temples are very large. with several. being plain in the Doric Order. Above the architrave is a second horizontal stage called the “frieze”.[23] Entablature and pediment The columns of a temple support a structure that rises in two main stages. It is likely that many early houses and temples were constructed with an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. with vertical posts supporting beams which carried a ridged roof. 2. The entablature is the major horizontal structural element supporting the roof and encircling the entire building. Freize 8. Although the existent buildings of the era are constructed in stone. but most were less than half this size. Sima 4. Fluting 19. it is clear that the origin of the style lies in simple wooden structures. The frieze is one of the major decorative elements of the building and carries a sculptured relief. were probably of wooden construction. it is composed of upright beams (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintels). i. built to enshrine statues of deities. Mutules 7. but were sometimes centred with a bronze pin. It differs according to the order. Alternately. In the case of Ionic and Corinthian architecture. This fluting or grooving of the columns is a retention of an element of the original wooden architecture. The posts and beams divided the walls into regular compartments which could be left as openings. The signs of the original timber nature of the architecture were maintained in the stone [23] buildings. the upper. Stylobate . It is composed by three parts. tapering with an outward curve known as “entasis”. It appears that some of the large temples began as wooden constructions in which the columns were replaced piecemeal as stone became available. lathes or straw and covered with clay daub or plaster. Cornice 5. but in the Doric Order. Regula 11. Column 18. Gutta 12. later replaced by the more durable stone temples many of which are still in evidence today. The columns are wider at the base than at the top.Ancient Greek architecture 272 Structure Column and lintel The architecture of Ancient Greece is of a trabeated or "post and lintel" form. on which rests the lintels. Acroterium.

Ancient Greek architecture columns, and retain the form of the wooden beams that would once have supported the roof. The upper band of the entablature is called the “cornice”, which is generally ornately decorated on its lower edge. The cornice retains the shape of the beams that would once have supported the wooden roof at each end of the building. At the front and back of each temple, the entablature supports a triangular structure called the “pediment”. The triangular space framed by the cornices is the location of the most significant sculptural decoration on the exterior of the building. Masonry Every temple rested on a masonry base called the crepidoma, generally of three steps, of which the upper one which carried the columns was the stylobate. Masonry walls were employed for temples from about 600 BC onwards. Masonry of all types was used for Ancient Greek buildings, including rubble, but the finest ashlar masonry was usually employed for temple walls, in regular courses and large sizes to minimise the joints.[7] The blocks were rough hewn and hauled from quarries to be cut and bedded very precisely, with mortar hardly ever being used. Blocks, particularly those of columns and parts of the building bearing loads were sometimes fixed in place or reinforced with iron clamps, dowels and rods of wood, bronze or iron fixed in lead to minimise corrosion.[4] Openings Door and window openings were spanned with a lintel, which in a stone building limited the possible width of the opening. The distance between columns was similarly affected by the nature of the lintel, columns on the exterior of buildings and carrying stone lintels being closer together than those on the interior, which carried wooden lintels.[24][25] Door and window openings narrowed towards the top.[25] Temples were constructed without windows, the light to the naos entering through the door. It has been suggested that some temples were lit from openings in the roof.[24] A door of the Ionic Order at the Erechtheion, (17 feet high and 7.5 feet wide at the top), retains many of its features intact, including mouldings, and an entablature supported on console brackets. (See Architectural Decoration,
below) [25][26][27]

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The Parthenon, shows the common structural features of Ancient Greek architecture: crepidoma, columns, entablature, pediment.

Temple of Hephaestos, fluted Doric columns with abacuses supporting double beams of the architrave

Ancient Greek architecture

274

Erechtheion: masonry, door, stone lintels, coffered ceiling panels

At the Temple of Aphaia the hypostyle columns rise in two tiers, to a height greater than the walls, to support a roof without struts.

Roof The widest span of a temple roof was across the cella, or internal space. In a large building, this space contains columns to support the roof, the architectural form being known as hypostyle. It appears that, although the architecture of Ancient Greece was initially of wooden construction, the early builders did not have the concept of the diagonal truss as a stabilising member. This is evidenced by the nature of temple construction in the 6th century BC, where the rows of columns supporting the roof the cella rise higher than the outer walls, unnecessary if roof trusses are employed as an integral part of the wooden roof. The indication is that initially all the rafters were supported directly by the entablature, walls and hypostyle, rather than on a trussed wooden frame, which came into use in Greek architecture only in the 3rd century BC.[7] Ancient Greek buildings of timber, clay and plaster construction were probably roofed with thatch. With the rise of stone architecture came the appearance of fired ceramic roof tiles. These early roof tiles showed an S-shape, with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. They were much larger than modern roof tiles, being up to 90 cm (35.43 in) long, 70 cm (27.56 in) wide, 3–4 cm (1.18–1.57 in) thick and weighing around 30 kg apiece.[28][29] Only stone walls, which were replacing the earlier mudbrick and wood walls, were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled roof.[30] The earliest finds of roof tiles of the Archaic period in Greece are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth, where fired tiles began to replace thatched roofs at the temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700 and 650 BC.[31] Spreading rapidly, roof tiles were within fifty years in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean, including Mainland Greece, Western Asia Minor, Southern and Central Italy.[31] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatch, their introduction has been explained by the fact that their fireproof quality would have given desired protection to the costly temples.[31] As a side-effect, it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of overhanging eaves in Greek architecture, as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete.[30] Vaults and arches were not generally used, but begin to appear in tombs (in a "beehive" or cantilevered form such as used in Mycenaea) and occasionally, as an external feature, exedrae of voussoired construction from the 5th century BC. The dome and vault never became significant structural features, as they were to become in Ancient Roman architecture.[7]

