P. 1
Bill Gates - Unabridged Guide

Bill Gates - Unabridged Guide

|Views: 154|Likes:
Published by Emereo Publishing
Complete, Unabridged Guide to Bill Gates. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world's largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. ...One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), which banned four Lakeside students-Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans-for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time. ...Gates and his wife invited Joan Salwen to Seattle to speak about what the family had done, and on December 9, 2010, Gates, investor Warren Buffett, and Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook's CEO) signed a promise they called the Gates-Buffet Giving Pledge, in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time. ...Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the Top 50 Cyber Elite by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the Top 100 influential people in media in 2001. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about Bill Gates in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about Bill Gates. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: Bill Gates, Earth sheltering, David Boies, DFBCS, Currier House (Harvard College), Criticism of Microsoft, Craig Mundie, Corbis, Codex Leicester, Christos Papadimitriou, Cascade Investment, Carlos Slim, Business magnate, Business @ the Speed of Thought, Borsheim's Fine Jewelry, Bono, Bill Gates' house, Bill Gates' flower fly, bgC3, Berkshire Hathaway, BASIC, Anthony Michael Hall, Amancio Ortega Gaona, Altair BASIC, Altair 8800, 86-DOS
Complete, Unabridged Guide to Bill Gates. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world's largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. ...One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), which banned four Lakeside students-Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans-for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time. ...Gates and his wife invited Joan Salwen to Seattle to speak about what the family had done, and on December 9, 2010, Gates, investor Warren Buffett, and Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook's CEO) signed a promise they called the Gates-Buffet Giving Pledge, in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time. ...Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the Top 50 Cyber Elite by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the Top 100 influential people in media in 2001. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about Bill Gates in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about Bill Gates. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: Bill Gates, Earth sheltering, David Boies, DFBCS, Currier House (Harvard College), Criticism of Microsoft, Craig Mundie, Corbis, Codex Leicester, Christos Papadimitriou, Cascade Investment, Carlos Slim, Business magnate, Business @ the Speed of Thought, Borsheim's Fine Jewelry, Bono, Bill Gates' house, Bill Gates' flower fly, bgC3, Berkshire Hathaway, BASIC, Anthony Michael Hall, Amancio Ortega Gaona, Altair BASIC, Altair 8800, 86-DOS

More info:

Published by: Emereo Publishing on Dec 24, 2012
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781486427833
List Price: $16.38

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
This book can be read on up to 6 mobile devices.
Full version available to members
See more
See less

02/04/2016

84

9781486427833

Sections

  • Bill Gates
  • 86-DOS
  • Altair 8800
  • Altair BASIC
  • Anthony Michael Hall
  • BASIC
  • Berkshire Hathaway
  • bgC3
  • Bill Gates' flower fly
  • Bill Gates' house
  • Bono
  • Borsheim's Fine Jewelry
  • Business @ the Speed of Thought
  • Business magnate
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped.

Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it e ectively and globally. e content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. e publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need speci c advice (for example, medical, legal, nancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Bill Gates 86-DOS Altair 8800 Altair BASIC Anthony Michael Hall BASIC Berkshire Hathaway bgC3 Bill Gates' flower fly Bill Gates' house Bono Borsheim's Fine Jewelry Business @ the Speed of Thought Business magnate 1 15 18 26 29 38 47 57 58 59 61 73 74 74

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 76 81

Article Licenses
License 82

Bill Gates

1

Bill Gates
Bill Gates

Gates in 2012 Born William Henry Gates III October 28, 1955 Seattle, Washington, U.S. Medina, Washington, U.S. American Harvard University (dropped out) Co-founder and Chairman of Microsoft Co-Chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation CEO of Cascade Investment Chairman of Corbis 1975–present [1] US$ 66 billion (2012)

Residence Nationality Alma mater

Occupation

Years active Net worth

Board member of Berkshire Hathaway Religion Spouse(s) Children Parents [2][3] Agnostic Melinda Gates (1994-present) 3 William H. Gates, Sr. Mary Maxwell Gates

Signature Website Bill Gates [4]

Bill Gates William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955)[5] is an American business magnate and philanthropist. Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked among the world's wealthiest people[6] and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third;[7] in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the second wealthiest person.[8][9] During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock.[10] He has also authored or co-authored several books. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts.[11][12] In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.[13] Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work, and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie, chief software architect, and Craig Mundie, chief research and strategy officer. Gates's last full-time day at Microsoft was June 27, 2008. He remains at Microsoft as non-executive chairman.

2

Early life
Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, to William H. Gates, Sr. and Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German, and Scots-Irish.[14][15] His father was a prominent lawyer, and his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates's maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one elder sister, Kristi (Kristianne), and one younger sister, Libby. He was the fourth of his name in his family, but was known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix.[16] Early on in his life, Gates's parents had a law career in mind for him.[17] When Gates was young, his family regularly attended a Congregational church.[18][19][20] At 13 he enrolled in the Lakeside School, an exclusive preparatory school.[21] When he was in the eighth grade, the Mothers Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric (GE) computer for the school's students.[22] Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, and was excused from math classes to pursue his interest. He wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine and how it would always execute software code perfectly. When he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine."[23] After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), which banned four Lakeside students—Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans—for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.[24] At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in FORTRAN, LISP, and machine language. The arrangement with CCC continued until 1970, when the company went out of business. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's computer program to schedule students in classes. He modified the code so that he was placed in classes with mostly female students. He later stated that "it was hard to tear myself away from a machine at which I could so unambiguously demonstrate success."[23] At age 17, Gates formed a venture with Allen, called Traf-O-Data, to make traffic counters based on the

and he joined him at Honeywell during the University. the trade name "Microsoft" was registered with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico. Gates and Allen did not have an Altair and had not written code for it.[37] Gates never returned to Harvard to complete his studies. the creators of the new microcomputer. they merely wanted to gauge MITS's interest. .[29] His solution was later formalized in a published paper in collaboration with Harvard computer scientist Christos Papadimitriou.[35] He had talked this decision over with his parents. one of his professors.[29][30] its successor is faster by only one percent.[37] Within a year.[33] The following year saw the release of the MITS Altair 8800 based on the Intel 8080 CPU. but Gates discovered that a pre-market copy had leaked into the community and was being widely copied and distributed. and over the course of a few weeks they developed an Altair emulator that ran on a minicomputer. he met Steve Ballmer. The demonstration. Gates remained in The Poker Room in Currier House at Harvard contact with Paul Allen. In February 1976.S.[37] and (200 mm) floppy disk system Gates took a leave of absence from Harvard to work with Allen at MITS in Albuquerque in November 1975. Paul Allen was hired into MITS. Gates wrote an Open Letter to Hobbyists in the MITS newsletter saying that MITS could not continue to produce. 1976. who later succeeded Gates as CEO of Microsoft. and then the BASIC interpreter. and on November 26.[26] Gates graduated from Lakeside School in 1973. to inform them that he and others were working on a BASIC interpreter for the platform. and maintain [38] This letter was unpopular with many computer hobbyists.[28] While at Harvard. summer of 1974. Gates devised an algorithm for pancake sorting as a solution to one of a series of unsolved problems[29] presented in a combinatorics class by Harry Lewis.[25] In early 1973.[34] Gates dropped out of Harvard at this time. He scored 1590 out of 1600 on the SAT[27] and enrolled at Harvard College in the autumn of 1973.[32] 3 Microsoft BASIC After reading the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800. and Gates and Allen saw this as the opportunity to start their own computer software company. held at MITS's offices in Albuquerque was a success and resulted in a deal with MITS to distribute the MITS Altair 8800 Computer with 8-inch interpreter as Altair BASIC. Microsoft's BASIC was popular with computer hobbyists. House of Representatives. but Gates high-quality software without payment. distribute. Gates's solution held the record as the fastest version for over thirty years. Bill Gates served as a congressional page in the U. MITS president Ed Roberts agreed to meet them for a demo. who were supportive of him after seeing how much Gates wanted to start a company.[36] In reality. where Gates and Allen formed Microsoft. They named their partnership "Micro-Soft" and had their first office located in Albuquerque.Bill Gates Intel 8008 processor. In his sophomore year. Gates contacted Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS).[31] Gates did not have a definite study plan while a student at Harvard[32] and spent a lot of time using the school's computers. the hyphen was dropped.

000.[37] The company moved from Albuquerque to its new home in Bellevue. A few weeks later Gates proposed using 86-DOS (QDOS). Microsoft made a deal with SCP to become the exclusive licensing agent. Washington on January 1. and they did not reach a licensing agreement. Microsoft delivered it to IBM as PC-DOS in exchange for a one-time fee of $50. and later the full owner. all employees had broad responsibility for the company's business. 1981.[41] IBM's discussions with Digital Research went poorly. Microsoft became independent of MITS in late 1976. After adapting the operating system for the PC.[36] During Microsoft's early years. and the sales of MS-DOS made Microsoft a major player in the industry.Bill Gates persisted in his belief that software developers should be able to demand payment.[42] They did.[36] . but continued to write code as well. the IBM PC. 1979. which re-incorporated the company in Washington state and made Gates President of Microsoft and the Chairman of the Board.[42] Gates did not offer to transfer the copyright on the operating system. Gates referred them to Digital Research (DRI). IBM representative Jack Sams mentioned the licensing difficulties during a subsequent meeting with Gates and told him to get an acceptable operating system. and often rewrote parts of it as he saw fit. When IBM's representatives mentioned that they needed an operating system.[40] The computer company first proposed that Microsoft write the BASIC interpreter. Gates oversaw the business details.[39] 4 IBM partnership IBM approached Microsoft in July 1980 regarding its upcoming personal computer. after the former rejected his loan application. In the first five years. an operating system similar to CP/M that Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products (SCP) had made for hardware similar to the PC. makers of the widely used CP/M operating system. Gates personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped. with PC Magazine asking if Gates were "The Man Behind The Machine?"[40] He oversaw Microsoft's company restructuring on June 25.[43] Despite IBM's name on the operating system the press quickly identified Microsoft as being very influential on the new computer. because he believed that other hardware vendors would clone IBM's system. and it continued to develop programming language software for various systems. of 86-DOS.

[55] Antitrust litigation . as early as 1981 an industry executive complained in public that "Gates is notorious for not being reachable by phone and for not returning phone calls. placing Ray Ozzie in charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in charge of long-term product strategy. 2006.[47][48] Bill Gates in January 2008 He often interrupted presentations with such comments as. hopefully. It ended in 1991. He gained a reputation for being distant to others.[54] but wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in the company's products. Firsthand accounts of these meetings describe him as verbally combative.Bill Gates 5 Windows Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows on November 20. "That's the stupidest thing I've ever heard!"[49] and. Although the two companies successfully developed the first version of the new system.[44] Management style From Microsoft's founding in 1975 until 2006. Gates was fully convinced."[51][52][53] Gates's role at Microsoft for most of its history was primarily a management and executive role.[49] When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating. when Gates led Microsoft to develop a version of OS/2 independently from IBM. Gates met regularly with Microsoft's senior managers and program managers. he was known to remark sarcastically. and in August. particularly on the company's programming language products.[52] On June 15. when they met again a month later Gates "won or tied every game. mounting creative differences caused the partnership to deteriorate. "Why don't you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?"[50] The target of his outburst then had to defend the proposal in detail until."[45] Another executive recalled that after he showed Gates a videogame and defeated him 35 of 37 times. berating managers for perceived holes in their business strategies or proposals that placed the company's long-term interests at risk. Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. However. the company struck a deal with IBM to develop a separate operating system called OS/2. That is a competitor. he was an active software developer in the early years. He has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100. He had studied the game until he solved it."[46] As an executive. "I'll do it over the weekend. and wherever Microsoft achieved a dominant position he vigorously defended it. He aggressively broadened the company's range of products. 1985. Gates had primary responsibility for the company's product strategy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors.

Gates and Seinfeld are at the home of an average family trying to fit in with normal people. purchased the video rights to the Messenger Lectures series called The Character of Physical Law. after getting a yes. co-starring Jerry Seinfeld. he said. "compete". he holds up his discount card. Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree. He argued with examiner David Boies over the contextual meaning of words such as. "Did I fence with Boies? . Microsoft case. As Gates is buying the shoes. 6 Gates giving his deposition at Microsoft on August 27.[60] In a second commercial in the series.[56] BusinessWeek reported: Early rounds of his deposition show him offering obfuscatory answers and saying 'I don't recall. Gates was invited to visit and speak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he asked the students to take on the hard problems of the world in their futures. The first commercial."[58] Despite Gates' denials. Worse. is a 90-second talk between strangers as Seinfeld walks up on a discount shoe store (Shoe Circus) in a mall and notices Gates buying shoes inside. I plead guilty. again getting a yes. Some say that this is an homage to Seinfeld's own show about "nothing" (Seinfeld). given at Cornell University by Richard Feynman in 1964 and recorded by the BBC. Seinfeld asks Gates Mugshot of his 1977 arrest in New Mexico Gates if he has melded his mind to other developers. among other projects.[58] Appearance in ads Gates appeared in a series of ads to promote Microsoft in 2008. 1998 Gates later said he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. Gates continues his philanthropy and.. and blocking competition. "concerned". and "we". The videos are available online to the public at Microsoft's Project Tuva.[62][63] In April 2010. which uses a slightly altered version of his own mugshot of his arrest in New Mexico in 1977 for a traffic violation. Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. Post-Microsoft Since leaving day-to-day operations at Microsoft (where he remains Chairman[61]).[64][65] . As to his demeanor during the deposition. The salesman is trying to sell Mr.[59] As they are walking out of the mall. the judge ruled that Microsoft had committed monopolization and tying.. many of the technology chief's denials and pleas of ignorance were directly refuted by prosecutors with snippets of e-mail that Gates both sent and [57] received. he then asks if they are working on a way to make computers edible. Gates shoes that are a size too big. In the 1998 United States v.Bill Gates Many decisions that led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft's business practices have had Gates's approval.' so many times that even the presiding judge had to chuckle. both in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

and modeled their giving in part on the Rockefeller family's philanthropic focus. tennis. June 2009 Philanthropy Gates began to appreciate the expectations others had of him when public opinion mounted suggesting that he could give more of his wealth to charity.[79] As of 2007. when he bought a private jet. which is the largest transparently operated charitable foundation in the world. former benefactors access to information regarding how its money is being British Prime Minister Gordon Brown. 1994. and the annual property tax is $991.100 m2) estate has a 60-foot (18 m) swimming pool with an underwater music system. Gates and his father met with Rockefeller several times. and the ceiling of his large home library is engraved with a quotation from The Great Gatsby. In a May 2006 interview. 1996) and Phoebe Adele (b.[73] Gates has several investments outside Microsoft. Bill and Melinda Gates. namely those global problems that are ignored by governments and other organizations. Gates and his wife combined three family foundations into one to create the charitable Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Queen Rania of Jordan. and in 1994 sold some of his Microsoft stock to create the William H. the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft's stock price after the dot-com bubble burst and the multi-billion dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. They have three children: daughters Jennifer Katharine (b.Bill Gates 7 Personal life Gates married Melinda French on January 1. a digital imaging company. the investment company headed by long-time friend Warren Buffett. which in 2006 paid him a salary of $616. In 2004 he became a director of Berkshire Hathaway.[77][78] The generosity and extensive philanthropy of Annual Meeting 2008 of the World Economic Forum in Switzerland David Rockefeller has been credited as a major influence. having given over $28 billion to charity.000 bonus totalling $966. as well as a 2. Gates studied the work of Andrew Carnegie and John D. unlike other major charitable organizations such as the Umaru Yar'Adua of Nigeria and others during the Wellcome Trust. His 66.[75] In March 2010 Bill Gates was bumped down to the second wealthiest man behind Carlos Slim. in 1989.[67] Gates is also known as an avid reader. which Gates bought for $30.[80] They plan to eventually give 95% of their wealth to charity. 2002) and son Rory John (b. Gates commented that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world because he disliked the attention it brought. an earth-sheltered house in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina. as of 2006 the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million. 1999).667 and $350. causing the media to call Gates a "centibillionaire". a collection of writings by Leonardo da Vinci.[69][70] Gates was number one on the Forbes 400 list from 1993 through to 2007 and number one on Forbes list of The World's Richest People from 1995 to 2007 and 2009. Gates Foundation. President spent. his wealth briefly surpassed $101 billion.000.[71] Despite his wealth and extensive business travel Gates usually flew coach until 1997.8 million at an auction in 1994. In 1999. In 2000. According to King County public records. Rockefeller.000 sq ft (6.000 sq ft (93 m2) dining room.[66] Also among Gates's private acquisitions is the Codex Leicester. and golf. Bill and Melinda Gates were the second-most generous philanthropists in America.[72] Since 2000.[74] He founded Corbis.[76] The foundation allows Gates with Bono. The family resides in the Gates's home.[81] .667.500 sq ft (230 m2) gym and a 1.[68] He also enjoys playing bridge.

[100] He was also made an honorary trustee of Peking University in 2007. he and his wife were awarded the Order of the Aztec Eagle for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education. Bill Gates was ranked as the fifth most powerful person in the world. the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments. particularly in Mexico. he was honoured as the twentieth Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society. and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world.[84] The Gates Millennium Scholars program has been criticized for its exclusion of Caucasian students. which had sold its home and given away half of its value. as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004. and specifically in the program "Un país de lectores". in 2002. in 2005. in January 2008. Beijing.[91] Time magazine named Gates one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century. China. The Netherlands. he was worth $1. and on December 9.[98] the Karolinska Institutet. As the world's youngest self-made billionaire.[103] In November 2006. Breukelen. it was announced that Gates will be awarded the 2010 Bower Award for Business Leadership of The Franklin Institute for his achievements in business and for his philanthropic work. Gates and Steve Jobs at the 5th D: All Things his wife Melinda and U2's lead singer Bono as the 2005 Persons of the Digital conference (D5) in 2007 Year for their humanitarian efforts. in 2000.[101] Gates was also made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005. As a result.[99] and Cambridge University in June 2009. its highest award for adults. as detailed in The Power of Half. for his service to youth. to assess social responsibility. Eristalis gatesi.[105] In 2011. while using voting rights to influence company practices.[82] In response to press criticism.[102] in addition to having entomologists name the Bill Gates flower fly. its investments include companies that have been charged with worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the Foundation is attempting to relieve poverty. Time also collectively named Gates.[88][89][90] 8 Recognition In 1987.[94] In 1994. In 2010 he was honored with the Silver Buffalo Award by the Boy Scouts of America. 2005. named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994. 2010. Gates has received honorary doctorates from Nyenrode Business Universiteit. and 2006. Sweden.[97] Harvard University in June 2007.[95] the Royal Institute of Technology.[106] . Tsinghua University.[92] In 2006. Stockholm. in his honor.Bill Gates The foundation was at the same time criticized because it invests assets that it has not yet distributed with the exclusive goal of maximizing return on investment.[93] Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999.25 billion. when he'd debuted on the list. he was voted eighth in the list of "Heroes of our time". ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the "Top 100 influential people in media" in 2001. Tokyo. ranked number one in the "Top 50 Cyber Elite" by Time in 1998.[85][86] Gates's wife urged people to learn a lesson from the philanthropic efforts of the Salwen family. Stockholm. just days before his 32nd birthday.[96] Waseda University. and Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook's CEO) signed a promise they called the "Gates-Buffet Giving Pledge". Gates was listed as a billionaire in the pages of Forbes' 400 Richest People in America issue. according to rankings by Forbes magazine. in April 2007. investor Warren Buffett.[104] In October 2009. over $900 million more than he'd been worth the year before. Gates. These include companies that pollute heavily. Japan. in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time.[87] Gates and his wife invited Joan Salwen to Seattle to speak about what the family had done.[83] It subsequently canceled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return.

com. is/ 20120525/ http:/ / www.S. Books and films To date. • bgC3. theamericanview. Not "Huge Believer" In "Specific Elements" Of Christianity" (http:/ / archive. [9] "Forbes Billionaires list" (http:/ / archive.com. 2011. html#photo=1). "Superman". Bill Gates: Entrepreneur and Philanthropist (http:/ / books. [8] "Washington Post" (http:/ / archive. nndb. 2008). [7] (http:/ / www. com/ business/ forbes-list-of-the-richest-americans-of-2011/ 2011/ 09/ 22/ gIQAL3emnK_gallery. google. Retrieved June 9. Washington. com/ article/ rbssTechMediaTelecomNews/ idUSN1748882920080917). aspx). [16] (Manes 1994. 15) [17] (Manes 1994. a nuclear reactor design company.Bill Gates 9 Investments • Cascade Investments LLC. written with Microsoft executive Nathan Myhrvold and journalist Peter Rinearson. 11) [6] Wahba. 2008). is controlled by Bill Gates. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. [3] "Warren Buffett "Agnostic. ISBN 978-1-58013-570-2. 96) [13] "" (http:/ / archive. 459) [12] (Lesinski 2006. Archived from the original (http:/ / archive. theamericanview. "The Gates family regularly went to services at the University Congregational Church. References [1] (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. org/ Pages/ home. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. com/ scottish-americans. 2011. forbes. com/ people/ 435/ 000022369/ ) on 2012-05-24.theamericanview. forbes. p. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html). com/ wealth/ billionaires). com/ wealth/ billionaires) on 2012-05-25. is/ 20120524/ http:/ / www. Twenty First Century Books. Nndb. html) on 2012-07-18. com/ scottish-americans. is/ 20120718/ http:/ / www. p. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ symbol/ msft) [11] (Manes 1994. p. forbes. com/ article/ rbssTechMediaTelecomNews/ idUSN1748882920080917) on 2012-09-16. forbes. Securities and Exchange Commission form 4 filings. com/ business/ forbes-list-of-the-richest-americans-of-2011/ 2011/ 09/ 22/ gIQAL3emnK_gallery. Retrieved May 11. a private investment and holding company. com/ index." ." Bill Gates Rejects Sermon On The Mount. com/ ?id=ubYgIB0TgUYC& pg=PA12& dq=Bill+ Gates+ Congregationalist#v=onepage& q& f=false). • TerraPower. org/ Pages/ home. .com.com. gatesfoundation. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Bill Gates has authored two books. a new think-tank company founded by Bill Gates. a 1999 film which chronicles the rise of Apple and Microsoft from the early 1970s to 1997. He was portrayed by Anthony Michael Hall. Wargs. Reuters. wargs. January 13. com/ other/ gates. html) on 2012-09-16. Business @ the Speed of Thought was published in 1999.S. p. . is/ 20120701/ http:/ / archive. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html). [14] "Ancestry of Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. was published in November 1995. . [15] "Scottish Americans" (http:/ / archive. "Bill Gates tops U.com. nasdaq. Retrieved April 2010. 2009. Phil (September 17. com/ asp/ holdings. albawest. com/ profile/ bill-gates/ ) Forbes. wealth list 15 years in a row" (http:/ / archive. nasdaq. 1996. Retrieved March 10. Gates was prominently featured in Pirates of Silicon Valley. wargs. is/ 20120523/ http:/ / www. washingtonpost. and discusses how business and technology are integrated. 2008. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Archive. albawest. albawest. . Lesinski (September 1. . nndb. aspx) on 2012-05-23. and is headquartered in the city of Kirkland. 2011. . com/ index. [10] Gates regularly documents his share ownership through public U. Retrieved November 6.com. . • Corbis. p. a digital image licensing and rights services company. php?id=649) on 2012-07-01. php?id=649). and it summarized the implications of the personal computing revolution and described a future profoundly changed by the arrival of a global information superhighway. com/ people/ 435/ 000022369/ ). Retrieved March 2012. . html#photo=1) on 2012-09-16. reuters. Retrieved April 29. Retrieved October 24. 2010. (http:/ / www. incorporated in United States. The Road Ahead. com/ profile/ bill-gates) Forbes. and shows how digital infrastructures and information networks can help getting an edge on the competition. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. Gates has appeared in a number of documentaries. [4] http:/ / www. reuters. asp?symbol=MSFT& selected=MSFT& FormType=form4) (http:/ / www. com/ en-us/ news/ exec/ billg/ [5] (Manes 1994. including the 2010 documentary film Waiting for [107] and the BBC documentary series The Virtual Revolution. gatesfoundation. microsoft. com/ other/ gates. [2] "Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 47) [18] Jeanne M. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www.

google. William. Some of these include: the Honorable John Dingell. Ontario. "The Gates family attended the University Congregational Church. Retrieved March 31. com/ download/ 1/ 3/ 0/ 130dd86a-a196-4700-b577-521c4cf5cec1/ key_events_in_microsoft_history. google. 27) [23] (Gates 1996. org/ templates/ story/ story. [42] (Gates 1996. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [38] (Manes 1994. 2008. 2002). php). archive. Fred Thorlin: The Big Boss at Atari Program Exchange (http:/ / www. archive. The Week Magazine. com/ download/ 1/ 3/ 0/ 130dd86a-a196-4700-b577-521c4cf5cec1/ key_events_in_microsoft_history. net/ pdf/ iowa/ www. org/ 011607/ 0000/ PX00738. . org/ web/ 20080406130809/ http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Waterloo. September 17. p. The History of Computing Project. Forbes. com/ forbes/ 2002/ 1223/ 258_print. 2005). htm) on 2012-05-23. 2008. 2006. p. [36] (. Discrete mathematics 27: 47–57." [27] "The new—and improved?—SAT" (http:/ / web. Retrieved February 18. 81) [39] Gates. David (July 4. org/ web/ 20080226224212/ http:/ / download. pdf) (PDF). Something Happened: A Political and Cultural Overview of the Seventies (http:/ / books. participated in the Boy Scouts. 14) [26] "Congressional Page History" (http:/ / www. PC Magazine: p. php?storyId=92236781). ushpaa. Retrieved March 31. . Retrieved February 17. "Pioneers Die Broke" (http:/ / archive. www. founder and CEO of the Microsoft Corporation. . com/ forbes/ 2002/ 1223/ 258_print. p. Retrieved May 23. as well as other famous men and women. microsoft. "The Man Behind The Machine? / A PC Exclusive Interview With Software Guru Bill Gates" (http:/ / books. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. com/ presspass/ exec/ billg/ speeches/ 2005/ 10-13Waterloo. google." [20] Edward D. 12) [24] (Manes 1994. aspx?id=803).Bill Gates [19] Janet Lowe (January 5. 24) [22] (Manes 1994. born in 1955 into an upper-middle-class family near Seattle. National Public Radio. 2011. 10 . 34) [25] (Gates 1996. org/ APX/ thorlininterview. and went to a fancy private school. Fred (April 2000). 2012. 18) [35] "Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive.org.1016/0012-365X(79)90068-2. doc).com. 2008. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. is/ 20120805/ http:/ / www. [40] Bunnell. . . 2008. p. com/ people/ 435/ 000022369/ ) on 2012-05-24. p." He attended the Congregational Church. Interview with Kevin Savetz. [31] Gates. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . Retrieved Nov 17. Bill Gates. former Clerk of the House. 2006. [28] (Gates 1996. thocp. where the Reverend Dale Turner was pastor. forbes. 193) [44] "Challenges and Strategy" (http:/ / groklaw. npr. doi:10. iowaconsumercase. University of Texas at Dallas. Bill (October 13. Archived from the original (http:/ / theweekmagazine. InfoWorld. [37] "Microsoft history" (http:/ / archive. . npr. net/ companies/ microsoft/ microsoft_company. Wiley. 2011. com/ people/ 435/ 000022369/ ). Nndb. org/ web/ 20060510205250/ http:/ / theweekmagazine. Papadimitriou. microsoft. htm). Columbia University Press. edu/ news/ 2008/ 09/ 17-002. David (Feb–Mar 1982). [41] Maiello. php). Members of Congress. Retrieved March 10. . Groklaw. "Before Microsoft. "Bounds for sorting by prefix reversal". is/ 20120523/ http:/ / www. . com/ article. 2001). org/ history. 2012. forbes. and Donnald K. 15) [29] Kestenbaum. Retrieved December 6. 54) [43] (Manes 1994. org/ templates/ story/ story. p. 2011. p. [45] Freiberger. com/ article. 2011. php) on 2012-08-05. com/ books?id=w_OhaFDePS4C& lpg=RA2-PA18& pg=PA16#v=onepage& q& f=false). [30] "UT Dallas Team Bests Young Bill Gates With Improved Answer to So-Called Pancake Problem in Mathematics" (http:/ / archive. 16. Retrieved February 28. com/ ?id=LUwu-DTwa5cC& pg=PA3& dq=Congregationalist+ + bill+ gates#v=onepage& q& f=false). is/ 20120524/ http:/ / www. [46] Thorlin. "Bill Gates was a member of the baby boom. google. "Bugs in Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III: How Bad Are They?" (http:/ / books. John Steele Gordon Michael (December 23. Microsoft. html). p. com/ presspass/ exec/ billg/ speeches/ 2005/ 10-13Waterloo. 2008. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. nndb. 19) [33] (Wallace & 1993 59) [34] (Gates 1996. Retrieved March 10. archive. php?storyId=92236781) on 2012-09-16. edu/ news/ 2008/ 09/ 17-002. Archived (http:/ / web. ISBN 978-0-231-12494-2. . Retrieved August 24.atariarchives. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. microsoft. ISBN 978-0-471-40169-8. Bill Gates Speaks: Insight from the World's Greatest Entrepreneur (http:/ / books. "The Page Program has produced many politicians. Remarks by Bill Gates (http:/ / www. com/ ?id=tsl3EVBtdxcC& pg=PA228& dq=Congregationalist+ + bill+ gates#v=onepage& q& f=false). aspx) (Speech). . [32] (Gates 1996. p. microsoft. p. Retrieved March 31. Berkowitz (2006). Gates Solved A Pancake Problem" (http:/ / archive. net/ companies/ microsoft/ microsoft_company. p." [21] (Manes 1994. The United States House Page Association of America. Christos (1979). utdallas. doc) from the original on February 26 2008. . aspx) from the original on April 06 2008.DOC) Microsoft Visitor Center Student Information: Key Events in Microsoft History (http:/ / download. atariarchives. Archived (http:/ / web. 1981). 2008). . php). 2012. utdallas. the longest serving Member of Congress. 49. html) on 2012-09-16. Anderson. aspx?id=803) on May 10. thocp. p. Paul (August 31. com/ books?id=rD0EAAAAMBAJ& lpg=PA44& dq="radio shack" "model i"& pg=PA49#v=onepage& q="radio shack" "model i"& f=false). nndb.

html?thisSpeed=30000). . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved March 31. htm#tc35) on 2012-07-10. 2008). softpedia. Archived from the original (http:/ / americanhistory. ""In interview. com/ en-us/ news/ exec/ billg/ default. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ news/ Access-Project-Tuva-for-Free-Courtesy-of-Bill-Gates-116778. 11/ microsoft_pr. . p. 11 . 2008. [49] Isaacson. is/ 20120523/ http:/ / www. com/ news/ Access-Project-Tuva-for-Free-Courtesy-of-Bill-Gates-116778. Bill Gates sat down with The Tech to talk more about his college tour.. com/ time/ gates/ gates5. . National Museum of American History. .com. John (November 1. mit. microsoft. [53] Herbold. microsoft. PMID 18509686. html?thisSpeed=30000) on 2012-09-06. Archived from the original (http:/ / afp. Time. 2008. 2010. McQueen. May 22. forbes. mit. Retrieved February 7. David (1994). microsoft. his philanthropy. google. mit. wired. The Whole Truth.. July 20. ""Gates asks students to tackle world’s problems : Disease and education among biggest challenges"" (http:/ / archive. Volume 130. . wired. msnbc. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. The Tech. shtml) on 2012-09-16. Issue 21. time. "Steve Ballmer Speech Transcript — Church Hill Club" (http:/ / archive. 2000). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 1997). "CNET Project Tuva" (http:/ / archive. cnn. Robert (2004).softpedia. [67] (Lesinski 2006. microsoft. html) on 2012-07-13. com/ presspass/ exec/ steve/ churchillclub. com/ presspass/ exec/ steve/ churchillclub. cnet. cnet. com/ article/ ALeqM5i8aV1bK5vmwLaw9wYr9nY5bFc4YA). . "Bill Gates Signs Off" (http:/ / archive. si. businessweek. The Tech. html). breakingwindows. Retrieved June 9. 2009. [54] Allison. 2008. htm). 2009). News. [63] "Softpedia" (http:/ / archive. org/ web/ 20080501175753/ http:/ / www. Wired 46 (8): 833–9. html) on 2012-07-14. net/ 1link3. idg/ index. com/ 1998/ 48/ b3606125. 2010. is/ 20120713/ http:/ / news. ms. [48] Ballmer. businessweek. 2011. 2010. org/ web/ 20080420152409/ http:/ / www. com/ wired/ archive/ 8. is/ 20120524/ http:/ / www. The Wall Street Journal. 1998. Ina (July 14. aspx) on 2012-05-23. com/ TECH/ computing/ 9811/ 17/ judgelaugh. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. "Advice for Bill Gates: A Little Culture Wouldn't Hurt" (http:/ / www. is/ 20120714/ http:/ / tech. is/ 20120906/ http:/ / www. [51] Chapman. Retrieved June 9. 2008. forbes. html). 1997). 1999). 2008. idg/ index. is/ 20120729/ http:/ / www. com/ mugshots/ gatesmug1. . Agence France-Presse. David (February 1. 2010 [65] Guo.msn. 74) [68] Paterson. html). htm). . html).com. thesmokinggun. cnn. 2010. 2000). Archived from the original (http:/ / tech. com/ article/ ALeqM5i8aV1bK5vmwLaw9wYr9nY5bFc4YA) on 2012-09-16. archive. mspx). com/ mugshots/ gatesmug1. Steve (October 9. ms. com/ 2009/ 03/ 11/ billionaire-homes-expensive-billionaires-2009-lifestyle-real-estate-homes_3. microsoft. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved June 9. April 23. html)." [66] "coverage of the Gates' Medina. [58] Heilemann. html). . [55] "Microsoft Announces Plans for July 2008 Transition for Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. edu/ V130/ N21/ gates/ interview. com/ 1998/ 48/ b3606125. Microsoft. edu/ collections/ comphist/ gates. 2002. html) on 2012-09-16. htm). 1998. BusinessWeek. . San Diego. 2008. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [61] "Official Bill Gates page at Microsoft. Washington estate" (http:/ / archive. [52] Gates. edu/ V130/ N21/ gates. Walter (January 13. Playboy. html) on 2012-07-30. . net/ 1link3. html) on 2012-09-16.com" (http:/ / archive. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / tech. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Remarks by Bill Gates (http:/ / www. archive. Archived (http:/ / web. "After he spoke at Kresge Auditorium. . is/ 20120710/ http:/ / americanhistory. . Volume 130.com. and the philosophy behind it. aspx). . htm) on 2012-05-24. Retrieved March 31. 11/ microsoft_pr. thesmokinggun. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / afp. Forbes.cnet. htm) on 2012-07-29. Adblog. Rob. November 17. Jeff. Gates describes philanthropic journey"" (http:/ / archive. com/ presspass/ exec/ billg/ speeches/ 1997/ pdc. businessweek. edu/ V130/ N21/ gates/ interview. si. com/ TECH/ computing/ 9811/ 17/ judgelaugh. April 23. . CNN. Retrieved March 31. Thesmokinggun. Retrieved June 9. businessweek. mspx) on 2012-09-16. aspx) from the original on April 20 2008. is/ 20120529/ http:/ / www. 2010. aspx) (Speech). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [57] "Microsoft's Teflon Bill" (http:/ / archive. Jeff. Retrieved March 30. News. Microsoft. com/ presspass/ press/ 2006/ jun06/ 06-15CorpNewsPR. [64] Guo. "The Gates Operating System" (http:/ / www. edu/ collections/ comphist/ gates. mspx). com/ presspass/ exec/ billg/ speeches/ 1997/ pdc. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-385-51067-5. Archived (http:/ / web. htm#tc35). Retrieved March 31. shtml). msn. "Bill Gates Interview" (http:/ / archive. com/ 2009/ 03/ 11/ billionaire-homes-expensive-billionaires-2009-lifestyle-real-estate-homes_3. Issue 21. Friday. is/ 20120730/ http:/ / www. David (interviewer). Thane (June 13. [50] Bank. Bill (September 26. 1997). com/ presspass/ press/ 2006/ jun06/ 06-15CorpNewsPR. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. and Nothing But The Truth" (http:/ / archive. edu/ V130/ N21/ gates. "The Bill Gates Interview". [62] Fried. November 30. is/ 20120523/ http:/ / www. 2008. [59] "The Smoking Gun mugshots" (http:/ / archive. [56] "Gates deposition makes judge laugh in court" (http:/ / archive. Business Week. mspx) on 2012-05-23. . "Breaking Windows" (http:/ / archive. doi:10. breakingwindows. com/ archive/ 2008/ 09/ 08/ 1362333. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. [60] "MSNBC adblog site" (http:/ / adblog. com/ 8301-13860_3-10286732-56. com/ bwdaily/ dnflash/ june2000/ nf00613b.com. (video & transcript). The Fiefdom Syndrome: The Turf Battles That Undermine Careers and Companies – And How to Overcome Them. . com/ 8301-13860_3-10286732-56. Retrieved June 9. com/ en-us/ news/ exec/ billg/ default. com/ wired/ archive/ 8. softpedia. microsoft.msnbc. . "The Truth. html) on 2012-05-29. Glenn (June 27. Retrieved March 30. Retrieved March 31.Bill Gates [47] Rensin. June 15. mit. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / news. Archived from the original (http:/ / tech. microsoft. google. 2006.1007/s11517-008-0355-6. aspx). microsoft.

uk/ 1/ hi/ business/ 3428721. bbc. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. November 1. htm) from the original on May 01 2008. org/ usr_doc/ 2005_Annual_Review. com/ html/ localnews/ 2003517601_gatesinvest10. co. Rockefeller Brothers Fund. com/ interactive_reports/ philanthropy_individual/ ) on 2012-07-08. Joe (May 5. com/ msft/ reports/ proxy2006. Retrieved April 28. January 26. gmsp. co. com/ 1999/ nov/ 01/ local/ me-28639) on 2012-07-10. htm) on 2012-07-24. com/ Gates-joins-board-of-Buffetts-Berkshire-Hathaway/ 2100-1014_3-5491312. is/ 20120724/ http:/ / www. 2011. ece) on 2012-07-10.0. news. . is/ 20120908/ http:/ / www. Los Angeles Times. 2012. The Economist. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. archive. Retrieved March 31. [70] "Profile: Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. stm). is/ 20120803/ http:/ / www. co. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. uk/ tol/ business/ markets/ united_states/ article713434. html). com/ life-style/ general/ they-half-it-in-them-1.0. com/ news/ nationworld/ nation/ la-na-gatesx07jan07. stm) on 2012-07-31. 113) [72] Zuckerman. [85] " "Bill Gates' 'Diversity' Subverts Merit" (http:/ / archive. The Austin Statesman. microsoft. com/ presspass/ exec/ billg/ default. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html) on 2012-09-08. news. January 10. [75] Fried. Retrieved February 14. "New Jet Eases Travel Hassles For Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. [80] "The 50 most generous Americans" (http:/ / archive. Microsoft. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 3913581. org/ AboutUs/ OurWork/ OurApproach/ ) on April 4. economist. co. rbf. com/ 1997/ 10/ 27/ business/ new-jet-eases-travel-hassles-for-bill-gates. The Seattle Times. uk/ 1/ hi/ business/ 3428721. 2008. com/ business/ displaystory. nwsource. stm). economist. 2005). co. com/ id/ 38556042/ ns/ us_news-giving/ ). cfm?story_id=6919139). aspx?tab=biography). mspx) on 2012-05-30. is/ 20120708/ http:/ / bwnt. html). is/ 20120907/ http:/ / www. com/ managing/ content/ dec2010/ ca20101214_945792. is/ 20120721/ http:/ / news. . Jon (January 25. aspx). gatesfoundation. 1999 [86] " "The Gates Millennium Scholars program" (http:/ / archive. com/ business/ displaystory. 1997). com/ news/ content/ news/ stories/ nation/ 01/ 14/ 14gates. bbc. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ id/ 38556042/ ns/ us_news-giving/ ) on 2012-09-07. com/ interactive_reports/ philanthropy_individual/ ). html). aspx?tab=biography) on 2012-05-23. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-11565953) on 2012-07-19. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. mspx). 2004. 2010. 2008. msnbc. bbc. com/ html/ localnews/ 2003517601_gatesinvest10. 2006.. Archived from the original (http:/ / gulfnews. Archived from the original (http:/ / seattletimes. Archived from the original (http:/ / articles. businessweek. is/ 20120710/ http:/ / articles. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2008. . aspx) on 2012-08-03. BBC news. Rosabeth (December 14. Retrieved February 14. ece). latimes. msn. is/ 20120524/ http:/ / www. msnbc. Ina (December 14. statesman. . 2006. 2008. January 1. story) on 2012-09-16. . html) on 2012-09-16. com/ news/ nationworld/ nation/ la-na-gatesx07jan07. microsoft. Retrieved March 17. html) on 2012-07-16. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. . co. htm). "Bill Gates: billionaire philanthropist" (http:/ / archive. businessweek. gmsp. is/ 20120530/ http:/ / www. "Gates joins board of Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway" (http:/ / archive. p.. timesonline. [73] Bolger. Laurence (October 27. org/ web/ 20080216010301/ http:/ / www. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www.. The Times (UK). org/ usr_doc/ 2005_Annual_Review." [87] Bina Abraham (October 1. . . . . archive. businessweek. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-11565953). com/ managing/ content/ dec2010/ ca20101214_945792. businessweek. BBC News. pdf) from the original on February 16 2008. Gulf News. 2008. . nytimes. [74] "Microsoft 2006 Proxy Statement" (http:/ / archive. [76] "Flat-pack accounting" (http:/ / archive. timesonline. 2006. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 686505) on 2012-07-08. "I wish I was not the richest man in the world. 2004). is/ 20120719/ http:/ / www. "They half it in them" (http:/ / archive.". 686505). story). Retrieved August 8. latimes. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [77] Cronin. [79] (PDF) 2005 Annual Report (http:/ / www. Business Week. pdf). com/ life-style/ general/ they-half-it-in-them-1. org/ AboutUs/ OurWork/ OurApproach/ ). bbc. Archived from the original (http:/ / business. org/ web/ 20080404212231/ http:/ / www. . [71] (Fridson 2001. 2008. Retrieved March 9. . cfm?story_id=6919139) on 2012-05-24. nytimes. 2008. microsoft. [78] "Our Approach to Giving" (http:/ / web. [69] "Bill Gates: Chairman" (http:/ / archive. [81] "Bill and Melinda Gates give 95% of wealth to charity" (http:/ / archive. [82] "Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation" (http:/ / archive. Archived from the original (http:/ / bwnt. Retrieved April 1. Retrieved March 31. October 6. May 11. org/ publicweb/ AboutUs. html). nwsource. 2008. latimes.6827615. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2006). . stm) on 2012-07-21. 2008. com/ presspass/ exec/ billg/ default. is/ 20120523/ http:/ / www. 2010. 2007. 2008. 12 .6827615. 2007. com/ 1997/ 10/ 27/ business/ new-jet-eases-travel-hassles-for-bill-gates. . is/ 20120708/ http:/ / gulfnews. January 7. com/ msft/ reports/ proxy2006. [84] Gates Foundation to maintain its investment plan (http:/ / www. microsoft. Retrieved April 1. . . co.Bill Gates com/ bwdaily/ dnflash/ june2000/ nf00613b. com/ 1999/ nov/ 01/ local/ me-28639). Archived (http:/ / web. 2007. org/ publicweb/ AboutUs. The New York Times. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. "Four Strategic Generosity Lessons" (http:/ / archive. rbf. is/ 20120710/ http:/ / business. 2010). . [83] "Gates Foundation to review investments" (http:/ / archive. bbc. January 14. Microsoft Corporation. gatesfoundation. 2010). uk/ tol/ business/ markets/ united_states/ article713434. latimes. Retrieved April 1. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 3913581. is/ 20120716/ http:/ / seattletimes. Retrieved September 2. says Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. [89] "40 billionaires pledge to give away half of wealth" (http:/ / archive. Retrieved January 1. [88] Moss. 2011. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. bbc. CNET. co. . com/ Gates-joins-board-of-Buffetts-Berkshire-Hathaway/ 2100-1014_3-5491312. is/ 20120731/ http:/ / news. msn.