Ancient Greek architecture Temple plans Most Ancient Greek temples were rectangular, and were approximately twice as long as they were wide, with some notable exceptions such as the enormous Temple of Zeus Olympus in Athens with a length of nearly 2 1/2 times its width. The majority of Temples were small, being 30–100 feet long, while a few were large, being over 300 feet long and 150 feet wide. The iconic Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis occupies a midpoint at 235 feet long by 109 feet wide. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular, and are referred to as tholos.[32] The temple rises from a stepped base Plans of Ancient Greek Temples Top: 1. distyle in antis, 2. amphidistyle in antis, 3. tholos, 4. prostyle tetrastyle, 5. amphiprostyle tetrastyle, Bottom: 6. dipteral octastyle, 7. or "stylobate", which elevated the peripteral hexastyle, 8. pseudoperipteral hexastyle, 9. pseudodipteral octastyle structure above the ground on which it stood. Early examples, such as the Temple of Zeus at Olympus, have two steps, but the majority, like the Parthenon, have three, with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo at Didyma having six.[32] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which was a cella, a windowless room which housed the statue of the god. The cella generally had a porch or "pronaos" before it, and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. The chambers were lit by a single large doorway, fitted with a wrought iron grill. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights.[24] On the stylobate, often completely surrounding the naos, stood rows of columns. Each temple was defined as being of a particular type, with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front, and the other defining their distribution.[32] Examples: • Distyle in antis describes a small temple with two columns at the front, which are set between the projecting walls of the pronaos or porch, like the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus. (see left, figure 1.) [32] • Amphiprostyle tetrastyle describes a small temple that has columns at both ends which stand clear of the naos. Tetrastyle indicates that the columns are four in number, like those of the Temple on the Ilissus in Athens. (figure
4.) [32]

275

• Peripteral hexastyle describes a temple with a single row of peripheral columns around the naos, with six columns across the front, like the Theseion in Athens. (figure 7.) [32] • Peripteral octastyle describes a temple with a single row of columns around the naos, (figure 7.) with eight columns across the front, like the Parthenon, Athens. (figs. 6 and 9.) [32] • Dipteral decastyle describes the huge temple of Apollo at Didyma, with the naos surrounded by a double row of columns, (figure 6.) with ten columns across the entrance front.[32] • The Temple of Zeus Olympius at Agrigentum, is termed Pseudo-periteral heptastyle, because its encircling colonnade has pseudo columns that are attached to the walls of the naos. (figure 8.) Heptastyle means that it has seven columns across the entrance front.[32]

Ancient Greek architecture Proportion and optical illusion The ideal of proportion that was used by Ancient Greek architects in designing temples was not a simple mathematical progression using a square module. The math involved a more complex geometrical progression, the so-called Golden mean. The ratio is similar to that of the growth patterns of many spiral forms that occur in nature such as rams' horns, nautilus shells, fern fronds, and vine tendrils and which were a source of decorative motifs employed by Ancient Greek architects as particularly in evidence in the volutes of capitals of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders.[33]

276

The Ancient Greek architects took a philosophic approach to the rules and proportions. The determining factor in the mathematics of any notable work of architecture was its ultimate appearance. The architects calculated for perspective, for the optical illusions that make edges of objects appear concave and for the fact that columns that are viewed against the sky look different to those adjacent that are viewed against a shadowed wall. Because of these factors, the architects adjusted the plans so that the major lines of any significant building are rarely straight.[33] The most obvious adjustment is to the profile of columns, which narrow from base to top. However, the narrowing is not regular, but gently curved so that each columns appears to have a slight swelling, called entasis below the middle. The entasis is never sufficiently pronounced as to make the swelling wider than the base; it is controlled by a slight reduction in the rate of decrease of diameter.[7] The Parthenon, the Temple to the Goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, is the epitome of what Nikolaus Pevsner called "the most perfect example ever achieved of architecture finding its fulfilment in bodily beauty".[3] Helen Gardner refers to its "unsurpassable excellence", to be surveyed, studied and emulated by architects of later ages. Yet, as Gardner points out, there is hardly a straight line in the building.[34] Banister Fletcher calculated that the stylobate curves upward so that its centres at either end rise about 2.6 inches above the outer corners, and 4.3 inches on the longer sides. A slightly greater adjustment has been made to the entablature. The columns at the ends of the building are not vertical but are inclined towards the centre, with those at the corners being out of plumb by about 2.6 inches.[7] These outer columns are both slightly wider than their neighbours and are slightly closer than any of the others.[35]

The main lines of the Parthenon are all curved.

Digram showing the optical corrections made by the architects of the Parthenon

600 BC. details and relationships of the columns. pediment and the stylobate. proportions. The Doric Order developed on mainland Greece and spread to Italy. It was popularised by the Romans. The growth of the nautilus corresponds to the Golden Mean Style Orders Stylistically.[11] The Corinthian Order was a highly decorative variant not developed until the Hellenistic period and retaining many characteristics of the Ionic. It was firmly established and well-defined in its characteristics by the time of the building of the Temple of Hera at Olympia. The Ionic order co-existed with the Doric.[2] The different orders were applied to the whole range of buildings and monuments.[7] . the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order. While the three orders are most easily recognizable by their capitals. Ancient Greek architecture is divided into three “orders”: the Doric Order. in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands. It did not reach a clearly defined form until the mid 5th century BC. such as the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.Ancient Greek architecture 277 A sectioned nautilus shell.[23] The early Ionic temples of Asia Minor were particularly ambitious in scale. the orders also governed the form. being favoured by the Greek cites of Ionia. c. entablature. These shells may have provided inspiration for voluted Ionic capitals. the names reflecting their origins.

Ancient Greek architecture above: Capital of the Ionic Order showing volutes and ornamented echinus left: Architectural elements of the Doric Order showing simple curved echinus of capital 278 above: Capital of the Corinthian Order showing foliate decoration and vertical volutes. are three horizontal grooves known as the hypotrachelion. a gentle convex swelling to the profile of the column. A column height to diameter of 6:1 became more usual. frieze with triglyphs and metopes and the overhanging cornice .[36] Doric columns are almost always cut with grooves. until a few examples in the Hellenistic period. During the Hellenistic period. with the slender and unfluted columns reaching a height to diameter ratio of 7. Sicily. while the column height to entablature ratio at the Parthenon is about 3:1.[36] The entablature showing the architrave. The flutes meet at sharp edges called arrises. slightly below the narrowest point. Doric conventions of solidity and masculinity dropped away.[36] The columns of an early Doric temple such as the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse. which run the length of the column and are usually 20 in number. known as "fluting". more refined examples. Doric Order The Doric order is recognised by its capital. and crossing the terminating arrises. deeper [36] A and with greater curve in later. At the top of the columns. which prevents an optical illusion of concavity. may have a height to base diameter ratio of only 4:1 and a column height to entablature ratio of 2:1. The echinus appears flat and splayed in early examples. of which the echinus is like a circular cushion rising from the top of the column to the square abacus on which rest the lintels. refinement of the Doric Column is the entasis. Doric columns have no bases. with relatively crude details. although sometimes fewer.5:1. and smaller and straight-sided in Hellenistc examples.

constructed in drums. with a joint occurring above the centre of each abacus. It's designed to be viewed frontally but the capitals at the corners of buildings are modified with an additional scroll so as to appear regular on two adjoining faces. The frieze is divided into triglyphs and metopes. one of the major areas of sculptural decoration. with the decoration of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. and below them. However. the architrave. mutules. four-fronted Ionic capitals became common. at the corners of the building. the triglyphs do not fall over the centre the column. as stated elsewhere in this article. but almost freestanding by the time of the Parthenon. At either end of the building the pediment rises from the cornice. are small strips that appear to connect the triglyphs to the architrave below. similar to the columnar fluting.[37] By the Early Classical period. Ionic Order The Ionic Order is recognised by its voluted capital. but decorated with stylised ornament.Ancient Greek architecture 279 The tapered fluted columns. rest directly on the stylobate.[] A triglyph is located above the centre of each capital.[38] . forming spirals or volutes similar to those of the nautilus shell or ram's horn. framed by moulding of similar form. Each triglyph has three vertical grooves.[34] The renowned sculptor Phidias fills the space at the Parthenon (448-432 BC) with a complex array of draped and undraped figures of deities who appear in attitudes of sublime relaxation and elegance. The cornice is a narrow jutting band of complex moulding which overhangs and protects the ornamented frieze. are a reminder of the timber history of the architectural style. in which a curved echinus of similar shape to that of the Doric Order. In plan. kneeling and lying in attitudes that fit the size and angle of each part of the space. Early architectural sculptors found difficulty in creating satisfactory sculptural compositions in the tapering triangular space. like the edge of an overhanging wooden-framed roof. is surmounted by a horizontal band that scrolls under to either side. further suggesting the wooden nature of the prototype.[36] The pediment is decorated with figures that are in relief in the earlier examples. It is decorated on the underside with projecting blocks. and above the centre of each lintel. simply extending the width of the last two metopes at each end of the building. the frieze and the cornice. The architrave is composed of the stone lintels which span the space between the columns. The Doric entablature is in three parts. On this rests the frieze. seemingly connected. the capital is rectangular. the triglyphs. In the Hellenistic period. (486-460 BC) the sculptors had solved the problem by having a standing central figure framed by rearing centaurs and fighting men who are falling. The ancient architects took a pragmatic approach to the apparent "rules".

along with the bands of dentils. but their origin is clearly in narrow wooden slats which supported the roof of a timber structure. like the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. but this was not always the case.Ancient Greek architecture 280 Corner capital with a diagonal volute. The external frieze often contained a continuous band of figurative sculpture or ornament. The horizontal spread of a flat timber plate across the top of a column is a common device in wooden construction. were a feature of the Ionic order. They are referred to as dentils. meaning "teeth".[38] The Ionic Order is altogether lighter in appearance than the Doric. draped female figures used as supporting members to carry the entablature. There was some variation in the distribution of decoration. Frieze of stylised alternating palms and reeds. including base and capital. is separated from the other members by rows of small projecting blocks. Likewise. giving a thin upright a wider area on which to bear the lintel. shallow flutes that do not meet at a sharp edge but have a flat band or fillet between them. but more often rises in three outwardly-stepped bands like overlapping timber planks. separated from the fluted section by a bold moulding. The frieze. the Ionic Order retains signs of having its origins in wooden architecture. Sometimes a decorative frieze occurred around the upper part of the naos rather than on the exterior of the building.[39] . notably the Parthenon.[38] The columns are fluted with narrow. and a cornice decorated with "egg and dart" moulding. had friezes of figures around the lower drum of each column. These Ionic-style friezes around the naos are sometimes found on Doric buildings. Some temples. with the columns. which runs in a continuous band. and from the late Hellenic period stood on a square plinth similar to the abacus. while at the same time reinforcing the load-bearing strength of the lintel itself. the columns always have bases. a necessity in wooden architecture to spread the load and protect the base of a comparatively thin upright. occurring at several buildings including the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi in 525 BC and at the Erechtheion. Like the Doric Order. showing also details of the fluting separated by fillets. having a 9:1 ratio with the diameter. The base has two convex mouldings called torus. Formalised bands of motifs such as alternating forms known as "egg and dart" were a feature of the Ionic entablatures. about 410 BC.[38] The architrave of the Ionic Order is sometimes undecorated. The usual number of flutes is twenty-four but there may be as many as forty-four. while the whole entablature was also much narrower and less heavy than the Doric entablature.[38] Caryatids.