[104] "Proclamation of the Award" (http:/ / archive. html). Jason (June 22. 2003. com/ 2003-01-26/ international-business/ 27286399_1_iit-kanpur-iit-delhi-iitians). Yahoo!. . motherearthnews. . 13 [96] "IIT's diaspora has a party – Times Of India" (http:/ / archive. is/ 20120717/ http:/ / tech. is/ 20120707/ http:/ / business. nl/ news/ news_full. co. 2011.. cam. usda. html) on 2012-07-31. . timesofindia. Forbes. [98] Hughes. 2009. indiatimes. stm). bbc. cam. yahoo. usda. org/ web/ 20080218131826/ http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. Mother Earth News. jsp?d=130& a=47838& l=en& newsdep=130). Retrieved October 24. cfm?publication_id=599) (in Dutch) (Press release). com/ natural-home-living/ a-rich-gift-homemade-jelly-for-bill-melinda-gates. Offers an Education" (http:/ / archive. 2006). yahoo. com/ blog/ hughes/ 13653) on 2012-07-17. is/ 20120707/ http:/ / articles. php?codigo=4936346) on 2012-07-07. uk/ tol/ business/ industry_sectors/ technology/ article2098235. BBC News. tsinghua. admin. bbc. 102) [93] Cowley. 2008. 2009). . Archived from the original (http:/ / news. The Times (London). 2010. go. segob. co. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 9. . is/ 20120701/ http:/ / abcnews. co. Rhys (July 18. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 457951. sel. 2008. uk/ news/ dp/ 2009061204) on 2012-07-17. uk/ tol/ business/ industry_sectors/ technology/ article2098235. aspx). bbc. Archived from the original (http:/ / tech. "The Chancellor in Cambridge to confer Honorary Degrees" (http:/ / archive. [92] (Lesinski 2006. com/ 2010/ 01/ 19/ young-tech-billionaire-gates-google-yahoo-wealth. . is/ 20120710/ http:/ / ki. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2005. cn/ eng__news. newstatesman. F. Retrieved December 20. co. September 26. Retrieved February 18. [106] Forbes. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. forbes. edu. University of Cambridge. "Bill Gates' Flower Fly Eristalis gatesi Thompson" (http:/ / archive. [95] "Eredoctoraat Universiteit Nyenrode voor Wim Kok" (http:/ / web. 2007). cfm?publication_id=599) on February 18. nl/ news/ news_full. ac. com/ Entertainment/ wireStory?id=9644610). timesofindia. gob. uk/ news/ dp/ 2009061204). mx/ nota_detalle. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . bbc. "Bill Gates honored with a doctor's cap" (http:/ / archive. ABC News. ece). [102] "Knighthood for Microsoft's Gates" (http:/ / archive. Gina (June 8. stm). forbes. Retrieved August 20. gob. timesonline.indiatimes. 2010. com/ 2010/ 01/ 19/ young-tech-billionaire-gates-google-yahoo-wealth. p. co. php?codigo=4936346). The Diptera Site. "Bill Gates Gets Degree After 30 Years" (http:/ / archive. [100] University of Cambridge (June 12. 2008. com/ Entertainment/ wireStory?id=9644610) on 2012-07-01. nyenrode. Archived from the original (http:/ / diariooficial. gov/ Diptera/ syrphid/ gates. [103] Thompson. "The Next Bill Gates" (http:/ / archive. Articles. com/ 200605220016). Retrieved February 18. php?id=1370). uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ 3428673. gov/ Diptera/ syrphid/ gates. htm) on 2012-08-05.timesofindia. Madeleine (January 24. edu. 1999). mx/ nota_detalle. 2008. January 23. ece) on 2012-07-07. April 19. Archived from the original (http:/ / articles. . se/ ki/ jsp/ polopoly. is/ 20120712/ http:/ / news. is/ 20120717/ http:/ / www. Diario Oficial de la Federación. 2010. sel. .cn. . 2008. [99] Svärd. . 2007. [97] "News Of Tsinghua University-Bill Gates Awarded Honorary Doctorate of Tsinghua" (http:/ / archive. Retrieved February 18. tsinghua.Bill Gates [90] Robyn Griggs Lawrence (February 22. "Gates how piracy worked for me in China" (http:/ / archive.edu. . January 26. "Heroes of our time — the top 50" (http:/ / www. cn/ eng__news. Retrieved March 30. is/ 20120805/ http:/ / www. com/ natural-home-living/ a-rich-gift-homemade-jelly-for-bill-melinda-gates. 2003. is/ 20120916/ http:/ / www. is/ zWjK. 2008. barc. com/ 2003-01-26/ international-business/ 27286399_1_iit-kanpur-iit-delhi-iitians) on 2012-07-07. segob. . Retrieved March 10. is/ 20120711/ http:/ / news. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. Retrieved February 18. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . Archived from the original (http:/ / business. is/ 20120731/ http:/ / www. jsp?d=130& a=47838& l=en& newsdep=130) on 2012-07-10. August 13. motherearthnews. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 457951. Christian (August 19. com/ blog/ hughes/ 13653). go. stm) on 2012-07-11. 2008. Scouting (September–October 2010): 39. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.tsinghua. "A Rich Gift: Homemade Jelly for Bill and Melinda Gates" (http:/ / archive. aspx) on 2012-09-16. [107] "Bill Gates Goes to Sundance. barc. 2008. Marie (January 19. [94] "Gates 'second only to Blair'" (http:/ / archive. [101] Blakely. 2007). News. Retrieved February 18. [91] Thibault. forbes. 2008). se/ ki/ jsp/ polopoly. BBC News. nyenrode. Nyenrode Business Universiteit. admin. php?id=1370) on 2012-07-12. 2011. indiatimes. http:/ / archive. archive. ac. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ 3428673. com/ powerful-people/ #p_1_s_a0_All countries_All categories_) on 2012-09-16. 2010 . Archived from the original (http:/ / abcnews. Karolinska Institutet. co.com. 2008. Retrieved February 17. [105] "2010 Silver Buffalo Recipients". 2010). Retrieved April 26. 1999. is/ 20120707/ http:/ / diariooficial. htm). New Statesman (UK). Archived from the original (http:/ / ki. March 2. 2011). Retrieved March 30. timesonline. is/ 20120711/ http:/ / news. stm) on 2012-07-11.

David (2001). New York: Times Business.org/identities/lccn-n91-8414) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Works by Bill Gates on Open Library at the Internet Archive Bill Gates (http://www.nndb. Fortune. 2006 The Forbes 400 (http://www.thegatesnotes.com/guest/view/33) on Charlie Rose Bill Gates (http://www.co.com/people/435/000022369) at the Notable Names Database How I Work: Bill Gates (http://money.org/) Profile (http://www.ted.forbes.org/billgates) on C-SPAN Bill Gates (http://www.cfm?story_id=11622119).htm). Gary (1999)..forbes.com/) Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/news/exec/billg/) at Microsoft Profile (http://www. • "83 Reasons Why Bill Gates's Reign Is Over" (http://www. The plot to get Bill Gates: an irreverent investigation of the world's richest man.com/profile/bill-gates) at Forbes Appearances (http://www.html) collected news and commentary at The New York Times Bill Gates (http://topics. ISBN 0-8129-3006-1.com/speakers/bill_gates.com/opinion/displaystory.cnn. Wired (Wired) 6 (12).com/lists/2008/09/16/ richest-american-billionaires-lists-400list08-cx_mm_dg_0917richintro. 2008. June 28.economist. ISBN 0-7432-0315-1.wired.. December 1998.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/g/bill_gates/index. The Economist.guardian.12/microsoft.com/wired/archive/6.bloomberg. • Bank. Breaking Windows: how Bill Gates fumbled the future of Microsoft.html).com/bill-gates/) collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News Works by or about Bill Gates (http://worldcat.com/name/nm0309540/) at the Internet Movie Database Bill Gates (http://www. • Rivlin. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Official website (http://www.c-spanvideo. New York: Free Press.and the people who hate him.com/2006/03/30/news/newsmakers/gates_howiwork_fortune/ index.charlierose. so does the era he dominated" (http:// www.imdb.Bill Gates 14 Further reading • "The Meaning of Bill Gates: As his reign at Microsoft comes to an end.html) .uk/technology/billgates) collected news and commentary at The Guardian Bill Gates (http://topics.nytimes.wsj.gatesfoundation.html/) at TED Bill Gates (http://www. March 30.com/person/G/bill-gates/685) collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal Bill Gates (http://topics.

14 / July 1981 ? English Available programming languages(s) 8086-Assembly language Package manager Supported platforms Kernel type Default user interface License N/A x86 Monolithic kernel Command line interface Proprietary 86-DOS was an operating system developed and marketed by Seattle Computer Products (SCP) for its Intel 8086-based computer kit. SCP wanted to offer the 8086 version of CP/M that Digital Research had announced. Company / developer Programmed in OS family Working state Source model Initial release Latest stable release Marketing target Available language(s) Seattle Computer Products / Tim Paterson 8086-Assembly language DOS Historic Closed source 1980 86-DOS v1. Paterson designed 86-DOS with an API that was compatible with legacy CP/M programs. if the user . The system was purchased by Microsoft and developed further as MS-DOS and PC DOS. which Microsoft had developed on a prototype of SCP's hardware. In April 1980 SCP assigned 24-year-old Tim Paterson to develop a substitute for CP/M-86. At the same time he made a number of changes and enhancements to address what he saw as CP/M's shortcomings. 86-DOS had a command structure and application programming interface that imitated that of Digital Research's CP/M operating system. Initially known as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) the name was changed to 86-DOS once SCP started licensing the operating system. CP/M cached file system information in memory for speed. The only software which SCP could sell with the board was the stand-alone Microsoft BASIC-86. two years earlier it had been slow to adapt CP/M for new floppy disk formats and hard disks. This was not the first time Digital Research had lagged behind hardware developments. but this required a user to force an update to a disk before removing it. Origins 86-DOS was created because sales of the Seattle Computer Products 8086 computer kit. demonstrated in June 1979 and shipped in November. were languishing due to the absence of an operating system. which made it easy to port programs from the latter. but its release date was uncertain.86-DOS 15 86-DOS 86-DOS A sample 86-DOS session (simulated).

IBM's representatives visited Digital Research and discussed licensing with Digital Research's licensing representative. Paterson built these names into the operating system as device files so that any program could use them.[2] as of 2006 Pournelle has not revealed the command and nobody has come forward to corroborate his story.[6] . supported several special file names that referred to hardware devices such as printers and communication ports. CP/M was by far the most popular operating system in use at the time. Nonetheless. submitted over 300 change requests before it accepted the product and wrote the user manual for it. Rather than implementing CP/M's file system. Perhaps the most sensational claim comes from Jerry Pournelle.000. In May 1981. Creation of PC DOS Microsoft purchased a nonexclusive license for 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products in December 1980 for $25. and SCP later claimed in court that Microsoft had concealed its relationship with IBM in order to purchase the operating system cheaply. Paterson insists that the 86-DOS software was his original work. Paterson took the safer but slower approach of updating the disk with each operation. He gave his copying program the more intuitive name COPY. the disk would be corrupt. IBM watched the developments daily. Dorothy Kildall (nee McEwen).[1] In later discussions between IBM and Bill Gates. CP/M's PIP command. but does not say that he found the message in DOS. 16 IBM interest In October 1980. This license also permitted Microsoft to sell DOS to other companies. SCP ultimately received a 1 million dollar settlement payment. Digital Research's attorney did not believe that the relevant law was clear enough to sue. and has denied referring to or otherwise using CP/M code while writing it. IBM was developing what would become the original IBM Personal Computer. Controversy has continued to surround the similarity between the two systems. which at the time claimed that PC DOS was its own product. he used BASIC-86's FAT filesystem to maintain compatibility with systems that SCP had already shipped. Microsoft purchased all rights to 86-DOS from SCP for $50. and it became PC DOS 1. he sued the authors and publishers for defamation. and it was easy to adapt existing 8-bit CP/M programs to run under it. It met IBM's main criteria: it looked like CP/M.000. The deal was spectacularly successful. a month before the PC's release. who claims that Kildall personally demonstrated to him that DOS contained CP/M code by entering a command in DOS that displayed Kildall's name. Intellectual property dispute When Digital Research founder Gary Kildall examined PC DOS and found that it duplicated CP/M's programming interface. A 2004 book about Kildall says that he used such an encrypted message to demonstrate that other manufacturers had copied CP/M. In July 1981. who hesitated to sign IBM's non-disclosure agreement. as the book's claims were opinions based on research or were not provably false. which used the slower and less expensive Intel 8088 processor and had its own specific family of peripherals.86-DOS forgot. notably thanks to the TRANS command which would translate source files from 8080 to 8086 machine instructions. insisting on the usual royalty-based plan. which copied files. Kildall confronted IBM and persuaded them to offer CP/M-86 with the PC in exchange for a release of liability. Gates mentioned the existence of 86-DOS and IBM representative Jack Sams told him to get a license for it. Although the NDA was later accepted. However. he wanted to sue IBM.[3] instead Kildall's memoir (a source for the book) pointed to the well-known interface similarity. it hired Tim Paterson to port the system to the IBM PC. which it did. and IBM felt it needed CP/M in order to compete.[5] The court ruled in summary judgement that no defamation had occurred.0.000 in exchange for as many copies as IBM could sell. Digital Research would not accept IBM's proposal of $250.[4] After the 2004 book appeared. Microsoft licensed 86-DOS to IBM.

ece. twit. html). [3] Evans. [7] Bug fix.. USA Today. com/ ) (2nd ed. ""The Roots of DOS"" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.0 was an almost complete rewrite of DOS. com/ ABPub/ 2007/ 07/ 26/ 2003806592.htm) in the SIMH simulator . and Co. Wash. .00 86-DOS v1. The file DOSIO. nwsource.1 QDOS v0.html) of QDOS/86-DOS (1979–1983) • 86-DOS documentation (http://www. et al. [7] 86-DOS [9] v1. Little. ISBN 0-316-27766-5. org/ downloads/ 86DOS_FILES. . EDLIN can still be used on contemporary machines. tv/ 73). and David Lefer (2004). since it is bundled with the emulated DOS environment up to Windows 7. Retrieved 2006-11-28. . MS-DOS Editor based on QBasic. which remained the only editor supplied with Microsoft versions of DOS until the June 1991 release of MS-DOS 5. very little of QDOS remained. 86dos. pdf).14 July 1981 [9] Renamed MS-DOS as of July 27.patersontech. ZIP. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. . com/ Dos/ Byte/ History. External links • Tim Paterson's brief history (http://www. A ZIP file containing all the files from 86-DOS v1. References [1] Freiberger. Retrieved 2007-06-18. The most enduring element of 86-DOS was its primitive line editor.0 (http://www. Harold." April 1981 Modified system calls. ISSN 0899-9341.11 86-DOS v0. S2000/ papers/ paterson1994-kildall. Byte. [8] http:/ / www.com/Dos/Manuals. edu/ courses/ enee759m. usatoday. [5] "Programmer sues author over role in Microsoft history" (http:/ / www. They Made America. Retrieved 2006-11-28. D. [6] Order (http:/ / seattletimes. umd. 1981. Microprocessor Report 8 (13). patersontech. The TWiT Netcast Network (Podcast). Gail Buckland.0. Little. so by March 1983.. [4] Paterson. pdf) (2007-07-25).aspx) from Paterson Technology • Run 86-DOS 1. patersontech. PC DOS 2. [7] Hunter.60 July 1980 August 1980 December 1980 [7] Roughly half completed version of the OS. htm). 2005-02-03. Paul.86-DOS 17 EDLIN By 1982.). Versions QDOS v0. ISSN 0360-5280. . New York: McGraw-Hill. . com/ tech/ news/ 2005-03-02-ms-coding-dis_x.86dos. Brown and Co. when IBM asked Microsoft to release a version of DOS that was compatible with a hard disk. "A Short History of MS-DOS" (http:/ / www. com/ Dos/ Softalk/ Softalk.org/index. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer (http:/ / www. pp.60 and [8] later.00 [9] Paterson. html). Associated Press. "The Origins of DOS" (http:/ / www. Michael Swaine (2000) [1984].com/Dos/Byte/History. David (1983).00 mentions that it is the "I/O System for 86-DOS version 0. fireinthevalley. 332–333. Tim (June 1983). [2] "this WEEK in TECH" (http:/ / www.ASM found in v1. 2006-10-16.patersontech. EDLIN. W. Brown. [7] First version distributed to OEMs and Microsoft. which included a TUI-based editor. Tim (1994-10-03). Paterson v.33 86-DOS v0.

along with Stan Cagle and Robert Zaller. Electronic Arrays had just announced a set of 6 LSI ICs that would make a four function calculator. and was sold by mail order through advertisements there. The calculator was successful and was followed by several improved models.[5] The MITS 816 calculator kit used the chip set and was featured on the November 1971 cover of Popular Electronics.[8] . and the first programming language for the machine was Microsoft's founding product. The designers hoped to sell a few hundred build-it-yourself kits to hobbyists. He often accepted a copy of the kit as payment. It had a 14 digit display. in Radio-Electronics and other hobbyist magazines. In 1969. MITS later developed a programmer unit that would connect to the 816 or 1440 calculator and allow programs of up to 256 steps. Altair BASIC. and started selling radio transmitters and instruments for model rockets. Roberts and Mims. issue of Popular Electronics. Mims and Cagle were losing interest in the kit business so Roberts bought his partners out. Interest grew quickly after it was featured on the cover of the January. 1975. New Mexico. Calculators The model rocket kits were a modest success and MITS wanted to try a This "Tracking Light for Model Rockets" project kit that would appeal to more hobbyists. founded Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) in Roberts' garage in Albuquerque. send voice over an LED light beam. This calculator kit sold for $175 ($275 assembled). The November 1970 issue of appeared in the September 1969 issue of Model Popular Electronics featured the Opticom.[2] Today the Altair is widely recognized as the spark that led to the microcomputer revolution of the next few years: The computer bus designed for the Altair was to become a de facto standard in the form of the S-100 bus.[3][4] Altair 8800 Computer with 8 inch floppy disk system History While serving at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base. and square root.Altair 8800 18 Altair 8800 The MITS Altair 8800 was a microcomputer design from 1975 based on the Intel 8080 CPU. memory.[1] The Altair also appealed to individuals and businesses that just wanted a computer and purchased the assembled version.[6] Forrest Mims wrote the assembly manual for this kit and many others over the next several years. The MITS 1440 calculator was featured in the July 1973 issues of Radio-Electronics. and were surprised when they sold thousands in the first month. Mims III decided to use their electronics background to produce small kits for model rocket hobbyists. Ed Roberts and Forrest M. a kit from MITS that would Rocketry and was the first kit sold by MITS. then began developing a calculator kit. The kit sold [7] for $200 and the assembled version was $250.

[10] The typical MITS product had a generic name like the "Model 1440 Calculator" or the "Model 1600 Digital Voltmeter". Don Lancaster did an ASCII keyboard for Popular Electronics in April 1974.Altair 8800 19 Test equipment In addition to calculators. Ed Roberts was busy finishing the design and left the naming of the computer to the editors of Popular Electronics. Computer Bits. September 1973) article and wanted computer projects for Popular Electronics. so Les. Lauren.[10][12] Ed Roberts and Bill Yates finished the first prototype in October 1974 and shipped it to Popular Electronics in New York via the Railway Express Agency. MITS made a line of test equipment kits. Art Salsberg became editor of Popular Electronics. Radio-Electronics. Electronics World. and several other instruments. The TV Typewriter and the Mark-8 computer projects were just a detailed set of plans and a set of bare printed circuit boards. These included an IC tester. Popular Electronics merged with another Ziff-Davis magazine. and they started writing for a competing magazine."[11] The Star Trek episode is probably Amok Time. A more probable version is that the Altair was originally going to be named the PE-8 (Popular Electronics 8-bit). In 1974. MITS and many other companies were devastated by this. and Roberts struggled to reduce his quarter-million-dollar debt. In 1972.that's where the Enterprise is going tonight. One explanation of the Altair name. the twelfth brightest star in the sky. It was Salsberg's goal to reclaim the lead in electronics projects. but Les Solomon thought this name to be rather dull." McVeigh suggested "Altair". is that the name was inspired by Les's 12-year-old daughter. it never arrived due to a strike by the shipping company. Texas Instruments developed its own calculator chip and started selling complete calculators at less than half the price of other commercial models. In 1972 and 1973. which editor Les Solomon later told the audience at the first Altair Computer Convention (March 1976). He was impressed with Don Lancaster's TV Typewriter (Radio Electronics. They installed a wave soldering machine and an assembly line at the new location. "She said why don't you call it Altair . The editors of Popular Electronics wanted a complete kit in a professional-looking enclosure. The computer trainer was put on hold and the editors looked for a real computer system. Solomon already had a number of pictures of the machine and the article was based on them. as this is the only one from The Original Series which takes the Enterprise crew to Altair (Six). However. (Popular Electronics gave Jerry Ogdin a column. Roberts got to work on building a replacement. starting in June 1975.) [9] One of the editors. They were evaluating a computer trainer project by Jerry Ogdin when the Mark-8 8008-based computer by Jonathan Titus appeared on the July 1974 cover of Radio-Electronics. a digital voltmeter. some of the best construction projects appeared in Radio-Electronics. The change in editorial staff upset many of their authors. Alexander Burawa (associate editor). so let's name it after a star. knew MITS was working on an Intel 8800 computer 8080 based computer project and thought Roberts could provide the project for the always popular January issue. The computer on the magazine cover is an empty box with just switches and LEDs on the front panel. Popular Electronics In January 1972. a waveform generator. The hobbyist faced the daunting task of acquiring all of the integrated circuits and other components. January 1975 Popular Electronics with the Altair . and John McVeigh (technical editor) decided that: "It's a stellar event. MITS moved into a larger building at 6328 Linn NE in Albuquerque in 1973. To keep up with the demand. Les Solomon.

The letter was reprinted in the August 1975 issue of MITS Computer Notes. Electronics hobbyists were moving on to digital projects such as digital voltmeters and frequency counters. For a decade. to break even. They had to hire extra people just to answer the phones. When the 8080 was introduced in April 1974.[22] The launch The introduction of the Altair 8800 happened at just the right time. "That figure had a nice ring to it. They had no experience in selling small quantities of microprocessors. so he chose the 8-bit Intel 8080.000 orders for the Altair 8800. the National Semiconductor IMP-8 and IMP-16 required external hardware. Ed Roberts optimistically told his banker that he could sell 800 A May 1975 advertisement for the Altair 8800 computers and he knew they needed to sell 200 over the next year just Computer.[23][24] This meant there was a sizable customer base who knew about computers. and they usually cost thousands of dollars.[15] At that time. electronic calculators were not seen outside of a laboratory."[16] Ed Roberts had experience in buying OEM quantities of calculator chips and he was able to negotiate a $75 price for the 8080 microprocessor chips. MITS was flooded with inquiries and orders. Intel's main business was selling memory chips by the thousands to computer companies. colleges had required science and engineering majors to take a course in computer programming.[17][18] Intel made the Intellec-8 Microprocessor Development System that typically sold for a very profitable $10.[14][10] 20 Intel 8080 Ed Roberts had designed and manufactured programmable calculators and was familiar with the microprocessors available in 1974." recalled Intel's Dave House in 1984. In July 1975. typically using the FORTRAN or BASIC languages. but by 1974 they were a common household item. In February MITS received 1. Intel sent a letter to its sales force stating that the MITS Altair 8800 computer used standard Intel 8080 parts. The sales force should sell the Intellec system based on its merits and that no one should make derogatory comments about valued customers like MITS. It was functionally similar to the Altair 8800 but it was a commercial grade system with a wide selection of peripherals and development software.000. "Besides. Intel set the single unit price at $360. When readers got the January issue of Popular Electronics.[13] The January 1975 issues appeared on newsstands a week before Christmas of 1974 and the kit was officially (if not yet practically) available for sale. In 1970. Some salesmen said that MITS was getting cosmetic rejects or otherwise inferior chips.[19][20] Customers would ask Intel why their Intellec-8 was so expensive when that Altair was only $400. Calculators and video games like Pong introduced computer power to the general public. The Altair had enough power to be actually useful. and was designed as an expandable system that opened it up to all sorts of applications. so we felt it was a reasonable price. The quoted delivery time was 60 days but it was months .Altair 8800 The finished Altair computer had a completely different circuit board layout than the prototype shown in the magazine. There were Intel 8008 based computer systems available in 1974 but they were not powerful enough to run a high level language like BASIC.[21] The "cosmetic defect" rumor has appeared in many accounts over the years although both MITS and Intel issued written denials in 1975. The Intel 4004 and Intel 8008 were not powerful enough. it was a computer. and the Motorola 6800 was still in development.

The MITS motherboard consisted of 4 slots segments that had to be connected together with 100 wires.) The IMSAI motherboard had 18 slots. California. to assemble. The ad noted that all boards were "plug compatible" with the Altair 8800. The BASIC language was announced in July 1975 and it required one or two 4096 word memory boards and an interface board.[26] MITS had under 20 employees in January but had grown to 90 by October 1975. [28] Kit Price Assembled $439 $176 $264 $92 $119 $124 $128 N. The IMSAI also had a larger power supply to handle the increasing number of expansion boards used in typical systems. August 1975.500 Altair 8800s by the end of May. the Altair required 60 wire connections between the front panel and the mother board (backplane. Robert Marsh. A consulting company in San Leandro. two 4096 word memory boards and interface board) $75 MITS had no competition for the first half of 1975. designed a 4K static memory that was plug-in compatible with the Altair 8800 and sold for $255. It was easier December 1975. Roberts focused on delivering the computer. all of the options would wait until they could keep pace with the orders. I/O boards and other options to make a profit. Their 4K memory board used dynamic RAM and it had several design problems. The first 50 IMSAI computers shipped in [30] The IMSAI 8080 computer improved on the original Altair design in several areas. a small advertisement announced the IMSAI 8080 computer. 4096 words of memory and interface board) $60 • 8K BASIC language (when purchased with Altair. They would later develop a popular video display board that would plug directly into the Altair. wanted to purchase several Altair computers but the long delivery time convinced them that they should build their own computers.[27] The Altair 8800 computer was a break-even sale for MITS. IMS Associates Inc. The computer cost $439 for a kit. In the October 1975 Popular Electronics. The system came with a "1024 word" memory board populated with 256 bytes.[25] The number was over 5. Popular Electronics. An enterprising Altair owner.A.. They needed to sell additional memory boards. . $621 $209 $338 $114 $138 $146 $174 $1500 21 Description Altair 8800 Computer 1024 word Memory Board 4096 word Memory Board Parallel Interface Board Serial Interface Board (RS-232) Serial Interface Board (Teletype) Audio Cassette Interface Board Teletype Model 33 ASR • 4K BASIC language (when purchased with Altair. one of the most successful Altair compatible board suppliers. Their advertisement in the July 1975 issue of Popular Electronics promised interface and PROM boards in addition to the 4K memory board. MITS claimed to have delivered 2.[27] The delay in shipping optional boards and the problems with the 4K memory board created an opportunity for outside suppliers. The IMSAI advantage was short lived because MITS had recognized these shortcomings and developed the Altair 8800B which was introduced in June 1976.000 by August 1975. MITS Price List.Altair 8800 before they could meet that.[29] His company was Processor Technology.

He then looked for a cheap source of connectors. No particular level of thought went into the design. Software Altair BASIC Roberts received a letter from Traf-O-Data asking if he would be interested in buying its BASIC programming language for the machine. The S-100 bus was eventually acknowledged by the professional computer community and adopted as the IEEE-696 computer bus standard. The basic machine consisted of five cards. he decided to build most of the machine on removable cards. When they called Roberts to follow up on the letter he expressed his interest. and the machine consisted of four boards stacked on top of each other with stand-offs. The backplane and power supply were mounted on a base plate. then spelled "Micro-Soft". where no one had heard of anything like BASIC. The first time it was run. including a paper tape reader for storage. on a paper tape. and a RS-232 interface to connect to a proper Teletype terminal. Allen flew to Albuquerque to deliver the program. included a large number of toggle switches to feed binary data directly into the memory of the machine. The Altair bus consists of the pins of the Intel 8080 run out onto the backplane. and all one could do with the machine was make programs to make the lights blink. and a number of red LEDs to read those values back out. The "lid" was shaped like a C.Altair 8800 22 Description In the first design of the Altair. The user toggled the switches to positions corresponding to an 8080 microprocessor instruction or opcode in binary. along with the front and rear of the box. or wouldn't be designed in time for the January launch date. and the two started work on their BASIC interpreter using a self-made simulator for the 8080 on a PDP-10 minicomputer. including the CPU on one and memory on another. He called the company and reached a private home. A deal on power supplies led to the use of +8V and +18V. many were sold in this form. left and right sides of the box. The front panel. which was inspired by the Data General Nova minicomputer. Roberts was already hard at work on additional cards. additional RAM cards. Nevertheless. . Another oddity was that the system included two unidirectional 8-bit data buses. then used an 'enter' switch to load the code into the machine's memory. The game Lunar Lander was entered in and this worked as well. it displayed "Welcome to Altair Basic" then Allen typed "PRINT 2+2" and it immediately printed the correct answer: "4". Gates soon joined Allen and formed Microsoft. the parts needed to make a complete machine would not fit on a single motherboard. and came across a supply of 100-pin edge connectors. which had to be locally regulated on the cards to TTL (+5V) or RS-232 (+12V) standard voltage levels. and they had no BASIC yet to offer. and once they had a version working on the simulator. The Altair shipped in a two-piece case. When the machine first shipped the switches and lights were the only interface. Altair BASIC (aka MITS 4K BASIC). but only a single bidirectional 16-bit address bus.[31] Programming the Altair was an extremely tedious process. and then repeated this step until all the opcodes of a presumably complete and correct program were in place. In fact the letter had been sent by Bill Gates and Paul Allen from the Boston area. which led to such disasters as shorting from various power lines of differing voltages being located next to each other. So during the construction of the Altair 8800b computer front panel second model. a backplane. They figured they had 30 days before someone else beat them to the punch. Another problem facing Roberts was that the parts needed to make a truly useful computer weren't available. reducing the motherboard to nothing more than an interconnect between the cards. forming the top.

[5] US patent 3800129 (http:/ / worldwide. for example. Archived (http:/ / web. (2003). issued 1974-03-26 The Electronic Arrays. 33–38.) 1 (11): p. ISBN 1-56664-030-X. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. NY: McGraw-Hill. . over 1. The name for MITS' computer. Delivery is in 30 days. Order number:231295. doi:10." [23] Brillinger. Retrieved 2007-03-17. MITS had shipped over 2. "There was a subsequent article in February's Popular Electronics and the MITS people knew the Altair was here to stay. Describes the introductory computer science courses at the University of Waterloo.873659. Retrieved 2007-12-26. (November 1984). David (August 1975).1976. William Yates (January 1975). when the January issue of Popular Electronics reached readers … " [10] Mims. 201–206. Cambridge. [6] Ed Roberts (November 1971). Popular Electronics (Ziff Davis) 35 (5): pp. Paul E. (October 1976). Editor (1974). SIGCSE Bulletin. (July 1973). Archived (http:/ / web. 27–32. a $99 battery operated handheld calculator. Michael Swaine (2000). was inspired by his 12-year-old daughter. The cover story is for the MITS 1700 waveform generator. com/ gallery/ dn17805-computer-museums-of-the-world/ 4) [2] Young.218414.. org/ gallery/ notesViewer." [4] Freiberger. "MOS Desk Calculator". Inc. Creative Computing (Creative Computing) 10 (11): p.000 mainframes were sold. Retrieved 2008-01-01. com/ creative/ v10n11/ 17_The_Altair_story_early_d. Inc. p. Datamation. ISBN 0-262-53203-4. . ISBN 0-262-53203-4. (1998). and he did. archive. Salsberg states that the Altair was named by John McVeigh [13] H. New York. calculator chip set that was used in the MITS 816 calculator. org/ gallery/ notesViewer.A History to Date of Intel (http:/ / www. (ACM) 2 (3): pp. Computer Notes (Altair Users Group. [11] Milford. Intel Corporation. com/ ?id=oy4EAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA7). MITS Inc. James R. "Jaded Memory" (http:/ / books. "A complete package for introducing computer science". php) from the original on 8 April 2007. Computer Notes (Altair Users Group. pp. A History of Modern Computing. 7. MITS Inc. [20] Michalopoulos. "The Tenth Anniversary of the Altair 8800". Richard H. 73 Magazine (Peterborough. Michael Swaine (2000)." [21] Bunnell.that's where the Enterprise is going tonight. 55–57. 7. early days at MITS" (http:/ / www. Article has several paragraphs on the design of the Altair 8800. During that month alone. Edward. "We wish to clarify any misconception that may exist in your minds regarding the MITS ALTAIR system. MA: MIT Press. com/ ). (2003). New York: John Wiley & Sons. "This announcement [Altair 8800] ranks with IBM's announcement of the System/360 a decade earlier as one of the most significant in the history of computing. Computers & Electronics (Ziff Davis) 23 (1): pp. "MITS advertisement" (http:/ / altair. 14." [22] Veit. ISBN 0-672-21039-8. A History of Modern Computing. Edward Roberts. "New Products". [9] Ogdin." "By the end of May. Annette (April 1976). New York. php?ii=76_4& p=7). [24] Ceruzzi. square root and other new features". php?ii=75_8& p=2). Digital Design (CMP Information) 4 (6). 2." [12] Salsberg. 17. Alexander. C. Cowan (November 1970). Stan (1993). Paul E.1109/C-M. 128–143. Demetrios A. google. D. . "Roberts was sure he could get the chip price much cheaper. Inc) (184): p. "Intel Corporation has announced that an interactive display console and highspeed line printer are now available for the Intellec MDS microcomputer development system. pp. 89. 1984). nmnaturalhistory. Jerry (June 1975). D. 81–82. Forrest M.500 Altair 8800's" . "Computer Power of the Future . ISSN 0199-6649. (2003). "Electronic desk calculator you can build". "Altair 8800 minicomputer". Computer (IEEE) 9 (10): pp. Price of the basic Intellec MDS with 16K bytes of RAM memory. "The Altair story.I'm No Expert!". 59–64. ISBN 0-262-53203-4. Popular Electronics (Ziff Davis) 7 (1): pp. p. ftldesign. nmnaturalhistory. H. Radio-Electronics (Grensback Publication) 44 (7): pp.) 6 (46): p. Wayne Green visited MITS in August 1975 and interviewed Ed Roberts. atarimagazines. [17] Freiberger. 118–126. An ad for the MITS 1200. 69. org/ web/ 20071210115832/ http:/ / altair. [8] Roberts." [18] Mims. Paul. 226. … The display console costs $2240 and the printer $3200 in quantities of 1 to 9. archive. "The break through in low-cost microprocessors occurred just before Christmas 1974. 58–62. MA: MIT Press. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. A Revolution in Progress . [15] Green. NH: 73. Cambridge. 222–224."But because the 8080 sold for $360 in single quantities. "Believe Me . com/ creative/ v10n11/ 17_The_Altair_story_early_d. com/ ) from the original on 10 December 2007.1145/873641. intel. php). Forrest (January 1985). . P. NY: McGraw-Hill. p. newscientist. Cambridge. Paul E. doi:10. com/ museum/ archives/ brochures/ brochures. is $3950. htm). Electronic Calculators. MA: MIT Press. . "Ed Roberts was able to get around this problem by obtaining a supply of cosmetic reject chips for about 1/3 the retail price. InfoWorld (InfoWorld Media Group. "The 1440: A calculator with memory. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Forrest M. Arther (November 12. Paul."Les Solomon entertained a curious audience with anecdotes about how it all began for MITS. Umstattd. Glynnis Thompson Kaye (Editor) (1984). . including interfaces and resident software for operating the peripherals. org/ web/ 20070408035039/ http:/ / www. North Carolina: WorldComm Press. is on page 15. A History of Modern Computing. pp. Forbes Greatest Technology Stories: Inspiring Tales of the Entrepreneurs.The Hobbyists" (http:/ / startup. Popular Electronics (New York: Ziff-Davis) 7 (6): p. espacenet.Altair 8800 23 References [1] Newscientist Sept 21 gallery: March of the outdated machines (http:/ / www. Wayne (February 1976). Mims. ftldesign. Intel letter to its sales force. March 1975. [16] Intel Corporation. Chapter 6 "Mechanics: Kits & Microcomputers" [3] Ceruzzi. "Computer Bits". Intel knocked the price down to $75. Sams. [25] MITS (June 1975). 42. few people could afford it. She said why don't you call it Altair -. This product is designed around the Intel Standard Data Sheet 8080 family. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US3800129). 283. p. Jeffrey S. Howard W. atarimagazines. [7] Kellahin. Ed Roberts bought the chips in large quantities and was able to get a substantial discount…" [19] Ceruzzi. ISBN 0-471-24374-4. Stan Veit's History of the Personal Computer.) 1 (3): p. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. "Across the Editor's Desk" (http:/ / startup.

php) from the original on 8 April 2007. .com/mits0011. Here is a view of part of the production line. Asheville. 2. com/ mits0011. 1. "Ed Roberts Interview with Historically Brewed magazine" (http:/ / www. digibarn. [30] Littman.87.. Lifestyles and Fancy (http://www. Digital Deli: The Comprehensive. • Green. Jonathan (1987"). Edward. Retrieved 2007-11-22.Altair 8800 [26] Green. 61.atariarchives. early days at MITS" (http://www. (November 1984).asp). • Young. " 24 Further reading Books • Ditlea. ISBN 0-89480-591-6. Michael Swaine (2000). We had that machine to look at. Retrieved 2008-07-12. ISBN 0-471-24374-4.virtualaltair. "Worlds Most Inexpensive BASIC language system". 81–82. 3. NY: McGraw-Hill. html).org/altair. 61. nmnaturalhistory. (http://www. "Meanwhile. MITS Inc. Computers & Electronics (Ziff Davis) 23 (1): pp. The switches are pretty much standard of any front panel machine. Forrest (January 1985). Forbes Greatest Technology Stories: Inspiring Tales of the Entrepreneurs. In August 1975 Wayne Green visited several personal computer manufacturers. . H. N. Paul.archive. A photo caption in his trip report says. . org/ gallery/ notesViewer. at MITS. com/virtualaltair.81. • Mims. Siliconnections: Coming of Age in the Electronic Era. David (1996). Creative Computing (Creative Computing) 10 (11): p. "The Tenth Anniversary of the Altair 8800".. Jeffrey S.php). Edward (October 1975). "From the Publisher . William Yates (January 1975). "Ed Roberts Interview with Historically Brewed magazine" (http://www. David (1996). Chapter "Solomon's Memory" by Les Solomon • Freiberger. • Roberts. 58–62. December 16 [1975]. 33–38. Are they real?". Billion-Dollar Tale of Bill Millard.org/deli/solomons_memory. Forrest M (1986). ISBN 978-1-56664-030-5. New York: McGraw-Hill. BYTE (Green Publishing) 1 (2): pp. over 5. "Altair 8800 minicomputer" (http://www. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. ISBN 978-0-07-042411-1. "Later that day. Retrieved 2007-03-17. Historically Brewed (Historical Computer Society) (9). virtualaltair. Wayne (October 1975). 5." Roberts also discussed the problems with the 4K dynamic RAM boards.com/ creative/v10n11/17_The_Altair_story_early_d. "Hardware" (http:/ / www.) 1 (5): p. p. [29] Moore. 17. [28] MITS (August 1975). Once Upon a Time in ComputerLand: The Amazing. ISBN 0-89586-502-5. . New York." [27] Roberts. Retrieved 2007-11-22. php?ii=75_10& p=3). Steve (September 1984). "The Altair story. Customers got a $50 refund. Retrieved 2007-12-30. com/ collections/ newsletters/ homebrew/ V1_05/ index. Stan Veit's history of the personal computer.com/ mholley/PopularElectronics/Jan1975/PE_Jan1975. "From the Publisher . Chapter 6 "Mechanics: Kits & Microcomputers" Magazines • Greelish. Wayne (October 1975). Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer.atarimagazines. "We had less than 20 employees when we introduced the Altair and now we have grown to 90 as a result of our Altair customers. Historically Brewed (Historical Computer Society) (9). New York: John Wiley & Sons.pc-history. Homebrew Computer Club Newsletter 1 (5): pp.php). Culture. Fred (July 1976). Popular Electronics (Ziff Davis) 8 (2): p.81. (1998).87.C: WorldComm. Archived (http://web. NY: Ziff Davis) 7 (1): pp.com/creative/v10n11/ 17_The_Altair_story_early_d. United Parcel Service picked up the first shipment of 50 IMS computer kits for delivery to customers. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 18.org/web/20070408035039/http://www. • Veit. Forrest M. "Letter from the President" (http:/ / startup. Los Angeles: Price Stern Sloan. Popular Electronics (New York.atarimagazines. com/ virtualaltair.htm). Stanley (1993). Computer Notes (Altair Users Group. H.swtpc.htm). Are they real?". It would have taken forever if we would have had to re-decide where every switch had to go." [31] Greelish. • Mims.000 Altair 8800's have been shipped. User-Lovable Menu of Computer Lore. asp). BYTE (Green Publishing) 1 (2): pp. Ed Roberts said: "We had a Nova 2 by Data General in the office that we sold time share on …The front panel on an Altair essentially models every switch that was on the Nova 2. Workman Publishing. • Mims.

com/) • Altair 8800 images and information at vintage-computer. shtml) • Collection of old digital and analog computers at oldcomputermuseum.altairage.altair32.nmnaturalhistory.oldcomputermuseum.youtube.org/gallery/item.asp?st=1&c=62) • Virtual Altair Museum (http://www. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.net/static/S100/altair/index. com) • Marcus Bennett's Altair Documentation resource (http://maben.com/watch?v=fxCC0NZ7gLM) • Video of 1KB Altair 8800 memory card (http://www.com (http://www.Altair 8800 25 External links • "Altair 8800" (http://startup.old-computers.vintage-computer.com/watch?v=_TKOwdNDkXA) .com/) • Altair 8800 Emulator (http://www.plus software (http://www.virtualaltair. Retrieved 2007-12-18.com/altair8800.homeip.youtube.com's virtual computer museum (http://www.html) • Video Altair 8800 Serial number 21 (http://www.com/) • Help getting your Altair up and running .php?ii=26).com/ museum/computer.com (http://www. • MITS Altair 8800 exhibit at old-computers.

that ran on a PDP-10 time-sharing computer. and they developed and tested the interpreter on Harvard's PDP-10. an announcement of a non-existent product to gauge interest. including its own I/O system and line editor. distributed by MITS under a contract.[1] Gates believed that by providing a BASIC interpreter for the new computer they could make it more attractive to hobbyists. Harvard officials were not pleased when they found out. Traf-O-Data. It was Microsoft's first product (as Micro-Soft).Altair BASIC 26 Altair BASIC Altair BASIC The title page of the assembly language code that produced Altair BASIC Developer(s) Initial release Platform Micro-Soft 1975 Altair 8800 Altair BASIC was an interpreter for the BASIC programming language that ran on the MITS Altair 8800 and subsequent S-100 bus computers. They hired Harvard student Monte Davidoff to write floating-point arithmetic routines for the interpreter. Allen had written an Intel 8008 emulator for their previous venture. and asked whether he would like to see a demonstration. told him that they were developing an interpreter. They contacted MITS founder Ed Roberts. Gates and Allen had neither an interpreter nor even an Altair system on which to develop and test one. . Gates and Allen bought computer time from a timesharing service in Boston to complete their BASIC. but there was no written [2] policy that covered the use of this computer. in March 1975. This followed the common engineering industry practice of a trial balloon. The finished interpreter. He adapted this emulator based on the Altair programmer guide. Origin and development Bill Gates recalls that when he and Paul Allen read about the Altair in the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics. leaving plenty of room for the interpreted program. Altair BASIC was the start of the Microsoft BASIC product range. they stored the finished interpreter on a punched tape that the Altair could read and Paul Allen flew to Albuquerque. they understood that the price of computers would soon drop to the point that selling software for them would be a profitable business. In preparation for the demo. a feature not available in many of its competitors. Roberts agreed to meet them for a demonstration in a few weeks. fit in only four kilobytes of memory. However.