but distinguished by its more ornate capitals.[40] The ratio of the column height to diameter is generally 10:1. being shaped like a large krater. who added a number of refinements and decorative details.[40] Decoration Architectural ornament . splayed above them. (174 BC . as at the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Basae (c.Ancient Greek architecture 281 The tall capital combines both semi-naturalistic leaves and highly stylised tendrils forming volutes. supporting the corners of the abacus.16:1. with the capital taking up more than 1/10 of the height. no longer perfectly square. and then on a huge scale at the Temple of Zeus Olympia in Athens.[40] The capital was very much deeper than either the Doric or the Ionic capital. The basket had been placed on the root of an acanthus plant which had grown up around it. Callimarchus of Corinth. and was initially of much the same style and proportion.450-425 BC). which. It grew directly out of the Ionic in the mid 5th century BC.[40] The Corinthian Order was initially used internally. who took his inspiration from a basket of offerings that had been placed on a grave. the capital was invented by a bronze founder. During the Hellenistic period. Corinthian Order The Corinthian Order does not have its origin in wooden architecture. The ratio of capital height to diameter is generally about 1. with a flat tile on top to protect the goods. Corinthian columns were sometimes built without fluting. According to Vitruvius. In 334 BC it appeared as an external feature on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens. a bell-shaped mixing bowl. and being ornamented with a double row of acanthus leaves above which rose voluted tendrils.AD 132).[40] It was popularised by the Romans.

decorating the cornice. Early wooden structures. with open mouths that ejected rainwater. particularly around doorways. Many fragments of these have outlived the buildings that they decorated and demonstrate a wealth of formal border designs of geometric scrolls. acroteria were sometimes sculptured figures.Ancient Greek architecture 282 This Archaic gorgon's head antefix has been cast in a mould. Reliefs never decorate walls in an arbitrary way. the corners and surmounting the pediment. the metopes and the pediment. At the corners of pediments they were called acroteria and along the sides of the building. a frieze of stylised foliage or the ornate sculpture of the pediment. is all essential to the architecture of which it is a part. and ornamental discs.[41] In later Ionic architecture. fired and painted.See "Architectural sculpture" [43] In the three orders of Ancient Greek architecture. which are grooved and sometimes turned upward at the tip. The lion's head gargoyle is fixed to a revetment on which elements of a formal frieze have been painted. antefixes. such as that at the Erechtheum. the revetments no longer served a protective purpose and sculptured decoration became more common.[41] With the introduction of stone-built temples. Early decorative elements were generally semi-circular.[41][42] Ionic cornices were often set with a row of lion's masks. were ornamented and in part protected by fired and painted clay revetments in the form of rectangular panels. The clay ornaments were limited to the roof of buildings. there is no variation in its placement. and "egg and dart" moulding which alternates ovoid shapes with narrow pointy ones. there is greater diversity in the types and numbers of mouldings and decorations. overlapping patterns and foliate motifs. but later of roughly triangular shape with moulded ornament. The sculpture is always located in several predetermined areas.[24][42] From the Late Classical period. particularly temples. the sculptural decoration. be it a simple half round astragal. stemming from turned wooden prototypes. In the Doric order.[24][41][44] Architectural sculpture . Wider mouldings include one with tongue-like or pointed leaf shapes.[24][26][41] A much applied narrow moulding is called "bead and reel" and is symmetrical. where voluted brackets sometimes occur supporting an ornamental cornice over a door. often palmate.

Fragments of the eastern pediment survive.. (470 . Sicily. E. showing the Sack of .[45] The Severe Classical style (500 . combined with all the essential detail of actual life".[48] The names of many famous sculptors are known from the Late Classical period (400 .456 BC).450 BC) is represented by the pedimental sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.[47] The pedimental sculpture represents the Gods of Olympus. shows. presiding over a battle of Lapiths and Centaurs. Late Classical and Hellenistic. of the Parthenon. Perseus slaying the Gorgon Medusa. The eastern pediment shows a moment of stillness and "impending drama" before the beginning of a chariot race. "majestic" and "remote". and the legs in a running or kneeling position.500 BC) exist from the early 6th century BC with the earliest surviving pedimental sculpture being remnants of a Gorgon flanked by heraldic panthers from the centre of the pediment of the Artemis Temple of Corfu. High Classical..[37] Both images parallel the stylised depiction of the Gorgons on the black figure name vase decorated by the Nessos painter (c.[46] The western pediment has Apollo as the central figure. with the face and shoulders turned frontally. Strong as the "most powerful piece of illustration" for a hundred years. the figures of Zeus and the competitors being severe and idealised representations of the human form .323 BC).the most heroic style of art. and described by D. respectively. Praxiteles. while the frieze shows the Panathenaic procession and ceremonial events that took place every four years to honour the titular Goddess of Athens.. and how it varies depending upon its position and the stresses that action and emotion place upon it. Leochares and Skopas. Archaeological Museum of Corfu Classical figurative sculpture from the eastern pediment of the Parthenon. Benjamin Robert Haydon described the reclining figure of Dionysus as ". are the lifelike products of the High Classical style (450 -400 BC) and were created under the direction of the sculptor Phidias.[1] Little architectural sculpture of the period remains intact. in a better preserved state. At this date images of terrifying monsters have predominance over the emphasis on the human figure that developed with Humanist philosophy. including Timotheos. 600 BC).[46] The shallow reliefs and three-dimensional sculpture which adorned the frieze and pediments. in strong contrast to that of the eastern pediment for its depiction of violent action.Ancient Greek architecture 283 The Archaic Gorgon of the western pediment from the Artemis Temple of Corfu. The Temple of Asclepius at Epidauros had sculpture by Timotheos working with the architect Theodotos.[47] The frieze and remaining figures of the eastern pediment show a profound understanding of the human body.[45] A metope from a temple known as "Temple C" at Selinus.[1] Remnants of the Archaic architectural sculpture (700 . but their works are known mainly from Roman copies. British Museum Architectural sculpture showed a development from early Archaic examples through Severe Classical.