Allen spotted the Popular Electronics cover that features the Altair. MITS would receive the rights to the interpreter after it had paid a certain amount in royalties. p. Extended Basic. urging recipients to make more copies. [3] "We have a BASIC" (http:/ / startup. when it shifted to MS-DOS. ISBN 0-471-56886-4. as MITS's preferred BASIC interpreter.. was also popular. James. ISBN 0-07-135892-7.Altair BASIC On final approach. . and Disk BASIC." [2] Wallace. "While walking through Harvard Square one day. . He also hired Gates and Allen to maintain and improve it. Jim Erickson (1992). php?ii=20& sid=4). 53. They produced several versions: the original 4K BASIC and later 8K BASIC. org/ gallery/ story. p. the Altair was very popular with hobbyists such as the Homebrew Computer Club. As they expected. Writing in 8080 machine language. [4] Wallace. 81–83. pp. 78. Under the terms of the purchase agreement. Extended ROM BASIC. Microsoft had developed versions of the interpreter for other systems such as the Motorola 6800. they made a bet on who could write the shortest bootstrap program.. Many hobbyists reacted defensively to the letter. causing Gates to take a leave of absence from Harvard. BASIC interpreters remained the core of Microsoft's business until the early 1980s. However. John Wiley & Sons.[3][4] 27 Versions and distribution Roberts agreed to distribute the interpreter. Altair BASIC. Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. Later. Allen realized that they had forgotten to write a bootstrap program to read the tape into memory. New York. a dispute arose over whether the full amount had been paid and whether the agreement applied to the other versions. . New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. Homebrew member Dan Sokol Altair 8K BASIC on paper tape was especially prolific. Jim Erickson (1992). the hobbyists took a "share-alike" approach to software and thought nothing of copying the BASIC interpreter for other hobbyists. nmnaturalhistory. Only when they loaded the program onto an Altair and saw a prompt asking for the system's memory size did Gates and Allen know that their interpreter worked on the Altair hardware. who much to Roberts' surprise decided in favor of Microsoft. after somehow obtaining a pre-market tape of the interpreter. ISBN 0-471-56886-4. Microsoft and MITS took the dispute to an arbitrator. References [1] Freiberger. Paul. Michael Swaine (2000). However. John Wiley & Sons. Gates responded in 1976 with a strongly worded Open Letter to Hobbyists that accused the copiers of theft and declared that he could not continue developing computer software that people did not pay for. Allen ran to tell Bill that he thought their big break had finally come. Bill agreed. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. NY: McGraw-Hill. When they decided to leave MITS. Gates won. James. Retrieved 2007-04-18. Allen finished the program before the plane landed. he made 25 copies and distributed them at the next Homebrew meeting.

Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. 1. "Altair BASIC — Up and Running" (http://startup. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. compiled by Reuben Harris and archived at archive.org/web/20011211233332/www.archive.org . and Michael Swaine (1999). • Cringely.nmnaturalhistory. Robert X. MITS Inc. 3. • Gates. Nathan Myhrvold.html)..uk/altair/4k/ index2. Computer Notes (Altair Users Group.org.Altair BASIC 28 Further reading • Frieberger. New York. PBS. NY: McGraw Hill. Bill.rjh. The Road Ahead. • Bunnell. David (April 1975).org/gallery/ notesViewer.php?ii=75_4). 1996. Triumph of the Nerds.) 1 (1): pp. ISBN 0-670-77289-5. and Peter Rinearson (1995). External links • Altair BASIC source disassembly (http://web. New York: Viking. Retrieved 2007-04-18. Paul.

Mary Chestaro. he and his mother relocated to the West Coast where she found work as a featured singer.[5] After a year and a half. from 2002 to 2007. Larry. they returned to the East. He transposed his first and middle names when he entered show business because another actor named Michael Hall was already a member of .Anthony Michael Hall 29 Anthony Michael Hall Anthony Michael Hall Anthony Michael Hall at Creation Grand Slam XII in 2004 Born Michael Anthony Hall April 14. film producer and director who starred in several teen-oriented films of the 1980s. an auto-body-shop owner. both in 1985.[4] When Hall was three. Hall's next movies with Hughes were the teen classics The Breakfast Club and Weird Science. joining the cast of Saturday Night Live (1985–1986) and starring in films such as Out of Bounds (1986). beginning with the popular 1983 comedy National Lampoon's Vacation and the coming-of-age comedy Sixteen Candles.[4][5] Hall's ancestry is Irish and Italian. During its run. rather than Michael. Edward Scissorhands (1990) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993).[3] when their son was six months old.S. Hall began his career in commercials and on stage as a child. Hall diversified his roles to avoid becoming typecast as his geek persona.[2] Personal life Anthony Michael Hall was born in West Roxbury. 1968). His films with director-screenwriter John Hughes. director. Johnny Be Good (1988). is an American actor. a show business manager. He had the leading role in the USA Network series The Dead Zone.[5] Hall uses the name Anthony. producer. from his mother's second marriage to Thomas Chestaro. Massachusetts. he starred as Microsoft's Bill Gates in the 1999 television film Pirates of Silicon Valley. 1968 West Roxbury. and made his screen debut in 1980. musician Occupation Years active 1979–present Website [1] Michael Anthony Hall (born April 14. He is the only child of blues-jazz singer Mercedes Hall's first marriage. eventually moving to New York City. known professionally as Anthony Michael Hall. Actor. the show was one of the highest-rated cable television series. where Hall grew up. a neighborhood in Boston.[6] He has one half-sister. She divorced Hall's father. His half-sister is pursuing a career as a singer under the name of Mary C. After a series of minor roles in the 1990s. shaped his early career. Boston. U. Massachusetts. His performances as lovable geeks in these three films connected his name and face with the stereotype for an entire generation.

[4] He was the Honeycomb cereal kid and appeared in several commercials for toys and Bounty. Hall is pursuing his other passion. "I'd consider [working with Hughes again] any day of the week. Hall landed the role of Rusty Griswold. as well as a member in good standing of Hollywood's Brat Pack. Hall tried to avoid the clichés of geekness. Reviews of the film were positive for Hall and his co-stars. Critic Sheila Benson from the Los Angeles Times said "Hall [was] the role model supreme" for the character. in Weird Science. in National Lampoon's Vacation.[11] In 1980. but she also acknowledged that "he [was] outgrowing the role" and "[didn’t] need to hold the patent on the bratty bright kid.[7] Hall attended St. Hugh's School of New York before moving on to Manhattan's Professional Children's School. "I just went in there and played it like a real kid. Molly Ringwald. when he was cast as the young Steve Allen in Allen's semi-autobiographical play The Wake. "the brain. music and lyrics. who pursued Molly Ringwald's character in John Hughes' directing debut Sixteen Candles. when he was cast as Farmer Ted. and Molly Ringwald. Welcome to the Hall of Mirrors. Hall. but it was not until the release of the 1982 Kenny Rogers film Six Pack that he gained real notice.Anthony Michael Hall the Screen Actors Guild. through Hall's own RAM Records label in 1999. he made his screen debut in the Emmy-winning TV movie The Gold Bug. braces-wearing geek. I thought. Ally Sheedy. formed in 1998. He went on to appear in the Lincoln Center Festival's production of St.[11] His stage debut was in 1977. Later that year. in association with Chapman University. Hall starred in two 1985 teen classics. Hilda's & St. Hall's mother managed his career. Film critic Janet Maslin praised Hall. grossing over US$61 million in the United States. another likable misfit. co-starring Emilio Estevez. Hall of Mirrors. He is the lead singer and songwriter for his band. the scrawny. The geek is just a typical freshman. music.[12] After Vacation. was a remarkable accomplishment for a 13-year-old kid. "I had the time of my life". and novels with audio.[5] Hall is committed to aiding at-risk youth through his literacy program. along with co-star Ringwald. in which he played the young Edgar Allan Poe. the film made overnight stars of Ringwald and Hall. Following family tradition. The following year." he has said. "I did not go to college. Judd Nelson."[17] Weird Science was a moderate success at the box office but was generally well-received for a teen comedy. The Breakfast Club and Weird Science. "For [Hall] to upstage Chevy. dated for a short period of time after filming The Breakfast Club together in 1985. Joan of the Microphone." said Hughes. such as films."[20] .[13] Hall's breakout role came in 1984. "I didn't play him with 100 pens sticking out of his pocket. The Anthony Michael Hall Literacy Club. scripts. Hall began his acting career at age eight and continued throughout high school.[10] 30 Career 1980s Hall started his career in commercials when he was seven years old. stating that the 16-year-old actor and Ringwald were "the movie's standout performers. Chevy Chase and Beverly D'Angelo's son."[16] Hall and fellow costar. Hall portrayed Gary Wallace. both written and directed by John Hughes. he said. and one for People Weekly even claimed that Hall's performance "[pilfered] the film" from Ringwald. and in a play with Woody Allen. catching the attention of the film's screenwriter John Hughes.[9] The club provides an opportunity for the students to improve their literacy skills by exploring genres not typically used to enhance literacy.[4] The film was a significant box office hit in 1983.[18] Those roles established him as the 80s "nerd-of-choice". with collaborations from former Guns N' Roses guitarist Gilby Clarke and Prince's former keyboard player Tommy Barbarella. Hall moved on to other projects and declined to reprise his role in the 1985 sequel."[14] Hall landed a spot on the promotional materials.[19] credits the director for putting him on the map and giving him those opportunities as a child. who was about to make the jump to directing. The band released an album. He was cast as Brian Johnson." in the quintessential teen film The Breakfast Club.[15] Despite achieving only moderate success at the box office." he said. who portrayed John Hughes' alter egos in Sixteen Candles. "but I'm an avid reader in the ongoing process of educating myself."[8] Through the 1980s. eventually relinquishing that role to her second husband.

whose earlier performances (in films like National Lampoon's Vacation and Sixteen Candles) have been much goofier. Hall had admired the show and its stars as a child. and some critics panned Hall's performance as a high school football star.' an intelligent. hustling pitchmen known as The Jones Brothers (the other Jones Brother was played by short-lived featured player Damon Wayans). and relentlessly brain-dead."[27] 31 1990s After a two-year hiatus due to a drinking problem." Hall said. the youngest cast member in the show's history. writing that "Mr. "I really fought for this part because I knew it would be the role of a lifetime. [could] do much to reconcile" the disparate themes of the movie."[22] He was replaced with Matthew Modine." he said. The film was a critical failure. Hall turned down roles written for him by John Hughes in Ferris Bueller's Day Off (Cameron Frye) and Pretty in Pink (Phil "Duckie" Dale). Jr. but it didn't work out. Idiot Savant. talented teenager with a vacant expression and stilted speech. "but I still learned a lot. Hall's first excursion into the thriller and action genre. After a series of appearances in low-budget films and guest roles on TV series in the mid and late 1990s. but he found the SNL environment to be far more competitive than he had imagined." Hall said when asked about the film. and 'Fed Jones.' one half of the habitually high. By then in his 20s. Film critic Janet Maslin praised his performance. Hall. "It was a thrill and a daunting challenge to play someone of his stature and brilliance. he appeared in a series of low-budget films.[24] Critic Roger Ebert described Out of Bounds as "an explosion at the cliché factory. and remains.[3] Hall returned to acting by starring opposite Johnny Depp and Winona Ryder in Tim Burton's 1990 hit Edward Scissorhands.[22] "It was a difficult decision. or I was pissed at him for shooting too long. The film also co-starred Samuel L. he played a gay man who teaches down-and-out Will Smith to dupe rich people in the critically acclaimed film Six Degrees of Separation. remains coolly funny and graduates to subtler forms of comedy with this role. "My year there. trying to establish himself as an adult actor. and was a critical and financial disappointment.Anthony Michael Hall Hall joined the cast of Saturday Night Live (SNL) during its 1985–86 season at the age of 17. Hall claimed that it was "the hardest role [he] ever had. both in 1986. His next film would be 1988's Johnny Be Good. Hall starred in and directed his first feature film. I didn't have any breakout characters and I didn't really do the things I dreamed I would do. In addition.[22] I'll always be proud of the fact that I was a part of its history. After Scissorhands. Kennedy and Daryl Hall were among Hall's celebrity impersonations. But all sorts of stories circulated."[29] Hall described his physical appearance as 20-year-old Gates to the San Francisco Chronicle: ."[11] In 1994. Hall was widely praised for his portrayal of Microsoft billionaire Bill Gates."[10] To avoid being typecast.. and Judd Nelson.[26] Hall was offered the starring role in the 1987 film Full Metal Jacket in a conversation with Stanley Kubrick. vulgar. he produced the soundtrack for the film with composer Herbie Tribino. The film featured songs written and performed by Hall."[25] and Caryn James from the New York Times claimed that not even "Hall. he shifted to more mature roles. Art Garfunkel. It's all not true."[28] The following year. He was. claiming that he. because in that eight-month period. and I was really fascinated by him. A review for The Washington Post claimed that the film was "crass. who made nerds seem lovable in John Hughes' Sixteen Candles and The Breakfast Club. Jackson.[21] His recurring characters on the show were 'Craig Sundberg. but after an eight-month negotiation. and I value that. I read everything I could about the guy. Robert Downey. including the 1992 comedy Into the Sun. he gained media attention once again in the 1999 Emmy-nominated TNT original movie Pirates of Silicon Valley. Edd Byrnes. a low-budget Showtime comedy named Hail Caesar about a would-be rock star who works in a pencil eraser factory. this time as the film's villain. like I got on set and I was fired. co-starring Noah Wyle as Apple Computer's Steve Jobs. Jr. where he starred as a visiting celebrity at a military air base. he starred in the 1986 film Out of Bounds. "I wanted to be a part of that film. a financial agreement could not be reached.[11][23] Instead. the movies' reigning geek. in which he worked with Uma Thurman and fellow Saturday Night Live cast member Robert Downey. was miscast for the role. Robert F. The film grossed only US$5 million domestically.

is my best work as a director. Hall took on supporting roles in the mystery-drama The Caveman's Valentine (2001) opposite Samuel L." He is almost there. "[The Cold Hard Truth]. a 2010 independent crime-drama film. a TV series adapted from Stephen King's best-selling novel. Hall said. The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review wrote that "Hall's Johnny flashes the qualities . because I had this great crew that knows me well and has been working with me". Add ill-fitting clothes. and drew higher ratings for a premiere than any other cable series in television history[31] with 6. 2002. Hall began his first regular series role in 2002. producer (seasons 5) and co-executive producer (season 6). guest starring standup comic Richard Lewis.that made him a star in the 1980s movies Sixteen Candles and The Breakfast Club.[22] The show debuted on June 16. 2007. with Tony Danza and Frank Whaley. a pair of oversize glasses and a cold stare. On the big screen. In 2008. starring as Johnny Smith in USA Network's supernatural drama The Dead Zone. Hall appeared as Gotham City television reporter/anchor Mike Engel in The Dark Knight.[38] . He starred opposite Sheryl Lee as a cheating husband in the 2001 USA Network cable movie Hitched."[36] The show's sixth and final season premiered on June 17. "You go down.4 million viewers. He was cast in the show after executive producer Michael Piller saw his performance in Pirates of Silicon Valley. "I also had the best script that I've had an opportunity to direct. Hall appeared in several made-for-TV films. "The Cold Hard Truth"."[33] The Dead Zone. you have to lose the neck. and the impersonation is complete. and the action-comedy All About the Benjamins (2002) opposite Ice Cube. down.[37] USA Network officially [32] canceled The Dead Zone in December 2007. he played renowned music producer Robert "Mutt" Lange in VH1's original movie Hysteria: The Def Leppard Story and starred as legendary lefty baseball pitcher Whitey Ford in Billy Crystal's highly acclaimed HBO film. Hall is developing film and television projects under his production company banner AMH Entertainment. you create a little gut. "Then you extend the neck and you do a little duck walk. the critically panned Freddy Got Fingered (2001) opposite Tom Green. 61*. with the show and Hall receiving strong reviews.[35] Hall also directed an episode from season three. In addition. That same year. mop-top hair." The top six inches of his spine seem to disappear.[32] The Dead Zone quickly developed a loyal audience. said Hall. I feel. Hall also participated in Mind Freak's 10th episode of season 4.[30] 32 2000s After making a cameo appearance as himself in the 2000 comedy film Happy Accidents. "has transformed my career. You lose the body. you get softer shoulders. you slump. Jackson." He walks across the room.[9] Hall starred in Aftermath. great facial expressions .Anthony Michael Hall "First."[34] The show proved to be one of USA Network's top shows and one of the highest-rated programs on basic cable.comic timing.[2] The Dead Zone opening credits list Hall as co-producer (seasons 1-3).

Hall played a gay love interest to Will Smith. Smith told the press that he called Denzel Washington for advice.. Hall made a guest appearance in NBC season one of Community. MTV attempted to reunite the original cast. Hall's drinking problem. A brief shot of the sign over the door of a high school cafeteria reveals that the facility is named the "Anthony Michael Dining Hall. and Hall appeared together on stage. but rather what failed to occur.[22] who told him that an onscreen same-sex kiss was a bad career move. However. he said. Walter Sykes.[39] During 2011. Hall joked that the two were "in Africa with Dave Chappelle. I had my partying nights. made headlines. the group of young actors who became famous in the 1980s and frequently starred together. Hall's physical appearance in Edward Scissorhands caught audiences off guard.[3] Hall eventually quit drinking and became fully sober by 1990. The Breakfast Club was rewarded with the "Silver Bucket of Excellence Award" at the MTV Movie Awards. Estevez could not attend because of family commitments.[42] When asked about the incident during an interview."[41] Hall's role in the 1993 film Six Degrees of Separation managed to make news not because of what occurred onscreen. and ultimately. Hall said.I was able to govern myself and continue my work. "I never went to rehab. but Hall later said that "the weight gain was natural. Hall was ranked # 4 in VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Teen Stars"[45] and # 41 in "100 Greatest Kid Stars.[40] In the late '80s. "The truth is. and Paul Gleason personally gave the award to his former castmates. which began in his early teens. Ringwald. on the day of the shoot.[47] and Nelson appeared earlier on the red carpet[48] but left before the on-stage reunion for reasons unknown.. I wasn't that comfortable with it. In the media Hall became a regular subject of tabloid media after New York Magazine named him a member of the "Brat Pack". '80s comedy films parodied by the movie."[49] Selected filmography Films ."[44] In 2006. who had previously agreed to a kissing scene between the two. Smith backed off."[46] In June 2005.Anthony Michael Hall 33 2010s In 2010. His more muscular image provoked rumors of steroids. either."[43] Recognition The 2001 film Not Another Teen Movie pays tribute to Hall's numerous appearances in the teen-oriented. Sheedy. "I didn't care."[22] In 1990. Reprised his role as Rusty Griswold in 2012 in a series of Old Navy holiday commercials featuring the Griswold family. but I never really bounced at the bottom". we used a camera trick. in honor of the film's twentieth anniversary. he played the main antagonist in Season 3 of Warehouse 13.

Burggins Brian Cutler Jeffry Alan Spacy Himself Greg Ted Robbins Bob Mr.Anthony Michael Hall 34 Year 1980 The Gold Bug 1981 Jennifer's Journey Film Role Young Edgar Allan Poe Michael Notes Made-for-TV 1982 Rascals and Robbers: The Secret Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn Huckleberry "Huck" Finn Six Pack 1983 National Lampoon's Vacation 1984 Sixteen Candles 1985 The Breakfast Club Weird Science 1986 Out of Bounds 1988 Johnny Be Good 1990 Edward Scissorhands A Gnome Named Gnorm Whatever Happened to Mason Reese 1992 Into the Sun 1993 Six Degrees of Separation 1994 Hail Caesar Texas Who Do I Gotta Kill? 1995 A Bucket of Blood Ripple 1996 Hijacked: Flight 285 Exit in Red The Grave 1997 Trojan War Cold Night Into Dawn 1999 Pirates of Silicon Valley A Touch of Hope 2 Little. 2 Late Revenge Dirt Merchant 2000 Happy Accidents The Photographer 2001 Hitched The Caveman's Valentine Freddy Got Fingered Hysteria . Johnson Gary Wallace Daryl Cage Johnny Walker Jim Casey Gallagher Mason Reese Tom Slade Trent Conway Julius Caesar McMurty Yancey Quimper Jimmy's Friend Kevin Friedland Walter Paisley Marshall Gray Peter Cronin Nick Travis Bus Driver Eddie Rodgers Bill Gates Dean Kraft Mr. Dave Davidson Robert "Mutt" Lange Whitey Ford Lil J Made-for-TV Voice Also director Made-for-TV Made-for-TV Made-for-TV Made-for-TV Made-for-TV Cameo Made-for-TV Made-for-TV .The Def Leppard Story 61* 2002 All About the Benjamins Doc Russell 'Rusty' Griswold Farmer Ted (The Geek) Brian R.

com/ hughes/ articles/ sweet16teens. [3] Gliatto. a fansite. takes charge of her own career". 3. "Blues-singer Mercedes Hall.02 Starring role. usanetwork. [6] Hall stated he is of Irish and Italian ancestry on The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson.22 Ep. html) from the original on 13 November 2006. Video (http:/ / www. usanetwork. html). #3. html). . com/ series/ thedeadzone/ behindthescenes/ news/ press091806. # 1.June 4.6 Ep. She Wrote Touched by an Angel 1997 The Jamie Foxx Show Diagnosis: Murder 1998 1999 Poltergeist: The Legacy Touched by an Angel Chuck Manley/The Camp Counselor Ep.21 Ep. html). 2006.6 Les Franklin Thomas Prescott Tim Dr. com/ series/ thedeadzone/ theshow/ characterprofiles/ amh/ bio. # 8. Retrieved October 13. # 1. . #16 Ep. 2006 [7] "Anthony Michael Hall Official Site . archive.net. [8] "StarBoards: Anthony Michael Hall" (http:/ / www. html). James Bradstone Roy Minor Walter Sykes 2002–2007 The Dead Zone 2009-2011 Community 2010 2011 2011 CSI: Miami No Ordinary Family Warehouse 13 References [1] http:/ / www. mother of 'Dead Zone' star.12 The Crow: Stairway to Heaven Officer Reid Truax 2007 Entourage Himself Johnny Smith Mike Dr. eonline. [5] Candace Hammond (August 21. # 5.12. com/ series/ thedeadzone/ .Cast Bio: Anthony Michael Hall" (http:/ / www. Johnson John Griffin Thomas Prescott Ep.com. Retrieved September 29. [9] "The Dead Zone . anthonymichaelhall. September 18. net/ [2] "USA Network announces sixth season pick up of "The Dead Zone"" (http:/ / www.14 Ep.6 Ep. 1984.23 Ep. eonline.09. anthonymichaelhall. com/ Celebs/ Star/ Hall/ index. 2. usanetwork. "The John Hughes Files". usanetwork. # 2. Archived (http:/ / web. . 2006. net/ amh.8 Ep. # 5.9 Ep. # 2. "The Geek Grows Up" (http:/ / www. # 2. usanetwork. Retrieved September 29. org/ web/ 20060912032311/ http:/ / www. Archived (http:/ / web. . # 5. # 12. 2006. Cape Cod Times.com. Jeff. People Weekly .22 Ep.11. com/ watch?v=mOKo1GWACuc) Retrieved on October 16. 2005). riverblue. html). "Sixteen Candles' sweet teens graduate to stardom by acting their own ages" (http:/ / www.22 Ep. archive. [4] Jarvis. also producer Ep. riverblue. anthonymichaelhall. org/ web/ 20061113054134/ http:/ / www.Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / www. 3. # 4. 2006 from "The John Hughes Files". com/ series/ thedeadzone/ behindthescenes/ news/ press091806. June 12.13 1985–1986 Saturday Night Live 1993 1995 Tales from the Crypt NYPD Blue Deadly Games 1996 Murder. youtube. # 1. .Anthony Michael Hall 2005 Funny Valentine 2007 LA Blues Final Approach 2008 The Dark Knight 2010 Aftermath Josh Larry Greg Gilliad Mike Engel Tom Fiorini Also producer Made-for-TV Also co-producer 35 Television Year Show Various Reggie Skulnick Hanson Riker Role Notes Cast member Ep. Retrieved on September 30. com/ hughes/ articles/ geekgrowsup. shtml). 2006. # 3. Tom (30 September 2006). 2006.

[33] Carter. Retrieved September 30. htm). ugo. . . 2006. Archived (http:/ / web.The Caveman's Valentine" (http:/ / discuss. washingtonpost. Retrieved October 22. 1986. Archived (http:/ / web. com/ ~madman/ ws/ ws-article1. html). htm). 2009. The New York Times . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 19. html) from the original on 12 September 2006.July 8. Chicago Sun-Times .June 13. Jeff.Interview" (http:/ / www. htm). "Sixteen Candles' sweet teens graduate to stardom by acting their own ages" (http:/ / www. Retrieved October 13. Archived by the Internet Archive October 13. 2006. com/ article/ televisionNews/ idUSN1964292420071220). [11] "Anthony Michael Hall AOL Chat 1998" (http:/ / web. riverblue. 1999. Retrieved October 22. boxofficemojo. Retrieved October 22. 2006 from "Shermer. [25] Ebert. Retrieved December 31. Reuters/Hollywood Reporter . riverblue. nytimes. 2006. [30] Rubin. 2006. html?title1=INTO THE SUN (MOVIE)& title2=& reviewer=Janet Maslin& pdate=19920131& v_id=). "Anthony Michael Hall from The Dead Zone . html). htm). universalstudios. reuters. 2004. Illinois. . 2006.June 4. "'Science' Fulfills Teenage Dreams" (http:/ / home. 1999). April 6. The New York Times . org/ web/ 20061022111701/ http:/ / www. 30/ newchat/ transcripts/ anthonyhall. org/ web/ 19990224221025/ hallofmirrors. Spoofing Movie Stars And a War" (http:/ / movies2. boxofficemojo. canoe. .July 25. . . Retrieved November 25.March 28. html). com/ movies/ ?id=outofbounds. archive. [10] "Anthony Michael Hall . Pittsburgh Tribune-Review . Retrieved October 13. . com/ wp-srv/ zforum/ 01/ entertainment_hall031901. com/ interview1. Retrieved September 30.canoe. Russell. [12] "Box Office Mojo . com/ mem/ movies/ review. xnet.National Lampoon's Vacation" (http:/ / www. "USA finds niche with broad appeal" (http:/ / www. jam. nytimes. com/ interview1. . com/ ~madman/ sc/ sc-article3. 2006. "From Brat Pack To PC Pirate" (http:/ / www. dallasobserver. com/ yearly/ chart/ ?yr=1985& view=releasedate& view2=domestic& sort=gross& order=DESC& & p=. com/ channels/ filmtv/ features/ anthonymichaelhall/ ). htm) from the original on 15 November 2006. . [15] Haller. Hall's former official site hallofmirrors. htm) on February 24. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.1985 Domestic Grosses" (http:/ / www. Dan. . Archived by the Internet Archive October 13. Underground Online. [21] Bickley. 2006.January 31.com. 2006. 2006.December 13. Scot. People Weekly .July 15. 1985. . Caryn. html) from the original on 22 October 2006. [18] "Box Office Mojo . 2006. [19] Wilonsky. Claire. 36 . . The New York Times . 2006 from "Shermer. Sylvia (June 13. [29] "TNT's Pirates of Silicon Valley Official Site" (http:/ / alt. riverblue. suntimes.Anthony Michael Hall theshow/ characterprofiles/ amh/ bio. com/ hughes/ trivia1. com/ unichat. Roger. 1988. 2006. 2006. Archived (http:/ / web. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review . html). Archived (http:/ / web.. com/ movies/ ?id=nationallampoonsvacation. com/ hughes/ articles/ sweet16teens. 2007). 1999. "Out of Bounds Review" (http:/ / movies2. html). [22] Epstein. pittsburghlive. riverblue. 1984. [13] Lee.December 20.ca . com/ mem/ movies/ review. com/ article/ televisionNews/ idUSN1964292420071220) from the original on 24 December 2007. 2002. 2006. "Sixteen Candles" (http:/ / home. [17] Benson. 2006. com/ movies/ ?id=nationallampoonsvacation. html) from the original on 22 October 2006. Sheila. sfgate. com/ hughes/ articles/ sweet16teens. [14] Jarvis. Chelsea J. Retrieved September 29. Retrieved September 29. htm). boxofficemojo. .. San Francisco Chronicle. html). html). [24] "Box Office Mojo . People Weekly . 2002. [32] Andreeva. . "Johnny Be Good Review" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20061022111550/ http:/ / www. 2001. org/ web/ 20061115033642/ http:/ / www." a John Hughes fansite. Archived from the original (http:/ / hallofmirrors. html?_r=1& title1=BREAKFAST CLUB. 2006. Retrieved October 22. THE (MOVIE)& title2=& reviewer=Janet Maslin& pdate=19850215& v_id=6997& oref=slogin). [20] "Hollywood Spotlight chat with Anthony Michael Hall . 1999. "Veteran USA sci-fi shows vaporised" (http:/ / www. [31] Bauder. Dallas Observer . org/ web/ 19990427075456/ www. htm). com/ hughes/ trivia1. universalstudios. com/ x/ pittsburghtrib/ s_76186. . Nellie (December 20. a John Hughes fansite. Retrieved October 9. Retrieved November 24.com. asp?id=3164). Retrieved October 22. org/ web/ 20071224073525/ http:/ / www. . . Retrieved October 13. 2000.June 3. 2007. Robert. 30/ newchat/ transcripts/ anthonyhall. html). archive. archive.July 25. tv/ movies/ tntoriginals/ pirates/ html/ main2. com/ cgi-bin/ article. "Anthony Michael Hall grows up" (http:/ / www. com/ wp-srv/ style/ longterm/ movies/ videos/ johnnybegoodpg13hinson_a0c907. 2006. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 1999/ 06/ 13/ PK66986. "No longer nerd prince: Anthony Michael Hall all grown up" (http:/ / jam. archive.February 15. 2007. . 2006. [28] Maslin. 1986. 1999. WashingtonPost. "USA's 'The Dead Zone' puts twist on Stephen King's novel" (http:/ / www. xnet. "John Hughes' The Breakfast Club" (http:/ / movies2. nytimes. . . tnt. Illinois". . archive. Los Angeles Times August 2. 2006. html) on April 27. pittsburghlive. Janet. Archived (http:/ / web. com/ mem/ movies/ review. 1985. com/ Issues/ 2004-06-03/ calendar/ calendar3. archive. boxofficemojo. dll/ article?AID=/ 19860725/ REVIEWS/ 607250303/ 1023). boxofficemojo. David. Retrieved October 13. "Out of Bounds Review" (http:/ / rogerebert. 2006. Hall's former official site hallofmirrors. com/ unichat. "Review/Film. 2006. [23] "The John Hughes Files: General Trivia" (http:/ / www. Retrieved October 22. . . [16] Maslin. DTL& hw=LEADER+ OF+ THE+ PACK& sn=064& sc=311). Retrieved October 30. archive. [26] James. [27] Hinson. html?title1=OUT OF BOUNDS (MOVIE)& title2=& reviewer=Caryn James& pdate=19860725& v_id=). Retrieved October 13.Out of Bounds" (http:/ / www. . htm) from the original on 15 November 2006. Retrieved October 6. Retrieved October 22. com/ apps/ pbcs. com/ reviewprint.com. "National Lampoon's European Vacation Review" (http:/ / www. com/ x/ pittsburghtrib/ s_80118. htm). dvdbits. Hal (March 28. com/ yearly/ chart/ ?yr=1985& view=releasedate& view2=domestic& sort=gross& order=DESC& & p=. reuters. Janet. . Retrieved October 22. 1984. html). 1998" (http:/ / web. 1988). washingtonpost.May 14. ca/ Movies/ Artists/ H/ Hall_Anthony_Michael/ 2000/ 12/ 13/ 758875. 2006. Retrieved October 5. org/ web/ 20061115023100/ http:/ / www. 1992.

nj. 2007.com . bullz-eye. archive. Skits.ign. The Boston Globe . com/ channels/ filmtv/ features/ anthonymichaelhall/ ). riverblue. com/ shows/ dyn/ the_greatest/ 92321/ episode_featured_copy. filmforce. org/ web/ 19990224221025/ hallofmirrors. William (June 5. . 1999.com/name/p93153) at AllRovi . 2005. . com/ hughes/ references. . php?category=1& id=41899). Retrieved October 22.com . VH1. contactmusic. 2006. contactmusic. thebratpacksite. [38] "Hall stays dead quiet about role in Batman saga" (http:/ / www. Alan (December 11. 2007. com/ new/ xmlfeed. [40] "Brat Pack Origin" (http:/ / www. "Anthony Michael Hall from The Dead Zone . com/ hughes/ references. com/ shows/ dyn/ the_greatest/ 97838/ episode_featured_copy.June 16. 2006. [47] "Estevez is a definite for Breakfast Club reunion movie" (http:/ / www. dailynews. Archived by the Internet Archive October 13.com. 2006. htm).June 5. "Dead Zone Changes Scenery" (http:/ / web. 2011. "MTV awards honor actors" (http:/ / www. com/ interview1. com/ life/ people/ 2005-06-05-mtv-awards_x. Misses. [48] Keck. Cindy. com/ origin/ ). htm?csp=34). html). . 1999. [44] "The John Hughes Files: References" (http:/ / www. USAToday. Retrieved May 20. . dailynews. com/ celebrities/ ci_5943152) from the original on 23 May 2007. org/ web/ 20060909103649/ http:/ / www. the lip-locks often leave something to be desired" (http:/ / www. 2006. archive. 2006. com/ shows/ dyn/ the_greatest/ 97838/ episode_featured_copy. jhtml). . . Retrieved October 22. [35] "A Chat with Anthony Michael Hall" (http:/ / www. 2005. VH1. Retrieved October 22. scifi. ew. [45] "VH1's 100 Greatest Teen Stars #'s 20-1" (http:/ / www. 2006. Entertainment Weekly's EW. Archived (http:/ / web. html).July 11. "Comparative Religion": Jeff vs. 37 External links • Anthony Michael Hall (http://www. 2009). htm). Retrieved September 30. jhtml) from the original on 9 September 2006.May 20. . usatoday.Anthony Michael Hall [34] Oldenburg. org/ web/ 20061022111509/ http:/ / www. [43] Epstein. Retrieved October 22. 2005).com. org/ web/ 20070616011004/ http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20070523094055/ http:/ / www. htm) on February 24.com . archive. . Retrieved October 22. 2006. com/ scifiwire/ index. "Community. php?category=1& id=41899) on June 16. com/ entertainment/ tv/ index.00. star of USA's The Dead Zone" (http:/ / movies. Ann (June 10. vh1. Retrieved September 29. 2007. ign. . Wesley (April 10. htm). Dan. "'Dead Zone' lives to thrill" (http:/ / www. Archived (http:/ / web. html) from the original on 22 October 2006. .June 13. [37] White. Anthony Michael Hall" (http:/ / www. riverblue. com/ ew/ article/ 0. nj. Bullz-eye. [49] Hodgman. [36] "An Interview with Anthony Michael Hall.imdb.June 10. Underground Online. [42] Morris. nsf/ mndwebpages/ estevez is a definite for breakfast club reunion movie).allrovi. Sci Fi. 2005. USAToday. thebratpacksite. scifi.com . [41] "Anthony Michael Hall AOL Chat 1998" (http:/ / web. ugo. html).Interview" (http:/ / www.1070768. com/ celebrities/ ci_5943152). 2006.com/name/nm1309/) at the Internet Movie Database • Anthony Michael Hall (http://www. Ann (June 16. archive. Archived (http:/ / web. [46] "VH1's 100 Greatest Kid Stars #'s 60-41" (http:/ / www. 2006. html). 2008.June 9. .com. Retrieved October 22. 2007. com/ articles/ 522/ 522140p1. com/ interview1. "Hits. boston. "For all the steamy romance on-screen.com. . archive. 2007. 2005.com . Retrieved October 22. Hall's former official site hallofmirrors.com . ssf/ 2009/ 12/ community_comparative_religion. Retrieved July 11. jhtml). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. vh1. . com/ life/ television/ news/ 2005-06-16-dead-zone_x. 2006. [39] Sepinwall. Archived from the original (http:/ / hallofmirrors.com. 2004. 2005. Retrieved October 22. dailynews. 2005). . vh1. Kisses: Most memorable moments at the MTV Movie Awards" (http:/ / www.com . 2005). Retrieved November 25.April 10. usatoday. com/ scifiwire/ index. com/ ae/ movies/ articles/ 2005/ 04/ 10/ kissed_off?pg=2).com. . 2006. com/ television/ interviews/ 2008/ anthony_michael_hall. 2006. Retrieved May 1.. Retrieved September 29. 2005).

users never interacted with the machine directly. The machines had become fast enough that most users could feel they had the machine all to themselves. Microsoft BASIC. 59% of developers for the .NET. BASIC remains popular in numerous dialects and new languages influenced by BASIC such as Microsoft Visual Basic. Liberty BASIC. which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to do. History Before the mid-1960s. In the batch processing model. By this point the problem of interacting with the computer was a concern. But during the 1960s faster and more affordable computers became available. one after another. a system which allows multiple users or processes to use the CPU and memory. giving each one running time on the CPU before switching to another. The original Dartmouth BASIC was designed in 1964 by John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. and as prices decreased newer computer systems supported time-sharing. Sinclair BASIC. Visual Basic . Commodore BASIC. TI-BASIC. nearly all use of computers required writing custom software. leading to widespread use of these computers in businesses that previously did not have access to computing technology. GRASS. Realbasic.NET as their only programming [1] language. AutoHotkey BASIC is a family of general-purpose.NET Framework used Visual Basic . In such a system the operating system alternates between running processes. AutoIt. In 2006. the name is an acronym from Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. instead they tendered their jobs to the computer operators. computers were extremely expensive and used only for special-purpose tasks. high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. USA to provide computer access to non-science students. later procedural. and often part of the firmware of the machine. an early BASIC language for small computers Paradigm(s) Appeared in Designed by unstructured. Visual Basic. JOSS COMAL. The presence of an easy-to-learn language such as BASIC on these early personal computers allowed small business owners to develop their own custom application software.BASIC 38 BASIC BASIC Screenshot of Atari BASIC. Visual Basic Influenced by Influenced ALGOL 60. At the time. later object-oriented 1964 John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz Major implementations Apple BASIC. FORTRAN II. BBC BASIC. when it was typically a standard feature. The language and its variants became widespread on microcomputers in the late 1970s and 1980s. Under the . A simple batch processing arrangement ran only a single "job" at a time. Atari BASIC.

"101 BASIC Computer Games". and the Pick operating system. Spread on minicomputers As a result of its free availability. It was intended specifically for the new class of users that time-sharing systems allowed—that is. When management refused to support the concept. instead of. Kemeny and Kurtz's original BASIC dialect became known as Dartmouth BASIC. a compiler. In the following years.[6] Train Basic everyday! — said a poster in Russian school . knowledge of BASIC became relatively widespread (for a computer language) and BASIC was implemented by a number of manufacturers. Ahl left DEC in 1974 to find the seminal computer magazine. Ahl while he worked at DEC and published in a newsletter he compiled.BASIC time-sharing model the users were given individual computer terminals and interacted directly. He later collected a number of these into book form. and was re-published on several occasions. A number of these were collected by David H. or in addition to.[3] BASIC was designed to allow students to write programs for the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. 39 Origin The original BASIC language was designed in 1964 by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz[2] and implemented by a team of Dartmouth students under their direction. The designers of the language decided to make the compiler available free of charge so that the language would become widespread. as other dialects of BASIC appeared. from command line interpreters to programming languages was an area of intense research during the 1960s and 70s. which was first published in 1973. In these instances the language tended to be implemented as an interpreter. Ahl was involved in the creation of a small computer for education use. with matrix arithmetic support from its initial implementation as a batch language and full string functionality being added by 1965. with some influences from ALGOL 60 and with additions to make it suitable for timesharing.[4][5] During the same period. a less technical user who did not have the mathematical background of the more traditional users and was not interested in acquiring it. The acronym is tied to the name of an unpublished paper by Thomas Kurtz and is not a backronym. an early personal computer. The language was based on FORTRAN II. They also made it available to high schools in the Hanover area and put a considerable amount of effort into promoting the language. Creative Computing. The BASIC language was also central to the HP Time-Shared BASIC system in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Being able to use a computer to support teaching and research was quite novel at the time. BASIC concentrated on supporting straightforward mathematical work. The book remained popular. becoming fairly popular on newer minicomputers like the DEC PDP series and the Data General Nova. Initially. It was during this period that a number of simple computer games were written in BASIC. The need for a system to simplify this experience. most notably Mike Mayfield's Star Trek.