the central space taken up. The frieze represents the battle for supremacy of Gods and Titans. to convey the sense of conflict. which is often emphasised by flowing draperies. and employs many dramatic devices: frenzy.Ancient Greek architecture Troy. The scene appears to have filled the space with figures carefully arranged to fit the slope and shape available.[43] Hellenistic architectural sculpture (323 . Olympus High Classical frieze: Panathenaic Ritual.[49] 284 Archaic metope: Perseus and Medusa. the eastern pediment being surmounted by a winged Nike. both in the rendering of expression and motion. the Nike Samothrace which decorated a monument in the shape of a ship being a well known example.[43] The acroteria were sculptured by Timotheus. poised against the wind. Severe Classical metope: Labours of Hercules. horror. except for that at the centre of the east pediment which is the work of the architect. Temple C at Selinunte. cruelty and lust for conquest. The palmate acroteria have been replaced here with small figures. pathos and triumph. fear. Temple of Zeus.3 metres high) of figures in very high relief. as with earlier east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympus. But the figures are more violent in action.31 BC) was to become more flamboyant. Athens . 180-160 BC) has a frieze (120 metres long by 2. The remaining fragments give the impression of a whole range of human emotions. but with the dynamic figure of Neoptolemos as he seizes the aged king Priam and stabs him. not with a commanding God. The Pergamon Altar (c. Parthenon.

126-132 [3] Nikolaus Pevsner.97 [20] Moffett. 244. 25 [28] Boardman. pp. pp. the Pergamon Altar. 212 . pp. p. 42-43 [17] Boardman. [23] Donald E. Wodehouse. 155 [26] Banister Fletcher. pp. pp. 38-40 [24] Banister Fletcher.107 [25] Banister Fletcher. 12 [29] William Rostoker. (http:/ / www. pp. 62-64 [21] Banister Fletcher pp. 10-14 [5] Banister Fletcher pp. pp. pp. 35 [12] Donald E. 237.Ancient Greek architecture 285 Hellenistic frieze: Battle of Gods and Titans. Strong. p. Fuchs and Hirmer [2] Helen Gardner. la84foundation. 39-40. 93-97 [8] Helen Gardner. 19 [4] John Boardman. An Outline of European Architecture. [11] Donald E. 35-36 [16] Penrose. p. Gardner etc. 74-75 [19] Banister Fletcher.33 . 62-66 [14] Banister Fletcher. 49-50 [18] Donald E. Strong. pp. Strong. 159 [27] Boardman. 110-114 [9] Helen Gardner. pp. p. Fazio. pp. Strong. Dorig. pdf) Volume 2. p. 90-109 [10] Fletcher. chapter 3 [7] Banister Fletcher pp.102 [13] Donald E. Ionic caryatid from the Erechtheum References [1] Boardman. p. pp. Strong. org/ 6oic/ OfficialReports/ 2004/ or2004b. p. Elizabeth Gebhard. 119-121 [15] Donald E. pp. 89-91 [6] Higgins. 242. 147-148 [22] 2004 Summer Olympics official report. pp. Strong. p. p.

pp. Jose Dorig. The Orientation of Geek Temples (http://books.126 [34] Helen Gardner. Lawrence King Publishing. p. Strong. Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon.Mar. Christin J. Strong. google. • Örjan Wikander. (Summer. n. 145 [49] Werner Fuchs in Boardman. 1981). A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Elizabeth Gebhard. “Greek Temples and Chinese Roofs. Strong.285-289 [32] Banister Fletcher pp. No. • Donald E. 435 [44] Banister Fletcher. Fred S. Michael Fazio. p.45. 125-129 [39] Boardman p. May 11. pp. Goldberg. 50-53 [36] Banister Fletcher pp. Fazio. London (1965) • Henri Stierlin.M1). (1967) • Banister Fletcher. pp. 1983). pp. Vol. (Jul. 305–310 • Penrose. 87. Wodehouse. 1. p. Fuchs and Hirmer. (communicated by Joseph Norman Lockyer). ‘’A World History of Architecture’’.” Hesperia. Thomson Wadsworth. 211–2 . pp. 3. Greece. pp. pp. (Jan. Taschen.509-510 286 Bibliography • John Boardman. 2004 • Marilyn Y. No. 143 – 148 [48] Helen Gardner. Lawrence Wodehouse. 39-40 [46] Donald E. Kleiner. A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean. • Helen Gardner. Dorig.. pp. • Michael and Reynold Higgins. p. ‘’The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece’’. F. 138-148 [35] Moffett. Nature.Ancient Greek architecture [30] Marilyn Y. 163 [43] Jose Dorig in Boardman. Elsevier Science & Technology. Gardner's Art through the Ages. Mamiya. No.1228. 2.C. Dorig. 108-112 [37] Donald E. Vol. (2003). (2004) ISBN 0-15-505090-7. 1990). “The Reproduction of Rooftiles for the Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia.. pp. Goldberg. Vol. pp. 137-139 [41] Boardman. Cornell University Press. pp.. 107-109 [33] Banister Fletcher p. ISBN 1-85669-353-8. Fuchs and Hirmer.” Journal of Field Archaeology. Paul Hamlyn..com/books?id=EpkZtUGY5y8C&pg=PA43&dq=start+date+of+the+eleusinian+ mysteries#PPA42. 285–290 • William Rostoker. “Archaic Roof Tiles the First Generations. London. 49 [40] Banister Fletcher pp. pp. . 22-25 [42] Banister Fletcher.” American Journal of Archaeology. 164 [45] Donald E. Werner Fuchs and Max Hirmer. p305-309 [31] Örjan Wikander. 61-62 [47] Helen Gardner. Strong.48. v. ‘’The Classical World’’. 58-60 [38] Banister Fletcher pp. (1996) ISBN 978-0-8014-3337-5 • Marian Moffett. 8. 59. Thames and Hudson.