Almost universally. and other programs. Dobb's Journal of Tiny BASIC Calisthenics & Orthodontia: Running Light without Overbyte. PET 2001 and TRS-80 were all released in 1977.[13] [8] . the user was directed to a BASIC interpreter in immediate mode. such as Learn to Program BASIC would also have gaming as an introductory focus. and its sequels. developed by Bill Gates and Paul Allen as the company Micro-Soft. MITS released Altair BASIC. It had the advantage that it was fairly well known to the young designers and computer hobbyists who took an interest in microcomputers. a simple BASIC variant designed by Dennis Allison at the urging of Bob Albrecht of the Homebrew Computer Club. and Tom Pittman. Microsoft. a smaller introductory version introduced with the initial releases of the machines and a more advanced version developed as interest in the platforms increased. developed for them by Acorn Computers Ltd. incorporating many extra structuring keywords and advanced floating-point operation features. One of the first to appear was Tiny BASIC. How to design and implement a stripped-down version of MSX BASIC version 3. and Monte Davidoff. and it became the first million-selling computer book. As new companies entered the field. home computers of the 1980s had a ROM-resident BASIC interpreter. Commodore Business Machines included a version of Micro-Soft BASIC. and in particular.0 an interpreter for the BASIC language was covered in articles by Allison in the first three quarterly issues of the People's Computer Company newsletter published in 1975 and implementations with source code published in Dr. When the Apple II. though some BASIC programs were considered universal and could be used in machines running any variant of BASIC (sometimes with minor adaptations). The Apple II and TRS-80 each had two versions of BASIC. magazines (such as Creative Computing in the US) published complete source code in BASIC for games. Later packages.[10][11][12] The book reached the stores in 1978. Different magazines were published featuring programs for specific computers. which grew into today's corporate giant. Ahl published versions of the original 101 BASIC games converted into the Microsoft dialect and published it from Creative Computing as "BASIC Computer Games". He had seen BASIC on minicomputers and felt it would be the perfect match for new machines like the MITS Altair 8800. not a traditional command line interface. The Atari 8-bit family had their own Atari BASIC that was modified in order to fit on an 8 kB ROM cartridge. The BBC published BBC BASIC. all three had BASIC as their primary programming language and operating environment.BASIC 40 Explosive growth: the home computer era The introduction of the first microcomputers in the mid-1970s was the start of explosive growth for BASIC. just as the home computer market was starting off. This book. it was a simple matter to type in the code from the magazine and execute the program. provided hundreds of ready-to-go programs that could be easily converted to practically any BASIC-running platform. additional versions were added that subtly changed the BASIC family. Allen. allowing the machines to boot directly into BASIC which therefore constituted a significant and visible part of the user interface of many home computers' rudimentary operating systems. The first Altair version was co-written by Gates.[7] In 1975. Upon boot. utilities. On the business-focused CP/M computers which soon became widespread in small business environments. Microsoft BASIC (MBASIC) was one of the leading applications.[9] As the popularity of BASIC grew in this period. Many books of type-in programs were also available. Given BASIC's straightforward nature. Li-Chen Wang. Version were written by Dr.

BASIC 41 IBM PC. the language had come into widespread use for small custom business applications shortly after the release of VB version 3. However. including additional control structures and proper subroutines supporting local variables. for instance before SUB). which is widely considered the first relatively stable version. More important were the facilities for structured programming. Turbo Pascal-publisher Borland published Turbo Basic 1.NET in 2001. They sourced this from Microsoft . while professional programmers now had a wide range of more advanced languages available and BASIC tended to become the butt of derogatory comments such as Dijkstra's famous comment: "It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration. such as line numbers and the INPUT keyword. Microsoft also produced VBScript in 1996 and Visual Basic .but Microsoft also produced several other versions of BASIC for MS-DOS/PC-DOS including IBM Disk BASIC (BASIC D). access to the file system and additional data types. By that time. While many advanced programmers still scoffed at its use. all typically bundled with the machine. GW-BASIC (a BASICA-compatible version that did not need IBM's ROM) and QuickBASIC. The only significant similarity to older BASIC dialects was familiar syntax. These languages introduced many extensions to the original home-computer BASIC. few of the distinctive features of early Dartmouth BASIC. and compatibles When IBM was designing the IBM PC they followed the paradigm of existing home-computers in wanting to have a built-in BASIC. VB met the needs of small businesses efficiently wherever processing speed was less of a concern than ease of development. albeit they cannot be used in certain places. even VB.1 of the pre-emptive multitasking GUI Amiga computers (late 1985 / early 1986).0.NET.1 had become fast enough that many business-related processes could be completed "in the blink of an eye" even using a "slow" language."[14] Visual Basic BASIC's fortunes reversed once again with the introduction in 1991 of Visual Basic ("VB"). such as improved string manipulation and graphics support.0 in 1985 (successor versions are still being marketed by the original author under the name PowerBASIC). rather than learning programming themselves. by Microsoft. Microsoft wrote the windowing-based AmigaBASIC that was supplied with version 1. by the latter half of the 1980s users were increasingly using applications written by others. Syntax itself no longer "fully defined" the language. remain (although Visual Basic still uses INPUT to read data from files. since much development was done using "drag and drop" methods without exposing all code for commonly used objects such as buttons and scrollbars and many other user friendly objects to the developer. . In addition they produced the Microsoft BASIC Compiler aimed at professional programmers. and INPUTBOX is available for direct user input. and apparently even to the surprise of many at Microsoft who still initially marketed it as a language for hobbyists. Eventually. as long as massive amounts of data were not involved.IBM Cassette BASIC . Ironically given the origin of BASIC as a "beginner's" language. line numbers can also optionally be used in all VB versions. While this could be considered an evolution of the language. although the product unusually did not bear any Microsoft marks. knowledge of Visual Basic had become a marketable job skill. computers running Windows 3. during the lengthy lifetime of VB3. Many small business owners found they could create their own small yet useful applications in a few evenings to meet their own specialized needs. IBM BASICA (BASIC A).

.. Input and output • PRINT: displays a message on the screen or other output device... Futurist and sci-fi writer David Brin mourned the loss of ubiquitous BASIC in a 2006 Salon article[19] as have others who first used computers during this era. OpenOffice. Gambas and FreeBASIC and the commercial PureBasic. TO .. The condition may be evaluated before each iteration of the loop. {STEP} . • ON . ELSE: used to perform comparisons or make decisions. LOOP {WHILE} or {UNTIL}: repeat a section of code Forever or While/Until the specified condition is true . Program flow control • IF . WEND and REPEAT .. NEXT: repeat a section of code a given number of times. returning to the following line after encountering the RETURN Command.. Versions of BASIC have been showing up for use on Smart Phones [16] for Android devices. or after.. Popular computer magazines of the day typically included type-in programs. the article prompted Microsoft to develop and release Small Basic [20].. • GOTO: jumps to a numbered or labelled line in the program. One version is RFO BASIC [17] Another Android BASIC is Mintoris Basic . There is also a version for Apple smart phones and tablets called Basic! [18] Three modern Basic variants: Mono Basic.. and Tablets. and True BASIC (the direct successor to Dartmouth BASIC from a company controlled by Kurtz). Syntax Typical BASIC keywords Data manipulation • LET: assigns a value (which may be the result of an expression) to a variable.org Basic and Gambas Nostalgia The ubiquity of BASIC interpreters on personal computers was such that textbooks once included simple "Try It In BASIC" exercises that encouraged students to experiment with mathematical and computational concepts on classroom or home computers. • DO . including the open source Bywater BASIC. • DATA: holds a list of values which are assigned sequentially using the READ command. including Quite BASIC [15] and Microsoft's Small Basic. The statement may include a prompt message. See Switch statement for other forms.BASIC 42 Recent versions Many BASIC dialects have also sprung up in the last few years. GOTO/GOSUB: chooses where to jump based on the specified conditions. • GOSUB: temporarily jumps to a numbered or labelled line. THEN . or after.. A variable that acts as a counter is available within the loop. . Several web-based simple BASIC interpreters also now exist. This is used to implement subroutines. Power BASIC. The condition may be evaluated before each iteration of the loop... • INPUT: asks the user to enter the value of a variable.. • WHILE . • TAB or AT: sets the position where the next character will be shown on the screen or printed on paper. UNTIL: repeat a section of code while the specified condition is true... RealBasic... • FOR . In turn.

43 Data types and variables Minimal versions of BASIC had only integer variables and one-letter variable names. and evaluation of a determinant. The following example is written for GW-BASIC. usually entered as an alphanumeric string or in a list of DATA statements. These dialects would support matrix operations such as assignment. but will work in most versions of BASIC with minimal changes: 10 INPUT "What is your name: ". • USR: transfers program control to a machine language subroutine. Arrays in BASIC could contain integers. Most first generation BASIC languages such as MSX BASIC and GW-BASIC supported simple data types. World!" 140 END This generally involves simple use of the language's PRINT statement to display the message (such as the programmer's name) to the screen. MAT. useful for the solution of sets of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. More powerful versions had floating-point arithmetic. floating point or string variables. and variables could be labelled with names six or more characters long. Examples The original Dartmouth Basic was unusual in having a matrix keyword. U$ 30 INPUT "How many stars do you want: ". often used to give a title to the program and to help identify the purpose of a given section of code. multiplication (of compatible matrix types). String variables are usually distinguished in many microcomputer dialects by having $ suffixed to their name. loop cycles and arrays. Some dialects of BASIC supported matrices and matrix operations. addition.BASIC Miscellaneous • REM: holds a programmer's comment or REMark. Microcomputer dialects often lacked this data type and required a programmer to provide subroutines to carry out equvalent operations. 10 PRINT "Hello.[21] Although dropped by most later microprocessor derivatives it is used in this example from the 1968 manual[22] which averages the numbers that are input: 5 LET S = 0 10 MAT INPUT V 20 LET N = NUM 30 IF N = 0 THEN 99 40 FOR I = 1 TO N 45 LET S = S + V(I) 50 NEXT I 60 PRINT S/N 70 GO TO 5 99 END New BASIC programmers on a home computer might start with a simple program similar to the Hello world program made famous by Kernighan and Ritchie. and string values are typically enclosed in quotation marks. Often an infinite loop was used to fill the display with the message. N . U$ 20 PRINT "Hello ".

NumStars Stars$ = STRING$(NumStars. line numbering is omitted from the language and replaced with labels (for GOTO) and procedures to encourage easier and more flexible design. UserName$ DO INPUT "How many stars do you want: ". NumStars As Integer 44 . primarily related to structured and procedure-oriented programming. stars As String. "*") PRINT Stars$ DO INPUT "Do you want more stars? ".NET: Public Class StarsProgram Public Shared Sub Main() Dim UserName. Answer$ LOOP UNTIL Answer$ <> "" Answer$ = LEFT$(Answer$. StarOffice Basic and BlitzMax introduced features to support object-oriented and event-driven programming paradigm. 1) LOOP WHILE UCASE$(Answer$) = "Y" PRINT "Goodbye ". UserName$ PRINT "Hello ". REALbasic.BASIC 40 S$ = "" 50 FOR I = 1 TO N 60 S$ = S$ + "*" 70 NEXT I 80 PRINT S$ 90 INPUT "Do you want more stars? ".[23] INPUT "What is your name: ". Answer. 1) 120 IF A$ = "Y" OR A$ = "y" THEN GOTO 30 130 PRINT "Goodbye ". U$ 140 END The resulting dialog might resemble: What is your name: Mike Hello Mike How many stars do you want: 7 ******* Do you want more stars? yes How many stars do you want: 3 *** Do you want more stars? no Goodbye Mike Second generation BASICs (for example QuickBASIC and PowerBASIC) introduced a number of features into the language. Most built-in procedures and functions are now represented as methods of standard objects rather than operators. Usually. UserName$ Third generation BASIC dialects such as Visual Basic. The following example is in Visual Basic . A$ 100 IF LEN(A$) = 0 THEN GOTO 90 110 A$ = LEFT$(A$.

113-1987) References Notes [1] Steven Vaughan-Nichols. DEC. [10] Table of Contents: BASIC Computer Games (http:/ / www. org/ morebasicgames) [12] Table of Contents: Big Computer Games (http:/ / www. org/ gallery/ story.WriteLine("Goodbye {0}". "101 BASIC Computer Games" (http:/ / books. com/ c/ a/ News/ Mono-brings-Visual-Basic-programs-to-Linux/ ). XI [5] David H. atariarchives. org/ bigcomputergames) .ReadLine() Console. LinuxDevices. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.Write("What is your name: ") UserName = Console. InfoWorld. 44 [7] "you had to pay $5 up front to get it. . p. Ahl." (http:/ / www. ittybittycomputers. nmnaturalhistory.Write("Do you want more stars? ") Answer = Console. google.113 Interpretations-1992 "BASIC Technical Information Bulletin # 1 Interpretations of ANSI 03.113-1987 "Programming Languages Full BASIC" • INCITS/ISO/IEC 10279-1991 (R2005) "Information Technology . org/ basicgames/ ). google. Ahl. UserName) End Sub End Class 45 Standards • ANSI/ISO/IEC Standard for Minimal BASIC: • ANSI X3. The Jargon File [4] David H. 1) Loop While Answer. org/ TKurtz. linuxfordevices.. atariarchives. "Computer Games" (http:/ / books.113-1987" • ISO/IEC 10279:1991/ Amd 1:1994 "Modules and Single Character Input Enhancement" • ECMA-116 BASIC (withdrawn. atariarchives. Retrieved 2007-04-18. Tom Pittman's site [8] "We have a BASIC" (http:/ / startup. [9] Probably the only exception was the Jupiter Ace.Write("How many stars do you want: ") NumStars = CInt(Console.ToUpper() = "Y" Console.Full BASIC" [24] • ANSI/ISO/IEC Addendum Defining Modules: • ANSI X3. 20 February 2007 [2] Thomas E. 1975 [6] David H. ca/ books?id=Cz4EAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA44). html#TinyBasic).Programming Languages . html) [3] BASIC (http:/ / www. which instead used Forth. atariarchives. Kurtz . catb. NumStars) Console.ReadLine() Loop Until Answer <> "" Answer = Answer. UserName) Do Console. similar to ANSI X3.Substring(0.History of Programming Languages (http:/ / cis-alumni.BASIC Console. p. "BASIC Computer Games" (http:/ / www. Ahl. 11 May 1981.WriteLine("Hello {0}". html). org/ basicgames) [11] Table of Contents: More BASIC Computer Games (http:/ / www.60-1978 "For minimal BASIC" • ISO/IEC 6373:1984 "Data Processing — Programming Languages — Minimal BASIC" • ANSI/ISO/IEC Standard for Full BASIC: • ANSI X3.. php?ii=20& sid=4). com/ IttyBitty/ iNotes.WriteLine(stars) Do Console. org/ jargon/ html/ B/ BASIC. ca/ books?id=Ief0QwAACAAJ).ReadLine()) stars = New String("*". "Mono brings Visual Basic programs to Linux" (http:/ / www.

Addison-Wesley. John G. microsoft. salon. By David Brin. com/ kb/ 73084). com/ 2006/ 09/ 14/ basic_2/ singleton/ ). bitsavers. 4th Edition. • Kemeny. N. "How do we tell truths that might hurt?" (http:/ / www. basic http:/ / itunes. Dartmouth College Computation Center. ISBN 0-201-13433-0. Jean E. org/ pdf/ dartmouth/ BASIC_4th_Edition_Jan68. ed. • The Encyclopedia of Computer Languages. virginia. 1964. aspx)Small Basic [21] From version 3 onwards. Springer-Verlag. net/ osborne. BASIC — Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (http:// hopl. Murdoch University. Sept. Compusoft Publishing.BASIC [13] "Osborne 1" (http:/ / oldcomputers.: Prentice-Hall. net/ osborne. basic https:/ / play. (1986). and Future of the Language. 2003-05-12. Back To BASIC: The History. org/ web/ 20100620081243/ http:/ / oldcomputers. Englewood Cliffs.. html) from the original on 20 June 2010.). the elementary algebraic language designed for use with the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (http://www. edu/ ~evans/ cs655/ readings/ ewd498. • Sammet. pdf). microsoft. Salon Technology [20] Small Basic (http:/ / msdn. Retrieved 2008-06-28.pdf). mintoris.murdoch. [22] BASIC. Kurtz. (1985).org/Computers/Programming/Languages/BASIC/) at the Open Directory Project .net. com/ store/ apps/ details?id=com. Corruption. 2006. 141 pp. Programming languages: History and fundamentals. from "Selected Writings on Computing: A Personal Perspective". [14] Edsger Dijkstra. The Basic Handbook: Encyclopedia of the BASIC Computer Language (3rd ed.bitsavers. External links • BASIC (http://www. 1982 [15] [16] [17] [18] http:/ / www. com/ us/ app/ basic!/ id362411238?mt=8 46 [19] Why Johnny Can't Code (http:/ / www. org/ iso/ catalogue_detail. google.edu. com/ store/ apps/ details?id=com. • Lien. page 53 [23] "Differences Between GW-BASIC and QBasic" (http:/ / support. OldComputers. Retrieved 21 May 2010.au/showlanguage. html).J. David A. cs.org/pdf/dartmouth/BASIC_Oct64. google. com/ en-us/ beginner/ hh182234. htm?csnumber=18321 Citations Bibliography • (PDF) A Manual for BASIC. archive. com/ https:/ / play. . . ISBN 0-932760-33-3. (1969). rfo. 14. apple. [24] http:/ / www. Archived (http:/ / web. 1968 (http:/ / www. quitebasic. 18 June 1975. Thomas E.dmoz. html).prx?exp=176). pp. iso.

manufacture and distribution of uniforms. Worldwide Warren Buffett (Chairman.254 billion (2011) [3] US$ 392. Nebraska. jewelry sales.Berkshire Hathaway 47 Berkshire Hathaway Berkshire Hathaway Inc. manufacturers of vacuum cleaners. President & CEO) Charlie Munger (Vice Chairman) Diversified investments. In the early part of his career at Berkshire. Buffett has used the "float" provided by Berkshire Hathaway's insurance operations (paid premiums which are not held in reserves for reported claims and may be invested) to finance his investments. who is the company's chairman and CEO. Type Traded as Public NYSE: BRK. and minimal debt. home furnishings.B (non-voting) S&P 500 Component Industry Founded Conglomerate Cumberland. that oversees and manages a number of subsidiary companies.3% to its shareholders for the last 44 years. Berkshire now owns a diverse range of businesses including confectionery. . Rhode Island. retail. Nebraska. but more recently he has turned to buying whole companies.314 billion (2011) [3] US$ 10.000 (2011) List of subsidiaries BerkshireHathaway.961 billion (2011) 260. property and casualty insurance [3] US$ 143. U. The company averaged an annual growth in book value of 20. railroad.A [1] [2] (voting) NYSE: BRK. encyclopedias.647 billion (2011) [3] US$ 168. he focused on long-term investments in publicly quoted stocks. U. (1839 as Valley Falls Company) Founder(s) Headquarters Oliver Chace Kiewit Plaza Omaha. United States.[6] The company is known for its control by investor Warren Buffett. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha.S. newspaper publishing. while employing large amounts of [5] capital.S.3% return for the S&P 500. Berkshire Hathaway stock produced a total return of 76% from 2000–2010 versus a negative 11.com [4] Area served Key people Products Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Subsidiaries Website Berkshire Hathaway Inc.688 billion (2011) [3] US$ 15. as well as several regional electric and gas utilities.

he was expanding into the insurance industry and other investments. Hathaway was successful in its first decades. Buffett claimed that purchasing Berkshire Hathaway was the biggest investment mistake he had ever made. Buffett acknowledged that the textile business was waning and the company's financial situation was not going to improve. Mass. The combined company was known as Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates. New Bedford. Berkshire acquired an equity stake in the Government Employees Insurance Company (GEICO). Berkshire first ventured into the insurance business with the purchase of National Indemnity Company. Buffett initially maintained Berkshire's core business of textiles. In 1985. In 1962. Buffett agreed to the deal. the founder of the first successful textile mill in America. Chace founded his first textile mill in 1806. In 2010. accompanied by large layoffs. Adams. but it suffered during a general decline in the textile industry after World War I. Hathaway Mills. Rhode Island. In the late 1970s. 48 History Berkshire Hathaway traces its roots to a textile manufacturing company established by Oliver Chace in 1839 as the Valley Falls Company in Valley Falls. In 1964. Eventually. Massachusetts by Horatio Hathaway. Massachusetts. . those investments would have paid off several hundredfold. but by 1967. the last textile operations (Hathaway's historic core) were shut down. Warren Buffett began buying stock in Berkshire Hathaway after noticing a pattern in the price direction of its stock whenever the company closed a mill. Buffett decided to buy more of the stock to take control of the company and fire Stanton (which he did).[10] Buffett claimed that had he invested that money directly in insurance businesses instead of buying out Berkshire Hathaway (due to what he perceived as a slight by an individual). However. After the merger Berkshire Hathaway had 15 plants employing over 12. However. A few weeks later. Hathaway was run by Seabury Stanton.000 workers with over $120 million in revenue and was headquartered in New Bedford. whose investment efforts were rewarded with renewed profitability after the Depression. in Adams. which forms the core of its insurance operations today (and is a major source of capital for Berkshire Hathaway's other investments). but the tender offer was for only $113⁄8. At this time. undercutting offer made him angry. Buffett later admitted that this lower. Berkshire Cotton Mills. Stanton made a verbal tender offer 1 of $11 ⁄2 per share for the company to buy back Buffett's shares. Chace had previously worked for Samuel Slater. Warren Buffett received the tender offer in writing. and claimed that it had denied him compounded investment returns of about $200 billion over the previous 45 years.Berkshire Hathaway According to the Forbes Global 2000 list[7] Berkshire Hathaway[8] is the eighth largest public company in the world. this put Buffett in a situation where he was now majority owner of a textile business that was failing. In 1929 the Valley Falls Company merged with the Berkshire Cotton Manufacturing Company established in 1889.[9] In 1955 Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates merged with the Hathaway Manufacturing Company which was founded in 1888 in New Bedford. seven of those locations were closed by the end of the decade. Mass.[10] Instead of selling at the slightly lower price. Massachusetts.

[13] Kiewit Tower. Nebraska.775. are considered Omaha's largest annual event along with the baseball College World Series.000 for the first time on October 23. 2010.[18] The 2007 meeting had an attendance of approximately 27. Holders of class A stock are allowed to convert their stock to Class B. which not only contributed to their high per-share price but also significantly reduced the liquidity of the stock. and after the January 2010 split." Berkshire's annual shareholders' meetings. This refusal to split the stock reflects the management's desire to attract long-term investors as opposed to short-term speculators.00 as of May 2. are routinely visited by 20. the meetings typically start with a movie made for Berkshire shareholders.4% aggregate voting power of Berkshire's shares outstanding and 23.[17] Berkshire's vice-chairman. and would be marketed en masse to unsophisticated buyers. Berkshire has not been included in broad stock market indices such as the S&P 500 due to the lack of liquidity in its shares. Nebraska part of a recapitalization of the investment bank. at 1⁄1. Buffett owned 32. Buffett defended Goldman CEO Lloyd Blankfein's $13.2 million pay package when the company had taken and not yet paid back $10 billion in Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) money from the United States Department of Treasury. The sure outcome: a multitude of investors destined to be disappointed. with a per-share value originally kept (by specific management rules) close to 1 ⁄30 of that of the original shares (now Class A) and 1⁄200 of the per-share voting rights. Berkshire Hathaway has created a Class B stock. 2007. nicknamed "Woodstock for Capitalists". The meetings. following a 50-to-1 split of Berkshire's class B shares in January 2010. 2006 and closed at an all-time high of $150.000 the voting rights of the Class-A shares. They would be sold by brokers working for big commissions. in part because they have never had a stock split and never paid a dividend. however. 2010. However. also holds a stake big enough to make him a billionaire. the location of Berkshire's In 2008. making them the highest-priced shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Charlie Munger.[19] Known for their humor and light-heartedness.[11][12] Berkshire's CEO is Warren Buffett. 2012. His annual chairman's letters are widely read and quoted. resulted in their becoming billionaires as well.3% of the economic value of those shares. Shares closed over $100.[14][15][16] As of July 1.Berkshire Hathaway 49 Corporate affairs Berkshire's class A shares sold for $121. apt to be seduced by our past record and beguiled by the publicity Berkshire and I have received in recent years. though not vice versa. Berkshire Hathaway is notable in that it has never split its Class A shares. Jr.500 the price and 1⁄10. taking place in the CenturyLink Center in Omaha. but did so to thwart the creation of unit trusts that would have marketed themselves as Berkshire look-alikes.000 on December 13. Berkshire invested in preferred shares of Goldman Sachs as corporate offices in Omaha. As Buffett said in his 1995 shareholder letter: "The unit trusts that have recently surfaced fly in the face of these goals.000. The 2004 movie featured Arnold Schwarzenegger in the role of "The Warrenator" . Barron's Magazine named Berkshire the most respected company in the world in 2007 based on a survey of American money managers. Burlington Northern was replaced by Berkshire in the S&P 500 on February 16.000 people. and early investments in Berkshire by David Gottesman and Franklin Otis Booth. would impose other burdensome costs on their shareholders. retaining corporate earnings on its balance sheet in a manner that is impermissible for private investors and mutual funds. Despite its size. Buffett was reluctant to create the class B shares. Bill Gates' Cascade Investments LLC is the second largest shareholder of Berkshire and owns more than 5% of class B shares.

M. Stephen A. The salary for the CEO is US$100. manager of the hedge fund Castle Point Capital. each of the latter would be responsible for a "significant portion of Berkshire's investment portfolio". Miles. through the mail. In reaction to the announcement. Buffett. All of Berkshire’s major insurance subsidiaries are rated AAA by Standard & Poor’s Corporation. Berkshire’s insurance companies maintain capital strength at exceptionally high levels. Over the past five years. as well as internationally based property and casualty reinsurers. While the intent of this message was to bolster confidence in the leadership of a "Buffett-less Berkshire". Buffett said that his successor as CEO had been chosen internally but not named publicly. "You see this more often with successful founder CEOs. scheduled to last six hours. would join them as an investment manager. in which applications for insurance are submitted directly to the companies by telephone. Collectively.[27] In Berkshire Hathaway's annual shareholder letter dated February 25.[20] The 2006 movie depicted actresses Jamie Lee Curtis and Nicollette Sheridan lusting after Munger. or via the . Because they’re so good.S. Ronald Olson. GEICO General Insurance Company. Charlie Munger. the aggregate statutory surplus of Berkshire’s U. 2011.[21] The meeting.[26] On September 12. [but] most boards try to avoid what [Buffett] did. months away from his 80th birthday. Thomas S."[28] Businesses Insurance group Insurance and reinsurance business activities are conducted through approximately 70 domestic and foreign-based insurance companies. and its principal insurance subsidiaries include: Government Employees Insurance Company. Charlotte Guyman. will join Berkshire in early 2012 as a second investment manager. Murphy. GEICO is headquartered in Chevy Chase.[23] 50 Governance The current members of the board of directors of Berkshire Hathaway are Warren Buffett. which is among the lowest salaries[22] for CEOs of large companies in the United States. Walter Scott. Schwarzenegger is later shown arguing in a gym with Buffett regarding Proposition 13.[24] Succession plans In May 2010. Berkshire’s insurance businesses also included life. is an opportunity for investors to ask Buffett questions. they want to take the lead in choosing their replacement. noted. a leadership consultant who specializes in CEO succession. Howard Graham Buffett. based insurers was approximately $48 billion as of December 31. as a result of the General Re acquisition in December 1998. critics have noted that this strategy of choosing a successor without a concrete exit strategy for the sitting CEO often leaves an organization with fewer long term options. David Gottesman. founder of Peninsula Capital Advisors. and GEICO Casualty Company. Bill Gates. • GEICO – Berkshire acquired GEICO in January 1996. accident and health reinsurers. Berkshire Hathaway announced that 50-year-old Ted Weschler. Donald Keough. the highest Financial Strength Rating assigned by Standard & Poor’s. these companies have offered primarily private passenger automobile insurance to individuals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. and are rated A++ (superior) by A.[25] Five months later. Stephen Burke and Susan Decker. Maryland. GEICO Indemnity Company. Best with respect to their financial condition and operating performance. said he would be succeeded at Berkshire Hathaway by a team consisting of a CEO and three or four investment managers. Berkshire’s insurance businesses provide insurance and reinsurance of property and casualty risks primarily in the United States.000 per year with no stock options. while doing little to calm shareholder fear. This strength differentiates Berkshire’s insurance companies from their competitors.. 2004. The subsidiaries market their policies primarily through direct response methods. In addition. Berkshire announced that Todd Combs. Jr.Berkshire Hathaway who travels through time to stop Buffett and Munger's attempt to save the world from a "mega" corporation formed by Microsoft-Starbucks-Wal-Mart. 2012.

In 2002. concrete block (Featherlite) and cut limestone (Texas Quarries). hospitals. In 2001.[29] • Berkshire Hathaway Assurance – Berkshire created a government bond insurance company to insure municipal and state bonds.000 styles of tufted and woven carpet and laminate flooring for residential and commercial use under approximately 30 brand and trade names and under certain private labels. is a vertically integrated manufacturer of basic clothing. Manufacturing.8% of the MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company. Kentucky. Berkshire entered the building products business with the acquisition of Acme Building Brands. Acme Boots. but this restriction ended when the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed in 2005. as well as pipe. Georgia-based Shaw Industries.00 per share. Germany. General Re’s reinsurance operations are primarily based in Stamford. Berkshire acquired 87 percent of Dalton. In February.[29] 51 Utilities and energy group Berkshire currently holds 89. manufactures and sells primarily architectural coatings that are available principally in the United States and Canada. and retailing Clothing Berkshire’s clothing businesses include manufacturers and distributors of a variety of clothing and footwear. Fruit of the Loom. General Re subsidiaries currently conduct global reinsurance business in approximately 72 cities and provide reinsurance coverage worldwide. Garan. General Re operates the following reinsurance businesses: North American property/casualty. Berkshire's voting interest was limited to 10% of the company's shares.[30] Finally in 2001. Connecticut. and Cologne. Texas. At the time of purchase. General Re held a 91% ownership interest in Cologne Re as of December 31. • General Re – Berkshire acquired General Re in December 1998. international property/casualty. which makes engineered connector products. and sewer systems. service. and manufacturing machinery for the truss fabrication segment of the building components industry and is headquartered in Chesterfield. Inc. These type bonds are issued by local governments to finance public works projects such as schools. headquartered in Fort Worth. Berkshire acquired a 90% equity interest in MiTek Inc. Building products In August 2000. which principally consists of Cologne Re and the Faraday operations. Brooks Sports and Justin Brands. a Dutch life reinsurance company. Berkshire acquired Russell Corporation on August 2.. Berkshire acquired Fruit of the Loom on April 29. In July. New Jersey. Few companies are capable of competing in this area. Missouri. 2002 for $835 million in cash. of Montvale.[31] Shaw is the world’s largest carpet manufacturer based on both revenue and volume of production and designs and manufactures over 3.H. engineering software and services.7 percent of Shaw. Brown Shoe Group. Berkshire Acquired the remaining 12. headquartered in Bowling Green. • NRG (Nederlandse Reassurantie Groep) – Berkshire acquired NRG. Berkshire acquired three additional building products companies. Businesses engaged in the manufacture and distribution of clothing include Union Underwear Corp. when it acquired Benjamin Moore & Co. and life/health reinsurance. It expanded its building products business in December 2000. Acme. duct and equipment insulation products. manufactures and distributes clay bricks (Acme Brick).Berkshire Hathaway Internet.[32] . 2004. – Fruit of the Loom. A major subsidiary of MidAmerican is CE Electric UK. Berkshire’s footwear businesses include H. Moore formulates. 2006 for $600 million or $18. Fechheimer Brothers and Russell Corporation. it purchased Johns Manville which was established in 1858 and manufactures fiber glass wool insulation products for homes and commercial buildings. from ING Group in December 2007. roads. General Re is one of the largest reinsurers in the world based on net premiums written and capital.

Tennessee. Orange Julius and Karmelkorn that offer various dairy desserts. the largest direct seller of kitchen tools in the United States. and Jordan’s Furniture. Inc.540 retailers. Va. Berkshire acquired Clayton Homes. shopping carts.[35][36] Other non-insurance In 1977. 2010. Mitek acquired the assets of Dur-O-Wal from Dayton Superior Corporation. Ltd. New York. wiring 52 . Mitek acquired Hohmann & Barnard a fabricator of anchors and reinforcement systems for masonry and on October 3 of that year. NetJets is the world’s leading provider of fractional ownership programs for general aviation aircraft. small toys. the paper began to print morning and evening editions. After the morning newspaper Buffalo Courier-Express ceased operation in 1982. Clayton operated 32 manufacturing plants in 12 states. Retail The home furnishings businesses are the Nebraska Furniture Mart. In 1986. Canada. FSI engages primarily in the business of providing high technology training to operators of aircraft and ships. On May 1. Berkshire acquired The Pampered Chef. Ltd. the NetJets program operated 15 aircraft types.000 stores operating under the names Dairy Queen. Berkshire Hathaway acquired Marmon Holdings Inc.. FSI’s corporate headquarters is located at LaGuardia Airport in Flushing. Mitek acquired Blok-Lok. See's Candies produces boxed chocolates and other confectionery products in two large kitchens in California. headquartered near Knoxville. In May 2000. a direct marketing company for novelties. designed and tested by The Pampered Chef. Berkshire acquired FlightSafety International Inc. Helzberg Diamonds. 391 of which are company-owned sales centers. See’s revenues are highly seasonal with approximately 50% of total annual revenues being earned in the months of November and December. 2003. Products are researched. In November 2012. prepared foods. Helzberg is a chain of jewellery stores based in Kansas City that began in 1915 and became part of Berkshire in 1995. metal fasteners. FlightSafety is the world's leading provider of professional aviation training services. plumbing pipes.1% owned subsidiary of Berkshire and is the leading national provider of rental furniture. In 2004. R. Berkshire Hathaway purchased 63 newspapers from Media General Inc. Clayton’s homes are marketed in 48 states through a network of 1.C. and manufactured by third party suppliers. Berkshire acquired NetJets Inc. From its Addison. A chain of jewellery stores established in 1912 with locations primarily in the western United States. Dairy Queen services a system of approximately 6. CORT Business Services Corporation was acquired in 2000 by an 80.Berkshire Hathaway On August 7.. Inc. of Richmond. NetJets created the fractional ownership of aircraft concept and introduced its NetJets program in the United States with one aircraft type. Previously it was a privately held conglomerate owned by the Pritzker family for over fifty years. blended fruit drinks. beverages. and party items. 2008. currently printing only a morning edition. The Pampered Chef utilizes a network of more than 65. Willey Home Furnishings. of Toronto. Berkshire announced they would acquire the Oriental Trading Company.[33] This joined Berkshire's other jeweler acquisition. Star Furniture Company. which owned and operated an assortment of manufacturing companies that produce railroad tank cars. At year-end 2004. On April 23.000 independent sales representatives to sell its products through home-based party demonstrations. Berkshire purchased Ben Bridge Jewelers. popcorn and other snack foods. in 1998. 2007. Illinois headquarters. principally in the United States. Berkshire Hathaway purchased the Buffalo Evening News and resumed publication of a Sunday edition of the paper that ceased in 1914. On December 25.[37] It remained Berkshire's only newspaper holding until the purchase of the Omaha World-Herald in December 2011. Clayton. is a vertically integrated manufactured housing company. Flight services In 1996. accessories and related services in the “rent-to-rent” segment of the furniture rental industry. including the Richmond Times-Dispatch and the Winston-Salem Journal.[38] In June 2012.[34] In 2002.

owner of Moody's Analytics (12. a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway formed in 2007.9%. quick service restaurants. Scott Fetzer also manufactures Ginsu Knives. Wayne Water Systems and Campbell Hausfeld products. Clayton's finance business.. CTB. Albecca designs. Indiana. founded by the Buddhist teacher Geshe Michael Roach. Inc. Loan losses remain 3.1%) . foamboard. and eggs.5%) Munich Re (10. 53 Finance and financial products Berkshire acquired and storage trailers. In 2002. Berkshire acquired Albecca Inc. Georgia. in May 2003 from Wal-Mart Stores. in 2002.5%) Kraft Foods (4.0%) BYD (9. Albecca is headquartered in Norcross.6% up from 2.. is a designer.9%) The Coca-Cola Company (8. drug stores and movie theatre complexes.6%) Wal-Mart (1. including wood and metal molding.Berkshire Hathaway and water treatment products used in residential construction.5%) Moody's Corporation.8%) IBM (5. hogs. industrial and institutional use. (loans to manufactured home owners). The three most significant of these businesses are Kirby home cleaning systems.[39] Andin International (designer and manufacturer of fine jewelry).[40] Investments Equities – beneficial ownership This includes some of the companies where a Berkshire Hathaway stake is more than $1 billion market value at yearend. (13. Berkshire acquired CTB International Corp. as reported in the 2011 annual report. Inc. convenience stores. earned $206 million down from $526 million in 2007. glass. intermodal piggyback trailers and domestic containers. is a division of The Richline Group. Inc. Inc. Products are produced in the United States and Europe and are sold primarily through a global network of independent dealers and distributors. equipment and other framing supplies. and primarily does business under the Larson-Juhl name. headquartered in Milford.[41] In alphabetical order: • • • • • • • • • American Express Co. Scott Fetzer Companies – The Scott Fetzer Companies are a diversified group of 21 businesses that manufacture and distribute a wide variety of products for residential. which brought on other subsidiaries such as Professional Datasolutions. chassis. matboard. with peak sales occurring in the second and third quarters. among others. McLane provides wholesale distribution and logistics services in all 50 states and internationally in Brazil to customers that include discount retailers.5%) Wells Fargo (7. and Salado Sales. manufacturer and marketer of systems used in the grain industry and in the production of poultry. manufactures and distributes custom framing products. Berkshire acquired McLane Company.

[42] Other In 2003.[45] On May 1. [7] "The World's Biggest Public Companies" (http:/ / www. sec. a deal that was described as one of the largest deals ever for Berkshire Hathaway. 2011. Berkshire Hathaway announced that it would acquire the Lubrizol Corporation for $9 billion in cash. [6] Warren Buffett and Berkshire Hathaway Have a Great Decade (http:/ / www. com/ global2000/ ). p. Retrieved on July 8. 2009.[48] On March 14.Berkshire Hathaway Bonds As of 2008. Forbes. Pepsi paid Berkshire $10 million to insure against a contest Pepsi held which had a potential $1 billion prize. com/ [5] Warren Buffett. 2011. quickly increasing the stake to 9. [9] Providence Journal Article July 10.[47] This was the largest acquisition to-date in Berkshire's history. Buffet had also bought 8. Berkshire and Buffett have since been criticized for Buffett's defense of Lloyd Blankfein's $13.com. html?ticker=brk. Berkshire purchased preferred stock in Wrigley. 2011. Projo. parent of BNSF Railway. forbes.[51] On May 17. . nyse. html?ticker=brk. using stock and cash totaling $26 billion. com/ news.7 million shares.[43] In 2008. Gurufocus. 13efc99. it was announced that Berkshire Hathaway will be acquiring Texas dailies The Eagle from Bryan-College Station and the Waco Tribune-Herald. 2006 (http:/ / www. 2011.[55] Notes [1] http:/ / www. html). Retrieved on July 8. Retrieved February 28.5 billion on its investment in preferred shares of Goldman Sachs. com/ about/ listed/ quickquote.[50] In 2007. com/ business/ johnkostrzewa/ projo_20060709_jk0709. Berkshire owns $27 billion in fixed income securities. The prize had a very small chance of being won and it was not won by anyone. forbes. that it did not already own. nyse. com/ about/ listed/ quickquote. 2010 at the Berkshire shareholders meeting. and GE totaling $14. 2006). . 2009. 5.5 billion. pdf).4 percent of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation. . 2012. Retrieved June 6. it was announced that Berkshire Hathaway will be acquiring Media General's newspaper division (excluding The Tampa Tribune) for $142 million in cash. berkshirehathaway. gurufocus.[53] The company also owns a stake in newspaper publisher Lee Enterprises. Berkshire Hathaway purchased $5 billion of preferred shares in Bank of America. b [3] Preliminary Results 2011 (http:/ / www.[44] Berkshire made $3. berkshirehathaway. Goldman Sachs. Forbes. php?id=80400). these newspapers will be merged into Berkshire Hathaway subsidiary BH Media Group under the World Media Enterprises division.[54] 54 Criticism The Gates Foundation expressed concern about Berkshire Hathaway's investments in Sudan. having bought some of its debt after it filed bankruptcy. Buffett also defended Goldman over $1 billion in collateralized debt obligation fraud allegations saying that its clients made a calculated risk.[49] On August 26. Retrieved June 6. 2011. projo. com/ companies/ berkshire-hathaway/ ). [8] "Berkshire Hathaway" (http:/ / www. com/ 2008ar/ 2008ar.com (July 10. . a [2] http:/ / www.1 million shares in the midst of the subprime crisis. mainly foreign government bonds and corporate bonds. Berkshire Hathaway 2008 Annual Report. 2011.[52] In June 2012. it would acquire the remaining 77. "Chairman's letter" (http:/ / www.[46] On November 3.2 million pay package while they owed the United States Department of Treasury $10 billion in Troubled Asset Relief Program money. Berkshire Hathaway announced that. a sister division to the Omaha World-Herald Company. gov/ cgi-bin/ browse-edgar?action=getcompany& CIK=0001067983& owner=exclude& count=40) [4] http:/ / www.

. 2007. 25 December 2007. asp#his).Berkshire Hathaway [10] Buffett's Worst Trade (http:/ / www. html) (Press release). pdf) (PDF). html). [21] "Whitney Tilson’s 2006 Berkshire Hathaway Annual Meeting Notes" (http:/ / www. co. 2011. Retrieved on July 8.com.com. . [34] "Our Story" (http:/ / www. Taipei Times (July 1. com/ 2007/ 05/ 03/ news/ newsmakers/ bc. taipeitimes." (http:/ / www. News Release" (http:/ / www. berkshirehathaway. Reuters. Buffalo News. owh. [13] Associated Press. CNNMoney. . Berkshire Hathaway. htm). pdf). [22] "Warren Buffett: Value Man Through And Through" (http:/ / www. Retrieved September 12. . [38] Omaha World-Herald "Who We Are" (http:/ / www. 21 January 2002. 2011.com [23] "Being Buffett . com/ services/ contact/ faq. html). cnbc. . 6 May 2006. May 2. sec. Peterwebb. forbes. helzberg. pdf) (PDF) (Press release). Forbes. . Retrieved January 27. nytimes. 2012). January 26. 2010. . cnn. 6 September 2000. Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway named most respected company (http:/ / www. November 2. . Helzberg Diamonds. CNN. pdf) (Press release). New York Times (May 1. 2011. . Retrieved September 28. com/ 2008ar/ 2008ar. 2010). Forbes. com/ 2010/ 05/ 02/ lloyd-blankfein-goldman-sachs-streettalk-markets-warren-buffett. [31] "Berkshire Hathaway to Acquire Shaw Industries" (http:/ / www. do). Berkshire Hathaway. businessweek. Susanne. 2011. cnn.uk (May 1. (September 24. htm) (Press release). Retrieved on July 8. [30] "Berkshire Hathaway Inc. [24] "Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Retrieved September 28. html). 2011. Berkshire Hathaway. htm?postversion=2007050517). Berkshire Hathaway 2008 Annual Report.web. September 12. peterwebb. Retrieved February 14. [33] "Our Herigate" (http:/ / www. [28] Brady. [11] "Berkshire Hathaway to join S&P 500. The New York Times. Retrieved on July 8.. Retrieved October 27. [14] Craig. com/ f-info/ More_News/ shaw. 2011. Retrieved September 28. . . Retrieved September 28. 2011. 2011. aspx?guid={0CC68C49-6EED-4A85-8C8C-51ED714E6082}& dist=TQP_Mod_mktwN). Berkshire Hathaway. archive. Online. web. htm) [18] Taipei Times (http:/ / www. [32] "Berkshire Hathaway.13. Inc. org/ 20070512153659/ http:/ / money. com/ article/ idUSTRE60P6OO20100126?type=globalMarketsNews). [12] Yousuf. Marmon Holdings. reuters. com/ 2012/ 11/ 02/ berkshire-to-buy-oriental-trading-company/ ). 2010. 12 June 2001. Inc. fibersource. 2011. com/ 2001/ 04/ 26/ buffett. berkshirehathaway. com/ news/ jan2102. businessweek. [39] "Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Retrieved on July 8. 2011.org (May 12. [26] "Berkshire Hathaway is pleased to announce that Todd Combs will soon be joining Berkshire as an investment manager" (http:/ / www. 2011. Forbes. 2011.. berkshirehathaway. 2012. "Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway joins S&P 500 Index" (http:/ / money. 2011. [25] "Berkshire moves step closer to Buffett succession" (http:/ / www. 2011. (BRKA): Board of Directors" (http:/ / investing. asp?symbol=BRK/ A:US). WSJ. . . 2011. 2007. Retrieved September 28. com/ article/ SB122220798359168765. 2011. uk/ pilgrimage. Retrieved September 28. . Retrieved September 28. 2010. 2007). To Acquire 60% of Pritzker Family Company. reuters. Ben Bridge Jeweler. pdf) (PDF). 2008 (http:/ / online. berkshirehathaway. [19] Internet Archive Wayback Machine (http:/ / replay. October 25. com/ news/ dec2507. Hibah (February 12. Marketwatch (December 28. Reuters.co. htm). October 25. fibersource. Berkshire Hathaway. berkshirehathaway. com/ research/ stocks/ people/ board. . 2011). cnn. com/ category/ about+ us/ our+ story. 2010. action3news. Acquires MiTek Inc" (http:/ / www.com. Retrieved January 12. html) (Press release). New York City: McGraw-Hill. Replay. . 2012. benbridge. [17] "Warren Buffett's 2010 SEC Schedule 13D/A Filing" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ OCT2510. p. buffalonews. 2010. 2010. berkshirehathaway. asp?S=7081357& nav=menu550_2). Berkshire Hathaway. Value Investor Insight. nytimes. Retrieved September 28.wsj. . reut/ index. BusinessWeek. Diane. com/ id/ 15840232/ ?video=1618466375& play=1). Retrieved on July 8. berkshire. New York City: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved March 13. "Berkshire to Buy Oriental Trading Company" (http:/ / dealbook. valueinvestorinsight. 2010. [36] "Berkshire Hathaway to Acquire Oriental Trading Company" (http:/ / www. [37] "Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / corp. berkshirehathaway. and blunt" (http:/ / money. [40] "Chairman's letter" (http:/ / www. 2009). May 5. com/ news/ sep1211. marketwatch. shares soar" (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 05/ 05/ news/ newsmakers/ buffett/ index. com/ article/ idUSTRE69O52R20101025). gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 315090/ 000119312510153511/ dsc13da. wsj. com/ news/ NOV0212. com/ 2010/ 05/ 01/ buffett-says-he-backs-goldmans-blankfein-100/ ). [27] "Berkshire Hathaway to Add Second Investment Manager" (http:/ / www. pdf). forbes. designs. [16] "Buffett Says He Backs Goldman’s Blankfein ‘100%’" (http:/ / dealbook. "Warren Buffett Chose a Favorite.com. 2008) Buffett to Invest $5 billion in Goldman. com/ news/ jun1201. 2011. 2007). com/ news/ story/ berkshire-hathaway-buy-reinsurer-start/ story. com/ about-us/ our-heritage). Retrieved on July 8. 2011. [15] The Buffett-Blankfein Alliance. com/ articles/ 2012-02-28/ warren-buffett-chose-a-favorite-not-a-successor).archive. Retrieved on July 8. 2010 (http:/ / www. September 24. Retrieved October 27. com/ bonus/ bonuscontent/ docs/ Tilson_2006_BRK_Meeting_Notes. De La Merced (November 2. start bond insurer" (http:/ / www. Retrieved April 26. BusinessWeek. Not a Successor" (http:/ / www. 2011. Retrieved on July 8. 2010. [35] Michael J. September 16. Retrieved January 26. 55 [20] Pigrimage to Omaha – My story of the Berkshire Hathaway AGM (Annual general meeting) of 2004 and meeting Warren Buffett (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 02/ 12/ news/ companies/ Berkshire_Hathaway_Buffett). 2010). . com/ Global/ story. CNBC (February 26. . com/ section/ OWH01). [29] "Berkshire Hathaway to buy reinsurer. 2012. . Omaha World-Herald. 2004). com/ News/ feat/ archives/ 2006/ 07/ 09/ 2003318204).

[42] Management Discussion (http:/ / www. com/ article/ SB10001424052702303624004577338070658967732. bloomberg. pdf). 2011. [47] Buffett Bets Big on Railroads’ Future (http:/ / www. . berkshirehathaway. 2011. New York Times (NYTimes. pdf) (Press release). 2011). . 2011. New York Times (NYTimes. Berkshire Hathaway 2008 Annual Report. . Retrieved March 15. org/ pnd/ news/ story. pdf). Berkshire Hathaway. nytimes. "Franc Reverses Gain Versus Dollar as Buffett Buys Bank of America Shares" (http:/ / www. nytimes. .18 [45] Susanne Craig (28 January 2011). Retrieved September 28. Dealbook (NYTimes).com/) . [46] Svea Herbst-Bayliss and Jonathan Stempel (3 May 2010). Gordon T. berkshirehathaway.com). p. (April 9. Ben. 2011. 2011. com/ 2012/ 05/ media-general-shares-soar-after-warren-buffett-agrees-to-buy-its-newspapers/ ) [53] Buffett's Berkshire buys Waco newspaper (http:/ / www. com/ 2011ar/ 2011ar. "Buffett Defends Goldman Sachs" (http:/ / www. 2003). New York City: FoundationCenter.Berkshire Hathaway [41] Berkshire Hathaway 2011 Annual Report (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 03/ 14/ berkshire-hathaway-to-buy-lubrizol-for-9-billion/ ). com/ 2008ar/ 2008ar. Susanne (August 26. "Goldman Sachs Gives Blankfein a Big Raise" (http:/ / dealbook. Retrieved on 24 September 2012. Retrieved September 28. com/ news/ national/ 2010/ 05/ 03/ 109464. FoundationCenter. 2012. htm). a November 4. Retrieved August 26. deadline. Anchalee (August 25. insurancejournal.berkshirehathaway. "Buffett Invests $5 Billion in Bank of America" (http:/ / dealbook. html). 3 November 2009. 2009 article from The New York Times [48] "Berkshire Hathaway Inc. html) [55] "Gates Foundation Concerned About Berkshire Hathaway's Investments in Sudan" (http:/ / foundationcenter. wsj. nytimes. com/ news/ 2011-08-25/ franc-reverses-gain-versus-dollar-as-buffett-buys-bank-of-america-shares. Craig. nytimes. "Pepsi's billion-dollar monkey" (http:/ / money. [50] Worrachate. com/ 2011/ 01/ 28/ blankfein-gets-13-2-million-for-2010/ ?hp).71 [43] Anderson. CNN. com/ 2009/ 11/ 04/ business/ 04deal. (PDF). html). [44] Chairman's Letter (http:/ / www. [49] "Berkshire Hathaway to Buy Lubrizol for $9 billion" (http:/ / dealbook. jhtml?id=177600049). . 2011). cnn. 2011. pdf).org. p. Reuters (Insurance Journal). (http:/ / www. berkshirehathaway. March 14. berkshirehathaway. 2010. businessweek. com/ 2008ar/ 2008ar. com/ 2011/ 08/ 25/ buffett-to-invest-5-billion-in-bank-of-america/ ?nl=afternoonupdate& emc=aua2). . Bloomberg (Bloomberg LP). . 2012. Retrieved September 28. 56 External links • Official website (http://www. com/ ap/ 2012-06-22/ buffetts-berkshire-buys-waco-newspaper) [54] Buffett Feasts on Goldman Scraps (http:/ / online. [52] Deadline: "Media General Shares Soar After Warren Buffett Agrees To Buy Its Newspapers". Retrieved September 21. Berkshire Hathaway 2008 Annual Report. [51] Protess. Retrieved August 25. . 2011. com/ news/ NOV0309. com/ 2003/ 04/ 09/ news/ companies/ pepsi_billion_game/ ).com). to Acquire Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation (BNSF) for $100 Per Share in Cash and Stock" (http:/ / www. May 17. Retrieved April 26.

USA Key people Website Larry Cohen. Bink. zdnet. Retrieved 2011-05-11.nu. incubator and venture capital firm. • Design and development of computer hardware and software to combat poverty. bgC3 is managed by Larry Cohen. org/ web/ 20110616053058/ http:/ / blogs.[4] According to the company's federal trademark registration. com/ microsoft/ ?p=1657) from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-26. The name is an acronym for Bill Gates Catalyst 3. .zdnet. a former Microsoft executive. References [1] http:/ / www.crunchbase.gov/servlet/tarr?regser=serial& entry=77581604) • CrunchBase profile (http://www. External links • Official website (http://www.com. . • Industrial analysis and research. 2008-10-23. it is a think-tank. archive. itespresso. covering: • Scientific and technological services. zdnet. Bill Gates[3] in 2008. com [2] "Bill Gates' mysterious new company" (http:/ / bink. de/ 2008/ 10/ 23/ bgc3-oder-bill-gates-und-sein-ratselhaftes-neues-unternehmen-inq). Managing Partner www.bgc3. who serves as its managing partner. The company has been described as a cross between a think tank.uspto.com/company/bgc3) . . bgc3.bgc3. Retrieved 2011-05-11. [3] "Mary Jo Foley: "Bill Gates founds a new tech company" (22 Oct 2008)" (http:/ / blogs. aspx).bgC3 57 bgC3 bgC3 Founder(s) Bill Gates Headquarters Kirkland. with the appended number pointing to a third endeavor beyond Microsoft and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Blogs. nu/ news/ bill-gates-mysterious-new-company.com) • Trademark filing for mark of C and 3 intertwined (http://tarr. Archived (http:/ / web.com [1] [2] References: Formerly Carillon Holdings bgC3 LLC is a company founded by Microsoft's co-founder. [4] (German) "bgC3 oder Bill Gates und sein rätselhaftes neues Unternehmen" (http:/ / www. com/ microsoft/ ?p=1657). WA.

C. . according to Chris Thompson. archive. htm). ISSN 0013-8797. si.[2][3] References [1] "Bill Gates' Flower Fly" (http:/ / www. usda. "Revision of the Eristalis flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the Americas south of the United States. pdf) from the original on 18 June 2009. F. [3] Thompson. pdf) (PDF). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington (Washington D. gov/ diptera/ syrphid/ allen. .: Entomological Society of Washington) 99: 209–237. [2] "Paul Allen's Flower Fly" (http:/ / www. si." (http:/ / entomology.[1] Another fly found in similar habitats was named after Gates' associate Paul Allen. usda. barc. htm). sel. edu/ StaffPages/ ThompsonFC/ 1997_Eristalis. barc. the describer of these species. org/ web/ 20090618141156/ http:/ / entomology. 1997 Bill Gates' flower fly (Eristalis gatesi) is a flower fly found only in Costa Rican high montane cloud forests and named after Bill Gates. gatesi Binomial name Eristalis gatesi Thompson. . called Paul Allen's flower fly (Eristalis alleni). Retrieved 2008-05-24. Retrieved 2008-05-24. gov/ Diptera/ syrphid/ gates. sel. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived (http:/ / web.Bill Gates' flower fly 58 Bill Gates' flower fly Bill Gates' flower fly Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Diptera Syrphidae Eristalis E. edu/ StaffPages/ ThompsonFC/ 1997_Eristalis. . both names were in "recognition of [their] great contributions to the science of Dipterology". Christian (1997).

[5] Guests wear pins that upon entrance of a room automatically adjust temperature.[3][4] The house also features an estate-wide server system.000-square-foot (6. United States of America. a 1. and lighting based on guest's preferences. Washington.500-square-foot (230 m2) gym.063 million on a total assessed value of US$147.Bill Gates' house 59 Bill Gates' house Gates' residence General information Type Home Architectural style Pacific lodge. It took 7 years to build and cost $63 million.[6] . a 2.100 m2) mansion is noted for its design and the technology it incorporates. USA 47°37′40″N 122°14′31″W Technical details Structural system Earth-sheltered Design and construction Governing body Private Bill Gates' house is a large mansion in the side of a hill which is overlooking Lake Washington in Medina. extensively automated Location Coordinates Medina. and heated floors and driveways. with classic features such as a large private library with a dome shaped roof and oculus. music.5 million. property taxes were reported to be US $1. It is nicknamed Xanadu 2. a 60-foot (18 m) swimming pool with an underwater music system. In 2009. The 66. It is also an earth-sheltered house. Washington. according to the narration in the virtual tour below.000-square-foot (93 m2) dining room.0[1] after the title character's estate in Citizen Kane.[2] Design and features The mansion is a modern design in the Pacific lodge style.

archive. com/ 2009/ 03/ 11/ billionaire-homes-expensive-billionaires-2009-lifestyle-real-estate-homes_3. Archived from the original on 2012-09-06.com/gates. Forbes.com/BillGates/) • Bill Gates' House paper model (http://papertoys. . usnews. "Taxman Cometh" (http:/ / www. seattleweekly. htm). U. . .htm) . usnews. businessweek.S. News & World Report. [5] "coverage of the Gates' Medina. com/ bwdaily/ dnflash/ june2000/ nf00613b. com/ usnews/ culture/ articles/ 971201/ archive_008409_2. Rick (2008-05-16). php). is/ 20120906/ http:/ / www. htm) from the original on 1 May 2008.kingcounty. htm).microsoft. U. Richard (1997-11-23). News & World Report. Business Week. Seattle Weekly. usnews.Bill Gates' house 60 References [1] Folkers. forbes. Retrieved June 9. 2012. com/ bwdaily/ dnflash/ june2000/ nf00613b. html?thisSpeed=30000. Washington estate". Thane (2000-06-13). com/ usnews/ tech/ billgate/ gates. com/ news/ blogs/ dailyweekly/ 2008/ 05/ gates_taxman_cometh. "Bill Gates' stately pleasure dome and futuristic home" (http:/ / www. com/ usnews/ tech/ billgate/ room1a. May 22. [6] Paterson. Retrieved July 24. http:/ / archive. htm). Retrieved July 24. businessweek. "Advice for Bill Gates: A Little Culture Wouldn't Hurt" (http:/ / www. 2010.S. External links • Tax info on the house from the King County GIS website (http://info. htm). org/ web/ 20080501175753/ http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-03-21. Archived (http:/ / web.gov/Assessor/eRealProperty/ Dashboard. [3] "Technology: Bill Gates' House" (http:/ / www. [4] "Pool Building" (http:/ / www.aspx?ParcelNbr=9208900079) • Bill Gates' Home page (http://www. [2] Anderson. 2012. 2002.

[10] and has refurbished and owns The Clarence Hotel in Dublin with The Edge. and was named as a Person of the Year by Time.[5] As the band matured. is an Irish singer.[2][3][4] Bono writes almost all U2 lyrics. singer-songwriter. County Dublin. social.[16][17][18] He has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. he has collaborated and recorded with numerous artists. musician. and attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife.[3][13] He has organised and played in several benefit concerts and has met with influential politicians. and the future members of U2. the ONE Campaign and Product Red.[13][14][15] Bono has been praised and criticised for his activism and involvement with U2. philanthropist Vocals. activist. and humanitarian best known for being the main vocalist of the Dublin-based rock band U2.[5][6] During their early years. often using political. .[11][12] Bono is also widely known for his activism concerning Africa. EDUN. Ireland Glasnevin. for which he co-founded DATA. was granted an honorary knighthood by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. Alison Stewart. Ireland Rock. his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with members of U2. and religious themes.[16][19][20] among other awards and nominations. harmonica 1976–present Origin Genres Occupations Instruments Years active Associated acts U2.Bono 61 Bono Bono Bono at the 2009 Tribeca Film Festival Background information Birth name Also known as Born Paul David Hewson Bono 10 May 1960 Dublin. alternative rock Musician. guitar. post-punk. Passengers Website u2. Bono's lyrics contributed to U2's rebellious and spiritual tone. Ireland.com [1] Notable instruments Gretsch Irish Falcon Gretsch Country Club Paul David Hewson (born 10 May 1960). known by his stage name Bono (/ˈbɒnoʊ/ BON-oh). Bono was born and raised in Dublin.[3][5] Outside the band.[7][8][9] is managing director and a managing partner of Elevation Partners.

Bonavox. Guggi. Initially.[33][34] . "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox. a multi denominational school in Clontarf.[26] Memphis Eve portrayed the character Stella in the 2008 film The 27 Club. he was listed as one of the 100 Greatest Britons in a poll conducted among the general public. Although he uses Bono as his stage name. such as "Into the Heart. In May 2010. so that my eyes go red a lot. then just "Huyseman". when he learned it loosely translated to "good voice".[21] He was raised in Northside suburb of Glasnevin with his brother. by their mother Iris (née Rankin). The gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. During his childhood and The hearing aid shop.[27][28] Bono is almost never seen in public without sunglasses.[2][3] His parents initially agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. when speaking to him she calls him 'B' according to Bono. "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street". a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice. "Bon [3] Murray". However. followed by "Houseman". focus on the loss of his mother. 21 May 2001). If somebody takes my photograph." It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday.[3][24][25] Other songs focus on the theme of childhood vs. he also attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother. Bono met one of his closest friends. maturity.[3] Many U2 songs. "Mofo". Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for the forthcoming U2 tour. including fellow band members." "Twilight". So it's part vanity. a Church of Ireland Anglican. a Roman Catholic. "Lemon". 7 July 1991) and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q (b.[30] despite the fact he is Irish. that provided adolescence. he was "Steinvic von Huyseman"." Bono attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School.[29] In 2002.[22] Although Bono was the second child. and "Stories for Boys.[22] He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. including "I Will Follow".[4] The couple have four children: daughters Jordan (b. in Lypton Village. on 10 May 1960. 18 August 1999) and John Abraham (b. Norman Robert Hewson (who is eight years older than Bono).[3] While his wife refers to him as Bono. it's part privacy and part sensitivity. "Out of Control". During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: [I have] very sensitive eyes to light. Bono and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang Hewson with the nickname "Bono Vox".[31][32] The entire North American leg was postponed and rescheduled into 2011. 10 May 1989) and Memphis Eve (b. called "Lypton Village". Bono had several names: first. Personal life Bono is married to Alison Hewson (née Stewart). and their father Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson. I will see the flash for the rest of the day.[23] Bono was 14 when his mother died on 10 September 1974 after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral.Bono 62 Early life Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital. Bono disliked the name. I've a blockage there. and finally just "Bono". and "Tomorrow". Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. and was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery. My right eye swells up. close family and friends also refer to him as Bono. he accepted it. Dublin.

the remaining four officially changed the name from "The Hype" to "U2". Tired of long guitar solos and hard rock.[3] IRA supporters also attacked a vehicle carrying the band members. but I had no voice at all. Bono was known for his rebellious tone which turned to political anger and rage during the band's War.[3][5] During performances he attempts to interact with the crowd as often as possible and is known for pulling audience members onto the stage or moving himself down to the physical level of the audience. the "Mirror Ball Man". these included "The Fly". which are often rich in social and political themes. U2's sound and focus dramatically changed with their 1991 album. Unfortunately the band could not play covers very well. Bono was relegated mostly to the microphone.[37] Also featured in the film is footage of Bono spray-painting a monument during an outdoor performance. played guitar. I said. "When we started out I was the guitar player.[3] The singer had been advised to cut his on-stage outburst from the Rattle and Hum film.[3][5] During the band's Zoo TV Tour several of his stage personas were showcased.[3] These acts were in response to his speech condemning the Remembrance Day Bombing during a live performance of "Sunday Bloody Sunday". and wrote the band's songs. Achtung Baby. a parody of American televangelists.[5] His lyrics frequently allude to a religious connection or meaning. and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" from The Joshua Tree. The band went by the name "Feedback" for a few months.[5] Following the Enniskillen bombing that left 11 dead and 63 injured on 8 November 1987. his brother Dik. but it was left in. to form a rock band. before changing to "The Hype" later on. and Adam Clayton responded to an advertisement on a bulletin board at Mount Temple posted by fellow student Larry Mullen Jr. As of 2006. He said of his early guitar playing in a 1982 interview. I remember the day I found I could sing. the Provisional IRA paramilitaries threatened to kidnap Bono.[3][38] Bono has Bono on stage in 1983 Bono as his alter-ego "The Fly" on the Zoo TV Tour in 1992 often allowed fans to come on stage and perform songs with the band. I still can't. After Dik Evans left the group to join another local band.[36] Bono writes the lyrics for almost all U2 songs. Bono. evident in songs such as "Gloria" from the band's album October. . and "Mr. Bono was forced to pay a fine. Bono has taken piano lessons from his children's piano teacher as a means to improve his songwriting. so they started writing their own songs.[3] This has happened on several occasions including at the Live Aid concert in 1985 where he leapt off the stage and pulled a woman from the crowd to dance with her as the band played "Bad". I was such a lousy guitar player that one day they broke it to me that maybe I should sing instead. I had tried before.[6] During the band's early years. Bono wanted to play Rolling Stones and The Beach Boys songs. and in 2005 during U2's Vertigo Tour stop in Chicago. a stereotypical rock star. MacPhisto". inspired by experiences related to the private lives of the members of the band. although he occasionally still plays rhythm guitar and harmonica. The band had occasional jam sessions in which they did covers of other bands. David Evans ("The Edge"). a combination of a corrupted rock star and the Devil. The Joshua Tree and Rattle and Hum eras. the Virgin Prunes. along with the Edge—except I couldn't play guitar. where he pulled a boy onto the stage during the song "An Cat Dubh / Into the Heart". Bono's lyrics became more personal. Initially Bono sang. 'Oh. that's how you do it.Bono 63 Musical career U2 On 25 September 1976.'"[35] When The Edge's guitar playing improved.

for the film Gangs of New York.[51] Sinéad O'Connor.[48] Bono was one of several super-rich figures whose tax arrangements were singled out for criticism in a report by the charity Christian Aid in 2008.[52] Green Day.[41] Although Bono's use of "fuck" violated FCC indecency standards.[53] Bob Dylan. including 22 Grammy awards and the 2003 Golden Globe award for best original song.[9] Tina Turner.[71] Humanitarian work . he has collaborated with Frank Sinatra. Paul McGuinness. King and Zucchero. bands are subject to low to non-existent tax rates.[54] B.[42] In 2005. a single titled "Rise Above 1" by Reeve Carney featuring Bono and The Edge was released digitally. he plays bass guitar and vocals.[17][39] During the live broadcast of the ceremony.[43] In November 2008.[44] Bono and his bandmates were criticised in 2007 for moving part of their multi-million euro song catalogue from Ireland to Amsterdam six months before Ireland ended a tax exemption on musicians' royalties.[7] Johnny Cash.[62] The Corrs. the FCC refused to fine NBC because the network did not receive advance notice of the consequences of broadcasting such profanity and the profanity in question was not used in its literal sexual meaning.[68] On Michael Hutchence's 1999 posthumous eponymous album.[58] Quincy Jones. November 2005.[69] Bono and The Edge also wrote the music and lyrics for the Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[63] Wyclef Jean. Bono called the award "really.Bono Bono has won numerous awards with U2.[18][45] Under Dutch tax law.[61] Clannad. "The Hands That Built America". Bono completed a recording of "Slide Away" as a duet with Hutchence.[8] Willie Nelson.[50] Luciano Pavarotti.B. the Parents Television Council condemned Bono for his profanity and started a campaign for its members to file complaints with the FCC.[67] On Robbie Robertson's 1987 eponymous album. and that they were taxed globally because of this.[64] Kylie Minogue. as well as reportedly completing an unreleased duet with Jennifer Lopez.[65] Carl Perkins.[46][47] The band later responded by stating that approximately 95% of their business took place outside Ireland.[49] 64 Collaborations In addition to his work with U2. really fucking brilliant!"[40] In response. Irish parliament. Roy Orbison.[60] Tony Bennett. in their first year of eligibility. stated that the arrangement is legal and customary and businesses often seek to U2 performing at Madison Square Garden in [18] The move prompted criticisms in the minimise their tax burdens. On 25 May 2011. the U2 band members were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Rolling Stone ranked Bono the 32nd greatest singer of all-time.[55][56][57] He has recorded with Ray Charles. Kirk Franklin.[66] Jay-Z and Rihanna.[18] U2's manager.[59] Bruce Springsteen.[70] The music video was released on 28 July 2011.

including former United States President George W."[80] In May of that year. .[80] During a March 2002 visit to the White House. In the past decade Bono has met with several influential politicians.[20] Also in 2005. as well as for spearheading new organizational networks that bind global humanitarian relief with geopolitical activism and corporate commercial enterprise.Bono Bono has become one of the world's best-known philanthropic performers and was named the most politically effective celebrity of all time by the National Journal.[14] U2 Bono with then President Lula da Silva of Brazil in 2006 . "This is an important first step.. Bono and U2 performed on Amnesty's Conspiracy Of Hope tour of the United States in 1986 alongside Sting. and 2006 for his philanthropy. also performed in the Band Aid and Live Aid projects. which grants each winner "A wish to change the world". in 2005. It sowed a seed. Bono sang on the Band Aid single "Do They Know it's Christmas?/Feed the World" (a role that was reprised on the 2004 Band Aid 20 single of the same name). Time named Bono a Person of the Year along with Bill and Melinda Gates..[72][73][74] He has been dubbed. Bono attended the conference.[84] Time Magazine named Bono one of the "100 Most Influential People" in its May 2004 special issue. and the business world. TED rejected the third wish as being a sub-optimal way for TED to help Africa[89] and instead organised a TED conference in Arusha.[75] both for his success enlisting powerful allies from a diverse spectrum of leaders in government. Bono and then U.[86] In 2005. he received the Portuguese Order of Liberty for his humanitarian work. Bush and former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin.[88] Bono made three wishes.[81] He was a nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003. organised by Bob Geldof. religious institutions. Bono explained that he was motivated to become involved in social and political causes by seeing one of the Secret Policeman's Ball benefit shows.[79] Geldof and Bono later collaborated to organise the 2005 Live 8 project. health clinic and school in Ethiopia should be connected to the Internet.. staged by John Cleese and producer Martin Lewis for the human-rights organisation Amnesty International in 1979. after President Bush unveiled a $5 billion aid package.[77] "I saw 'The Secret Policeman’s Ball' and it became a part of me. Bono spoke on CBC Radio.[15] Since 1999. because this is a crisis. 2005. O'Neill on a four-country tour of Africa.[76] 65 In a 1986 interview with Rolling Stone magazine.S. Bush in 2006 This must happen urgently." In 2001.[89] the first two related to the ONE campaign and the third that every hospital.[87] That year Bono was also among the first three recipients of the TED Prize. philanthropic organisations. which was held in June 2007. including the AIDS pandemic.[78] In 1984. In contrast. Bono arranged for U2 to videotape a special live performance for that year's Amnesty benefit show.[16][82][83] In 2004. where U2 also performed. Tanzania. alleging then Prime Minister Martin was being slow about increasing Canada's foreign aid. popular media. Bono has become increasingly involved in campaigning for third-world debt relief and raising awareness of the plight of Africa. he was awarded the Pablo Neruda International Presidential Medal of Honour from the Government of Chile. and a serious and impressive new level of commitment. Bono took US Treasury Secretary Paul H.[85] and again in the 2006 Time 100 special issue.. President George W. "the face of fusion philanthropy". he accompanied the President for a speech on the White House lawn where he stated.

..Bono In 2007.[94] In 2005 he recorded a version of Don't Give Up with Alicia Keys. labelling them as "mythomaniacs. and New York-based Irish fashion designer Rogan Gregory launched the socially conscious line EDUN in an attempt to shift the focus in Africa from aid to trade. Jewish." Bono donated the $100. along with other celebrities. Kipling's The White Man's Burden) that criticised stars such as Bono. Trade. added that "the impression that Africa is fatally troubled and can be saved only by outside help—not to mention celebrities and charity concerts—is a destructive and misleading conceit. Bono encouraged the care of the socially and economically depressed.[99] In early 2005."[98] Bono spoke in advance of President Bush at the 54th Annual National Prayer Breakfast. We would never have gotten the debts of 23 countries completely cancelled without him. Bono said. Paul Theroux published an op-ed in the New York Times called The Rock Star's Burden (cf. Bono was named in the UK's New Years Honours List as an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[99] DATA encourages Americans to contact senators and other legislators and elected officials to voice their opinions. Africa) was established in 2002 by Bono and Bobby Shriver.. his wife Ali Hewson. and Angelina Jolie. for "[ignoring] the legitimate voices of Africa and [turning] a global movement for justice into a grand orgy of narcissistic philanthropy". along with activists from the Jubilee 2000 Drop the Debt Campaign. "When you are trapped by poverty. with proceeds going to Keep a Child Alive. South America.. you are not free.[99] DATA aims to eradicate poverty and HIV/AIDS in Africa.[95] On 15 December 2005.[100] EDUN's goal is to use factories in Africa..[93] On 28 September 2007. Bono continued by saying much work is left to be done to be a part of God's ongoing purposes.000 prize to the organisation.[97] On 3 April 2005. held at the Hilton Washington Hotel on 2 February 2006. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala accepted the award for the Washington-based Debt AIDS Trade Africa. When you are a monk in Burma this very week.[92] On 24 May 2007. He in 2010. Bono. President Bush received praise from the singer-activist for the United States' increase in aid for the African continent." Theroux. who lived in Africa as a Peace Corps Volunteer. and India that provide fair wages to workers and practice good business ethics to create a business model that will encourage investment in developing nations. 2008. Bono has been criticised. and stranger."[96] Elsewhere.[19][90] He was formally granted knighthood on 29 March 2007 in a ceremony at the residence of British Ambassador David Reddaway in Dublin. Ireland. the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia announced that Bono would receive the Philadelphia Bono at the World Economic Forum meeting in Liberty Medal on 27 September 2007 for his work to end world Davos. President Barack Obama an extra one percent tithe of the United States' national budget. people who wish to convince the world of their worth. In a speech containing biblical references. Bono paid a personal tribute to John Paul II and called him "a street fighter and a wily campaigner on behalf of the world's poor. you are not free. barred from entering a temple because of your gospel of peace .[13] The organisation DATA (Debt. then none of us are truly free. When trade laws prevent you from selling the food you grew. Brad Pitt. orphan. well. His comments included a call for Bono meeting with U.[101] 66 . brought his Christian views into harmony with other faiths by noting that Christian. poverty and hunger.[91] Bono also received the NAACP Image Award's Chairman's Award in 2007. in accepting the Liberty Medal. AIDS. and Muslim writings all call for the care of the widow.S.

Bono was honoured by NBC Nightly News as someone "making a difference" in the world. and Malaria. Converse.[110] Each company creates a product with the Product Red logo and a percentage of the profits from the sale of these labelled products will go to the Global Fund. Apple. The Gap. Product Red is a brand that is licensed to partner companies."[103] Further criticism came in November 2007. The issue was named "The Africa Issue: Politics & Power" and featured an assortment of 20 different covers. and philanthropists. Motorola.[102] In an article in Bloomberg Markets in March 2007.[104] Bono responded to his critics in Times Online on 19 February 2006. .[106] He and anchor Brian Williams had travelled to Africa in May 2007 to showcase the humanitarian crisis on the continent. Selasie claimed that these charities had increased corruption and dependency in Africa because they failed to work with African entrepreneurs and grassroots organisations. . Vertigo the second-most lucrative tour of all time. and as a result. Dell. . journalists Richard Tomlinson and Fergal O’Brien noted that Bono used his band's 2006 Vertigo world tour to promote his ONE Campaign while at the same Bono after accepting the Philadelphia Liberty time "U2 was racking up $389 million in gross ticket receipts."[105] In November 2007. head of African Aid Action. Bono was given the annual Man of Peace prize. A lot of them wouldn’t know what to do if they were on the field. Revenue from the Vertigo tour is funnelled through companies that are mostly registered in Ireland and structured to minimise taxes. France. awarded by several Nobel Peace Prize laureates in Paris.[109] Bobby Shriver has been announced as the CEO of Product Red. when Bono's various charity campaigns were targeted by Jobs Selasie. Tuberculosis.[107] On 11 December 2008. calling them "cranks carping from the sidelines. Each one showcased in the issue for their contributions to the humanitarian relief in Africa. and Giorgio Armani. with photographs by Annie Leibovitz of a number of prominent celebrities. according to Billboard magazine. They’re the party who will always be in opposition so they’ll never have to take responsibility for decisions because they know they’ll never be able to implement them. whilst Bono is currently an active public spokesperson for the brand. such as American Express. making Medal on 27 September 2007.[108] Product Red is another initiative begun by Bono and Bobby Shriver to raise money for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. Africa has become more dependent on international handouts. Microsoft. political leaders.[111] 67 .Bono Bono was a special guest editor of the July 2007 issue of Vanity Fair magazine.

"Trash of the Titans" TV series. Bono. but each lights a candle to their vision of what it is. one episode. along with the Edge."[115] Bono performing with U2 in 2011 The collection. Elevation Partners became the first outsider to invest in the company. exclusive of the band..[26] and in 1998 it was rumoured that Bono intended to buy shares in the Scottish club.com website and other assets. originally purchased for $210m."[115] Bono is on the board of the Elevation Partners private-equity firm.[113] which Bono denied.[112] Bono is a known Celtic F. which is edited by poet Jonathan Wells.[12] The Edge and Bono have also recorded several songs together. MTV reported that Bono was writing the foreword for a collection of poetry entitled "Third Rail". bought and refurbished Dublin's two-star 70-bedroom Clarence Hotel. but reports said the stake was worth about €194 million ($250m).[117][118][119] The firm also owns a 1.[114] In May 2007. "The Joshua Tree" Notes 1988 Rattle and Hum 1998 The Simpsons 1999 Classic Albums Entropy 2000 The Million Dollar Hotel Man in hotel lobby Uncredited cameo appearance Original storywriter Producer Sightings of Bono 2005 Entourage Himself Short film TV series. and "Vince Neil Meets Josh in a Chinese Restaurant in Malibu (After Ezra Pound). the Forbes. fan. a new company encompassing the 89-year-old business which includes Forbes magazine. taking a minority stake in Forbes Media LLC. which attempted to purchase Eidos Interactive in 2005 and has since gone on to invest in other entertainment businesses. to bear witness to the mysterious power of rock and roll.. one episode. contains titles such as "Punk rock You're My Big Crybaby". The terms of the deal were not disclosed.[10] Bono's stake was valued at approximately US$ 1 billion in February 2012. "I Love You Too" .C. one episode. They have also been working on penning the score for the 2011 rock musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[115] The book's foreword gives detail of the meanings of the poetry.[11][116] Bono has invested in the Forbes Media group in the US through Elevation Partners. saying "The poets who fill the pews here have come to testify.[120] Filmography Year Film Role Himself Rockumentary TV series. and converted it into a five-star 49-bedroom hotel.Rock and roll is truly a broad church.5% stake in social networking site Facebook.Bono 68 Other endeavours In 1992. "Variation on a Theme by Whitesnake".

At the Clarence (http:/ / www. (31 May 2005). Bono: In the Name of Love. bbc. [25] Schruers. stm) [20] Gibbs. Time. D. Washington. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [13] Bono. com/ GRAMMY_Awards/ Winners/ Results. Rolling Stones. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [12] The Clarence Hotel. [8] Lost Highway Records. one episode. net/ theband/ biography/ bonobio. Eamon (1987). from BBC. html). com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. The Recording Academy.1142278. Sunday Mirror. uk/ showbiz/ tm_headline=the-unforgettable-sire& method=full& objectid=18322022& siteid=98487-name_page. N. (24 February 2006). com/ 2007/ 02/ 04/ business/ yourmoney/ 04amster. Grammy. Weekend Edition Saturday. 8 [24] McCormick. . Retrieved 25 July 2007. grammy. story) [11] Elevation Partners.Bono 2007 Across the Universe 2008 American Idol U2 3D TV series. (Unknown last update). cgi?file=/ news/ archive/ 2006/ 02/ 24/ international/ i082615S45..uk (http:/ / news. Michka (2005). McIntosh. Unforgettable Fire: The Definitive Biography of U2. atU2. theclarence. "News" (http:/ / www. Musician Magazine. Vincent (24 December 2006). com/ images/ Elevation_Partners_Intro. Moss.9171. Retrieved 19 November 2010.C. DC: National Public Radio. (2007). aspx?title=& winner=u2& year=0& genreID=0& hp=1). Elise (3 October 2006). Associated Press.B. New York: Warner Books. atU2. "U2: Small Victories in a Rock and Roll Struggle of Sound and Emotion Report". ISBN 0-340-83276-2. (26 December 2005). sundaymirror. [21] Wall. Retrieved 14 January 2007. [6] Stockman (2005) [7] Simon. BOB AND VAN. [18] Browning. elevation. Time. html). rollingstone. p. co. Conspiracy of Hope Tour. [19] [Unknown Author] (23 December 2006). com/ news/ story/ 7371363/ dmb_u2_lead_live_8_shows) [16] Mellgren. (Host). (13 November 1993). p. com/ band/ bono/ ). Assayas. In Across the Universe he sang The Beatles songs "I Am the Walrus" and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". Macphisto. [15] Wolinsky.00. ISBN 978-0-233-00177-7. [14] Booth. Neil (1 January 1997). com/ "U2 Biography—Bono" (http:/ / www. html). Mick (2006). [1] [2] [3] [4] . atu2. The Daily Telegraph. (10 October 2005). macphisto. Introduction to Elevation Partners (http:/ / www. Hot Press [10] Billboard.com. nytimes. "Adam Clayton biography – U2 bassist" (http:/ / www. D. D. com/ cgi-bin/ article.com. (February 2006). London: Hodder & Stoughton. BBC News. References Footnotes http:/ / www. Staten Island Advance. [22] Dunphy. Retrieved 14 January 2007. html). com/ news. johnnycashmusic. from Rolling Stone (http:/ / www. pdf). 2006. DTL) [17] "Grammy Winners List: Artist – U2" (http:/ / www. Bono on Bono: Conversations with Michka Assayas. Speech presented at Hilton Washington Hotel at Washington. "Give a Little Bit" Rockumentary Documentary Dr. . Fred (May 1983). Retrieved 19 November 2010. as part of U2 and as part of other collaborations. C.biz (http:/ / www. the New Tax Shelter Hot Spot" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 3 May 2007. U2 Has Staying Power". co. billboard. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 6206063. Lynnley (4 February 2007). [5] "Bono: Biography from @U2" (http:/ / www. from [9] Bono (1984.co. Andre Deutsch Ltd. "Growing Up With U2". . 166.net. Retrieved 19 November 2010. S. "In Music and Love. atu2. ie/ dublin_hotel). 127. sfgate. . Retrieved 19 November 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2007. [23] Matthews (2008). Retrieved 21 March 2007. U2 Lead Live 7 Shows. time. Remarks at the National Prayer Breakfast. (23 June 1986). html?ex=1174622400& en=513da74cdda62432& ei=5070). . Robert Himself TV series. The Good Samaritans (http:/ / www. biz/ bbbiz/ industry/ legal-and-management/ business-matters-bono-will-make-maybe-10-1007099752. from Bono Among Nobel Peace Prize Nominees (http:/ / www. Bono Among Nobel Peace Prize Nominees. King – The Life of Riley The Resurrection of Victor Jara In addition to his acting credits Bono has contributed music to films.com. BONO. u2. 10 August). "The Unforgettable Sire" (http:/ / www. "The Netherlands. DMB. Honorary knighthood for U2's Bono. 17. "Idol Gives Back" 69 2009 Entourage 2011 From the Sky Down 2012 Anton Corbijn Inside Out B. . com/ band/ adam/ )..