[1]:237 Various multiples of this denomination were also struck. . which began the Hellenistic period. literally "a grasp". probably used to standardise weight highly prized and abundant in that area. This suggests that before coinage came to be used in Greece. obelós) was retained as a Greek word for coins of small value. and the Hellenistic.Ancient Greek coinage 287 Ancient Greek coinage The history of Ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into three periods. By the middle of the 6th century BCE. a Obverse: lion head and sunburst natural alloy of gold and silver that was Reverse: plain square imprints. making the production of pure gold and silver coins simpler. extending until the Roman absorption of the Greek world in the 1st century BCE. the Classical. Drachmae were divided into six obols (from the Greek word for a spit of iron). The word drachm(a) means "a handful". or ὀβελός. the Archaic. King Croesus introduced a bi-metallic standard that allowed for coins of pure gold and pure silver to be struck and traded in the marketplace. and enforced the continued use of iron spits so as to discourage avarice and the hoarding of wealth. The Greek cities continued to produce their own coins for several more centuries under Roman rule. These coins were made of electrum. still used as such in Modern Greek slang (όβολα. technology had advanced. The Archaic period extends from the introduction of coinage to the Greek world in about 600 BCE until the Persian Wars in about 480 BCE. which eventually became bulky and inconvenient after the adoption of precious metals. and six spits made a "handful". Because of this very aspect. Colophon. The Classical period then began. In addition to its original meaning (which also gave the euphemistic diminutive "obelisk". óvola. the word obol (ὀβολός. and several other cities) is mentioned by Aristotle as the smallest silver coin. and its casting in spit form may have actually represented a form of transportable bullion.[1]:247 Archaic period The first coins were issued in either Lydia or Ionia in Asia Minor at some time before 600 BCE. Spartan legislation famously forbade issuance of Spartan coin. and lasted until the conquests of Alexander the Great in about 330 BCE. The obol was further subdivided into tetartemorioi (singular tetartemorion) which represented 1/4 of an obol. perhaps for paying fines. including the trihemitetartemorion (literally three half-tetartemorioi) valued at 3/8 of an obol. "little spit"). and wanted to have their payments marked in a way that would authenticate Uninscribed electrum coin from Lydia. "monies"). Accordingly. Denominations The central denomination to the Ancient Greek monetary system was the drachm. The coins produced during this period are called Roman provincial coins or Greek Imperial Coins. obolós. or 1/24 of a drachm. In archaic/pre-numismatic times iron was valued for making durable tools and weapons. 6th century BCE them. either by the non-Greek Lydians for their own use or perhaps because Greek mercenaries wanted to be paid in precious metal at the conclusion of their time of service. spits were used as measures of value. This coin (which was known to have been struck in Athens.

Some coins employed a visual pun: some coins from Rhodes featured a rose. or was often saved for hoarding. other cities included their own symbols on the coins. 415–405 BC) Obverse: head of the nymph Arethusa. Some coins circulated widely beyond their polis. perhaps ever. other cities began to mint coins to this "Aeginetan" weight standard of (6. usually the name of the issuing city. however. were struck on the "Attic" standard. Larger cities now produced a range of fine silver and gold coins. Over time. . The large silver decadrachm (10-drachm) coin from Syracuse is regarded by many collectors as the finest coin produced in the ancient world. most bearing a portrait of their patron god or goddess or a legendary hero on one side. with a drachm equaling 4. places which were deficient in silver supply. 6th century BCE Obverse: Land tortoise Reverse: ΑΙΓ[INAΤΟΝ] ("[of the] Aeg[inetans]") and dolphin within a geometrical drawing Athenian coins. Athens' plentiful supply of silver from the mines at Laurion and its increasing dominance in trade made this the pre-eminent standard. but usable all over the Euro zone.Ancient Greek coinage The Greek world was divided into more than two thousand self-governing city-states (in Greek. By the time of Alexander the Great and his Hellenistic successors. this large denomination was being regularly used to make large payments. Classical period The Classical period saw Greek coinage reach a high level of technical and aesthetic quality. As such coins circulated more widely. and more than half of them issued their own coins. a very expensive undertaking.3 grams of silver. surrounded by four swimming dolphins and a rudder Reverse: a racing quadriga. since the Greek word for rose is rhodon. The use of inscriptions on coins also began. These coins. known as "Owls" because of their central design feature. they were frequent victors in this highly prestigious event. This contributed to their success as the premier trade coin of their era. and a symbol of the city on the other. This is not unlike present day Euro coins. indicating that they were being used in inter-city trade. and part of their public relations policy was to fund quadrigas for the Olympic chariot race. The tyrants of Syracuse were fabulously rich. the first example appears to have been the silver stater or didrachm of island of Aigina that regularly turns up in hoards in Egypt and the Levant. A Syracusan tetradrachm (c. which are recognisably from a particular country. As they were often able to finance more than one quadriga at a time. Tetradrachms on this weight standard continued to be a widely used coin (often the most widely used) through the classical period.1 grams to the drachm). its charioteer crowned by the goddess Victory in flight The wealthy cities of Sicily produced some especially fine coins. one side bearing the head of the nymph Arethusa and the other usually a victorious quadriga. Syracusan issues were rather standard in their imprints. 288 Drachma of Aegina. poleis). were also minted to an extremely tight standard of purity and weight.

But the kings of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria had no such scruples: having already awarded themselves with "divine" status. namely of the kings themselves. including the largest coins to be minted in the Hellenistic world: the largest gold coin was minted by Eucratides (reigned 171–145 BC). but was disapproved of by other Greeks as showing hubris (arrogance). Because these kingdoms were much larger and wealthier than the Greek city states of the classical period. Greek traders spread Greek coins across this vast area. and those of their successors in India. 289 Tetradrachm of Athens. the largest silver coin by the Indo-Greek king Amyntas (reigned c.Ancient Greek coinage Syracuse was one of the epicenters of numismatic art during the classical period. usually in profile and striking a heroic pose. Led by the engravers Kimon and Euainetos. Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I. and for a time also in Iran and as far east as what is now Afghanistan and northwestern India. "of the Athenians" Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period was characterised by the spread of Greek culture across a large part of the known world. on the obverse. 5th century BCE Obverse: a portrait of Athena. . 95–90 BC). with his name beside him. gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. as well as larger. Greek-speaking kingdoms were established in Egypt and Syria. "Greece and the Hellenistic World"). This practice had begun in Sicily. some of the Greco-Bactrian coins. their coins tended to be more mass-produced. and more frequently in gold. patron goddess of the city. The names of the kings were frequently inscribed on the coin as well. with the symbols of their state on the reverse. the Indo-Greeks. and a coat of arms or other symbol of state on the reverse. short for ΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΝ. and the new kingdoms soon began to produce their own coins. They often lacked the aesthetic delicacy of coins of the earlier period. The most striking new feature of Hellenistic coins was the use of portraits of living people. with an olive sprig and the inscription "ΑΘΕ". the largest Still. This established a pattern for coins which has persisted ever since: a portrait of the king. are considered the finest examples of Greek numismatic art with "a nice blend of realism and idealization". in helmet Reverse: the owl of Athens. they issued magnificent gold coins adorned with their own portraits. The portraits "show a degree of individuality never matched by the often bland depictions of their royal contemporaries further West" (Roger Ling. Syracuse produced some of the finest coin designs of antiquity.

Testimonia Numaria. the goddess Athena's sacred bird. 'A Dictionary of Ancient Greek Coins'. Hoards of Greek coins are still being found in Europe. 49-50. . holding a spray of olive leaves. John R. Andrew and Craddock. • Melville Jones. Historia Numorum Italy. American Journal of Numismatics (http:/ / books. Coins are valuable. Oxford.[2] Coins as Propaganda The use of coins for propaganda purposes was a Greek invention. The design of the reverse was carved into a similar punch. (1911). From Kroisos to Karia. On these coins the owl of Athens. Crawford M. 2 vols (1993 and 2007). they were an ideal way of disseminating a political message. Paul (2000). Seaby 1986. Early Anatolian Coins from the Muharrem Kayhan Collection. was depicted facing the viewer with wings outstretched. A Manual of Greek Numismatics. King Croesus' Gold. London : Archibald Constable and Co. silver. rather than machined as modern coins are. • Melville Jones. Middle East. A blank disk of gold. To varying degrees. • Ramage. but also peace-loving. Excavations at Sardis and the History of Gold Refining. Johnston A. Barclay V. Historical Greek Coins (http://books. Ancient Greek Coins. ISBN 1-85264-014-6 • Konuk. H. durable and pass through many hands. Trustees of the British Museum. • Hill. and some of the coins in these hoards find their way onto the market. John R. American Numismatic and Archaeological Society. There is also an active collector market for Greek coins. called a die. com/ books?id=HmIaAAAAYAAJ& dq=trihemitetartemorion& source=gbs_navlinks_s). In an age without newspapers or other mass media. 0-907-05-40-0 and 978-1-902040-81-3. Spink. London. [2] Grierson: Numismatics Further reading • Grierson. ISBN 0-915262-75-4. • Jenkins. (1976). Numismatics. Durst. or electrum was cast in a mold and then. Coins are the only art form from the Ancient world which is common enough and durable enough to be within the reach of ordinary collectors. Koray (2003). George Francis (1906). google. Oxford: Clarendon Press.com/ books?id=_4MWAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover). ISBN 0-7141-0888-X. Citations [1] American Numismatic Society (1916). The first such coin was a commemorative decadrachm issued by Athens following the Greek victory in the Persian Wars. Greek and Latin texts concerning Ancient Greek Coinage. the olive tree being Athena's sacred plant and also a symbol of peace and prosperity. Historia Numorum.google. placed between these two and the punch struck hard with a hammer. raising the design on both sides of the coin. New York: Sanford J. The message was that Athens was powerful and victorious. Burnett A.Ancient Greek coinage 290 Minting All Greek coins were hand-made. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-885098-0 • Head. Jessop Price M (2001).K. Ancient Greek coins today Collections of Ancient Greek coins are held by museums around the world. H. ISBN 0-7141-1801-X. reprinted Spink 2004. M. Seaby. and the Danish National Museum are considered to be the finest. (1990). London. these coins are available for study by academics and researchers. Several auction houses in Europe and the United States specialize in ancient coins (including Greek) and there is also a large on-line market for such coins. The design for the obverse was carved (in incuso) into a block of bronze or possibly iron. Colin M.M. Philip (1975). ISBN 975-8070-61-4 • Kraay. and North Africa. • Rutter N. E. . the American Numismatic Society. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins. London: The British Museum Press. of which the collections of the British Museum. K.

perseus. Iola.unicatt. Wayne G.snible.gr/2/21/214/21401m/e21401m.britac.it/) Digital Library Numis (DLN) (http://sites. 2003.org/inc/) The British Academy (http://www. "Greek Coins and Their Values: Volume 2" London: Spink. Wayne G. 1902. New York.wildwinds. (eds): An Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards. • Sayles. Wisconsin : Krause Publications. • Sear. (IGCH). • Thompson M.com) CoinArchives.ac. Ancient Coin Collecting (http://books.com/) History and index/photo gallery of ancient Greek and Roman coins from Asia Minor (Anatolia/Turkey) . The charm of gold in ancient coinage (http://monetaoro.sylloge-nummorum-graecorum.tufts. Masterpieces of Greek Coinage. M.com/ books?id=iAnweepmTSMC&printsec=frontcover).google.asp?sec=4) And presentation of the Greek modern coins Online numismatic exhibit: "This round gold is but the image of the rounder globe" (H. New York • Ward.html) Historia Numorum: A Manual of Greek Numismatics (http://www.com/books?id=mBgaAAAAIAAJ& printsec=frontcover).culture.org/coins/hn/) Hellenic Numismatic Society (http://www.org/) Perseus Project at Tuft University (http://www.numismatics.includes images and prices (http:// www. 1949.com) National Numismatic Museum.com/books?id=VonX-nPVFn4C& printsec=frontcover). John.amnumsoc.asiaminorcoins. Bruno Cassirer .coinarchives. London : John Murray.gr/hellenum/) History of the Greek coins (http://www. Mørkholm O. Greek Coins.Melville). 2007. London: Methuen & Co. Kraay C. Athens (http://www. • Seltman. Charles (1933). Ltd. Wisconsin : Krause Publications.includes images (http://www. (accompanied by a catalogue of the author’s collection by Sir George Francis Hill) 291 External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • • International Numismatic Commission (http://www.com: A large database of coins previously sold at auction . London: Spink. Charles.edu/cgi-bin/browser?object=coin) Wildwinds: a database for Greek and Roman coins .google.com/currency/greekcoinshistory.fleur-de-coin.org/) American Numismatic Society (http://www.google. David. 1973 ISBN 978-0-89722-068-2 • Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum: • American Numismatic Society: The Collection of the American Numismatic Society. • Sear. Iola. • Seltman. Greek Coins and their Parent Cities (http://books.uk/) Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum in UK (http://www. "Greek Coins and Their Values: Volume 1". Ancient Coin Collecting II: Numismatic Art of the Greek World" (http://books.Ancient Greek coinage • Sayles.com/site/digitallibrarynumis/subjects/greek-coins/ general-texts-1) Online books and articles on Greek coins Asia Minor Coins (http://www.google.coins. David.Oxford.

2nd–1st century BCE. the most important meal of the day.[18] Ἀριστόδειπνον / aristodeipnon. "of flour or dough of spelt".[20] When the house was too small.[9][10][11] Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης (staititēs). and were served for breakfast.[1] It was founded on the "Mediterranean triad": wheat.[21] Slaves waited at dinners. was served in the late afternoon instead of dinner.[19] Men and women took their meals separately. from Myrina. honey and curdled milk. 500 BCE. olive oil. and wine. Aristotle notes that "the poor. literally "lunch-dinner". sometimes complemented by figs or olives. was generally taken at nightfall. must use their wives and Terracotta model representing a lion's paw tripod table.[18] An additional light meal (ἑσπέρισμα hesperisma) was sometimes taken in the late afternoon.[2] Our knowledge of ancient Greek cuisine and eating habits is derived from literary and artistic evidence. olive oil. the most common drinking vessel in ancient Greece. Breakfast (ἀκρατισμός akratismos) consisted of barley bread dipped in wine (ἄκρατος akratos). the women afterwards.[5] all words deriving from τάγηνον (tagēnon). Kylix. reflecting agricultural hardship.[12] derived from σταῖς (stais). British Museum Meals At home The Greeks had three to four meals a day.[14][15][16] A quick lunch (ἄριστον ariston[17]) was taken around noon or early afternoon.[6] The earliest attested references on tagenias are in the works of the 5th century BC poets Cratinus[7] and Magnes. ταγηνίτης (tagēnitēs)[4] or ταγηνίας (tagēnias). artistic information is provided by Black. having no slaves.[13] Athenaeus in his Deipnosophistae mentions staititas topped with honey. the men ate first.[18] Dinner (δεῖπνον deipnon). Louvre .and red-figure vase-painting and terracotta figurines.[8] Tagenites were made with wheat flour. Our literary knowledge comes mostly from Aristophanes' comedies and quotes preserved by 2nd–3rd century CE grammarian Athenaeus. "frying pan". from σταίτινος (staitinos). "flour of spelt".[3] They also made pancakes called τηγανίτης (tēganitēs). sesame and cheese.Ancient Greek cuisine 292 Ancient Greek cuisine Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality. c.

But by the 4th century BCE. most often in honor of Dionysus. regimental syssitia. ca. acrobats. beans. often with animal-shaped legs (for example lion's paws). Cutlery was not often used at table: Use of the fork was unknown.[23] The tables. and the Deipnosophists (Banquet of the Learned) of Athenaeus. 510 BCE. and by the Roman period plates were sometimes made out of precious metals or glass. traditionally translated as "banquet".[29] With the exception of Courtesans. and the obligatory. and musicians would entertain the wealthy banqueters. such as kottabos. toasted wheat. but more literally "gathering of drinkers". It consisted of two parts: the first dedicated to food. but two other forms of social dining were central in ancient Greece: the entertainment of the all-male symposium. to wipe the fingers. and the beverages were accompanied by snacks (τραγήματα tragēmata) such as chestnuts.[29] followed by conversation or table games. Great feasts could only be afforded by the rich. Dancers. a playful subversion of the libation. religious feasts or family events were the occasion of more modest banquets. A "king of the banquet" was drawn by lots. and a second part dedicated to drinking. The guests would recline on couches (κλίναι klinai). or honey cakes. all intended to absorb alcohol and extend the drinking spree. The banquet became the setting of a specific genre of literature. he had the task of directing the slaves as to how strong to mix the wine.[27] However. Loaves of flat bread could be used as plates.[27] was one of the preferred pastimes for the Greeks.[28] Banqueter playing the kottabos. were initially rectangular in shape.[22] The ancient Greek custom to place terra cotta miniatures of their furniture in children's graves gives us a good idea of its style and design. people ate with their fingers.[24] Spoons were used for soups and broths. the banquet was strictly reserved for men.[25] Knives were used to cut the meat. benches were used for banquets. . The Greeks normally ate while seated on chairs. Xenophon's work of the same name.Ancient Greek cuisine children as servants". It was an essential element of Greek social life. but terra cotta bowls were more common. high for normal meals and low for banquets. Louvre The second part was inaugurated with a libation.[26] 293 Social dining As with modern dinner parties. the usual table was round. Symposium The symposium (συμπόσιον symposion).[24] Pieces of bread (ἀπομαγδαλία apomagdalia) could be used to spoon the food[25] or as napkins. in most Greek homes.[24] Dishes became more refined over time. low tables held the food or game boards