Retrieved 16 July 2007. html?reviewid=1126871570221522) splendidezine. [48] "U2 reject tax avoidance claims" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 1 August 2007. Howard (6 August 1998). Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.Bono [26] "Bono — Biography" (http:/ / www. org/ PTC/ publications/ release/ 2003/ 0120. IMDb. [27] "Meet the Cast" (http:/ / www. (1995). Retrieved 16 February 2007. Contactmusic.1968136. u2. The BBC. imdb. bbc. 864 401-2. from Opera man Luciano Pavarotti wants to be hip (http:/ / nl. Retrieved 21 May 2010.com. html). u2. [47] Hyde.00. . Hollywood Foreign Press Association. and Joanou. 26 February 2009. New York: Virgin Records Miserere (CD). com/ news/ title/ north-american-dates-will-be-rescheduled-in-2011). Italy's 'Young Pavarotti'" (http:/ / www. BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). Jann (3 November 2005).com. . co. com/ review.com. [38] O'Hanlon. IMDb. Goldeneye. co. Short Takes. but Won't Fine NBC" (http:/ / www. On If God Will Send His Angels [CD-Single]. ie/ national-news/ u2-move-their-rock-empire-out-of-ireland-133364. R. 21 May 2010. "She's a Mystery to Me". Rolling Stone (1066). archive. Inglewood: GospoCentric Records. com/ hr/ content_display/ news/ e3i9177e066be8bee44d835017eb6e0cda7). asp?id=2348). . . u2wanderer. html). Michael (producer). [36] "U2—Bono Takes Piano Lessons" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 19 November 2010. Now they think like them" (http:/ / www. newsbank. stm). "U2 move their rock empire out of Ireland" (http:/ / www. . . When Love Comes to Town. com/ hr/ content_display/ news/ e3i9177e066be8bee44d835017eb6e0cda7) on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2007. [43] "Inductee Detail" (http:/ / www. United States: Paramount Pictures. [57] U2. (1 October 2005). rollingstone. [34] "North American Dates Will Be Rescheduled In 2011" (http:/ / www. "They live like aristocrats. Belfast Telegraph. 25 May 2010. Rolling Stone (986). [30] "100 great British heroes" (http:/ / news. and Hamilton. (1998). hollywoodreporter.r. 70 nydailynews. [42] Ahrens. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. splendidezine. the27clubmovie. U2 Discography—Q's Jook Joint (http:/ / www. bbc. com/ news/ title/ bono-discharged-from-hospital). Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). The Washington Post: pp. "FCC Says Bono Profanity Violated Standards. com/ hof/ inductee. Retrieved 3 May 2007. [39] "Award Search – Bono" (http:/ / www1.i. [45] McConnell. 6 February 2006. uk/ commentisfree/ story/ 0. pdf) Christian Aid organization report [50] U2. . On Goldeneye: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack [CD]. Retrieved 25 February 2009. . Hamish (director) (2005). asp) (Press release). Various Artists. May 1982. New York: Island Records. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=BN& p_theme=bn& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=0EAF99106A89B6AE& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM) [52] Voyer. html). London: Virgin Records. (Unknown last update). Daily News (New York). the27clubmovie. [29] Wenner. Slow Dancing. com/ music/ lists/ 6027/ 32782/ 33263). (2005) Retrieved 12 February 2007 [44] "100 Greatest Singers of All Time – #32: Bono" (http:/ / www. 25 May 2010. "Bono – The Rolling Stone Interview". Buffalo News. . com/ apps/ news?pid=20601109& refer=home& sid=aef6sR60oDgM). uk/ images/ deathandtaxes. Retrieved 19 November 2010. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment_and_arts/ 10139846. rockhall. R. Retrieved 25 February 2009. Kissel. html). (6 February 1996). Tarnishes Halo With Irish Tax Move (http:/ / bloomberg. from Splendid Magazine reviews Sinéad O'Connor (http:/ / www. org/ disco/ coll23. . [40] Boliek. Parents Television Council. imdb. Retrieved 3 May 2007. com/ new/ xmlfeed. R. [35] "Bono in San Antonio". hfpa. . (1998). (1989). parentstv. On THE NU NATION PROJECT [CD-Album]. Daniel (6 August 2006). The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 14 February 2008. contactmusic. nsf/ story/ bono-takes-piano-lessons_02_06_2006). 1992. 20 January 2003. . Retrieved 17 February 2011. [51] Louie. . Lean on me. The Irish Independent. New York: Island Records. christianaid. [28] "Eve Hewson" (http:/ / www. org/ browse/ member/ 28459). [41] "PTC condemns NBC" (http:/ / www. . stm). [46] Bono. hollywoodreporter. [49] Death and taxes: the true toll of tax dodging (http:/ / www. com/ name/ nm0095104/ bio). (1988). 21 August 2002.com [53] [54] [55] [56] Orbison. independent. [37] Hamlyn. html). [33] "North American Leg Postponed" (http:/ / www. Ned (producer). co. U2 magazine (3). com/ cast. Retrieved 25 February 2009. Preacher on Poverty. Phil (director) (1988). . 25 May 2010. Marina (February 2007). Rattle and Hum (Motion picture). . 27 November 2008. PolyGram Italia s. U2. com/ name/ nm2016723/ ). guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2010.. belfasttelegraph. co. Vertigo 2005: Live From Chicago (Motion picture). U2. org/ web/ 20070707012358/ http:/ / www. u2.com. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn?pagename=article& contentId=A6242-2004Mar18& notFound=true). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . uk/ entertainment/ music/ news/ u2-reject-tax-avoidance-claims-14203636. "Appeals court throws out FCC indecency ruling" (http:/ / web. Splendid. E1. U2. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [59] Kirk Franklin. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 2208671. United States: 3DD Entertainment. Retrieved 21 October 2010. com/ archives/ entertainment/ 1998/ 08/ 06/ 1998-08-06_platinum_tenor_meet_opera_se. [31] "Bono's back surgery puts U2 dates in jeopardy" (http:/ / news. . [32] "Bono Discharged From Hospital" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ title/ north-american-leg-postponed). washingtonpost. On Rattle and Hum [CD]. Frank (19 March 2004). Bloomberg (2006-10-15). Brooks (5 June 2007). Retrieved 26 February 2009.. "Platinum Tenor Meet Opera Sensation Andrea Bocelli.com. org. On Mystery Girl [CD]. html). [58] U2 Wanderer. .

Bob Geldof. [80] Denny. (2006) Michael Hutchence's Brother Praises Kylie And Bono for their discretion and respect (http:/ / www.1142278. mtv. [69] Williams. (20 October 2006). [86] "2006 TIME 100" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 6/6/07. ie/ news/ 2006/ 1223/ bono. WNBC. (1987). html). The NJ 20 29 April 2011 [73] Michael Anft.uk (2006-11-13). "The Good Samaritans" (http:/ / www. (29 March 2007). Retrieved 30 March 2007 [88] TED Conference page (http:/ / www. TIME 19 December 2005 [77] Boyd. Governor General of Canada. (23 April 2005). co. Toronto Sun. [66] Koda. net/ ). Retrieved 14 January 2007. John Ralston Saul awarded the Pablo Neruda International Presidential Medal of Honour (http:/ / www. people. and Ian Wilhelm. Rollingstone. (http:/ / www. msn. from undercover. (19 May 2007). Time Magazine. Bono gets honorary knighthood. Retrieved 29 March 2007 [92] Bono Receives 38th NIA Chairman's Award (http:/ / www. Retrieved 14 January 2007 [81] Harris. US and Europe boost aid to poorest countries (http:/ / www. nytimes. p. com/ people/ article/ 0. com/ topics. column 1. L. pp. msnbc. Jr. clix. com/ album/ r241501) at Allmusic. [71] 'Spider-Man' star Reeve Carney in new video with Bono.3604. ted. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. pdf) [93] Home—Liberty Medal—National Constitution Center (http:/ / www. New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2007 [82] Unknown Author. (15 March 2002).00. 13 November 2006 [76] Nancy Gibbs. allmusic. K. com/ huff-wires/ 20070927/ liberty-medal/ ). R. Retrieved 14 January 2007 [84] Langlois.net. Huffingtonpost. aegis. U2 Discography—New Day Single (http:/ / www. asp?CpContentId=327396)..A. 26 April 2004. html?n=Top/ Reference/ Times Topics/ Subjects/ P/ Philanthropy). New York Times. html). html). P. from Bono Among Nobel Peace Prize Nominees (http:/ / www.9171. Go Cat Go . Retrieved 4 July 2007 [78] Flannery. html) [75] Tom Zeller. irishtimes. time. Time Magazine: 84. org/ libertymedal/ ) [94] Bono Gets Medal for His Work in Africa (http:/ / www. A secret history of the old Ball game (http:/ / www. C. Retrieved on 29 July 2011. com/ index. entertainmentwise. Cub.co. M. [79] Palmer. constitutioncenter. com/ music/ songreviews/ rise-above-1-20110526). (Unknown last update). People. (18 February 2003). com/ entertainment/ 1986984/ detail. html). (15 July 1985). In A Lifetime (Clannad & Bono) (http:/ / www. torontosun. Columbia Records (http:/ / www. html). "Trying to Throw His Arms Around the World" (http:/ / www. 60. Retrieved 25 November 2011. com/ culturemonster/ 2011/ 07/ spider-man-star-reeve-carney-in-new-video-with-bono-the-edge.Bono [60] Stanley. L15.com (2011-07-28) Retrieved on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [62] U2tour. com/ id/ 17854722/ ). u2tour. com/ 2006/ 11/ 13/ us/ 13bono. scotsman. ca/ media/ doc.com (2011-05-26). (23 September 2004). org/ disco/ newday. net/ PDFs/ Bono_Receives_38th_NIA_Chairmans_Award. wnbc. nationaljournal. Bono Among Nobel Peace Prize Nominees. rte. section 1. Retrieved 14 January 2007 [85] "2004 TIME 100" (http:/ / www. PASSAGES: Jennifer Lopez's Latest Duet (http:/ / www. com/ time/ 2006/ time100/ ). Sweet Fire of Love. com/ theticket/ articles/ 2006/ 1020/ 1160606784745. Music becomes food for the hungry. Bono given chance for Peace Prize (http:/ / news. Mtv. Brennen Jensen. php/ pages/ view/ id/ 6). (14 April 2004). co. 21 April). au/ news/ 2004/ apr04/ 20040414_corrs. rollingstone. Retrieved 4 July 2007. undercover. guardian. html) [83] Unknown Author. echoes. RTÉ News. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. asp?lang=e& DocID=4267). (Unknown last update). ted. The Scotsman. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [63] Cashmere. u2wanderer. B. (28 March 2003). huffingtonpost. Bruce Springsteen: THE RISING TOUR 2003-2003 FINAL TOUR STATISTICS (http:/ / www. time.00. pt/ default. (25 February 2005). 2006. Undercover Media. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [68] Robbie Robertson.. time.00.625803. L.Carl Perkins (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. & Black. retrieved on 1 May 2008 [89] TED Conference page (http:/ / www. The Corrs Record Another Bono Song. Santa Monica: Geffen Records. com/ pages/ view/ id/ 109).26334. I. Don't call him 'sir': U2's Bono knighted (http:/ / www. On Robbie Robertson [CD-Album]. uk/ artists/ kylie-minogue/ news/ 39533-kylies-bono-moment).667739.de. html). latimes. org/ news/ re/ 2002/ RE020220. com/ News/ Canada/ 2005/ 04/ 23/ 1009529-sun. Irish Times. Bono and the Edge | Rolling Stone Music | Album Reviews (http:/ / www. (1985. com/ news?id=21036) 15 August 2006. Associated Press. F. Reuters New Media 15 February 2002 (http:/ / www. retrieved on 1 May 2008 [90] [Unknown Author] (23 December 2006).com (2007-09-27). [87] Revista Visão (http:/ / visao.au (http:/ / www. com/ time/ 2004/ time100/ ). html). cfm?tid=596& id=214402005). 71 . [72] Ronald Brownstein. A. com/ free/ articles/ v18/ i20/ 20000601. The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2007. [70] Rise Above 1 by Reeve Carney feat. com/ magazine/ the-nj-20-the-most-politically-effective-celebrities-of-all-time-20110428). html). The Chronicle of Philanthropy 3 August 2006 [74] Dean Goodman. "Hollywood Hails U2's Bono for Philanthropy". htm). com/ greymatter/ archives/ 00000082. (Unknown last update). gg. from RTE (http:/ / www. the Edge (http:/ / latimesblogs. html) [64] U2Wanderer. tonybennett. uk/ international/ story/ 0. com. "Voicing Support for Charity" (http:/ / philanthropy. html) [91] [Unknown Author]. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [65] Kylie's Bono Moment | Kylie Minogue | News | MTV UK (http:/ / www. de/ discographie/ videos/ In_A_Lifetime_Clannad__Bono.com. html) Latimes. [67] Barile. Philadelphia Daily News. Bono Upset at PM (http:/ / www. naacpimageawards.org. Tony Bennett. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [61] TonyBennett.

LLC. biz/ content_page. atu2. uk/ cpbf_newsite/ body. George Clooney. (4 November 2006).Bono [95] "Alicia Keys. htm). nytimes. from macintouch. businessweek. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. co. "Bono Inc". Retrieved 14 January 2007. timesonline. Jay-Z. [115] MTV News staff. html) [112] Kit. J. [109] Persuaders. Edna (4 April 2005). ece). pdf) [104] "Bono and Bob Geldof increase Africa's problems say charity" (http:/ / www. Atu2. co. com/ journals/ apple. George W. Madonna. [119] Nussbaum. data. • Matthews. (http:/ / www. Djimon Hounsou. 3 November 2007 [107] "Brian Williams in Africa. [98] Gundersen." (http:/ / www. New York Times. ISBN 1-59752-336-4. php?aid=8195). Political Fanatics: U2 in Theological Perspective. Buy a Piece of Forbes – New York Times (http:/ / www. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [117] Bono consortium buys a stake in Forbes – RTÉ Ten (http:/ / www. nytimes. Alicia Keys. The covers feature Don Cheadle. New Zealand Herald. (2007). Maya Angelou. html). Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom. • Stockman. Warren Buffett. com/ politics/ africa/ ) The concept behind the 20 covers was termed as to represent a "visual chain letter".com (2008-12-12). Barack Obama. ie/ about. org/ about/ mission. (2006-08-07) Investors. Oprah Winfrey. Products (http:/ / www. Walk On: The Spiritual Journey of U2. com/ products/ ). Update: The Other Red meat "charity". nz/ world/ news/ article. Muhammad Ali. Macintouch Reader Reports. (17 May 2007). html). Sheelagh (2008). "Live 8 – A movement robbed of its colours" (http:/ / keywords. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [116] Fahey. Desmond Tutu. Nme. Steve (2001). nme. com/ readerreports/ fraudreports/ topic4449. (7 November 2006). com/ red/ ). ars/ 2006/ 11/ 4/ 5856). Bono. . com/ news/ marketsmag/ bono. html). Times Online. Rte. Bono (2005). com/ 2005/ 12/ 15/ opinion/ 15theroux. Michka. 4 February 2012.com (http:/ / arstechnica.ie (2006-08-09). (Unknown Last Update) FAQs (http:/ / www. edun. (22 April 2005). (2006-08-07) Bono Buys Into Forbes. edun. com/ video. LLC. Bono.com. Lake Mary: Relevant Books. com/ news/ bono/ 256). March 2007 (http:/ / www. Bono in Conversation with Michka Assayas. [118] Carr. Our Mission. com/ life/ people/ 2005-04-03-pope-bono_x. [120] "$1 billion Facebook fortune for Bono" (http:/ / www. B. New York City: Weigl Publishers. com/ id/ 10269863). Bill Gates. uk/ 1/ hi/ sport/ football/ 100432. Nytimes. About EDUN (http:/ / www. Remarkable People. Retrieved 14 January 2007 [102] "The Africa Issue: Politics & Power". html). mtv. Muhammad Idrees (15 August 2005). . msn. "Bono recalls pontiff's affection for the poor—and cool sunglasses" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-1-59036-638-7. joinred. BBC Online. [114] Bono Judges Jim Kerr Offside On Celtic Showbiz Consortium | News (http:/ / www. and Iman Abdulmajid [103] Bloomberg Markets. (19 April 2007). Retrieved on 13 February 2011. Condoleezza Rice. Retrieved 6 June 2007. jhtml). jsp?vnu_content_id=1003574114). bbc. Retrieved 26 April 2010. html?ex=1312603200& en=b8fb77fc36f9c303& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). macintouch. . asp). com/ news/ articles/ 1559829/ 20070517/ panic_at_the_disco. ISBN 1-57322-309-3. cfm?c_id=2& objectid=10783339). nme. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. U2 frontman writes forward to poetry collection (http:/ / www. R. 2 December 2005. Elevation Partners withdraws its offer for Eidos (http:/ / www. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [110] Persuaders. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [111] Smykil. Retrieved 5 March 2009. Brad Pitt. What RED Is. Retrieved 12 February 2012. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. May 2007 [108] Nobel laureates crown U2's Bono 'man of peace' (http:/ / www. New York City: Riverhead Books. Associated press. USA Today. bloomberg. NME 23 November 2007 [105] Michka Assayas meets Bono (http:/ / www. co. Launches Product Red in US and Expands His Brand. ISBN 978-0-88419-793-5. Religious Nuts. Edge Penning Tunes For 'Spider-Man' Musical (http:/ / billboard. 15 December 2005 [97] Ahmad. com/ bbcom/ news/ article_display.Com (1998-04-28). usatoday. com/ 2006/ 08/ 07/ business/ media/ 07carr. NBC Nightly News. Robert (2005). php?subject=international& id=1104). Queen Rania of Jordan. Vanity Fair July 2007." (http:/ / video.com (http:/ / www. uk/ tol/ news/ article732323. src?ID=5153). Hollywood Reporter. (2007). dsvr. vanityfair. Cascade Books. joinred. ie/ arts/ 2006/ 0809/ bono. msn. [99] debt AIDS trade africa (http:/ / www. BusinessWeek. Bono. asp). msn. How RED Works (http:/ / www. Retrieved 7 July 2007 [100] EDUN (Unknown last update). rte. Bush. • Vagacs. . Bono to raise funds with AIDS song" (http:/ / today. . aspx?mkt=en-US& brand=msnbc& vid=80f91e09-c54e-4268-800f-2f548de5346f) NBC Nightly News. gamesindustry. (http:/ / www. Retrieved 4 July 2007 [113] (1998) Sport: Football—Keep Celtic alive and kicking: Kerr (http:/ / news. Bruce. Message posted to arstechnica. msnbc. ie/ faq. Including Bono. msnbc. com/ innovate/ NussbaumOnDesign/ archives/ 2006/ 08/ bono_buys_into. gi. 72 Bibliography • Assayas. com/ news/ bono/ 32704). 19 February 2006 [106] "Bono thanks you. David. [96] The Rock Star's Burden (http:/ / www. nzherald. Retrieved on 13 February 2011. com/ news/ article. co. Melinda Gates. com/ id/ 12916501/ ). Retrieved 24 March 2007 [101] EDUN. (2007). MTV News. Chris Rock. stm). Fraud Reports: Jack Campbell.

berkshirehathaway.org/)—Advocacy and campaigning organization cofounded by Bono EDUN (http://www. The business was sold to Louis Friedman and his son Ike in 1947. The store was founded in 1870. Nebraska. com/ 795/ story/ 97614. Borsheims is led by Susan M.ie/)—Fashion label started by Bono and his wife Ali Bono (http://www. Jacques.nytimes.nndb.imdb.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/b/bono/index. com/ meet01/ 2007meetpre. Louis Borsheim started Borsheims in downtown Omaha in 1870.borsheims.ted.com/name/p7314) at AllRovi Bono (http://www.com (http://www. and maintains an inventory that includes more than 100. Berkshire Hathaway annual meetings Borsheims hosts the reception for Berkshire Hathaway's annual shareholders meetings.U2. The two retained the Borsheims name. investor Warren Buffett purchased a majority of Borsheims stock. html [3] http:/ / money.810 m2) after its 2006 remodel.000 people in recent years. miamiherald. berkshire. pdf [2] http:/ / www.000 pieces. making it part of his holding company.edun. htm External links • Borsheims (http://www.org/identities/lccn-no96-27739) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Bono (http://www.one. cnn. com/ 2007/ 05/ 03/ news/ newsmakers/ bc. In 1989. Borsheims moved to the Regency Court Mall. which has attracted more than 30.c-spanvideo. Warren Buffett and Bill Gates played bridge together at Borsheims. reut/ index. Borsheims covers more than 62.com/speakers/bono.html/) at TED Appearances (http://www.html) collected news and commentary at The New York Times • Works by or about Bono (http://worldcat. In 1986.org/bono) on C-SPAN Bono (http://www.[3] References [1] http:/ / www. who became Borsheims president and CEO in 1994.Bono 73 External links • • • • • • • • • U2.com/)—Official U2 website ONE Campaign (http://www. and has been a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway since 1989.500 square feet (5. frequently abbreviated without an apostrophe as Borsheims) is a jewelry store in Omaha.com/guest/view/971) on Charlie Rose Bono (http://www.charlierose. Berkshire Hathaway.com) .allrovi.com/name/nm0095104/) at the Internet Movie Database Bono (http://topics.com/people/390/000024318) at the Notable Names Database Borsheim's Fine Jewelry Borsheim's Fine Jewelry (  /ˈbɔərʃaɪmz/ BOHR-shymz.[1][2] In 2006.

[4] The term spread to the business community. and that businesses must change to succeed in the Information Age." and it was used as a title for the shogun. it has largely been superseded by the other. meaning "great person" or "great nobleman. more modern terms that encompass a wider range of virtual business and commercial activity. . baron. industriousness") was more widely used in the context of "old world" physical industries such as steel. The word mogul refers to the Mughal Empire (mughal being Persian or Arabic for "Mongol") of the Indian subcontinent that existed between 1526 and 1857: the early Mughal emperors claimed a heritage dating back to Mongol ruler Genghis Khan. com Business magnate A business magnate (or Industrialist) is an entrepreneur who has achieved wealth and prominence from a particular industry (or industries). The modern meaning of the word is supposedly derived from the storied riches of the Mughal emperors.[1][2] The word entered the English language in 1857[3] with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. It gives one an understanding of how advances in networking and information technology can make a difference in day to day business. Etymology The word magnate itself derives from the Latin word magnates (plural of magnas). U." Clipper ship Tycoon The word tycoon is derived from the Japanese word taikun (大 君 ). President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay. Other similar terms are czar. mogul. speed-of-thought. As the term industrialist (from Latin industria. which means "great lord. Gates asserts cyberspace and industry can no longer be separate entities. "diligence. Though the book is not a technology handbook it gives interesting insights as to how to integrate business process with technology.S. oil. or oligarch. who for example produced the Taj Mahal. Jeff and Pat of Microsoft and so on. where it has been used ever since.Business @ the Speed of Thought 74 Business @ the Speed of Thought Business @ the Speed of Thought is a book written by Bill Gates and Collins Hemingway in 1999. It discusses how business and technology are integrated. and shows how digital infrastructures and information networks can help getting an edge on the competition. In the way to explains things he quotes peoples who have led to great growth at their company like Sloan of General motors. tycoon. shipping and rail transport. The Book has summaries on what the chapter speaks about and what the Digital Nervous System must do to make sure the particular act explained before is done. newspapers. External links • Official website [1] References [1] http:/ / www.

automobile ranked in the top five of the most magnate Henry Ford. JHU Press. and newspaper publishing. logging and petroleum. . nytimes. blogs. American English Spelling: An Informal Description (http:/ / books. This era was known as the Second Industrial Revolution or the Gilded Age. transportation fields such as shipping and railroads. Some are widely known in connection with their business(es) or through other pursuits such as philanthropy. . Retrieved 22 May 2012. [2] "tycoon" (http:/ / www. banking. automobile magnate Ferdinand Piëch of Volkswagen Group. utility and transportation magnate Samuel Insull. Rockefeller of Standard Oil. ISBN 978-0-8018-3443-1. telecommunications magnate Carlos Slim. the term "business oligarch" has become popular. "Return of the Samurai" (http:/ / opinionator.Business magnate 75 Usage Such people are businessmen that usually amass substantial fortunes in the process of running their business. poultry magnate Frank wealthy people in the world. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 22 May 2012. Examples of well-known business magnates include Sir Richard Branson of Virgin Group. including steelmaking. com/ dictionary/ tycoon). manufacturing. "First Known Use: 1857" [4] Goodheart. 277. Retrieved 22 May 2012. Lakshmi Mittal of Arcelor Mittal. Perdue of Perdue Farms. "Origin of TYCOON Japanese taikun" [3] "tycoon" (http:/ / www. . . In Russia and some other post-Soviet states. newspaper Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates is a magnate William Randolph Hearst of the Hearst Corporation. merriam-webster. Hinde. Retrieved 22 May 2012. merriam-webster. shipping magnate Charles T. com/ 2010/ 11/ 10/ return-of-the-samurai/ ). and sports entertainment magnate Vince McMahon of WWE. Donald Wayne (1988). "tycoon" and "baron" were often attributed to late 19th and early 20th century North American business magnates in extractive industries such as mining. Merriam-Webster. com/ books?id=1OVIqCV57pYC). The New York Times. steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. google. . oil magnate John technology magnate consistently D. com/ dictionary/ tycoon). Adam (10 November 2010). The terms "mogul". References [1] Cummings. p.

BradBeattie. Gazab1. Joyous!. Dmanmatt. Islander99. Headbomb. Knowledge Seeker. Kcordina. Kuru. Jballer. Alex. Imoeng. Calton. Aratuk. Bacardimayne. Gosuatall. Gindo. BillyMurray. Chrism. Kevin isnt wikipedia. Griot. AlexDenney. Jade. Gabenuel. Bte288. Biggyme13. KnowledgeOfSelf. Guy0307.Saxena. Aazn. Geneb1955. Az1568. Eried. IronChris. Jigo121. Hermel. Adam1213. ColeMan6595. Grungekid262. Fritts1227. Alexis quiterio. Jgorj1025. Darguz Parsilvan. Fennec. Justinmeister. All Hallow's Wraith.xxx. Bulldog73. Foant. Barbarajs1. HoodedMan. Krabstarr. Ancheta Wis. JimWae. Kkm010. Kukini. Doc glasgow. Barefootguru. GangstaEB. Kww. Cyanidethistles. Daniel5127. Greba. FrancoGG. Cecilsmith. Esanchez7587. Furiousd90. AshLin. Kdmaster1011. Josephkhan. Brendanconway. Brendancullinan. JohnHSTennant. Ilse@. Bigsean0300. Andres. Chirag Patil. Correnos. DanielCD. Albino09. GateKeeper. Edicius00. Jasynnash2. GraemeL. BesselDekker. FluffyWyld2. Hadal. BD2412. BlackbeltMage. Christopher Shaw. AliveFreeHappy. Arthurtran. Influencey. Kozuch. Curps.. Gwernol. DoodleUK. FF2010. Indon. CharlotteWebb. Everyking. EALacey. Cobaltbluetony. Argcar5199. Eurleif. Indeed123. Betacommand. EchetusXe. Fang Aili. Fabhcún. Johann Wolfgang. Bobo192. Hut 8. Alexignatiou. Butt. Galaxiaad. Gotyear. Hinate01. Enochlau. Burdell. Jimspiva. IainP. DandyDan2007. Joshk. Jwy. Abu-Fool Danyal ibn Amir al-Makhiri. BKalesti. Higherwiki. Hephaestos. Dacxjo. Gaurav kumar verma. Ash-anti. Ric. Doug Bell. Blowdart. 83d40m. Adam Bishop. Airplaneman. Jwalte04. Flaht008. Abrech. Alansohn. Ed Poor. ExplicitImplicity. Akhristov. CopperMurdoch. Jacob Lundberg. Idontchangeanything. Jklin. Equilibrium Allure. Batmanfan77. H. Geto. Bbb23. Krisroe. Invincible Ninja. Agent5514. Akriasas. Dylandlima. Cviall. Gmac 2006. Abhishikt. Fairbairn. Banders342. D6. Andrewdt85. Submillimeter. Grandia01. Cupertino. Jusjih. BryanG. Ergbert. ERK. Jcw69. Bushcarrot. Jerry. Haakon. BlakByte. Cs-wolves. Demiurge. Andonic. A purple wikiuser. Ffrogman. Ezmo. Aespy7. Agathoclea. Jormundur. Goeagles4321. Antonio Lopez. HiDrNick. Hahaha345. JoeBlogsDord. Dcandeto. I'm the Cavalry. Aetas-nex. Bkessler23. Bodnotbod. JFreeman. Brnkstyle. Grimmer101. Jwray. Epachamo. Guat6. Eeekster. Antichrist. Euchiasmus. Dhaliwal gurjinder. Darran59. Hedpeguyuk. AllanBz. Jpesicka1. Anteallach. Dlinga. Bigtimepeace. Heartagram man. Gazpacho. Kookface. Bobblehead. JakeVortex. Harej. Ht1848. Graver waqas. Kotjze. Celimc. Kicking222. Equazcion. GeoGreg. Gugilymugily. Devourer09. Hawstom. Hirohisat. CPRdave. Grunners. Alarob. Colliephar. Da Vynci. Calmypal. CaptainShanks. Jon Corzine. Freakofnurture. EWS23. Cate. Frank. Ianjones50. Incka. Jonnyt121. Emerson7. Kane5187. Kushboy. Jaymac407. Jarble. Dennis714. Delldot. Hatch68. Iridescent. Dasani. Aaron Pannell. Encephalon. Cooldude27109506. Kwertii. Bletch. Fooeditor. EvocativeIntrigue. AdamJacobMuller. Corpx. Fertejol. Gurch. Darwin123. JohnSriley. Jpshaw. Ian Pitchford. Capn ed. Arendedwinter. HashBrowns&Beans. Kelvinyiu. Bosmon. Dsx2. Kronnang Dunn. Himwp. Aditayade. ColbeagleTheEagle. Halo. Kokirin. Fruit468. Cynical. 80sfaan. A m t. Kendrick7. Cactus. Antandrus. Dlae. Devilkid101.Mestel. Homeboyrabab. Cythusly. Bobblewik. Ayle001. JohnWittle. Adashiel. Crazynas. Karrmann. Artemisia2006. Kotra. Isotope23. Destinrm. Howelldaniel. Alan Au. Death522. Dejvid. Ashwinr. Hellodhiman1982. Bfissa. Jemstone66. Elvisandmick. Download. Alexos. DougsTech. Flizank. Cool-guy357. . Edivorce. Chille. Daniel Quinlan. Kurykh. Cutter. Gabemorr. Darth Panda. Elliott12345. Fashizzles. Jzelena. Dillon29. Flami72. Cbrown1023. Imasleepviking. Ck lostsword. DavidBrooks. Cereal Killer. Canderson7. Doomstars. Edcolins. Fretfingers. Banej. Explicit. Davidwhunt. Dredlox. Ilyanep. Blacksocks4. LAS1180. BluWik. Herb-Sewell. Glutaman. Dullblade12. Kurieeto. Joechuck. CloudNine. Albany NY. Cs302b. Ichwan Palongengi. Dzlinker. Closedmouth. DGJM. Gingerandfred. Akamad. Inter. Fred J. Arbitrary username. Evercat. Kesac. Karafias. Climper of breads. Aquillion. Jinxed. Jigs41793. JenKilmer. Hemanshu. Baseball Watcher. Bupbin. Banes. Ashnard. JeLuF. KiasuKiasiMan. Finalnight. Jorray. Anonymous editor. Dandv. John Fader. Jahiegel. Aranhamo. Avb. COstop. DragonWR12LB. Altenmann. Journalist. GoldDragon. Keysignal. HartzR. Eloquence. Jtkiefer. Gurubrahma. Fourthords. Futureobservatory. Ifnord. IRelayer. Falcorian. LUH 3417. Bassbonerocks. Blueski. Ginsengbomb. Brendan Moody. DragonflySixtyseven. Die2014. 1(). Doradus. K1Bond007. Ejstarchuk. Bootstoots. Green Giant. Fastfission. AlexHammer. Arx Fortis. Bucketsofg. Kpbizbuzz. Grawp. Andrea Parton. Cholera. Kross. Dashnick. Idontknow610. CurtisLambert. Iggy402. Khukri. Cburnett. Ground Zero. Ghaly. Iamhi10. Boothy443. Kilo-Lima. Iskeptic. Inner Earth. Arakunem. Drewahllperish. Crockspot. Jiang. GregAsche. Engines On. Bongwarrior. ComedyLiker23. Jalabi99. Blakey. Andybartongay. Jeremy68. Jatkins. C6541. Jerzy. Atheuz. Kprobst. Hayfordoleary. Afro daina. Anoopkn. AlbertR. Barek. Hborockz. 2sc945. BMD21century. Iamthey. Fvw. CC90. BM. Flatterworld. Ikanreed. CaseyPenk. Hairchrm. DosBubba. Kev374. Josephegorman. Jacek Kendysz. Brianhe. Jaderaid. KiViki. Joecool94. ARC Gritt.wikipedia. KungFuGrip. Jade 7492. GermanUser2045. DoctorMadUK90. Ginkgo100. Hcollard. Gadfium. Eli311. Frodet. Fame. Fixmanius. Gr33ndata. Aschrage. Canadian-Bacon. Codetiger. FvdP. GRBerry. Jschwa1. Head. J. Krich. Gary King. Jpers36. John254. Amother. Gsklee. Emanspeaks. Damnreds. Joshmaywood. Hamiltonham. ICaleb. Ezeu. BrokenSegue. Aneesh01. Coolaidstyle. Cteckerman. Guyfwoodward. Coconacchi. Junk Jungle. Buzzard321. JohnK. Gnewf. 12Username12. Kehkou. Adz000123. Kaedroho. Decafdyke. Bhargav mr. Danieljo2013. Clayoquot. Handy 1. Idunnowtf. Fredrik. Daniel. Imperator3733. Nerd. John Vandenberg. Jorgenev. GWatson. Cool Blue.Article Sources and Contributors 76 Article Sources and Contributors Bill Gates  Source: http://en. Kevinalewis. Anthony. Colinschulte. ErrantX. Gilliam. Indexfinger. Kitkatcrazy. Athishjenith. Gronky. Btipling. Icegirl599. Arthur Rubin. Brian0918. Faisal. Calvin So. AtzaMan. Btball. Daa89563. B. Cowman109. Clindhartsen. Aperculum. Astorknlam. Fufu70. Khazar. Evil saltine. Dishwasherrat. Husky. Johncena885. Dante Alighieri. Corvus cornix. Grunge6910. Cbeaudoin. AdmiralSenn. 1manfern. Cityboi500. Goalieboarder. Czechplayer. Jeffhoy.K. KneeLess. Iterator12n. Jimmocrimy. Blah3. Denelson83. Chensiyuan. Andrewlp1991. Crazycomputers. BlueHawke. Freemarket. Grafikm fr. Captain-tucker. Alethiareg. Gabbe. King of Hearts. Jerryseinfeld.ayaz. CommonsDelinker. Excursus. 03mjaf. Jackelfive. Afranelli.org/w/index. Bluemoose. Keycard. Cotojabee. Jmorgan. Dapsv. Dann Hero. Argenloco. Anonymous Dissident. JaimeTorres. Carnildo. Dismas. FOTEMEH. Ericjraack. Ali besharatian. Bender235. Avtech. Irishpunktom. Hseldon10. InShaneee. Jmaurer2. Jez. Coolbeans101. JimmB. Gogo Dodo. FireV. Jaranda.-M. CoolFox. Jobbythehutt. Justme89. Happyme22. Guaka. Kanyt701201. BullRangifer. Kerotan. Ctbolt. GX620. Jossi. Adishesha. Kgnol. CHBMch05. Kesla. ChrisBoulden. Kjlewis. Discospinster. Chinneeb. Cantus. Ashishag. Bdebbarma. GrahameS. Hereford. Flockmeal. Joseph Solis in Australia. Chicheley. LUUSAP. Chase me ladies. Coolguy6662. Gargos2. Eean. CrimeThinc. HappyCamper. Greenmind. Kalidascorp. Kier07. EagleOne. Editable. Ewlyahoocom. Anonymous Cow. Austinburk. FreplySpang. Abscissa. Adoniscik.php?oldid=528247953  Contributors: -Majestic-. David Underdown. Davidm617617. Arniep. Henry rackley. JediMaster362.g4. Eyas. Fat lard87665. Facemanpat. Hannah375. Dustimagic. Canccono. Arlindos. Arbitrary. Bjewiki. Jakeyp. DEATH. C12H22O11. Hystlen Caeth. Bpopedragon. Amcfreely. Croat Canuck. DVD R W. Amophar. Kintetsubuffalo. DraQue Star. L32007. Fabricationary. El dk. Gorm. FrenchIsAwesome. Kinneyboy90. Acroterion. Fallout boy. Itznogood. GFHandel. 21XL. F20ljc. Feezo. Chederman69. Krystyn Dominik. Jtbirdsell. Atbk. DMCer. Acme Plumbing. Danielg77017. Bradeos Graphon. Jaegen. Gilawson. Kakofonous. Cdc. Abours. AlainV. Gbleem. Ioscius. Andkore. I didn't push her. Harizotoh9. DeadEyeArrow. AnotherBrickInTheWall. Atatton. Jazzmista. AndrewHowse. Just H. Jibco. Kingdom Of Malkariss. Lager7. Chopin-Ate-Liszt!. Bwanaunsignedhype. Buridan. BB660. Dr. Brumski. Ahoerstemeier. Haru24. Jdforrester. Kransky. Cerealkiller13. Ballchin4. Dannyflower. Goatasaur. Jurohi. Dysprosia. Beao. Andymarczak. Brucethemoose. Exploding Toenails. Catstail. GNAAdj28. DennyColt. Hebrides. Edwin Ducke. Charlestrenet. Dbz5450. Bhound89. HellDragon. Amazon10x. David Gerard. JustinMark. Jlvjr11. Indopug. JJman69. Devin0205. Dsteele3. Chealer. Kaiyan1995. Coolrocker59. Eleveneleven. FrankCostanza. Dod1. AstroNomer. Gimmetrow. Hall Monitor. ArieScheurwater. Josephprymak. BlackCancer. Kevin B12. Galwhaa. Astuishin. Dingbat46. Dlogan19912003. Dan100. Fabartus. COWS4YOU123. Francs2000. Kendraisfat. GL. J Milburn. Ck135667. Julian Mendez. Cxw. Ed g2s. Jon Ascton. Alfio. Evenhanded. Joshua Issac. Kovzhun. Deshi no Shi. AAAAA. G force11. Dureo. Kungfuadam. Kchanecho. Ferrero007. GorillazFanAdam. Brado32003. Dale Arnett. Atmospherica. Champ wwe johncena. Casmith 789. Bobak. Dr. Christopher Parham. Garydh. Demfourlife. Feldmaus. Dmsar. Cameron Scott. JeremyA. Glane23. I. Andycjp. Dubdub. Kjetil r. Kiiimiko. Bill52270. Junyor. Cypriot stud. Gökhan. KingRain. Civilizededucation. Bonicolli. Badhaker. Bevo. AKMask.man. Kewpid. Gasmanhyjinks. Deltabeignet. I Love Pi. IMac boy. Harryboyles. CaptainAmerica. Chorocobo. Aranel. IW. D prime. Kaare. Alienlifeformz. Coredesat. Falcon866. 1337u83r. EstebanF. BlueMint. Idont Havaname. Ididitfortehlulz. Aervanath. Aidan W. Fratter. Broadway91.HG. JoanneB. Ardo191. Jredmond. DarkSlayer224. DamageIncM.197. AntiVanMan. Bookandcoffee. Asalrifai. Anetode. AliasX. Dipper2. Fangz. Jamoche. Albwus. Hyad. Froggywentcourting. Jj137. Ixfd64.ja. FuzzyBunny. Don't fear the reaper. Basridire. Hirzel. Chesse bill. Insertclevernamehere. Hottentot. Jni. Jamiescott. Jammmie999. DmitryKo. Aliasing. Donarreiskoffer. Ipug. AussieLegend. Jantangring. Johnbelden. Kslotte. Drink Stfu. Calebfultz. Jontabb7. Edward. Azakreski. Evil Monkey. David T Tokyo. Jamsie555. Anthony Ivanoff. Joejoejo. Fan-1967. Amberrock. Diberri. Goobergunch. Euthanatos. Garyscottadamson. Aftermatt. Kchishol1970. CRKingston. Euphoria. Blikk. Jimmy Slade. Interpolarity. Flubbit. GabrielF. Cameron. Fonzy. BordenRhodes. Ebbers. Bhadani. Janeway216. Cumbiagermen. Battlehamster. Kazikame. 99nintynine. DeusExus. 3anime3. Gustyfalcon. Kevin. Konman72. Chavando. Gggi69. Lady Lotus. Jacoplane. Gloriamarie. Honda wang. Dr. Alexhkchau. Edwardmking. Hmains. Chrishamsandwich. Krylonblue83. Glenners. DNewhall. Kazrak. Helwerda. Ian13. Etxrge. Antony the genius. JStewart. Jtmas83. Houghtwo. Jwissick. Erzengel. Fjnainoa. Arpit Shrivastava. Jonathandon. Epbr123. Grundle2600. JettaMann. Golbez. Jehochman. LOL. JForget. Cambrant. Chris cufc. Desember. Honbicot. Aluion. Guanaco. Jjmllandegveth. Hindol. Classicfilms. Canoe1967. Editor at Large. Bbatsell. Frecklefoot. Celithemis. clown will eat me. Aude. George415. G. Bwyche. Imamoron. Kaarel. Donreed. Jermsnugget. Iloverussia. Nguyen. Eve Hall. Chaohwa. Homosimpson. DJ Clayworth. DehMadLad1. Jasca Ducato. Blue Dream. Helios Entity 2. IntrigueBlue. ABCRICH. Blightsoot. Anupam. Cinkcool. Ali K. Accurizer. Computerjoe. Dhochron. Bunchofgrapes. Herzogrw. Adraeus. Jkrellenstein. Jaeger5432. A3r0. Ashlux. Jagger27. Jimeson. Billgatesyo. CryptoDerk. Jean Carlo Zepeda. Atlant. Bigcheese630. Kbh3rd. Daphne A. 3idiot. Borameer. Chrisch. Alison. Bloodbath 87. Jimfbleak. Great Cthulhu. Clam0p. CoolHotCold. Bafu1234. Chris 73. Esprit15d. Digitalme. Gabrielthursday. Cole is ugly. Gadget850. Claymfisher. Grango242. CanadianCaesar. Kalathalan. Dori. Hellboy2hell. Fuzheado. Good Olfactory. Kbolino. 1nertia. Goosnarrggh. JesseHogan. Bobbis. Brav0. 1297.5. Gargaj. Kollision. Aka. Gtstricky. Abtekk. Haon. Aaanthony405. Bratsche. Dabomb87. Khalid Mahmood. Eric-Wester. JLaTondre. Bxn1358. Gamaliel. Arthus. Amarkov. Bradtheman. AuburnPilot. Jojit fb. Casey boy. Captain Proton. Dleong. ElTyrant. Elcocinero. Geni. Acet0ne. Gscshoyru. Chivista. John. Friday. Benjeeeboy. Hexii. Helixblue. Hetar. EgyptianxPharaoh. Avian. Centrx. Coolent15. Dmmdmmd. Kashonlypleez. Bencey. CH7i5. BorgHunter. Kaijan. 16@r. Garydave. Dkoroyanis. Doctorzoidberg. Abdullais4u. KristoferM. Keenman76. David. Ben gabay. Dan D. Geoffrey Gibson. FlewIdDynamics. ESkog. Enemyusuar. 7265. Chairman S. Deadcorpse. Calum MacÙisdean. Android79. Cynicism addict. Czyl. HiEv. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Keddslaya. Dane13. Chuq. Benjamnjoel2. Eliaragirlrn66. John Stattic. Jamesday. Karl-Henner.2. 2mcm. Deskana. Jbs36. ERcheck. Aaronallen123. CWii. Gary Kirk. Fflores58. Jclemens. Hdgf. Involutaryhaxor. JCarriker. Bstct. Cjkporter. Greensburger. Glen. Ipodandmp3s. Enigmaman. DStoykov. Jjmontalbo. Alexandre8. Brian R Hunter. Djharrity. Kazikameuk. Crocodilian. Hontogaichiban. CambridgeBayWeather. Jim Michael. Lacrimosus. Aetherfukz. Blaserules. DrArrupeGupta. 1993sanity. Conversion script. JMK. Emorph. Joshbuddy. Jumbuck. Eric Wester. Aktalo. Jh51681. Gigogag. Contribut. Cheetah806. Amitch. GoLLoMboje. Akash sushi. Donna000. JiFish. AzaToth. DerHexer. Dog company. Hello32020. Fleiger. DigitalMediaSage. Don k bumps. Grunt. Intershark. Gualtherus. Coolcaesar. Kathmandu2007. Bkonrad. Brendan Madley. Ambuj. CGR 16. KaragouniS. Blubberboy92. ElderHorror. Dim386. Koavf. A bit iffy. Bugnot. Can't sleep. Emo budy. Brain40. Jedward. Kevo-723. Hoary. Archer7. Dinkimoo. Academic Challenger. BJK1903. Crossmr. Anastrophe. Beetstra. Jagginess. Gjp23. CRGreathouse. Disavian. Garion96. Harro5. Imdbman. ErkinBatu. Amitpagarwal. Borbrav. Dina. Ehurtley. Dudegalea. Doristein. Jacqui M. Kgroover. Ilkeston1990. EPO. Bgates. J'berwock. Dcoetzee. Doggonecat. GHe. Haukurth.. GoingBatty.trinity. Gimboid13. Gaius Cornelius. Brianboulder. Kbdank71. AlistairMcMillan. Dustinzhang. Bull Market. Crevox. Capricorn42. French Onion. AxelBoldt. Arbeit Sockenpuppe. Grammarxxx. Jcbparry. Johnleemk. Creidieki. Bertilvidet. Bhludzin. CharonX. Dannyc77. Fuse101. Benfeldman. J Di. Chohlasa. Craigy144. Addshore. Epeefleche. Herostratus. Emuzesto. Crito2161. Batz aka umar. Alex43223. Cameron Dewe. Bill37212. Awolf002. F-a-b-o-l-o-u-s. Josephero. Bwithh. Alienus. Frazzydee. Andrevan. Dogend4000. José Gnudista.tan. Daveryan. 2520gail. Dcflyer. Flowerpotman. Kf4bdy. Coffee. Charles Nguyen. ChildofMidnight. Jel. Aitias. Bfinn. Hierarchypedia. Ckatz. 65. Dogarian. Cunard. Jaxl. DVdm. Aldaron. Emacsuser. Ashenai. Alexfrance250291. Jennica. Fullmetalape. DHN. Bpdlr. Historian19. CLW. InMooseWeTrust. Jesushaces. Dylan6758. Cowbellallen. Bentobias. Audreyscure. Graham87. Andweallfalldown. Derekcslater. Hza100. Ishnoff. Barrettmagic. JIP. Johntex. Evice. ILovePlankton. CatMan. Kewp. J slaya. GCW50. Ishmaelblues. Demonic phoenix. Angela. Coolidays. Bewildebeast. Arminius. Henrygb. Ebany2. GoneAwayNowAndRetired. Jim. Daterroist. Anders Feder. George P. Jkelly. Daud Zareef. Erik. Drake Clawfang. Acwg. Eclecticology. Hammer1980. DMarz275.

Lordkazan. Mav. Ling. MartinHagberg. Tal Celes. RyanCross. SpeedyGonsales. Ohconfucius. Mnemeson. M. Zondor. Masterpiece2000. Reub2000. WikiLeon. Superwad. Mondotta. Trezjr. Leroyinc. Zerbey. Urzu100. Thepedestrian. Wooo. License2Kill. Tyler-07. Sommers. ThrowingStick. Netknowle. Thegreatmonkey. Mshonle. Shawnc. Zzyzx11. Twistedillusion93. Uršul. Saul0902.X. Sadisticality. Shoaler. Teol. Stewartadcock. LmoneyK. Lukesmitty. UnitedStatesian. Ryulong. TheKMan. SpuriousQ. Svetovid. Steven Zhang. Tleave2000. Zeerus. The Elixir Of Life. Shizane. Nford24. Mx3. Xeno8. Phil69. Qxz. Smithpg1002. Luna Santin. Lone-wolf. Omar. Liuiam13. Rlevse. Macky2000. NerdyNSK. ZippyKid. Scapler. Prethip. Dustinsc. Cprompt. Lexington50. Listor1989. Macaddct1984. Nilfanion. Syndicate. Mocha17000. SamanthaG. Srikeit. Magasin. Macdorman. Sango123. Secretlondon. PauloHenrique. Sciurinæ. Sound-Mind. ^demon. Sepiraph. Muhaidib. ThinkBlue. Luce007. Tezpur4u. Snake quit. Programmerdoom12. Prolog. SniperWolf1564. Langston Bonasera. Tangokiller. Mr. TigerShark. Mikenucklesii. Luk. Razz. Sjakkalle. Raul654. Uogl. Pathoschild. WickerGuy. Superman128. Sbrianhicks. Mike Selinker. Ryanbomber. Wizard of oz 101. Spangineer. Smyth. Pluemaster. Tawker. No Guru. Willworkforicecream. PrayagNarayanMisra. Versus22. The stuart. Shadow1. Ratherbeinsane. Muhaumen. LouI. Tonysmokespot. Nuttycoconut. Rrw. The Letter J. Zoonx. Monger. Mark Richards. Rockeeteer. Nhgaudreau. Lisiate. Well. Whatasdasd. Spartan11036. Phil Sandifer. Pholio44. Pdiperna. Pinkadelica. Reywas92. Pieboys2. Promethean. Smoth 007. Orca8767. Superm401. LodeRunner. Omicronpersei8. Zotel. SimonD. Zfr.derosa. Theclosedcircle. Trunk68. Mboverload. Obnreg. Meateater. Mushroom. William Avery. Ravikiran r. Samsara. Shakamon. ST47. Lax en. Srs555. Master Jay. Silverblade234. Mcdogit. ScudLee. Neurolysis. OrbitOne. Shanes. Reddevil0728. Matthiaspaul. Ozuma. Zacharygottlieb. Ta bu shi da yu. Seantrac. Xavcam. Mc8755. Rito Revolto. Yamamoto Ichiro.ElNaggar. Neilc. Woods07p. Timster69. Mkii. Listerz. Vbwx. Shereth. RobertG. Riley191919. Pigsonthewing. Natsubee.org/w/index. Starwiz. PoliceChief. Milkncookie. Zeeshani. Letdorf. Thedemonhog. NapalmRenn. Masharabinovich. Wk muriithi. Rdsmith4. Vmaloo. Oppsidasies!. TwilligToves. USNews. Boingbop. Nadavspi. Superduperwesman. UrukHaiLoR. Paul August. Leszek Jańczuk. Michael D. Meelar. Tassedethe. Mac. Simon_J_Kissane. Quibik. Superstuntguy. Moop stick. Petrb. Blainster. Majestic Lizard. Sundevil19. Richard001. Mikeboogie. Mr Adequate. Nick125. Rooomcars. Lowellian. Sha An. Lockman 4eva. Stanley011. Pristinegoal. TheSilverAce. Noozgroop. Warren. Piercetheorganist. TTTTTTTT. Nard the Bard.Nut. Orz. Pcb21. Rbadri. Tobz1000. 57. Salsa Shark. Robchurch. PinchasC. Swedenman. Ugur Basak. RiShArThA. MichaelBillington. Nagy. PerfectStorm. Nanobug. Terjepetersen. TheJMan. Sherman001. Tditd. Patstuart. Maelwys. Swansoniscool. SkorponokX. MackSalmon. Zwmalone. Legogirl888. Tim706. Minutiaman. Liam Braithwaite. Sketch-The-Fox. Mr Stephen. Zawada16. Toussaint. Gazpacho. Wilt. Xaosflux. Shirulashem. TheMightyHercules. Spearhead. SeventyThree. Serrabear8. Richardcavell. VolatileChemical. Seabay auctioneers. Matt Crypto. Moskvax. Pxma. Starionwolf. Mjpieters. Superflush. Nymosis. Modemac. Spanish lullaby. SF007. Electron9. Masonmlaycock. Lavenderbunny. Lothar76. Rob. Schutz. Ted87. Wicksie86. TonySt. Rufus843. Nighty5. Porqin. Raelus. Wernher. Room3berhampore. Ruddager. Shoeofdeath.. Ivan Pozdeev. The Magnificent Clean-keeper. Waldir. OoberMick. Yossarian. Vanished user 5zariu3jisj0j4irj. Samir. Meeark. Shanel. Tabercil. Rrelf. OlEnglish. Nlu. Lijnema. Michael Voytinsky. Pearle. Reverse polish. Mb1000. Sparkydude 7. Zachorious. Thegriffin. Phrozenfire. Steve03Mills. Timc.ﺋﺎﺭﺍﺱ ﻧﻮﺭﯼ‬李 友 中 . TomasBat. Unyoyega. MrDarcy. Sietse Snel. Tarheelz123. Mophon. Wine Guy. Timmy trout. Lunavorax. Miken32. Useight. Southpaw018. Myleslong. Trevor MacInnis. Thegraham. Usaswim. Szabolcs. Slark. Mcspazatron. Onceeternal. YoungMoney. Peripitus. Smjg. Spidermanizdabest. MickeyK. MrCEO. Rillian. Swagatamukherjee. TheQuandry. Lappafan. Rev3nant. Michael Hardy. Edonovan. Jasper Chua. Sol89. SusanLesch. MrJones. Nama2818. Robertgmoss. The Man in Question. MileyDavidA. Michael Dinolfo. Whazup500. Val42. PC78. Mattcunn. Magog the Ogre. RafeBoman769. TheGeneralUser.. Stone. Yakushima. Lightdarkness. Laxdnota. Lukyk9. Yoasif. Matthewmaverick123. Melovfemale. WillOakland. Littleaminoacid. Sungecko. Poliphile. Wonderbiscuit. Sluzzelin. Rev. PaulHanson. Wernher. Waynegaebelein. Phoenix2.Article Sources and Contributors LaidOff. SWAdair. Wheetees. Therealview. Trackinfo. Sarg. Silence. Spongefrog.at. Pie Man 360. Smallman12q. Tonidoni64. Michaelbusch. Tsemii. Sarranduin. ThomasK. Maxamize. StuartBrady. Minesweeper. Oliphaunt. Youssefsan. Theaznlaw. Lampsalot. Outspan. Lucy-marie. Sdsouza. Lightmouse. Tlogmer. Pat Yost. Seav. Mercury888. NeonMerlin. Mikesherrardjr. Plastic editor. John-g-1313. Comet--berkeley. SqueakBox. Pfaffenblogger. U. Tregoweth. N734LQ. Linfocito B. Sam916. Npshms. ‫ . Noldoaran. Tbtb123. Stuartyeates. Wackymacs. Splash. RattleMan. Zaz629. Pgk. Rerter 2. Matthew2948. Moulder. MKoltnow. Lectonar. Swtpc6800. Wwoods. San de Berg. Trevor Andersen. Stephenb. Michael Essmeyer. Smurfy. Skyskraper. MarkRoberts. Sweet Elixir. MIT Trekkie. Wallace69. Tnxman307. Princed. Ssd. Quuxplusone. Psycholilbunny. MikeyTMNT. Rama. Vilerage. Wikiauthor3. Vzbs34. Numbnuts00. 4226 anonymous edits 86-DOS  Source: http://en. The Halo. Remembers. Searchme. Spliffy. Raven4x4x. Menchi. Stevecam. RMFan1. Ninja5624. Spinoza1111. Tat725. ZombieDance. The wub. Wwwhhh. Wikipedia Is Testicles. Robertsteadman. Master Deusoma. Scurless. Mernen. Yworo. Peruvianllama. Rreagan007. Retired username. Phuzion. Phillip24fan. VampWillow. Zorbak898. Luky1971. SomeStranger. Omphaloscope. WGee. Moncrief.. Tony1. Slashme. Josh the Nerd. Thriller stephen. Spudbynight. Thebull987. Newwhist. Rikus nobody. Rarerequest. Pdxx123. Miamitosh. Seajay. Maythammahdipour. Russoc4. Utkarshshah007. Ylee. Michbich. Nyjetfan16. Ompd. Phil Boswell. Zy26. Scientus. Zaphod Beeblebrox. Sipos0. Lordvolton. Thesmog. Lawsonrob. Waba. Stalepie. Tmopkisn. Ricky81682. Sfan00 IMG. Onetwo1. Zaxxon. TheRanger. SusikMkr. TRG3. Nitrosnowboards54. Ligulem. Quaque. WildlifeAnalysis. Magus732. Thedude69. Sean D Martin. Stan Shebs. TheRegicider. TheDaveRoss. Wantednewlook. Spam. Ronnymexico. The stuff is good. Yanksox. Zahid Abdassabur. LilShtDropin. Proteus. Tehmorris. OwenX. Melaen. THEunique. Peeperman. Hairy Dude. Master of Puppets. Pgivens@heliumweb. Merovingian. Maralia. Nasimjo. WikiBear. Ric man. Helpsloose. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. Madchester. Starx. Matkatamiba.). Magister Mathematicae. Sivasai2006. ZonicTH. Pierson's Puppeteer. SallyForth123. Pohick2. Wisgary. Tyomitch. Mkmcconn. Megashredder. Neal Finne. Nobody554. Wtmitchell. Stickee.U. Simian534. Starblind. TheDarkArchon. Rms125a@hotmail. Ondrejk. Mexicanpharmacist. Willie the Walrein. Linkfreak. Rusted AutoParts. Whkoh. Thebeast2029. Liddle esco. Thegreatglobetrotter. Sisu99. RG2. McSly. Slowking Man. Xanxz. Samwise314. Wereon. Sgkay. Nobaddude. NTDOY Fanboy. TomGreen. Moralis. Levineps. Mirv. Mskeggs. Ryanjunk. Pcvt. SkerHawx. Switchercat. Mnemoc. TedE. QuantumOne. Seba5618. Mitts2010. Quatonik. Yaya12346. Waycool27. Jesse Viviano. Wikiviewer. Tinton5. Lingpwns. Mr Chuckles. The AirBox. Winampman. Liquidmetalrob. Nw adelman. Therealbell. Perfect Proposal. THEREALVIEW. Skinnyweed. Old Guard. Novastarj. Philippe. Njv9fnnf. Wknight94. Stan Shebs. Nick Warren. Mxn. Mckaysalisbury. User77764. Nick Mulder. Zlsmith. Dave Farquhar. LeaveSleaves. Slackergeneration. Oatmealcookiemon. Stillnotelf. Sjorford. Wm. Lunkwill. Quadell. Muboshgu. Liquidsnakejr. Stebucko360. Yidisheryid. Steel. PaulGarner. LikeLakers2. Qutezuce. Stevertigo. Tonkinesekitten. Thesimpsons455. Yankees beat all. Ranjran. Snowfalcon. Onslaught 789. StaticGull. Tagishsimon. Mauls. Sandyr86. Lefty. Ternity0127. Meandevil02. Robin klein. Sam. The Mad Bomber. Lionelbrits. Wvb20. Olivier. Viajero. Vegas949. The Placebo Effect. Leon007.wikipedia. Ventusa. Mapetite526. Spiffy1001. XJamRastafire. Planetpjs. Qwert21. Lukeewing. Tannin. LukeShu. Pimpin' Antandrus. Skier Dude. Thorpe. WookMuff. Mnemnoch. Mauimonica. Prashantsinha. Nil Einne. RickK. ParisianBlade. Michael Robinson. Sideshowmel0329. ZenCopain. Schyler. Senator Palpatine. Qwfp. Scohoust. Madman. Mr. Revancher. Supercoop. Siroxo. SimonMayer. Pol098. Pierceiscoolman. Xanchester. Syvanen. Rhymeindaj3.cheats. Rjimenezh. Liljlfc90.S. Rupy. Mr. Stuart Drewer. Mariomashi. Oscarthecat. Taquito1. Scwlong. Snori. Ripperbob159.U. Martarius. Ranger1524. Pimp567. Plbogen. Shamusmagee. TexasAndroid. Jtmendes. StellarDude. Ghettoblaster. Robert Merkel. Rovastar. Terrysolid. MrGALL. PFHLai. Night Gyr. Speer320. StarScream1007. Mat813. Titoxd. NewEnglandYankee. Lucky13pjn. Matthew238. PTSE. Spencer195. Ottawahitech. Lee1019. Mormegil. Magellan Maestro. Turkishbob. Woohookitty. Nintidiot. Rsm99833. Powersellerirl. Pig de Wig. Roketjack. The Happy Panda. Narcisse. LeoX. Patricknoddy. Strider01. Pimpalicious Nerd. Pbroks13. Presidentman. Page Up. Preacher's Beard. Wisden17. Pharaoh of the Wizards. Leifern. Tim Starling. Mirror Vax. Saruha. MONGO. Latics. Stuff9. Topsynergy. MaxxFordham. Rwwww. Rich Farmbrough. Neutrality. Lockley. Pengyanan. TGilmour. Shoessss. Red Thrush. Persian Poet Gal.O. PJM. Nikhilhuilgol. Mattbrundage. Mozzerati. Nv8200p. Longhair. Wimt. Rockin. Loppy123. Sopoforic. PGSONIC. Mnmnn. Nathanrff. NaminatoR. TimBentley. Peterclancy. Tannin. Olorin28. Pavithran. Tillander. Yandman. Redrocket. Mjmcb1. WikiED. Robertotoons. Mr. Rfl. Viridae. Sherool. Lycurgus. Silly rabbit. Rsquire3. Y. Minghong. Rlee0001. Mog. ScifiterX. Billion. Zanimum. Yoda2031. Rjwilmsi. NMChico24. Neg2led. Wayward. Shehzadashiq. Maxtitan. Minna Sora no Shita. Ish ishwar. MeowthRocket. Tim Pritlove. Prometheus7Unbound. Tachyon01. Vildricianus. Xiphoris. Xtreambar. TaerkastUA. Renesis. Terence. Smguy101. Mrdempsey.S. look at you!. Macai.A. Monkeyman. XSTRIKEx6864. Patwu89. S charette. Richard todd. Wolok. Wickethewok. Wiki alf. Thekinkycookie. Seibzehn. Parsa fatehi. Tangotango. RexNL. Naurmacil. RonDivine. Tim!. Tomtheblob. Leebo. TFIAwards.. Mo0.S. Michaelyork29. The wub. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?. SandyGeorgia. Malik1. The Quill. Nakon. Terminalguy01. Psy guy. TheMadBaron. Pajz. Rray. Mrchadsexington. Oliver Chettle. Squishy. Treyp. Pakaran. Some guy.A. Sidheeq. Mikepegg. RyanGerbil10. Zachary8222. Orangysb. RxS. Nkrosse.heart. Nufy8. Oracle005. Malcolm Farmer. Mr. Llort. Timelist. Thatdog. Xcane. Luisldq. MZMcBride. Michael Frind. Lawrence Cohen. Richard L. Xsys292. Haseo9999. Switzerland. Wafulz. Pieboys. Tobby72. Possum. YellowMonkey. Vrghs jacob. PDH. Vcmatt. Ocon. Nightscream. MindstormsKid. Scrawlspacer. Lord Samael. Taco325i. Paulmraz. Lupin. Wikiedit24. Miniguy. MasterEagle. Vladsinger. Strong Bad. Spmion.. Niteowlneils. Tcp 200. VKing. Whjayg. Shii. Ncda. Wa3frp. MightyCortex. Wolfmankurd. Shalom Yechiel. Vignaux. Tomcool. Nemesis63. MER-C. Tud123. Leopold Stotch. Mg1975. Nick. Meviin. Nipun1957. Magic Maker. Melbrooksfan101. Skb8721.com. TPA5. Masterhomer. LoveOfFate. TimDM85. Mangostar. Scpj. Theelectricchild. Travelbird. Lastfame. Vary. RJN. Zsinj. Stevey7788. Maran!. ZenCopian. Maxamegalon2000. MrBurns. Zoe. Thompchr. Shocdoc. Leon skywalker. Marioface5. Savidan. Wmahan. Pauric. Spelling Style. Mnemonic2. Leif. Rtviper707. Thomas Skogestad. Thechoipolloi. Timwi.ﻣﺤﮏ . Middenface. Wolv. Makron1n. Superkemp. Zxr 198.bayes. Nishkid64. Mike Rosoft. Wikiklrsc. Y0u. Xleax. Wapcaplet. Lupo. Rchamberlain. Zazou. Mazesarecool. Mac c. Tholme. Skbhat. Mahdiislam. MightyEagleLab. Limulus. Malo. Zsweden. Records. Valentinian. Phiwum. Strom. Tpjarman. Bongwarrior. Matt Deres. President Rhapsody. Marile. Winhunter. Wikid77. Sammd 73. Walker9010. Styles. Ryan-McCulloch. Lqstuart. Throup. Noz92. Slmking. Likemike2. Lars T. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington. Manufracture. ShaunES. Skyzer33. MarekTT. NordicThunder88. Mpt. Nick123. Michaeln36. Rhobite. Marskell. Mais oui!. The12game. Robert Skyhawk. Ran. Peter L. MickWest. Lproven. The Rambling Man. Stefanomione. Nippoo. Yukselgurbuz. Mikeyernst. Rasmus Faber. Mehicdino. Xchrisblackx. Thewayforward. Hharte. Quintote. Vptes1. Shiva12345. Malleus Fatuorum. Usjta. Where. MattTM. MichaelBillington. Lb34. Ranveig. Ottre. Xinit. Vicn12. Rebroad. Mattmm. Novacatz. Supertigerman. Yurik. Mr. Lentower. PCNWorld. THF. Tbuckley89. Mcoady12. Eliyahu S. Rugby471. Robertptolemy. Morwen. Bluemoose. Uncleratty. Milki. Tempodivalse. Tri400.php?oldid=527972837  Contributors: Aaron of Mpls. Opus33. Muya. Rory096. Ryan Norton. Shylocksboy. Puertorico1. Steve-o. Piratesmack. Lordkokkei. Trusilver. Zimbabweed. Politepunk. Maxlmus Rex. Rolfey30. WojPob. Tom. Shauniemac. Mustangddg. Volatileacid. Luuva. Minnesotajohn29. Teolsuk. Sbluen. Bumm13. Merchbow. Sabbah67. MrBoo. SuperJumbo... Rettetast. Misza13. Omega21. Lakeguido10. Xornok. Mercury. Swampyank. Modster. Philip Trueman. Seishirou Sakurazuka. Sanjoy 6114. Tpbradbury. The Anome. Robert K S. Tkidd132. Zlemming. Mod mmg. Probert. Nat495. Twizler3. Yanks5157. Robomaeyhem. Retron. Kroneage. THobern. Sim Coolidge. Yurimxpxman. Stemonitis. Scepia. Whatthree16. Mailer Daemons. V. Vogelfrei. Riana. Rbrwr. Samuelsen. Ricardocolombia. UtherSRG. Frap. RockMFR. Villaboy8. Peter McGinley. Weaver109. D. Ted Wilkes. Srikantkedia. Pevarnj. Sharonlees. Maximus Rex. Refridgerator. RainR.com. Something12356789101. Vortexrealm. Your Only Real Friend. Whatdoyou. TheRedGoldfish. Theda. Xxqoouxx. Sycthos. Royalguard11. Twas Now. Wbryhn. Raoulis. Stevertigo. Amikake3. Usrnme h8er. Uris. Mastermorfeu. XYZ. Stack upjohn. Peterson. GermanX. Surplu. Phanerozoic. Wikieditor1988. Umja345. Sam Korn. Schzmo. Schentler. Vaubin. Sam Spade. LaszloWalrus. Musser. WAvegetarian. Prince Godfather. Matt Gies. Maxtremus. Roastytoast. Mr. girl. Xezbeth. Sceptre. Xnuala. Pilotguy. Lemeza Kosugi. MaxSem. Quebec99. Michaeloptv. UserGoogol. Tennisplayer556677. MarkSutton. Remember the dot. Kephir. Obarskyr. SimonP. Louisejones. Maddenplayer1226. Mapane. Sakrum. Snoyes. PeregrineAY. Thekietstuff. RuiMalheiro. RJASE1. Prasanaik. WhisperToMe. Mjsabby. Martyman.A. Shummie. Masterjamie. RobyWayne. Mike mgoblue. Tabletop. Materialscientist. Ciphergoth. Vegasthornton. Swordsman808. Vffc2. Preschooler. Off!. Zen611. Osloom. Mouse Nightshirt.. Fernkes. O sam o. Mccready. Schi. Tyrol5. France3470. Umairkazi. PseudoSudo. Th1rt3en. Wikibombsight. Ohnoitsjamie. The spacemonkey. Russavia. Nawsum526. Opelio. E. SCEhardt. Nivix. ManUtdTom. Mike Payne. Liquider. Dmsar. Nicodh. Will Beback Auto. Robth. Thunderbrand. Mumby. Lir. RoyBoy. PS2pcGAMER. Pwner2. Bomazi. NawlinWiki. Trevayne08. Rishartha is forever. Rumpbo. Snavaneethk. Olaus. Pwinkeljohn. The64. Apecat. T3hX. Tesscass. Jayands. SBKT. The 888th Avatar. ShadowLion. Tejas81. Lpsharpie. R3m0t. Zyxw. RaymondYee. Squirepants101. Nyc2354. CRGreathouse. Yash Momaya. Hydrargyrum. Rjwilmsi. 77 . Realm of Shadows.. Sugarcaddy. Suruena. Lmcghaw. Wigren. Tyrhinis. Veemonkamiya. Parent5446. Piante. MrSativa. Techcheetah. Yamgo. Taric25. Redvers. SchfiftyThree. TenOfAllTrades. Lzandman. Obama088. Lelgo3400hi1985. The JPS. Wdchk. Ray5555. Leightbob11. Phil179. Skamecrazy123. Pnm. Redcloud619. Svavar123. Onorem. TheCoffee. St ttb. Mwanner. Scunizzo. XxXDylanWillard. Tutmosis. Rje. Sysint.

Starcheerspeaksnewslostwars. Dland. Gadfium.86. Pol098. Tbonnie. Larrymcp. LittleOldMe. Wernher. Adavidb. 1exec1. UnicornTapestry. Homo sapiens. Greg Grahame. Dcljr. Renatolopes. White 720. Wmahan. Func. RTC. Empiric. Saganaki-. Nobeko98. FrancisRogers. Fadesga. Greenrd. Dennisthe2. Urhixidur. Aldie. Guat6. Edcolins. Megan1967. Iluvcapra. Alksub. Squids and Chips. Cabbey. Mboverload. Offshore1. Calstanhope. McDutchie. Silver hr. Soulpatch. Oliver Crow. TheQuandry. HelixOne. Shawnc. Aither. Priince1993. Wafulz. Aou. Puckly. Soelmese. Prari. Netskip. Wjhonson. JeR. Mover. Themadmac. Tomwsulcer. Uncme. BD2412. Capecodeph. Sim Eng. Ww. Rhsatrhs. Mamathomas. ST47. Rjwilmsi. Demicx. Artoasis. Pwt898. Caiaffa. Powerofjuju. Kjhstuph. Gazpacho. AxelBoldt. Danielfc. Jesse Viviano. Kingkyle222. Hairy Dude. BritneyJean. A. Baryonic Being. IMSoP.org/w/index. Wtshymanski. Richmd. Shaverc. Ganimoth. Norman314. Chris the speller.delanoy. Hapless Hero. Taw. Professor Glass. Ross92. Rodrigo Strauss. Moondyne. Toytoy. Kumioko (renamed). Jossi. Stan Shebs. Ecwdev. Georg Peter. Kevinlipe. Chevalier3. Christian75. clown will eat me. TMC1982. Dvavasour. Ram434. Wtshymanski. Tschild. RenniePet. Vranak. 130.org/w/index. DJMcNiff. Mentifisto. Phil Boswell. The Random Editore. Daniel Mietchen. Edward. Yannismarou. Ewlyahoocom. Twp. Smee. KonradG. A D Monroe III. Pot. TygerTyger. Tvjames. COMPFUNK2. Ajmada77.delanoy. Notreallydavid. Blueapples. 194. RobertG. ApolloCreed. X570. Egil. Tarinth. Blue520. Egmontaz. Slowisfast. JoeCasey.org/w/index. Peter. Dthomsen8. Andrij Kursetsky. Kurieeto. Wikinv. 600 anonymous edits 78 . Hall Monitor. Twinchester. Murad123. Dwbang. Gits (Neo). Iedited123458. Sun Creator. J. DGaw. OnBeyondZebrax. Ground Zero. SeanO. Kamix. Victarus. RRosenschein..Fin. Finlay McWalter. Iridescent. 254 anonymous edits BASIC  Source: http://en. Ondrejk. Invisifan. Ohconfucius. Azucar. Bbb2007. WhisperToMe. Dojarca. Cgs. M7. Werdan7.75. Plrk. Tesi1700. 209. JCarlos. Mouchoir le Souris. Luvcraft. Lightmouse. GreyCat. Mhking. 62. Squirepants101. Courcelles. Packerfansam. Colonies Chris. Some guy.mx. Tvproducer. Captain-Scooby-Doo. Liam Harvard.31.42. Birky21. Hmains. Totalserg. Pazuzu413. Hipocrite. Pinkunicorn. Gpvos. Gridlock Joe. 24. 39 anonymous edits Anthony Michael Hall  Source: http://en. J nachlin. Zinzinday. Can't sleep. Zaplin. SuperNova. Reyk. TyCamden. Garion96. Vrenator.xxx. AndersRoyce. Team4Technologies. Stu1011. Dayewalker. Poor Yorick. Who. Eagleamn. Wellington. RadioFan.s. John Spikowski. Ebyabe. Eliz81. Utcursch. Dhabirunner. Burntsauce. Peyre. Pig de Wig. IndyDevil. Picapica. Dysprosia. Ahy1. Dcoetzee. Madlobster. Tompagenet. Ohnoitsjamie. Bamadio. Beinsane. Art LaPella. Derek Ross. Blahbleh. Svick. Engelec. Mauls. Arthur Rubin. TubularWorld. Macintoshrocks9. Heizer. Discospinster. DMCer. Freechild. Paxsimius. Jtalledo. Mild Bill Hiccup. Iwakura42. Jopxton. Alabamagene. Dm01. Soupnyc807. Carmichael.wikipedia. Haikupoet. Mxn. Firedraikke. Kkm010. GhostPirate. Dachshund. Woodshed.186. Zorakoid. Bongwarrior. Visi calc. Qylecoop. Supersurfer000100. Aitias. Deskana. GrahamHardy. Niteowlneils. Captain Smartass. Chun-hian. Piper108. Dolovis. GregorB. Int19h. WideArc. Jaraalbe. Certh. Gschizas. Calwatch. Klippdass. Oxymoron83. Dabomb87. Rannpháirtí anaithnid. NewEnglandYankee. Neodevil21. Epbr123. Wjl2. Hannes Hirzel. Drhex. ThinkBlue. Lamro. Chris the speller. WereSpielChequers. Racer Dude. Mwtoews. Oneiros. Eric119. Cjthellama. MichaelBillington. Yunshui. Feeeshboy. Meeklo1. Maximus Rex. Kwertii. Sietse Snel. Crd721. Im. Kilo-Lima. JHW549. Pwforaker. Taras. Deking15. Stevertigo. Kleinheero. Titoxd. Finduilas 09. Jaysbro. 757 anonymous edits Berkshire Hathaway  Source: http://en. R-Joe. Stevearm.a. FrozenPurpleCube. Ljenkins13. Youjustbrushby.php?oldid=525261104  Contributors: A8UDI. Zer0431. Quadell. Shortride. Jivecat. Neutrality. Emc2. Alfio. Ranjithsutari. TakuyaMurata. CO. Thavron. Wtmitchell. Cap'n Refsmmat. Iglew. Sfitzge308. Rich Farmbrough. Cybercobra. Francs2000. Justme89. Jamcib. Jimregan. Hirzel. Pigsonthewing. Oden. Ronbo76. B. Jni. Excirial. Inarius. J00tel. Unintentional Guy. SDC. 1984. Yasuoyasu. Soetermans. MarcoVD. SuddenFrost. Jim1138. Psyced. Floydvirginia. Ewiger Besserwisser. Gazpacho. Kumagoro-42. 6. Jerryobject.wikipedia. Mirror Vax. Cresix. Patrick. Furrykef. Newyorkbrad. Dabest311. Regushee. Ennuihenry. Tim1357. Rich Farmbrough. Bhadani. Vslashg. EnTerr. Williamv1138. Ruud Koot. Jeff3000. Kailey elise. Saruman7. J JMesserly. RedWolf. Deflagro. Alphador. Ericd. Davbunnell. ILovePlankton. Mika1h. Divinity76. Astudent. TraxPlayer. Lightmouse. Download. Maksud. DerechoReguerraz. Uncle Milty. Rholton. Conti. Modster. Rcingham. Minimac. Félix. Kbdank71. Atlant. Vinni-Puh. Emerson7. SteveSims. Mahjongg. Azrael555. Jvcdude. Donmike10. Goldnpuppy. Chocolateboy. Jvcdude. Jguad1. R. Oxymoron83. Earshear34. Vrenator. Baronnet. Fairlyoddparents1234. Madhero88. Austriacus. DIEXEL. Twelvethirteen. Pgsoto. RFerreira. Ubique1972. Ssredg. Liftarn. Williamskidfears. Glacialfox. Al Lemos. Ayoung42. Interface. Swtpc6800. Dale Arnett. Abdull. Super3boy. Igoldste. Number87. Frank. Minesweeper. Athaenara. Mindmatrix.232. Wackymacs. LindsayH. Jaksmata. Shii. Yudiweb.battersby. Ulflarsen. Greenrd. M. Jaxad0127. Iifacts. NickelShoe. Myztry. IntrinsicV. Nat91.114. Dina. Voidxor. Mendaliv. Rjd0060. LeRoi. Dlfkja. Fragglet. CygnusPius. Middlenamefrank. RCX. Gioto. The Man in Question. JeLuF. Doczilla. BornonJune8.קיפודנחש‬㍐. Dragon i.php?oldid=527735258  Contributors: 12 Noon. Bender235. Dysprosia. Diba. Golbez. Adashiel. Mezzaluna. Warrenmcurrier. RichardRussell. WJetChao. JackO'Lantern. HisSpaceResearch. Theskuj. The wub. Caseyallen0. Thunderbird2. Samiam95124. Salmanazar. EoGuy. Vivio Testarossa. Sugar Bear. Jeffman52001. InsiderPublishing. AlistairMcMillan. Brion VIBBER. Richfife. Rsegrest. Nczempin. Lockeownzj00.xxx. Pne. Damian Yerrick. TNBritRocker. Nice poa. Whitis. Ntsimp. Woohookitty. Courcelles. The Thing That Should Not Be. Written. Stratocracy. Conversion script. AppleMacReporter. Denelson83. Juntung. Editbringer. Ganymede 901.org/w/index. Denimadept. Debresser. Swid. Artcliffe. Metacarpus. Ser Amantio di Nicolao. Minna Sora no Shita. Eclipsed. PC78. Diberri. Justinc. Choster. StoatBringer.org.xxx. Exhartland. Bongomatic. Helpsloose. NeilEvans. PhilKnight. Rmallins. MaGa.. Afairch. The Thing That Should Not Be. TheBilly.org/w/index. Widr. Amouses. MK8. Mrtrey99. Brighterorange. Dckx. Random Task. Anonymous Dissident. Ceyockey. Tarquin. Rettetast. Sbmeirow. Bluemoose. Ingolfson. Pmyteh. Sentineneve. Kidwiki91. Empoor. Jph. K ideas. Valueradar. Ruedetocqueville. Acegikmo1. Jimfbleak. Pucesurvitaminee. CryptoDerk. Redvers. GermanX. Patiwat. MisterMorton. Nivix. Candorwien.baker. Damian Yerrick. JohnOwens. Hydrargyrum. Acather96. Popefauvexxiii. Yoman82. Drcwright. Jackol.xxx. Lugnuts. Nyttend. DNewhall. And we drown. DMG413. Eversman. Mike Dillon. Aew1965. Akessel. Clasqm. Rjwilmsi. Acpdx. Geopence. Nandesuka. Brighterorange. Ellmist. Slakr. Lynch2000s. 23skidoo. Jprockett. Grstain. Notinasnaid. E2eamon. Blacken. Dilbert2000. Wernher. Songsmyth. EdwinHJ. Chennes. Hadal. Eritain. Comrade Graham. Deaghaidhcjjd. Rlee0001. Chris the speller. Britneyjfed.wikipedia.9. Rursus. Kundor. Bento00. KnowledgeOfSelf. Quentin X. Barsoomian. Eagleal. J04n. The Epopt. Northamerica1000. 282 anonymous edits Altair BASIC  Source: http://en. Greensburger. Danroa. Andre Engels. CristianoMacaluso. Mark Richards. SeanDuggan. Payamchee. Jacksonian3623. Dan100. Greenshed. Fredfredburger147. Wbm1058. Evercat. Ahoerstemeier. Philip Stevens. Pne. 3930K. Neilrieck. Itsaliarromeo. Mblumber. Jarble. Gutza. RJaguar3. Jerryseinfeld. Alansohn. GoneAwayNowAndRetired. PhilKnight. Ghosts&empties. TJ Spyke. CBDunkerson. Siriusfarm. Asdf2006. SimonP. 107 anonymous edits Altair 8800  Source: http://en. Closeapple. Ohnoitsjamie. Cause of death. Nicdafis. Dzim. Urbanrenewal.uk. Bbomber8. Smappy. Steve03Mills. Excirial. Swampyank. CSMR. Emperorbma. Cjs56. Aude. Bunnyhop11. Alientraveller. Flamurai. Tmol42. Dreddpirate. DarkFalls. Borgx.php?oldid=520403665  Contributors: 203. HokieRNB. Michael J Swassing. Fsw. Tombomp. Tide rolls. Wavelength. Dzubint. Peterlin. Yosri. NextWarrenBuffett. SuperDude115. Swinquest. Timberframe. Hairy Dude. Azumanga1. KBi. Seidenstud. Tide rolls. Naniwako. Bkell. Dreaded Walrus. Kefinn. Andrew73. Jfilliben. Cladeal832. DOHC Holiday. Cwolfsheep. Gurch. SummerPhD. Oblivious. Swtpc6800.User. Dawnseeker2000. Ovvldc. Mastercoder. Andiye.254. Graham87. Davidandmarysue. BillC. Tablizer. Onebravemonkey. Ssd. Keramos. Jeff G. JaGa. Bfigura. The Raven's Apprentice. Dead3y3. Egmontaz. Jacqui M. MarkFlemish. Jack Melnick. Jagged 85. Centerone. RadicalBender. Pohick2. Charles Gaudette. Jonathan.251. Chinese3126. TraceyR. Gazpacho. Spanglej. Leeannedy. Knulclunk. Wayne Miller. CatherineMunro. Pgp688. Pakaran. Johnuniq. Srushe. Quasipalm. Bissinger. Worldsbestceo. Healablemarrow4. SpaceFlight89. Cyktsui. H2O. BanyanTree. RossPatterson. Gaius Cornelius. RucasHost. Dr. Gaius Cornelius. Maury Markowitz. Downwards. Cool Blue. Chris the speller. SIsAwesome. B3virq3b. EAderhold. Boothy443. Kevin B12. Mintguy. Dismas. Xcrivener. Modulatum. Danakil. Nor12man16. Wimt. Reywas92. FPAtl.4. Snori. Guðsþegn. Adw2000. Pirate monkey. Tinton5. QuasyBoy. AnOddName. Alecv. Solarapex. DiSSo. Jimmy Slade. Grahamec. Fortdj33. Jmlk17. Nate Silva. Arbero. Before My Ken. Bovineboy2008. Alansohn. Prestonmcconkie. Elkman. Cst17. Television rules the nation. Wildhartlivie. Coldacid. Wbm1058. Alpha Quadrant (alt). Polmandc. Spangineer.202. Wahiba. Template namespace initialisation script. TaerkastUA. Thumperward. Barek. 96. Lee1026. Bart133. Jokerdude48. Madhatter9max. Pavium. Civillike. Ekamaloff. Bobo192. CanisRufus. Redraiders203. Versus22. Favonian. Anands26. Drbug. Bleemsz. CardinalDan. Yahya Abdal-Aziz. Arx Fortis. Weirdy. Lotje. PM800. EoGuy. Erik. WillOakland. IronGargoyle. Ghettoblaster. Canderson7. Surturz. Gilabrand. Janke. Fredrik. Olathe. Lucky13pjn. Michael Devore. Esrever. Skamecrazy123. Dbiel. Davecrosby uk. Terpdx. Trusilver. Gimboid13. Gadfium. SimonP.xxx. Ortonmc. Rangoon11. Ken Gallager. Slash. Hephaestos. Gogo Dodo. Jwillia3. Stephenb. HOT L Baltimore. Chowbok. Dobie80. Bender235. Mig29. UnitedStatesian. Sumone10154. Wjl2. J. Catspawsd. Jauhienij. Gareth Griffith-Jones. Monedula. Khoikhoi. MarnetteD. Morwen. Ahoerstemeier. Jd027. Dmsar. D6. Roseglendelyn. Andonic. Jeffwang. Atlant. CanisRufus. PhilKnight. Doradus. Kuru. RexNL. Mrbill. SusanLesch. Ianml. Dgies. GusF. NeOak. Gurchzilla. Hayabusa future. DerHexer. DOSGuy. Fran McCrory. Mushroom. Badger Drink. Lima Neto. Stormie. Btx40. GregCutler. Kiamlaluno.wikipedia. Nk. Alansohn. Frschoonover. Wtshymanski. Creidieki. GraemeL.php?oldid=527907588  Contributors: 72sting. Giants27. Ifticar. Wernher. Erianna. DerHexer. Buffalutheran. Tempshill. Wcbaird. Ace of Spades. Capricorn42. Nssdfdsfds. Mmm333k. Reg. Aspects. Sherool. Tablizer. Martarius. Wickorama. Cherkash. JasonDClinton. Sterling Gillette. Coso. KeithJamison. Havardk. Koyaanis Qatsi. Bradley0110. Stephenchou0722. Gazpacho.wikipedia. AEMoreira042281. Tomaxer. Gh5046.ahmed. Krich..lskj.202. EliasAlucard. Fabartus. Stakelover. Tannin. Toon05. Robin Johnson. SpigotMap. Philip Trueman.148. Lee Daniel Crocker. Lord Vader. Sjock.xxx. Frecklefoot. DocendoDiscimus. Skeetch. DANE YOUSSEF. Al Lemos. J. Wgungfu. C777. MER-C. Ochawkeye. MartinHarper. AbsolutDan. Jonahb. MacGyverMagic. Mbecker. Blanchardb. Jason640. Monz. Macrakis. Futurebird. JGKlein. Vsb. Wangi. PerlDpUa. Lew19. Laschatzer. Frazzydee. Dylnuge. Aesopos. Damian Yerrick. Drewitem. Jeff G. Bufalo70. Grunt. DragonHawk. Stevenmitchell. FMAFan1990. Mysid. Dekisugi. DrJohnG. All Hallow's Wraith. Ameliorate!. Fireworks. The Random Editor. Fubar Obfusco. Soup100. Longshot1980. Smalljim. Random account 47. Ezrdr. Miwanya. Owen. IainP. Kingpin13. Altes. Jiang. Oasidfjosaidjf. Thumperward. Robofish. L Kensington. Chenzw.148. Pichu826. Jojhutton. Tnchris. 195. SimonP. Daedalus969. CPMcE. Sidfadnis. Branddobbe. Sahilsharma030. GentlemanGhost. Jpgordon. After Midnight. CanOfWorms. Lightmouse. Synchrite. Jgnbr. RTC. AugPi. Danakil. Angela. Astanhope. BlueMoonlet. Boshomi. Averagejoedude. Gzornenplatz.php?oldid=528440491  Contributors: 0836whimper. Salasks. Yamamoto Ichiro. Dmsar. GoldDragon. fiend. Mr man 5225. Drdaco. Sam. BenFrantzDale. Hydrargyrum. Edivorce. Kewp. Dinoceras. Dudesleeper. Maury Markowitz. The Keymaster. WKPDX. Hex. AEMoreira042281. Vrenator. Fourthords. Collabi. Tomcole. MegX. FriscoKnight. Deor. Mervyn. Grayfell.delanoy. NHRHS2010. Light current. Shafin. Msmi121. JJ Harrison. Mephistophelian. Stormie. Dinomite. Kember. ^zer0dyer$. Thepangelinanpost. Skudrafan1. ‫ . Sidewinder1. Scroyder. Deh. Meeples. Zetterberg40. Kinema. Ali@gwc. Svgalbertian. Gioto. Scriptwriter. SkeletorUK. Crakkerjakk. Koavf. LukeyBoy. KholkhozNarra56. Killingthedream. Johnfromtheprarie. Hondo77. Luke. Gzkn. Malepheasant. Francis E Williams. Tifego. EALacey. AdultSwim. ABF. THD3. Levineps. Who. Theoldsparkle. Kyle135. Shizhao. Rogowiak. Takiman. Christopherlin. Maury Markowitz. Jean-Christophe BENOIST. Crocodile Punter. JoeMarfice. Chowbok. Sethi Xzon. Good Olfactory.Article Sources and Contributors Yama. 900lb Gorilla. Shlomif. Spencer. Gzornenplatz. CWY2190. Edward. Bdj. Zhen Lin. Begoon. Georgesawyer. Dexter Nextnumber. DoubleBlue. Cyrusc.xxx. PatrickFisher. Michael Hardy. CaptainG. Ashawley. Ae-a. Krich. Gary King. TheAdventMaster. A412. Conversion script.186. Joshua Issac.kt. Enchanter. Rjwilmsi. Bdesham. ShelfSkewed. Pinoygabs. Enochlau. Dspart. Edward. Ibbn. Dmerrill. Magnus Manske. Liftarn. Stepshep. Johndburger. Crash Underride. Bstarynk. Timhood. Kbdank71. Dougz1. Lucidjuan. Bobblewik.. Prujohn. Zone46. Tvprod. WardXmodem. Rfc1394. Marcbela. Cprompt. CanisRufus. Nyttend. 62. Gaius Cornelius. Wik. Liftarn. Ligulem. Edward. Durgamata. OlEnglish. Darrenvc. Diasimon2003.K. CountingPine. Giftlite. D Monack. Denimadept. OwenX. MER-C.233. BRG. Rossami. Suzannejb. Liam Braithwaite. Pgan002. Leuko.xxx. Dekuntz. GrowsWalt. Misstrious. BorgQueen. Dwiakigle. Bizarro Randy Baer. Patrick. Some jerk on the Internet. CRGreathouse. Gyrofrog. Rjnt. JBsupreme. Gryllida. Netoholic. Bevo. Hullaballoo Wolfowitz. EVula. MWD4aBW. Andres. Kablammo. Wa3frp. Thumperward.109. Gran2.lumberjack. Tinton5. Alvis. Anonymous9498. PatriceNeff. GatesPlusPlus. Geniac. Action Jackson IV. Floatjon.

JeremyStein. Justinohare. Lwalt. Vergency. 20058. Casey QuestionMark. Yamamoto Ichiro. E9a5c. Butterscotch. Kintetsubuffalo. Flatterworld. Chrysaor. Filluz. Eliz81.4I7. Discospinster. Cafzal.Tesson.deblanc. Andrewpmk. MikeyMouse10. Everyking. Professor marginalia. Birdmessenger. Prestonmarkstone. Neverquick. Erik. CTF83!.wilton. Chong420. AlistairMcMillan. Ubruni. Lead. Dowew. Fkevin1. Jeanne boleyn. D-Day. Jack Cox. Martinp23. Phibrizoq. JPG-GR. Bender235. Elphie28. Kman665. Retired username. Malo. Maxskybarger. GregorB. Heracles31. Vercillo. Johnny Squeaky. Georgeryp. EntChickie. Dhartung. 4I7. Karaboom. Error. Hushpuckena. Purva4u. Jeff G. Mangochutney. CWY2190. SpeedKing. JDoorjam. Cyclonius. Sango123. Gilgamesh. Phuzion. Gareth Griffith-Jones. Farleyfarley. Oda Mari. Ptaul. Dream out loud. Rogerd. Grey Matter. Behun. Paynislover. Nymf. Basilicofresco. Brob. NewWaveRomantic. Chameleon. Kross. Mr Tan. Germán E. Jeffrey O. FCSundae. Anger22. Obarskyr. Amalthea. Hatch68. Ram4eva. Columbia. Fishcloud.wilton. Fergananim. Mr. Sam Korn. Dcoetzee. AntTune. Ginnna. Deadflagblues. JRSP. X!. Caerwine. CoolGasur101. Lying River. Acegikmo1. Tregoweth. Cenarium. Lightmouse. Mong Alcaraz. Fenian Swine. Fallout boy. Geoffmenegay. Twizler3. Ichabod. Martarius. Arniep. Craigy144. Jay Litman. Greentryst. Alienus. Quantumobserver. Nlalic. DO'Neil. Loren. Peter Ellis. Not Bertha.moey. Joebamber1990. Childishknack. Kizor. Kuru. Mike Selinker. Poopoopoo1212. AxelBoldt. Alansohn. AndrewHowse. Reywas92. Martinp23. Angr. Kwellyn. Majorly. C-M. Canjth. Dustimagic.org/w/index. Flowerpotman. Jcvamp. 28421u2232nfenfcenc. Chanlyn. Kaaveh Ahangar. Catgut. Icestorm815. Can't sleep. Kubigula. H. Algebraist. Canterbury Tail. NawlinWiki. Butros. Quadruplchin. Camanda. Kenguest.Anthony. Bonnie222. Dp462090. DanKorn. Gurch. FreplySpang. Kittybrewster. D6. Djln. Easy skankin'. Fennavitch. JForget. KingCiaran4life. Philip Trueman. Martin451. Argg. MER-C. Megan x. Alba. Macphisto12. Andypandy. William Avery. Haseo9999. Joenad. Cillas001. John254. 1exec1. Mat813. Madeformv. Merbabu. DanielCD. Libroman. Widr. °. DavidHøstbo. Freechild. Peterkeith99. Frankcaliendo. Pforpeace. Elcapitane. Will Beback. Onathinwhiteline. Cartman007. Neatperson42. BarkeeperLF. Dgw. Thorwald. Ohnoitsjamie. Komw21. Brownrange. Lord Pistachio. Brenont. Rfh3. KrakatoaKatie. Hoshie. DocteurCosmos. Latka. GG The Fly. Blackserenity. ElKevbo. Pb30. Nifky?. Wolfgang K. Mayumashu. Deor. KeithD. KnowledgeOfSelf. Bonoeditor. NellieBly. Malcuthrad. Pap. Mr. KungFuGrip. Laurascudder. Shweet 'n' Shour. Brumski. Liamdaly620. Moondyne. Perez. AKILADD. Tsumetai. ElTchanggo. SpudHawg948. Blakeb155. ChrisB. Csmiller. Ashmoo. Ashhurst. Radon210. Jojhutton. Postdlf. Lastfame.. MMc. Nakon. HappyCamper. Icestorm815. Armon. Ilovebono. Discusdemon. DeadEyeArrow. Kristbg. Gold heart. Chasingemy. Abject Normality. Mister macphisto. DeathStars96. Mamathomas. Milant.. ComedyLiker23. Deconstructhis. Mittgaurav. Bhrion. Laughergafter. Cosman246. Lightmouse. Barneca. ALHSbando. Avb. . Deflective. Longhair. Bobneilbruce. E-Kartoffel. Erxnmedia. Escape Orbit. Kzollman.henrick. Kearney8. Lcarscad. Luther Blissett. Hockeypimp911. Rory096. Ryancalderoni. Thingg. Ekoballistic. Gobonobo. Nualran. DarkFalls. Merman. Jimbo Wales. Jossi. Dark567. Jsroberts.php?oldid=526615035  Contributors: Allens. BrownHairedGirl. Jasonmyman. Johnwalker911.bombo. Jvalatka. Deepblue1. Vegaswikian. Logout here. Jennica. Zfan2591.ehsaan. Kimiko20. Dputig07. Ferball415. Allens. Rajah. Nn123645. Deb. Ptcamn. Netrat. NeilN. Jogers. Pissant. Plastikspork. Chico. Dahellmonster. Blainster. Brianga. Paulsanders4. OwenX. Leahtwosaints. Ronbo76. Maiquel. Moose51482. Hult041956. Mr. Phileas. Antandrus. Boscorillium. ARC Gritt. Hollyjoann. Stemonitis. R'n'B. Jrstroud88. Hyperfeedback. Madhero88. Haroldgregg. SigmaEpsilon. Suffusion of Yellow. Gabriel Vidal Álvarez. Pundit. Jjacobsmeyer. Bluewind. WJBscribe. Mmernex.xoxo. Xanchester. Californiacator. Good Olfactory. Chensiyuan.B. Fu maan chu. Melicans. Trivialist.adam. Coyotejack. Can't sleep. J. Nskillen. Lizzlizzlizz. Lefty. Graham87. Casliber. Mogism. Dberliner. David Kernow. Msh210. GoingBatty. Oxymoron83. Eugene van der Pijll. Drunkenduck16. Pimpinclown24. Ieatyourface. Paulpullormadam. Billion. Longhair. Klemen Kocjancic. CreativeSoul7981. Diamonddavej. Richman271. Lights. DVdm. Mcmillin24. Mendelini. Michaelpuk1. Cgoodma2. Lambyuk. Husond. Amakazon. DDima. Kappa. Cyde. Freemarket. Cometstyles. La Pianista. Midnite Joker. Materialscientist. Itsmymystery. Billgatesbuster. Iownwikiv2. Joseph. BobTheTomato. Stanislao Avogadro. NrDg. Thinko. Acalamari. Glane23. OhanaUnited. Apollo Crua. Frank rizzo99. Karategal. Jason Recliner. Pratul19. Woohookitty. Joelpt. Altenmann. Dru2K7. Java13690. Headbomb. Newsflash930. Ronhjones. Btball. Joaopais. Lord9Genesis. Figureground. II MusLiM HyBRiD II. Chriswiki. Gdo01. AngelOfSadness. Jonathen snake. Bsadowski1. WonderbreadUSA. Quarl. Mgcsinc. Gmoose1. PRRfan. Shoeofdeath. RedHillian. O'Dea. Johnstaf. Oren0. Jack Solomon. Bobblehead. Mapleleaf17. Katieh5584. Forthewin827. Bigweeboy. Froid. Cleaveuntolight. Sparthorse. Crazycomputers. Bubya. PGWG. Mike. Chowbok. Jon Kay. N Yo FACE. Ydam. MusicGeek101.wikipedia. ChildeRolandofGilead. Uncle Milty. My76Strat. Owen. AppleMacReporter. NellieBly. Hoipolloi906. Chaldean. MattieTK. Bigaireatscheese. Tannerjoe. HorsePunchKid. Oscarthecat. Cyrillic. JNW. Canis Lupus. Donreed. Kurykh. Alextwa. Abbatangelo. Mike Rosoft. GeneralBelly. Makemi. Gridge. Bairdy619. G. Dekisugi. Hagerman. Kino234. Benandorsqueaks. Carlos Quesada. Lucas Novokuznetsk. DVD R W. Knapptyl0. Artist7337. John. REXALL87. FrankCostanza. Jchaike. Acroterion. Dawnseeker2000. Hadal. Mato16. Pollinator. IanRitchie. Trunks ishida. Bjmullan. Ambiguouslywise. Raystorm. Pilhet. Steven Walling. ShakataGaNai. Freaky917. Tempodivalse. Jj137. Skatelab6789. OOODDD. Sunderland06. Elipongo. Nivix. DanielCD.. CambridgeBayWeather. Hashar. Leigh. Crystallina. A purple wikiuser. Nola4. Grout idiot. Juansmith. Joe Beaudoin Jr. Blehfu. Ilikepesosdomo. Johnpacklambert. Foxtroter87. Danzella. Tcncv. ADM. Enochlau. Plokt. AaronM. Michael Barera. Professor. Marconi mamba.ataman. Musical Linguist. Dantadd. CanadianLinuxUser. Koavf. Alerante. Big Bird. LonelyBeacon. Noophilic. Labalius. Doublefantasy80. JimDunning. Gdr. Arevolvingonob. Jacoplane.UK. Iownwiki. Freakofnurture. Corpx. B7T. Majorly. clown will eat me. Portillo. Dsp13. Kwamikagami. Macphisto. Pilotguy. Naturegrl33. Oli Filth. Optichan. Angusmclellan. Kuzaar. Mgz. Fish and karate. JakeSare.. Nuttycoconut.org/w/index. Antonio Lopez. Gimboid13. Nrgiza. Courcelles. Insanity Incarnate. Darac. Sagaciousuk. Aeon1006. J. Gloriamarie. Campbell99. Sunray. Bhludzin. Gholam. Qwerqtyuiopas. Jesrapo. Delparnel. Donreed. Robth. The Thing That Should Not Be. Lew19. Bull Market. Hayleykh2. CrazyChemGuy. Meadowbrook. Mato. Boxofslice. Gerrybeirne. Murry1975. Chitek. Knoxia. Dr. Endlessdan. Mahanga. Jeremy Visser. Nite-Sirk. LeaveSleaves.php?oldid=527611172  Contributors: -Majestic-. Mz. Allstarecho. Elmondo21st. TigerShark. Nolens Volens. Focus. JarlaxleArtemis. Svetovid. Duk. Joyous!. Lizzyfoursixty. Donama. Gilliam. McGeddon. Pengyanan. Jatkins. Dinertime444.locke. Leki. PyroGamer. Burkeophile. MatthewWaller. Little guru. Meiskam. Fdaaaaaaaaa. Minimac93. Andrewlp1991. Vircum. Ali'i. Teneb. Cindiann. Everyking. Eluser. GreenEggsAndRock. January. Dcljr. Ms. 739 anonymous edits Bono  Source: http://en. Netkinetic. Garbass. Johncena885. Luna Santin. Plamen0606.X. CTUBauer. Chris Love. Mr. Pyro3d. Cortbassist89.A. Isthisthingworking. Kelson. Slof. Coffee. Kerotan.K. Func. Glacier Wolf. B. Fru1tbat. Jaganjac. Mav. DaltreyEntwistleMoonTownshend. Dina. JamieS93. Peruvianllama. GWP. Blue Marble. Boul22435. Jimknut. Deor. Junglecat. Ahmetsoyer. Missed theboat88. Enakarasuma. Pictureuploader. Falcon8765. 2help. Imagine1989. Certes. Melty girl.O. Closedmouth. JamesAM. Ossici. Datkidd247. JasonDaFaro. Bennetto. Northgrove. SiobhanHansa. Cremepuff222.php?oldid=522926179  Contributors: Bcasterline. JackConnor1. Falcon8765. Cyrius.arun07. Newton2. Simuliid. Gamer007. MickMacNee. Kinu. Captain Proton. 19 anonymous edits Bill Gates' house  Source: http://en. Quentin X. KC109. Deep7nikehoops. LarryMac. Bezbaq. EverybodyPayTheLizzard. Binary TSO. Aecis. Palefire. BlastOButter42. LocalTrader. Pinethicket. Joseph Solis in Australia. Gustafson. Kafziel. Misodoctakleidist. Prodego. Future Perfect at Sunrise. Asn. Nadim Scolris. Ismaelflorit. Paddy More. Academic Challenger. Coemgenus. Ponpon. Feydey. Aegwyn. Bartleby79. clown will eat me. Palfrey. JordanPalmeriab. CTZMSC3. Svetovid. Andonic. Dog Eat Dog World. KeltieMartinFan. Crowstar. VirtualDelight. Colormefrank. Mona.wikipedia. Gtg204y. NewButters. Flowanda. Jatkins. Funnyfarmofdoom. Kisama. Jordan Elder.. NovaDog. Bonojohn. Hamilton burr. Leofric1. Kateshortforbob. God of War. Mike R. Abu badali. 79 . Kuru. ESkog. DiScOrD tHe LuNaTiC. Jjupiter100. Omgee. FaerieInGrey. Paddo46. Bluebirdsong. Reedy. JuJube. Strandist. Witchzilla. Mandarax. Dunlavin Green. Frymaster. Bafiatjr. Farmercarlos. Jaranda. Beli. Guat6. Jtdirl. IronGargoyle. Eptin. Banzai!. Off2riorob. Mormegil. Bongwarrior. Ghosts&empties. Jamesward22. Gaelen S. Buckdj. 3finger. Wk muriithi.org/w/index. MAG1. Akriasas. Donthedev. Higherwiki. Mr. Xen 1986. Narcisso. Bernfarr. EvilEGrammeler69. PseudoSudo. Legosw2. Mahgue. Admarolyat. Dexter. TheParanoidOne. FayssalF. Chuq. Lucid. Pinkadelica.wikipedia. Nilafhiosagam. Gurchzilla. Isnow. WAvegetarian. 7e7. Nihil novi. ComhairleContaeThirnanOg. Jaxl. C. Tagishsimon. NGV17.delanoy. Philip Cross. 10metreh. Blahdudude. Deus Ex. Rpyle731. Pimnana. Skomorokh. Carrin19830. Aceholiday. Trödel. PatrikR. Frotz. Dysprosia. Tetraedycal. KuduIO. Suit. Aujax. Quercus basaseachicensis. Darkedge. ISnortCrushedPolos. Hmains. Tim1357. Kukini. Gwernol. Californiacation. Pascal. Cupcakes. General Eisenhower. Bizarrobizarro. Nuclare. Mel Etitis. Jaryn. RabidWolf. Prashanthns. RexRex84. Ihateuall. Anthony Appleyard. Seaphoto. Mattbr. NotMuchToSay. AVand. Portly pundit. Imogenery. Shoessss. DJ Clayworth. Freebeef45. Stinkaroo1234567890. David Wookie. Karada. Mr Christopher. N5iln. Axeman. DJ Clayworth. Charliemorse. Foobaz. Chick Bowen. Billycorganisbald. DragonWR12LB. Frelke. Isthisthingworking. CardinalDan. Ian13.S. Alexkorbonits. Jgrizzy89. Macy. Dyanega. Ckatz. JossMoor. Kwekubo. Editer01. Damaband. Targaryen. Gail. GusF. Eoinmul. 75pickup. Delldot. DeadEyeArrow. Snowolf. Editable. FatDaks. Howlinmadmurdoc. Grayshi.muller. Mxdrag. Dfgarcia. Gggghaasssdh. Jim Douglas. Paul August. Mad Hatter. CMCENA44. Darkyness. 17 anonymous edits Bill Gates' flower fly  Source: http://en. Optimus Mike. MostExcellentTheophilus. Donfbreed.lifeguard.. LOL. Gvgeis. Esq. Peter100100. Ejavud. DR04. Florentino floro. Xaosflux. Annalise. Explicit. Tipe17311. ESkog. Iner22. Halcyonicity. Emerson7. Luk. Doktorrob. JetBlast.. David Shankbone. Wes!. Jacotto. Rama. James086. Philg88. RJaguar3. Abw1987. Magister Mathematicae. MartinRobinson. Utcursch. P. Enigmaman. Blueaster. Nicholassharland. Alex. Fourthords. Maartenvdbent. Antichrist. TheTrojanHought. GeraldChandler. Arwel Parry. Caltas. Captain panda. Cool Blue. Chris432. Gogo Dodo. John of Lancaster. Dale Arnett. Blobby222. Keilana.delanoy. Hu12. Nivix. Derry Boi. Lradrama. KingKronic420. Fruggo. DerHexer. 098iop. Randidio. Mark Arsten. Chaser. Asteriks. Hethrir. La Parka Your Car. Bogdangiusca. Nicolas Love. Andkore. Banes. Paulmoloney. Nihiltres. Ellie 1. SchfiftyThree. Lear's Fool. MrMagoo. Heaven's Wrath. ArielGold. Nomercy570. The Firewall. Rich Farmbrough. Djodjo666. IRP. Oising. Qst. Chris G. Dreadstar. Darkmage5000. Mattbash. Maser Fletcher. GetMKWearMKFly. Pauli133. KevinKwxwx. Pigsonthewing. Delsource. DeadlyAssassin. Jcroach. Tom Morris. Aeternus. Evando. Natalie West. Froese. Marek69. Jmlk17. Tomahawk101. Derek R Bullamore. 123abcpleb. LittleOldMe. Benjo643. Haham hanuka. MegX. Maltezesoldier. Neiliog93. RJaguar3. Quidam65. Black Kite. Chalyres. Adma84. Hmoul. Clay baker33. Antonrojo. Janazex. Mercury. Fireaxe888. Galf. Konstable. Immunize. Bigman28. Greg Salter. Trugster. Drmaik. Bastun. Momos. Gdownso. Motorneuron. Kbh3rd. Ajaxrools. Karabulut. Hormii. Energyfreezer. Easports43.. Gil Gamesh. Philippe. Dapsv. Dpeters11. Alexf. Nzseries1. Myxomatosis57. Jc37. JohnI. Marbehraglaim. Georgechubbycheeks. Blankfaze. Oldchook. CharlotteWebb. DopefishJustin. Cmdrjameson. Scatmanfan85.Z-man. Calsicol. Alex543211. Ertyqway. Jma2120. Macías Valadez. Boristhespider. Lotr394. Davidjcole. Luk. Murcielago. Missy2468. Jersey Devil. The Evil Spartan. Drumguy8800. Uncle Dick. Esprix. Nightscream. SYSS Mouse. Corbijnal. Alkivar. Peteranswers. Ianblair23. Ali K. Eric-Wester. Gurubrahma. Dbfirs. Luis97. Avono. Jaydec. Kukini. Mattfloat. Monkeez. LtPowers. Nicktombstone. Useight.. Damnbutter. Cyberevil. Alex Douglas. ABF.org/w/index. La goutte de pluie. Brauden. Penwhale. Omaraty009. Passive. BrckoGOS. Fromgermany. Zlsmith. Mysdaao. Husond. Doulos Christos. Mrwojo. DoktorDec. Kbolino. Scjessey. ClintMalpaso. Blisco. Theinhumanwretch. Phgao. Paul August. Argon233. PZFUN. Grafen. JohnWhitlock. NcSchu. Al. Bradleya07. Dirkbb. Delaywaves. Cubs Fan. Kirs10. CyberRaptor. Ickle Ronnie.wikipedia. Dysepsion. Eric Wester. Daermon. Domamaroo410. Maywoodmediacenter. Gustav von Humpelschmumpel. Vary. Davidpatrick. Hemlock Martinis. I love little boyzzz. Karrmann. Angr. Karenjc. Absolon. Jahled. Bearcat. Akcarver. Jasperhunt. Karam. Demiurge. IronCrow. Xso-omnipotent. Chadjj. Andrewpmk. Mingus19. BillFlis. Foobaz. Bogger. Fca780. Atomskninja. Dub8lad1. RadioFan. The Random Editor. NotAnotherAliGFan. Brianhe. Shawnc. Cmissy. GrgurMG.Article Sources and Contributors bgC3  Source: http://en. All Hallow's Wraith. Oxymoron83. Wikipelli. Iketsi. Gbeirne. OverlordQ. Garethfoot. Liamcop. Elpiseos. Radman 99 1999. Mosa123ic. Icairns. Melwalk. Highfields. Ohconfucius. Courcelles. Olborne. Legotech. Bobo192. DarkKunai. Natgoo. Alientraveller. Stan Shebs. Nua eire. Another Believer. PaulVIF. Ilse@. Andrew Gray. Mlouns. Ndrly. JohnOwens. DRTllbrg. Esprit15d. Proteus. Billthekid77. Mark-mitchell-aldershot.Melodita. Laurence Glavin. Mb1000. Quintote. Nuggetboy. DerHexer. Deliriousandlost. Nishkid64. 11mbatt. Notjake13. Leeyc0. Fabricationary. Liface. BigDunc. Dcgqueen. 25. Dreadstar. Darkblazer. Dorelliun. Cybercobra. Nowyouseeme. C. Kesac. Sean Whitton. Lectonar. Maelor. Duffman. JHMM13. BRAINedit. Mannixstreetpreacher. Jediknightelectro1997. Mytyty 475. Anakin101. Benea. Epbr123. Willisis2. Echuck215. JackofOz. Jam-Fly. Farmsex11. Shredded77. Alexbuirds. Camohatman. Asarelah. Ixfd64. Loren. Daveyg. Miquonranger03. Rockin. Gwz. Frazzydee. Gdo01. Netalarm. Pkbattlemage. Ksoileau. Kevmin. Dismas. Droll.php?oldid=528065073  Contributors: -the-muffin-man-. MariAna Mimi. Agathoclea. Chris the speller. Barticus88. Imperi. Egghead06. Bookandcoffee. Markt3. Ishmaelblues. Aitias. Masterpjz9. M.

Sam Spade. Catdude. Steven Zhang. Sammyd487. Typhoon. ZooKristaps. Yanksox. Eliavg9. Stephen C. Superbowlbound. AfricanFacts. Woohookitty. Soundslikealotofhooplah. Pristinegoal. NawlinWiki. Stephenb. UnTrooper. Unigolyn. Kent Wang. Russavia. InternetMeme. Binadot. Tbhotch. Yulia Romero. Floquenbeam. Selket. Refinnejann. Rolfmueller. Wikipelli. Elvenscout742. Meidei. Wavelength. Callanecc. Superp. The Rambling Man. Thevikas. Jim1138. Top floor jessie. Struway. Waacstats. WOSlinker. Etz Haim. Vyom25. Bongwarrior. Vanka5. Warriorboy85. Wiki alf. Rockdgu2. Jeffmcneill. Ventolin. Tom harrison. Journalbug. Sposato. The Evil Spartan.wikipedia. Shawnc. TheyMadeMeDoIt. Shinydialga. Tholme. Tyrenius. Ketiltrout. Wikieditor1988. Shoeofdeath. Rosie6756. Deflective. Woolybearbug. Pcap. Tinnituscure. Status. Prokurator11. Bhny. Rich Farmbrough. SEJohnston. TUF-KAT. Freechild. Shadowolf. Paul A. SeeFood. Togaboy. Troublemaker14. Cnbrb. Favonian. Eaefremov. Thebigbradwolf. Khudirambose. Towerofsong. Infrogmation. Ryan Norton. TanayaNeal. Bobbis. Deus Ex.Article Sources and Contributors RandomP. Iamtheari. Thatdog. Specialkboyle. WikHead. Tushardhoot1. Spliffy. Vojvodaen. Ww2censor.M. Ukexpat. Tiddly Tom. West Brom 4ever. Triwbe. Theroadislong. Rob Pommer. Thumperward. Focus. Matthew238. Schmloof. White Devil. Seanbond5. Rock Soldier. Brilliant michael. Anthony2pop. Tdg chik. R.php?oldid=459162869  Contributors: Academic Challenger. Storm Rider. SuperJumbo. Obolud. Fastilysock. Lawman4312. Teenwriter. Reywas92. Rettetast. Tresiden. Bigsean0300. THDju. Xanchester. Tony1. SqueakBox. Lightmouse. Sprhodes. Avocats. WikiZorro. Saikat. Nyttend. Stukov. WimbledonFan1. Wafulz. XP. The Rambling Man. Bueller 007. Wjw0111. Kasyapa. Tjwood. TFCforever. Someguy1221. Skylark74. XyKyWyKy. SouthernNights. Svnpenn. Ralph Saroyan.wikipedia. ZanAV. Fredrik. ConconJondor. John of Reading. Darwinek. Skir77. Bazuz. Capricorn42. Supertask. Winchelsea. XMist. Seandals. Xcentaur. The edge from u2. Weewoz. Constantzeanu. The lorax. Sammo3182. Saaga. Vanished user 194difuh2ruhqwdoinxojakdjncno234r. W3bbo. Carlson. Stevertigo. Maustrauser. Tapir Terrific. RattleandHum. Sophiaraji. AMsisscorsister. WhisperToMe. Shen. Saffy1976. MakeRocketGoNow. Zzyzx11. 90. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Altenmann. Scorpion0422. William Rehtworc. Cptukbo.org/w/index. U2met86. ThrowingStick. Verne Equinox. Sanya3. Tyler178. DabMachine. Twelvepack. FSII. Illyukhina. Rms125a@hotmail. Seabhcan. Schnurrbart. Essjay-R. Staffwaterboy. Mcorazao. Tarheelz123. Tomhighschool. IslandGyrl. SlickWik. Thingg. Unreal128. Thucydides of Thrace. Marcg106. Ping. Theunicyclegirl. Wknight94. Turki Al Eisa. Tinton5. Puppyluver14. Zepher25.org/w/index. Nick Dillinger. Gustavo Szwedowski de Korwin. Wikidude1. Sharkdude95. Vinodxx1. Visor. TammiMagee. Vanished user psdfiwnef3niurunfiuh234ruhfwdb7. Zephead999. Xlsveklx. Miami. CrazyPhunk. Sue Gardner. Stilgar135. Randomran.. Tregoweth. Tarc. 21 anonymous edits Business magnate  Source: http://en. Avocado. Timmygolds. Smyth. NatGertler. Stefanomione. Uzerakount. Shkee23. Srose. Tomkurts. GeraldDorton. Oranjblud. Rkevlihan. TiMike. Theda. Reservoirhill. Correct & improve. Twice25. Toad of Steel. Mangochiboy. Rishiabbi. Spuds B. Sjakkalle. Tgsh2005. RedWolf. Emfraser. Theoldanarchist. Tregoweth. TheDJ. Washburnmav. SaebaRyo. Pengyanan. fiend. Zapvet. The JPS. Samthebutcherandalice. Dzordzm. Vianello. Wimt. Will Beback. Yardsmyth420. The Boy With A Torn In His Side. Ugur Basak. Danceking5. Twas Now. White whirlwind. Corkymakenzie. Smalljim. Whosyourjudas. Mentisock. Ryskis. TheKnowledge1814. Trident13. ST47. Sango123.). Iss246. The wub. President Rhapsody. Sir Lewk. Shawnc. Swearingmonk. Spacejam2. Himasaram. Wtshymanski. Evrik. Repku. Vivio Testarossa. Zalgo. Seraphim. WILLIAM HOPE NUMERO UNO. User2004. Bobo192. Tyw7. Zcarolina91. Waggers.php?oldid=528046159  Contributors: 2001:558:6030:40:E4:7794:21F1:8C71. Wernher. Kwamikagami. 7&6=thirteen. Pwu2005. Tweetsabird. Rannpháirtí anaithnid (old). Wk muriithi. Michael Kevin Israeli. Slakr. Rodneypage. Rodhullandemu. JeLuF. AAA!. Spencer. Suduser85. Ward3001. Vinny Burgoo. Geni. Grutness. Skyring. SJP. Rob Hooft. Ajv39.S. 11 anonymous edits Business @ the Speed of Thought  Source: http://en. Sparkage. Scott Sanchez. Smashoar. Keegan. Trezatium. J-stan. Yankees76. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. Tree Biting Conspiracy. Kkm010. Thunderboltz. Romanm. Rhallanger. TheKMan. Ceyockey. ChristianH. Stormwyrm. Revotfel. SchuminWeb. Recurring dreams. Erc. Sofffie7. SpecialAgentUncleTito. TheoNarcisiusofPolmont. Razorflame. 2209 anonymous edits Borsheim's Fine Jewelry  Source: http://en. KevinPuj. Shinpah1. Stephensuleeman. Beland. TerraFrost. 217 anonymous edits 80 . Vikingfan14. Karrmann. Valfontis. Japan-man. TigerShark. Pichpich. Mackensen. Rayl1111. Tassedethe. Dysprosia. Gurch. Regis123. Realm of Shadows. Verrai. Triona.sarkar. StringRay. TYMCGOUGH. Longhair. Turlo Lomon. Leroyinc. Tokalon73. Reidlophile. CarlesMartin. Snowolf. ShadowHntr. Visualerror. Lightmouse. SpaceFlight89. Red Deadeye. Jll. YourBetterThanThat. Tlesher. Producthessno. Altenmann. Wikipedia brown. Sublime5891. SpikeTorontoRCP. Zaineejaz. CalicoCatLover. VirtualDelight. Wikidan829. RasputinAXP. Yabancı. ShunterAlhena. Iambiamb. The undertow. Zzuuzz. Gourra. Undertaker2134. Reverse polish. Boothy443. Reddi. Maelkyral. Richard Harvey. Wellescorp. Raptornet. HamburgerRadio. Bobblewik. Dwainberg. Tanthalas39. Ubardak. Ceyockey. Wootwootlmaoftw.php?oldid=509247590  Contributors: Aervanath. Cybercobra. Skrooball. Sheodred. Yintan. Tanuki Z. Jenblower. TheFreeloader. Willthepwn. Xyzzyva. Emperorbma. SlaineMacRoth. ThomasK. Dmanning. Hokeman. Vince654321. Timmytim6000. Yamamoto Ichiro. Epstein's Mother. Noommos. Maurreen. Klp363. Uuuuuno. Thehelpfulone. KFP. Ypacaraí. Stratguy. Trafalgar007. Jni. Sebrat.org/w/index. Urbanrenewal. SPEELNSRULL. Clarityfiend. Rick Browser. Satellitehacker. Nik42.com. SD6-Agent. Renesis. Melsaran. Taschetti. Shoy. Scepia. Will Beback. Trialsanderrors. Uncle Milty. DeadEyeArrow. Zoroastrama100. Tariqabjotu. Socrates2008. Rune X2. MZaplotnik. Robofish. Sateros. Snappy. Swedenman. Ted87.wikipedia. S. TharkunColl. Angusmclellan. Decltype. MementoVivere. TonyTheTiger. Tangotango. Kowloonese. Bhadani. Tedster212. Rodericksilly. Twsx. Hotfuzz459. Rpf. S. Sopranosmob781. Sixers772. Glenfarclas. Vazzo5. Yms. Kintetsubuffalo. Mateus Vasco. Scott5114. Strike71. Y2kcrazyjoker4. Sdornan. Otto4711. Tim!. The Zig. Stoph. Sceptre. Jeffrey S. Tri400. Yworo. Soap. Readymade01. Poulsen. Rror. RegentsPark. WadeSimMiser. Tktktk. Rjwilmsi. Daniel Gebrim. Salasks. Vitriden. Chris the speller. Bogdangiusca. ReyBrujo. Tcalves. Shivaharikumar. Nay Min Thu. SlayerXT. Belovedfreak. MaxWolfmaverick. Vizoso. ChrisG. Crocodile Punter. Tarquin. Glaurung. Suede67. Tmtuker. Hardscarf. Swid. Djembayz. Gary King. Shimmera. YankeeDoodle14. Schneelocke. Trivialist. Bruno Ishiai. Xnuala. DavidLevinson. Rjwilmsi. Oarih. Wasted Time R. TastyCakes. Umeshghosh. Norm mit. RexNL.

0  Contributors: World Economic Forum . Licenses and Contributors 81 Image Sources.php?title=File:Millennium_Development_Goals_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_Davos_2008.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eristalis_gatesi.svg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.wikipedia file:Eristalis gatesi.php?title=File:Msxbasic.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bill_og_Melinda_Gates_2009-06-03_(bilde_01).org/w/index.org/w/index.svg  Source: http://en. The Evil IP address.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bayo.World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008.wikipedia.wikipedia.svg  Source: http://en.org/w/index. Duesentrieb.php?title=File:Bono_U2_360_Tour_2011.php?title=File:Berkshire_Cotton.org/w/index.wikipedia.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bill_gates'_house2.0  Contributors: David Shankbone.php?title=File:Billgates.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.wikipedia.0 Unported  Contributors: Helge Øverås File:Bono as The Fly Cleveland 1992.wikipedia File:Bono WEF 2008.wikipedia. Swtpc6800.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bono_at_the_2009_Tribeca_Film_Festival.php?title=File:Bonavoxshop.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was DR04 at en.org/w/index.wikipedia.org/w/index.wikipedia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Lunavorax Image:Poker Room.php?title=File:Loudspeaker. New Mexico police department File:Bill og Melinda Gates 2009-06-03 (bilde 01).wikipedia.php?title=File:OmahaKiewitPlaza.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Joi Ito from Inbamura.wikipedia File:Berkshire Cotton.php?title=File:Altair_Basic_Sign.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Marcbela (Marc N.wikipedia.2007.0  Contributors: Steve Kalinsky File:2005-11-21 U2 @ MSG by ZG.0  Contributors: Kjetil Ree Image:Millennium Development Goals .svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Seattle Computer Products.php?title=File:Bill_Gates_in_WEF_.jpg  Source: http://en.0  Contributors: http://www.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bogdan.jpg  Source: http://en. Nethac DIU.php?title=File:Tycoonclipper. Ghouston.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bono_Liberty_Medal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index. Closeapple.php?title=File:Bono_with_Barack_Obama.jpg  Source: http://en. Switzerland File:Steve Jobs and Bill Gates (522695099).org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.5  Contributors: Original uploader was Nat91 at en.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.org/w/index.org/w/index.JPG  Source: http://en.0  Contributors: World Economic Forum from Cologny.org/w/index.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mason Machine Works File:Hathaway Mills.php?title=File:Steve_Jobs_and_Bill_Gates_(522695099).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Swtpc6800 en:User:Swtpc6800 Michael Holley file:Altair BASIC Paper Tape. Shanmugamp7.org/w/index.php?title=File:AtariBasicExample.0  Contributors: Peter Neill File:Loudspeaker.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sarang File:BillGates Signature.wikipedia. Omegatron.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia. Original uploader was JonClee86 at en.org/w/index. Myself488.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia. Mirithing.svg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.org/w/index.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Swtpc6800 Swtpc6800 Michael Holley File:Gsamhall.php?title=File:Bono_as_The_Fly_Cleveland_1992.5  Contributors: Original uploader was Wikipedia brown at en.wikipedia. Deerstop.Image Sources.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2. 1 anonymous edits File:Altair Computer Ad May 1975. 23 anonymous edits File:Tycoonclipper.JPG  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: MITS staff Image:Altair Computer Front Panel. Gnosygnu. Gmaxwell.php?title=File:Hathaway_Mills.php?title=File:86-DOS_logo.php?title=File:Pn-pravez-class-5.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Switzerland File:Bono with Barack Obama.0  Contributors: Adrienne Wenner File:Bono U2 360 Tour 2011.jpg  Source: http://en.World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008.png  Source: http://en.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: File:TriBasicExample.wikipedia Image:MITS Rocket Light Flasher.php?title=File:Increase2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.org/w/index. Wouterhagens.2007.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.com/photos/jeffwilcox/ File:Bono_at_the_2009_Tribeca_Film_Festival.php?title=File:Altair_BASIC_Paper_Tape.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Swtpc6800 en:User:Swtpc6800 Michael Holley Image:Popular Electronics Cover Jan 1975.0  Contributors: World Economic Forum File:Increase2. Mindmatrix File:Bill gates' house2.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bill_Gates_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_Davos_2008.wikipedia. Skier Dude.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en. Rockfang File:Pn-pravez-class-5. Спиридонов File:Msxbasic.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Good Olfactory.php?title=File:Bill_Gates_mugshot.org/w/index.wikipedia File:Berkshire Hathaway.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Swtpc6800 en:User:Swtpc6800 Michael Holley File:Bill Gates .JPG  Source: http://en. Müller.flickr. Rocket000.wikipedia.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.jpg  Source: http://en.png  License: GNU General Public License  Contributors: Original uploader was Dojarca at en.php?title=File:LulaAndBonoVox.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Angusmclellan.org/w/index. Belanger) File:OmahaKiewitPlaza.wikipedia. Husky.org/w/index.wikipedia.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.php?title=File:Bush_and_Bono. Japan File:86-DOS logo.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia. Sfan00 IMG.org/w/index.php?title=File:Popular_Electronics_Cover_Jan_1975.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Albuquerque.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:BillGates2012.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: World Economic Forum Image:Billgates.php?title=File:U2_21081983_01_800b. С.php?title=File:BillGates_Signature.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/w/index.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Joho345 File:U2 21081983 01 800b.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia File:LulaAndBonoVox. Iamunknown.wikipedia.php?title=File:Gsamhall.org/w/index.org/w/index. Original uploader was 10nitro at en.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Фотокорреспондент В.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.jpg  Source: http://en.0  Contributors: World Economic Forum from Cologny.php?title=File:Altair_8800_Computer.php?title=File:Berkshire_Hathaway.wikipedia.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Swtpc6800 en:User:Swtpc6800 Michael Holley file:Altair Basic Sign.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.0  Contributors: Djembayz File:Bill Gates in WEF . Licenses and Contributors File:BillGates2012.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Mendaliv at en.php?title=File:Altair_Computer_Ad_May_1975.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.JPG  Source: http://en.php?title=File:MITS_Rocket_Light_Flasher.wikipedia.php?title=File:TriBasicExample.org/w/index.org/w/index.wikipedia.php?title=File:Poker_Room. Frank C.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: The White House File:Bono Liberty Medal.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.wikipedia.org/w/index.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Therealview at en.org/w/index.org/w/index.0  Contributors: JonClee86.php?title=File:Altair_Computer_Front_Panel.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:Tbuckley89 Image:Altair 8800 Computer.org/w/index.png  Source: http://en.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:2005-11-21_U2_@_MSG_by_ZG.wikipedia File:Bill Gates mugshot.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpeg  License: Agência Brasil  Contributors: Ricardo Stuckert/PR Agência Brasil File:Bush and Bono. photo editing by User:Megapixie File:Bonavoxshop.php?title=File:Bono_WEF_2008.wikipedia (Original text : Ron Douglas) File:AtariBasicExample.org/w/index.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en.jpg  Source: http://en.

License 82 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.0/ .org/licenses/by-sa/3.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd