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American Civil War - Unabridged Guide

American Civil War - Unabridged Guide

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Complete, Unabridged Guide to American Civil War. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : After a Republican victory, but before the new administration took office on March 4, 1861, seven cotton states declared their secession and joined to form the Confederate States of America. ...Buchanan said that the Dred Scott decision was proof that the South had no reason for secession, and that the Union was intended to be perpetual, but that the power by force of arms to compel a State to remain in the Union was not among the enumerated powers granted to Congress. ...The rest make no mention of the slavery issue, and are often brief announcements of the dissolution of ties by the legislatures, however at least four states - South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, and Texas - also passed lengthy and detailed explanations of their causes for secession, all of which laid the blame squarely on the influence over the northern states of the movement to abolish slavery, something regarded as a Constitutional right by the slaveholding states. ...President Buchanan protested seizure of Federal property, but made no military response apart from a failed attempt to resupply Fort Sumter using the ship Star of the West, which was fired upon by South Carolina forces and turned back before it reached the fort. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about American Civil War in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about American Civil War. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: American Civil War, Battle of Fort Donelson, Battle of Five Forks, Battle of Cold Harbor, Battle of Chickamauga, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Cedar Creek, Battle of Blair Mountain, Battle of Atlanta, Battle of Antietam, Baltimore riot of 1861, Bald Hills War, Bahamas in the American Civil War, Australia and the American Civil War, Attrition warfare, Atlanta Campaign, Atlanta, Army of the Potomac, Army of Virginia, Army of Northern Virginia, Arkansas in the American Civil War, Arkansas, Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Architecture of the United States, Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Appomattox Campaign, Appomattox, Virginia, Anti-Americanism, Antebellum South Carolina, Andrew Johnson, Andrew Jackson, Andrew Hull Foote, Andersonville National Historic Site, Andersonville (film), Anaconda Plan, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (film), Americans, American literature, American Indian Wars, American English, American Civil War spies, American Civil War reenactment, American Civil War bibliography, American Civil War Corps Badges, Ambrose Burnside, Allan Pinkerton, Allan Nevins, Alexander H. Stephens, Albert Sidney Johnston, Alabama in the American Civil War, Alabama Claims, Alabama, Agriculture in the United States, African Slave Trade Patrol, African-American history, Abraham Lincoln, Abolitionism, A. P. Hill
Complete, Unabridged Guide to American Civil War. Get the information you need--fast! This comprehensive guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. It's all you need. Here's part of the content - you would like to know it all? Delve into this book today!..... : After a Republican victory, but before the new administration took office on March 4, 1861, seven cotton states declared their secession and joined to form the Confederate States of America. ...Buchanan said that the Dred Scott decision was proof that the South had no reason for secession, and that the Union was intended to be perpetual, but that the power by force of arms to compel a State to remain in the Union was not among the enumerated powers granted to Congress. ...The rest make no mention of the slavery issue, and are often brief announcements of the dissolution of ties by the legislatures, however at least four states - South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, and Texas - also passed lengthy and detailed explanations of their causes for secession, all of which laid the blame squarely on the influence over the northern states of the movement to abolish slavery, something regarded as a Constitutional right by the slaveholding states. ...President Buchanan protested seizure of Federal property, but made no military response apart from a failed attempt to resupply Fort Sumter using the ship Star of the West, which was fired upon by South Carolina forces and turned back before it reached the fort. There is absolutely nothing that isn't thoroughly covered in the book. It is straightforward, and does an excellent job of explaining all about American Civil War in key topics and material. There is no reason to invest in any other materials to learn about American Civil War. You'll understand it all.Inside the Guide: American Civil War, Battle of Fort Donelson, Battle of Five Forks, Battle of Cold Harbor, Battle of Chickamauga, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Cedar Creek, Battle of Blair Mountain, Battle of Atlanta, Battle of Antietam, Baltimore riot of 1861, Bald Hills War, Bahamas in the American Civil War, Australia and the American Civil War, Attrition warfare, Atlanta Campaign, Atlanta, Army of the Potomac, Army of Virginia, Army of Northern Virginia, Arkansas in the American Civil War, Arkansas, Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Architecture of the United States, Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Appomattox Campaign, Appomattox, Virginia, Anti-Americanism, Antebellum South Carolina, Andrew Johnson, Andrew Jackson, Andrew Hull Foote, Andersonville National Historic Site, Andersonville (film), Anaconda Plan, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (film), Americans, American literature, American Indian Wars, American English, American Civil War spies, American Civil War reenactment, American Civil War bibliography, American Civil War Corps Badges, Ambrose Burnside, Allan Pinkerton, Allan Nevins, Alexander H. Stephens, Albert Sidney Johnston, Alabama in the American Civil War, Alabama Claims, Alabama, Agriculture in the United States, African Slave Trade Patrol, African-American history, Abraham Lincoln, Abolitionism, A. P. Hill

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  • American Civil War
  • A. P. Hill
  • Abolitionism
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • African-American history
  • Agriculture in the United States
  • Alabama
  • Alabama Claims
  • Alabama in the American Civil War
  • Albert Sidney Johnston
  • Alexander H. Stephens
  • Alexander Stephens
  • Allan Nevins
  • Allan Pinkerton
  • Ambrose Burnside
  • American Civil War Corps Badges
  • American Civil War reenactment
  • American Civil War spies
  • American English
  • American Indian Wars
  • American literature
  • Americans
  • An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (film)
  • "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge"
  • Anaconda Plan
  • Andersonville (film)
  • Andersonville National Historic Site
  • Andrew Hull Foote
  • Article Sources and Contributors
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American Civil War 1
A. P. Hill 36
Abolitionism 42
Abraham Lincoln 72
African-American history 109
Agriculture in the United States 134
Alabama 141
Alabama Claims 177
Alabama in the American Civil War 181
Albert Sidney Johnston 186
Alexander H. Stephens 197
Allan Nevins 205
Allan Pinkerton 209
Ambrose Burnside 215
American Civil War Corps Badges 224
American Civil War reenactment 237
American Civil War spies 244
American English 247
American Indian Wars 258
American literature 276
Americans 294
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (film) 312
Anaconda Plan 313
Andersonville (film) 321
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American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War (sometimes the War between the States, or simply the Civil War) was a civil war fought
from 1861 to 1865 between the United States (the "Union" or the "North") and several Southern slave states that had
declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "Confederacy" or the "South"). The war
had its origin in the fractious issue of slavery, and, after four years of bloody combat (mostly in the South), the
Confederacy was defeated, slavery was abolished, and the difficult Reconstruction process of restoring unity and
guaranteeing rights to the freed slaves began.
In the presidential election of 1860, Republicans led by Abraham Lincoln opposed expanding slavery into the
territories. Lincoln won but before his inauguration on March 4, 1861, seven cotton-based slave states formed the
Confederacy. Outgoing Democrat James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected the legality of secession.
Lincoln’s inaugural address insisted his administration would not initiate civil war, leading eight remaining slave
states to reject immediate calls for secession. A Peace Conference failed to find a compromise. Both sides prepared
for war. The Confederates assumed that Europe was so dependent on "King Cotton" for its industry that they would
intervene; none did and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, a key fort held by Union
troops in South Carolina. Lincoln called for the creation of an army to retake it; meanwhile, four border slave states
joined the Confederacy, bringing their total to eleven. The Union soon controlled the border states and established a
naval blockade that crippled the southern economy. The Eastern Theater was inconclusive in 1861–62. The Fall
1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland ended at the Battle of Antietam, dissuading British intervention.
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal.
To the west, by summer
1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, and the Union at
Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee’s Confederate incursion
north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg. Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant command of all Union armies in
1864. In the Western Theater William T. Sherman drove east to capture Atlanta and marched to the sea, destroying
Confederate infrastructure along the way. The Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the
Confederacy from all directions, and could afford to fight battles of attrition through the Overland Campaign towards
Richmond. The defending Confederate army failed leading to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House
on April 9, 1865.
The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and
mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks,
transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed World War I. It remains the deadliest war in American history,
resulting in the deaths of an estimated 750,000 soldiers
and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.
Historian John Huddleston estimates the death toll at ten percent of all Northern males 20–45 years old, and 30
percent of all Southern white males aged 18–40.
Causes of secession
The causes of the Civil War were complex, and have been controversial since the war began. The issue has been
further complicated by historical revisionists, who have tried to improve the image of the South by lessening the role
of slavery.
Slavery was the central source of escalating political tension in the 1850s. The Republican Party was
determined to prevent any spread of slavery, and many Southern leaders had threatened secession if the Republican
candidate, Lincoln, won the 1860 election. Following Lincoln's victory, many Southern whites felt that disunion had
become their only option.
While not all Southerners saw themselves as fighting to preserve slavery, most of the officers and over a third of the
rank and file in Lee's army had close family ties to slavery. To Northerners, in contrast, the motivation was primarily
American Civil War
to preserve the Union, not to abolish slavery.
Abraham Lincoln consistently made preserving the Union the central
goal of the war, though he increasingly saw slavery as a crucial issue and made ending it an additional goal.
Lincoln's decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation angered both Peace Democrats ("Copperheads") and War
Democrats, but energized most Republicans.
By warning that free blacks would flood the North, Democrats made
gains in the 1862 elections, but they did not gain control of Congress. The Republicans' counterargument that slavery
was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the 1863 elections in
Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment.
The slavery issue was primarily about whether the system of slavery was an anachronistic evil that was incompatible
with Republicanism in the United States, or a state system protected by the Constitution. The strategy of the
anti-slavery forces was to stop the expansion and thus put slavery on a path to gradual extinction. To the white South
this strategy trampled their Constitutional rights.
Slavery was gradually phased out of existence in the North and
was fading in the border states and urban areas, but expanded in highly profitable cotton states of the Deep South.
A New Orleans woman and the child she held in slavery, 1850
Man whipped; the guilty overseer was fired.
Despite compromises in 1820 and 1850, the slavery issues exploded in the 1850s. Causes include controversy over
admitting Missouri as a slave state in 1820, the acquisition of Texas as a slave state in 1845 and the status of slavery
in western territories won as a result of the Mexican–American War and the resulting Compromise of 1850.
Irreconcilable disagreements over slavery ended the Whig and Know Nothing parties, and split the Democratic Party
between North and South, while the new Republican Party angered slavery interests by demanding an end to its
expansion. Most observers believed that without expansion slavery would eventually die out; Lincoln argued this in
1845 and 1858.
Following the U.S. victory over Mexico, Northerners attempted to exclude slavery from
conquered territories in the Wilmot Proviso; it never passed. Northern (and British) readers recoiled in anger at the
horrors of slavery as described in the novel and play Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) by abolitionist Harriet Beecher
Meanwhile the South of the 1850s saw an increasing number of slaves leave the border states through sale,
manumission and escape. During this same period, slave-holding border states had more free African-Americans and
European immigrants than the lower South, which increased Southern fears that slavery was threatened with rapid
extinction in this area.
With tobacco and cotton wearing out the soil, the South believed it needed to expand
The Deep South had advocates arguing to reopen the international slave trade to populate territory that
was to be newly opened to slavery.
Southern demands for a slave code to ensure slavery in the territories
repeatedly split the Democratic Party between North and South by widening margins.
To settle the dispute over slavery expansion, Abolitionists and proslavery elements sent their partisans into Kansas,
both using ballots and bullets. In the 1850s, a miniature civil war in Bleeding Kansas led pro-South Presidents
Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan to attempt a forced admission of Kansas as a slave state. The 1857
Congressional rejection of the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution was the first multi-party solid-North vote, and
American Civil War
that solid vote was anti-slavery to support the democratic majority voting in the Kansas Territory.
Violence on
behalf of Southern honor reached the floor of the Senate when a Southern Congressmen nearly beat to death
Republican Charles Sumner when he ridiculed prominent slaveholders as pimps for slavery.
Slaves posed planting sweet potatoes by a waiting cart Slaves returning at sundown after the day picking cotton
The earlier political party structure failed to make accommodation among sectional differences. Disagreements over
slavery caused the Whig and "Know-Nothing" parties to collapse. In 1860, the last national political party, the
Democratic Party, split along sectional lines. Anti-slavery Northerners mobilized in 1860 behind moderate Abraham
Lincoln because he was most likely to carry the doubtful western states. In 1857, the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott
decision ended the Congressional compromise for Popular Sovereignty in Kansas. Slavery in the territories was a
property right of any settler, regardless of the majority there. Chief Justice Taney’s decision said that slaves were “so
far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect”. The decision overturned the Missouri
Compromise which banned slavery in territory north of the 36°30' parallel.
Republicans denounced the Dred Scott decision and promised to overturn it; Abraham Lincoln warned that the next
“Dred Scott” decision could threaten the Northern states with slavery. The Republican party platform called slavery
“a national evil”, and Lincoln believed it would die a natural death if it were contained.
The Democrat Stephen A.
Douglas developed the Freeport Doctrine to appeal to North and South. Congress could not decide either for or
against slavery before a territory was settled. The anti-slavery majority in Kansas could stop slavery with its own
local laws if their police laws did not protect slavery introduction.
Most 1850 political battles followed the
arguments of Lincoln and Douglas, focusing on the issue of slavery expansion in the territories.
But political debate was cut short throughout the South with Northern abolitionist John Brown's 1859 raid at Harpers
Ferry Armory in an attempt to incite slave insurrections. The Southern political defense of slavery transformed into
widespread expansion of local militias for armed defense of their "peculiar" domestic institution.
assessment of the political issue for the 1860 elections was that, "This question of Slavery was more important than
any other; indeed, so much more important has it become that no other national question can even get a hearing just
at present."
The Republicans gained majorities in both House and Senate for the first time since Democrats in the
1856 elections, they were to be seated in numbers which Lincoln might use to govern, a national parliamentary
majority even before pro-slavery House and Senate seats vacated.
Meanwhile, Southern Vice President,
Alexander Stephens, in the Cornerstone Speech, declared the new confederate "Constitution has put at rest forever
all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institutions—African slavery as it exists among us—the proper
status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present
Considering the relative weight given to causes of the Civil War by contemporary actors, historians such as Chandra
Manning argue that both Union and Confederate fighting soldiers believed slavery to be the cause of the Civil War.
Union men mainly believed the war was to bring emancipation to the slaves. Confederates fought to protect southern
society, and slavery as an integral part of it.
Addressing the causes, Eric Foner would relate a historical context
with multidimensional political, social and economic variables. The several causes united in the moment by a
consolidating nationalism. A social movement that was individualist, egalitarian and perfectionist grew to a political
democratic majority attacking slavery, and slavery’s defense in the Southern pre-industrial traditional society brought
the two sides to war.
American Civil War
Status of the states, 1861.   States that seceded before April 15,
1861   States that seceded after April 15, 1861   Union states that
permitted slavery   Union states that banned slavery   Territories
Sectionalism refers to the different economies, social
structure, customs and political values of the North and
It increased steadily between 1800 and
1860 as the North, which phased slavery out of
existence, industrialized, urbanized and built
prosperous farms, while the deep South concentrated
on plantation agriculture based on slave labor, together
with subsistence farming for the poor whites. The
South expanded into rich new lands in the Southwest
(from Alabama to Texas).
However, slavery declined in the border states and
could barely survive in cities and industrial areas (it
was fading out in cities such as Baltimore, Louisville
and St. Louis), so a South based on slavery was rural and non-industrial. On the other hand, as the demand for cotton
grew, the price of slaves soared. Historians have debated whether economic differences between the industrial
Northeast and the agricultural South helped cause the war. Most historians now disagree with the economic
determinism of historian Charles Beard in the 1920s and emphasize that Northern and Southern economies were
largely complementary.
Fears of slave revolts and abolitionist propaganda made the South militantly hostile to abolitionism.
Southerners complained that it was the North that was changing, and was prone to new "isms", while the South
remained true to historic republican values of the Founding Fathers (many of whom owned slaves, including
Washington, Jefferson and Madison). Lincoln said that Republicans were following the tradition of the framers of
the Constitution (including the Northwest Ordinance and the Missouri Compromise) by preventing expansion of
The issue of accepting slavery (in the guise of rejecting slave-owning bishops and missionaries) split the largest
religious denominations (the Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches) into separate Northern and Southern
Industrialization meant that seven European immigrants out of eight settled in the North. The
movement of twice as many whites leaving the South for the North as vice versa contributed to the South's
defensive-aggressive political behavior.
States' rights
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans. May 19, 1858.
Everyone agreed that states had certain
rights—but did those rights carry over when
a citizen left that state? The Southern
position was that citizens of every state had
the right to take their property anywhere in
the U.S. and not have it taken
away—specifically they could bring their
slaves anywhere and they would remain
slaves. Northerners rejected this "right"
because it would violate the right of a free
state to outlaw slavery within its borders. Republicans committed to ending the expansion of slavery were among
those opposed to any such right to bring slaves and slavery into the free states and territories. The Dred Scott
Supreme Court decision of 1857 bolstered the Southern case within territories, and angered the North.
American Civil War
Secondly the South argued that each state had the right to secede—leave the Union—at any time, that the
Constitution was a "compact" or agreement among the states. Northerners (including President Buchanan) rejected
that notion as opposed to the will of the Founding Fathers who said they were setting up a "perpetual union".
Historian James McPherson writes concerning states' rights and other non-slavery explanations:
While one or more of these interpretations remain popular among the Sons of Confederate Veterans and other
Southern heritage groups, few professional historians now subscribe to them. Of all these interpretations, the
state's-rights argument is perhaps the weakest. It fails to ask the question, state's rights for what purpose?
State's rights, or sovereignty, was always more a means than an end, an instrument to achieve a certain goal
more than a principle.
New Orleans the largest cotton exporting port for New England and Great Britain
textile mills, shipping Mississippi River Valley goods from North, South and
Border states.
Historically, southern slave-holding states,
because of their low cost manual labor, had
little perceived need for mechanization, and
supported having the right to sell cotton and
purchase manufactured goods from any
nation. Northern states, which had heavily
invested in their still-nascent manufacturing,
could not compete with the full-fledged
industries of Europe in offering high prices
for cotton imported from the south and low
prices for manufactured exports in return.
For this reason, northern manufacturing
interests supported tariffs and protectionism
while southern planters demanded free
The Democrats in Congress, controlled by
Southerners, wrote the tariff laws in the
1830s, 1840s, and 1850s, and kept reducing rates so that the 1857 rates were the lowest since 1816. The South had
no complaints but the low rates angered Northern industrialists and factory workers, especially in Pennsylvania, who
demanded protection for their growing iron industry. The Whigs and Republicans complained because they favored
high tariffs to stimulate industrial growth, and Republicans called for an increase in tariffs in the 1860 election. The
increases were finally enacted in 1861 after Southerners resigned their seats in Congress.
Historians in the 1920s emphasized the tariff issue but since the 1950s they have minimized it, noting that few
Southerners in 1860–61 said it was of central importance to them. Some secessionist documents do mention the
tariff issue, though not nearly as often as the preservation of slavery.
Slave power and free soil
Antislavery forces in the North identified the "Slave Power" as a direct threat to republican values. They argued that
rich slave owners were using political power to take control of the Presidency, Congress and the Supreme Court,
thus threatening the rights of the citizens of the North.
"Free soil" was a Northern demand that the new lands opening up in the west be available to independent yeoman
farmers and not be bought out by rich slave owners who would buy up the best land and work it with slaves, forcing
the white farmers onto marginal lands. This was the basis of the Free Soil Party of 1848, and a main theme of the
Republican Party.
Free Soilers and Republicans demanded a homestead law that would give government land to
settlers; it was defeated by Southerners who feared it would attract to the west European immigrants and poor
American Civil War
Southern whites.
Territorial crisis
Between 1803 and 1854, the United States achieved a vast expansion of territory through purchase, negotiation and
Of the states carved out of these territories by 1845, all had entered the union as slave states: Louisiana,
Missouri, Arkansas, Florida and Texas, as well as the southern portions of Alabama and Mississippi.
And with
the conquest of northern Mexico, including California, in 1848, slaveholding interests looked forward to the
institution flourishing in these lands as well. Southerners also anticipated garnering slaves and slave states in Cuba
and Central America.
Northern free soil interests vigorously sought to curtail any further expansion of slave
soil. It was these territorial disputes that the proslavery and antislavery forces collided over.
The existence of slavery in the southern states was far less politically polarizing than the explosive question of the
territorial expansion of the institution westward.
Moreover, Americans were informed by two well-established
readings of the Constitution regarding human bondage: first, that the slave states had complete autonomy over the
institution within their boundaries, and second, that the domestic slave trade – trade among the states – was immune
to federal interference.
The only feasible strategy available to attack slavery was to restrict its expansion into
the new territories.
Slaveholding interests fully grasped the danger that this strategy posed to them.
the South and the North drew the same conclusion: “The power to decide the question of slavery for the territories
was the power to determine the future of slavery itself.”
Sen. Stephen Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Sen. John J. Crittenden, author of the Crittenden Compromise bill of 1860
By 1860, four doctrines had emerged to answer the question of federal control in the territories, and they all claimed
to be sanctioned by the Constitution, implicitly or explicitly.
Two of the “conservative” doctrines emphasized the
written text and historical precedents of the founding document (specifically, the Northwest Ordinance and the
Missouri Compromise), while the other two doctrines developed arguments that transcended the Constitution.
The first of these “conservative” theories, represented by the Constitutional Union Party, argued that the historical
designation of free and slave apportionments in territories should become a Constitutional mandate. The Crittenden
Compromise of 1860 was an expression of this view.
The second doctrine of Congressional preeminence, championed by Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party,
insisted that the Constitution did not bind legislators to a policy of balance – that slavery could be excluded
altogether in a territory at the discretion of Congress
– with one caveat: the due process clause of the Fifth
Amendment must apply. In other words, Congress could restrict human bondage, but never establish it.
Wilmot Proviso announced this position in 1846.
Of the two doctrines that rejected federal authority, one was articulated by northern Democrat of Illinois Senator
Stephen A. Douglas, and the other by southern Democrats Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and Vice-President
John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky.
Douglas proclaimed the doctrine of territorial or “popular” sovereignty, which declared that the settlers in a territory
had the same rights as states in the Union to establish or disestablish slavery – a purely local matter.
American Civil War
having created the territory, was barred, according to Douglas, from exercising any authority in domestic matters. To
do so would violate historic traditions of self-government, implicit in the US Constitution.
The Kansas-Nebraska
Act of 1854 legislated this doctrine.
The fourth in this quartet is the theory of state sovereignty (“states’ rights”),
also known as the “Calhoun
after the South Carolinian political theorist and statesman John C. Calhoun.
Rejecting the arguments
for federal authority or self-government, state sovereignty would empower states to promote the expansion of
slavery as part of the Federal Union under the US Constitution – and not merely as an argument for secession.
The basic premise was that all authority regarding matters of slavery in the territories resided in each state. The role
of the federal government was merely to enable the implementation of state laws when residents of the states entered
the territories.
The Calhoun doctrine asserted that the federal government in the territories was only the agent of
the several sovereign states, and hence incapable of forbidding the bringing into any territory of anything that was
legal property in any state. State sovereignty, in other words, gave the laws of the slaveholding states
extra-jurisdictional effect.
“States’ rights” was an ideology formulated and applied as a means of advancing slave state interests through federal
As historian Thomas L Krannawitter points out, “[T]he Southern demand for federal slave protection
represented a demand for an unprecedented expansion of federal power.”
By 1860, these four doctrines comprised the major ideologies presented to the American public on the matters of
slavery, the territories and the US Constitution.
National elections
Beginning in the American Revolution and accelerating after the War of 1812, the people of the United States grew
in their sense of country as an important example to the world of a national republic of political liberty and personal
rights. Previous regional independence movements such as the Greek revolt in the Ottoman Empire, division and
redivision in the Latin American political map, and the British-French Crimean triumph leading to an interest in
redrawing Europe along cultural differences, all conspired to make for a time of upheaval and uncertainty about the
basis of the nation-state. In the world of 19th century self-made Americans, growing in prosperity, population and
expanding west, "freedom" could mean personal liberty or property rights. The unresolved difference would cause
failure—first in their political institutions, then in their civil life together.
Nationalism and honor
Abraham Lincoln, 16th U.S.
President (1861–1865)
Nationalism was a powerful force in the early 19th century, with famous spokesmen
like Andrew Jackson and Daniel Webster. While practically all Northerners supported
the Union, Southerners were split between those loyal to the entire United States
(called "unionists") and those loyal primarily to the southern region and then the
C. Vann Woodward said of the latter group, "A great slave
society...had grown up and miraculously flourished in the heart of a thoroughly
bourgeois and partly puritanical republic. It had renounced its bourgeois origins and
elaborated and painfully rationalized its institutional, legal, metaphysical, and
religious defenses....When the crisis came it chose to fight. It proved to be the death
struggle of a society, which went down in ruins."
Perceived insults to Southern
collective honor included the enormous popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
and the actions of abolitionist John Brown in trying to incite a slave rebellion in 1859.
While the South moved toward a Southern nationalism, leaders in the North were also becoming more nationally
minded, and rejected any notion of splitting the Union. The Republican national electoral platform of 1860 warned
that Republicans regarded disunion as treason and would not tolerate it: "We denounce those threats of disunion...as
denying the vital principles of a free government, and as an avowal of contemplated treason, which it is the
American Civil War
imperative duty of an indignant people sternly to rebuke and forever silence."
The South ignored the warnings:
Southerners did not realize how ardently the North would fight to hold the Union together.
Lincoln's election
The election of Lincoln in November 1860 was the final trigger for secession.
Efforts at compromise, including
the "Corwin Amendment" and the "Crittenden Compromise", failed. Southern leaders feared that Lincoln would stop
the expansion of slavery and put it on a course toward extinction. The slave states, which had already become a
minority in the House of Representatives, were now facing a future as a perpetual minority in the Senate and
Electoral College against an increasingly powerful North. Before Lincoln took office in March 1861, seven slave
states had declared their secession and joined to form the Confederacy.
Secession and war begins
Resolves and developments
Secession of South Carolina
South Carolina did more to advance nullification and secession than any other Southern state. South Carolina
adopted the "Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from
the Federal Union" on December 24, 1860. It argued for states' rights for slave owners in the South, but contained a
complaint about states' rights in the North in the form of opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act, claiming that Northern
states were not fulfilling their federal obligations under the Constitution. All the alleged violations of the rights of
Southern states were related to slavery.
Secession winter
Before Lincoln took office, seven states had declared their secession from the Union. They established a Southern
government, the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861.
They took control of federal forts and other
properties within their boundaries with little resistance from outgoing President James Buchanan, whose term ended
on March 4, 1861. Buchanan said that the Dred Scott decision was proof that the South had no reason for secession,
and that the Union "was intended to be perpetual", but that "the power by force of arms to compel a State to remain
in the Union" was not among the "enumerated powers granted to Congress".
One quarter of the U.S. Army—the
entire garrison in Texas—was surrendered in February 1861 to state forces by its commanding general, David E.
Twiggs, who then joined the Confederacy.
As Southerners resigned their seats in the Senate and the House, Republicans were able to pass bills for projects that
had been blocked by Southern Senators before the war, including the Morrill Tariff, land grant colleges (the Morill
Act), a Homestead Act, a transcontinental railroad (the Pacific Railway Acts), the National Banking Act and the
authorization of United States Notes by the Legal Tender Act of 1862. The Revenue Act of 1861 introduced the
income tax to help finance the war.
American Civil War
States align
Confederate states
Jefferson Davis, President of
Confederacy (1861–1865)
Seven Deep South cotton states seceded by February 1861, starting with
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and
Texas. These seven states formed the Confederate States of America
(February 4, 1861), with Jefferson Davis as president, and a governmental
structure closely modeled on the U.S. Constitution.
Following the attack on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called for a volunteer
army from each state. Within two months, an additional four Southern slave
states declared their secession and joined the Confederacy: Virginia,
Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee. The northwestern portion of
Virginia subsequently seceded from Virginia, joining the Union as the new
state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863. By the end of 1861, Missouri and
Kentucky were effectively under Union control, with Confederate state
governments in exile.
Among the ordinances of secession passed by the individual states, those of
three - Texas, Alabama, and Virginia - specifically mentioned the plight of the 'slaveholding states' at the hands of
northern abolitionists. The rest make no mention of the slavery issue, and are often brief announcements of the
dissolution of ties by the legislatures,
however at least four states - South Carolina,
and Texas
- also passed lengthy and detailed explanations of their causes for secession, all of which
laid the blame squarely on the influence over the northern states of the movement to abolish slavery, something
regarded as a Constitutional right by the slaveholding states.
Union states
Twenty-three states remained loyal to the Union: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. During the war, Nevada and West
Virginia joined as new states of the Union. Tennessee and Louisiana were returned to Union military control early in
the war.
The territories of Colorado, Dakota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington fought on the Union
side. Several slave-holding Native American tribes supported the Confederacy, giving the Indian Territory (now
Oklahoma) a small, bloody civil war.
Border states
The border states in the Union were West Virginia (which separated from Virginia and became a new state), and four
of the five northernmost slave states (Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky).
Maryland had numerous pro-Confederate officials who tolerated anti-Union rioting in Baltimore and the burning of
bridges. Lincoln responded with martial law and sent in militia units from the North.
Before the Confederate
government realized what was happening, Lincoln had seized firm control of Maryland and the District of Columbia,
by arresting all the prominent secessionists and holding them without trial (they were later released).
American Civil War
The Union: blue, yellow (slave);
The Confederacy: brown
*territories in light shades; control of Confederate
territories disputed
In Missouri, an elected convention on secession voted decisively to
remain within the Union. When pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne
F. Jackson called out the state militia, it was attacked by federal forces
under General Nathaniel Lyon, who chased the governor and the rest
of the State Guard to the southwestern corner of the state. (See also:
Missouri secession). In the resulting vacuum, the convention on
secession reconvened and took power as the Unionist provisional
government of Missouri.
Kentucky did not secede; for a time, it declared itself neutral. When
Confederate forces entered the state in September 1861, neutrality
ended and the state reaffirmed its Union status, while trying to
maintain slavery. During a brief invasion by Confederate forces, Confederate sympathizers organized a secession
convention, inaugurated a governor, and gained recognition from the Confederacy. The rebel government soon went
into exile and never controlled Kentucky.
After Virginia's secession, a Unionist government in Wheeling asked 48 counties to vote on an ordinance to create a
new state on October 24, 1861. A voter turnout of 34% approved the statehood bill (96% approving).
inclusion of 24 secessionist counties
in the state and the ensuing guerrilla war
engaged about 40,000 Federal
troops for much of the war.
Congress admitted West Virginia to the Union on June 20, 1863. West Virginia
provided about 20,000–22,000 soldiers to both the Confederacy and the Union.
A Unionist secession attempt occurred in East Tennessee, but was suppressed by the Confederacy, which arrested
over 3000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union. They were held without trial.
Beginning the war
Lincoln's victory in the presidential election of 1860 triggered South Carolina's declaration of secession from the
Union in December, and provisional Confederate States of America followed in February. A pre-war February Peace
Conference of 1861 met in Washington, Lincoln sneaking into town to stay in the Conference’s hotel its last three
days. The attempt failed at resolving the crisis, but the remaining eight slave states rejected pleas to join the
Confederacy following a two-to-one no-vote in Virginia’s First Secessionist Convention on April 4, 1861.
Lincoln's policy
Since December, secessionists with and without state forces seized Federal Court Houses, U.S. Treasury mints and
post offices. Southern governors ordered militia mobilization, seized most of the federal forts and cannon within
their boundaries and U.S. armories of infantry weapons. The governors in big-state Republican strongholds of
Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania quietly began buying weapons and training militia units
President Buchanan protested seizure of Federal property, but made no military response apart from
a failed attempt to resupply Fort Sumter using the ship Star of the West, which was fired upon by South Carolina
forces and turned back before it reached the fort.
American Civil War
Merchant Star of the West intended to resupply Ft. Sumter. Lincoln's policy to hold
federal property was unlike Buchanan's
On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was
sworn in as President. In his inaugural
address, he argued that the Constitution
was a more perfect union than the earlier
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual
Union, that it was a binding contract, and
called any secession "legally void".
He had no intent to invade Southern
states, nor did he intend to end slavery
where it existed, but that he would use
force to maintain possession of federal property. The government would make no move to recover post offices, and
if resisted, mail delivery would end at state lines. Where popular conditions did not allow peaceful enforcement of
Federal law, U.S. Marshals and Judges would be withdrawn. No mention was made of bullion lost from U.S. mints
in Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. In Lincoln’s Inaugural, U.S. policy would only collect import duties at its
ports, there could be no serious injury to justify revolution in the politics of four short years. His speech closed with
a plea for restoration of the bonds of union.
The South sent delegations to Washington and offered to pay for the federal properties and enter into a peace treaty
with the United States. Lincoln rejected any negotiations with Confederate agents because he claimed the
Confederacy was not a legitimate government, and that making any treaty with it would be tantamount to recognition
of it as a sovereign government.
Secretary of State William Seward who at that time saw himself as the real
governor or “prime minister” behind the throne of the inexperienced Lincoln, engaged in unauthorized and indirect
negotiations that failed.
President Lincoln was determined to hold all remaining Union-occupied forts in the
Confederacy, Fort Monroe in Virginia, in Florida, Fort Pickens, Fort Jefferson, and Fort Taylor, and in the city first
passing state Resolves for Secession, Charleston, South Carolina’s Fort Sumter.
Battle of Fort Sumter
Mass meeting April 20, 1861 to support the Government at Washington's
equestrian statue in Union Square NYC
Ft. Sumter was located in the middle of the
harbor of Charleston SC where the U.S.
forts garrison had withdrawn to avoid
incidents with local militias in the streets of
the city. Unlike Buchanan who allowed
commanders to relinquish possession to
avoid bloodshed, Lincoln required Maj.
Anderson to hold on until fired upon.
Jefferson Davis ordered the surrender of the
fort. Anderson gave a conditional reply
which the Confederate government rejected,
and Davis ordered Beauregard to attack the
fort before a relief expedition could arrive.
Troops under P. G. T. Beauregard
bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13,
forcing its capitulation. On April 15, Lincoln's Secretary of War then called on Governors for 75,000 troops to
recapture the fort and other federal property.
Northerners rallied behind Lincoln's call for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts and to preserve the
citing presidential powers given by the Militia Acts of 1792. With the scale of the rebellion apparently
small so far, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 90 days.
Several Northern governors began to move forces
American Civil War
the next day, and Secessionists seized Liberty Arsenal in Liberty, Missouri the next week.
Two weeks later, on
May 3, 1861, Lincoln called for an additional 42,034 volunteers for a period of three years.
Four states in the middle and upper South had repeatedly rejected Confederate overtures, but now Virginia,
Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina refused to send forces against their neighbors, declared their secession, and
joined the Confederacy. To reward Virginia, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond.
The War
The Civil War was a contest marked by the ferocity and frequency of battle. Over four years, 237 named battles were
fought, and many more minor actions and skirmishes. In the scales of world military history, both sides fighting were
characterized by their bitter intensity and high casualties. “The American Civil War was to prove one of the most
ferocious wars ever fought”. Without geographic objectives, the only target for each side was the enemy’s
As the first seven states began organizing a Confederacy in Montgomery, the entire US army numbered 16,000,
however Northern governors had begun to mobilize their militias.
The Confederate Congress authorized the new
nation up to 100,000 troops sent by governors as early as February in the opinion of historian E. Merton Coulter.
After Fort Sumter, Lincoln called out 75,000 three-month volunteers, by May Jefferson Davis was pushing for
100,000 men under arms for one year or the duration, and that was answered in kind by the U.S. Congress.
In the first year of the war, both sides had far more volunteers than they could effectively train and equip. After the
initial enthusiasm faded, reliance on the cohort of young men who came of age every year and wanted to join was
not enough. Both sides used a draft law—conscription—as a device to encourage or force volunteering; relatively
few were actually drafted and served. The Confederacy passed a draft law in April 1862 for young men aged 18 to
35; overseers of slaves, government officials, and clergymen were exempt.
The U.S. Congress followed in July,
authorizing a militia draft within a state when it could not meet its quota with volunteers. European immigrants
joined the Union Army in large numbers, including 177,000 born in Germany and 144,000 born in Ireland.
Numbers could not be had without conscription. Here Union soldiers
before Marye's Heights, Second Fredericksburg
Confederate losses were not replaced easily. Here Rebel dead overrun at
Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
When the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect in January 1863, ex-slaves were energetically recruited by the
states, and used to meet the state quotas. States and local communities offered higher and higher cash bonuses for
white volunteers. Congress tightened the law in March 1863. Men selected in the draft could provide substitutes or,
until mid-1864, pay commutation money. Many eligibles pooled their money to cover the cost of anyone drafted.
Families used the substitute provision to select which man should go into the army and which should stay home.
There was much evasion and overt resistance to the draft, especially in Catholic areas. The great draft riot in New
York City in July 1863 involved Irish immigrants who had been signed up as citizens to swell the machine vote, not
realizing it made them liable for the draft.
Of the 168,649 men procured for the Union through the draft, 117,986
were substitutes, leaving only 50,663 who had their personal services conscripted.
American Civil War
North and South, the draft laws were highly unpopular. An estimated 120,000 men evaded conscription in the North,
many of them fleeing to Canada, and another 280,000 Northern soldiers deserted during the war,
along with
at least 100,000 Southerners, or about 10% all together.
However, desertion was a very common event in the
19th century; in the peacetime Army about 15% of the soldiers deserted every year.
In the South, many men
deserted temporarily to take care of their families,
then returned to their units.
In the North, "bounty
jumpers" enlisted to get the generous bonus, deserted, then went back to a second recruiting station under a different
name to sign up again for a second bonus; 141 were caught and executed.
By 1865 the soldiers of the Union and Confederacy had grown to be the “largest and most efficient armies in the
world”. European observers dismissed them as amateur and unprofessional, but a modern military historian’s
assessment is that each outmatched the French, Prussian and Russian armies of the time, and but for the Atlantic,
would have threatened any of them with defeat.
War on the water
The small U.S. Navy of 1861 was rapidly enlarged to 6000 officers and 45,000 men in 1865, with 671 vessels,
having a tonnage of 510,396.
Its mission was to blockade Confederate ports, take control of the river
system, defend against Confederate raiders on the high seas, and be ready for a possible war with the British Royal
Meanwhile the main riverine war was fought in the West, where a series of major rivers gave access to the
Confederate heartland, if the U.S. Navy could take control. In the East the Navy supplied and moved army forces
about, and occasionally shelled Confederate installations.
Union blockade
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, rebels
out of Missouri along Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the
fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia
By early 1861, general Winfield Scott had devised
the Anaconda Plan to win the war with as little
bloodshed as possible.
Scott argued that a
Union blockade of the main ports would weaken
the Confederate economy. Lincoln adopted parts of
the plan, but he overruled Scott's caution about
90-day volunteers. Public opinion however
demanded an immediate attack by the army to
capture Richmond.
In April 1861, Lincoln announced the Union
blockade of all Southern ports; commercial ships
could not get insurance and regular traffic ended.
The South blundered in embargoing cotton exports
in 1861 before the blockade was effective; by the
time they realized the mistake it was too late.
"King Cotton" was dead, as the South could export
less than 10% of its cotton. The blockade shut down the ten Confederate seaports with railheads that moved almost
all the cotton, especially New Orleans, Mobile and Charleston. By June 1861 warships were stationed off the
principal Southern ports, and a year later nearly 300 ships were in service.
American Civil War
Confederate countermeasures
The Confederacy responded to the blockade by building or converting more than 130 vessels, including twenty-six
ironclads and floating batteries. Only half of these saw active service. Many were equipped with ram bows, creating
“ram fever” among Union squadrons wherever they threatened. But in the face of overwhelming Union superiority,
they were unsuccessful.
The Confederacy experimented with a submarine (it did not work well)
and with building an ironclad ship, the
CSS Virginia based on rebuilding a sunken Union ship the Merrimac. On its first foray on March 8, 1862, the
Virginia decimated the Union's wooden fleet, but the next day the first Union ironclad the USS Monitor showed up
to challenge it. The Battle of the Ironclads was a draw, but it marks the worldwide transition to ironclad warships.
The Confederacy lost the Virginia when the ship was scuttled to prevent capture, and the Union built many copies of
Monitor. Lacking the technology to build effective warships, the Confederacy attempted to obtain warships from
Blockade runners
British investors built small, very fast, steam-driven blockade runners that traded arms and luxuries brought in from
Britain through Bermuda, Cuba and the Bahamas in return for high-priced cotton. The ships were so small that only
a small amount of cotton went out. When the Union Navy seized a blockade runner, the ship and cargo were
condemned as a Prize of war and sold with the proceeds given to the Navy sailors; the captured crewmen were
mostly British and they were simply released.
The Southern economy nearly collapsed during the war. There
were multiple reasons for the severe deterioration of food supplies, especially in cities, the failure of Southern
railroads, the loss of control of the main rivers, foraging by Northern armies, and the seizure of animals and crops by
Confederate armies. Historians agree that the blockade was a major factor in ruining the Confederate economy.
However Wise argues that they provided just enough of a lifeline to allow Lee to continue fighting for additional
months, thanks to fresh supplies of 400,000 rifles, lead, blankets and boots that the homefront economy could no
longer supply.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off
Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's
overwhelming war production
Economic impact
Surdam argues that the blockade was a
powerful weapon that eventually ruined the
Southern economy, at the cost of very few
lives in combat. Practically the entire
Confederate cotton crop was useless
(although was sold to Union traders),
costing the Confederacy its main source of
income. Critical imports were very scarce
and the coastal trade was largely ended as
The measure of the blockade's
success was not the few ships that slipped through, but the thousands that never tried it. Merchant ships owned in
Europe could not get insurance and were too slow to evade the blockade; they simply stopped calling at Confederate
To fight an offensive war the Confederacy purchased ships from Britain, converted them to warships, and raided
American merchants ships in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Insurance rates skyrocketed and the American flag
virtually disappeared from international waters. However the same ships were reflagged with European flags and
continued unmolested.
After the war the U.S. demanded that Britain pay for the damage done, and Britain paid
the U.S. $15 million in 1871.
American Civil War
The 1862 Union strategy called for simultaneous advances along four axes. McClellan would lead the main thrust in
Virginia towards Richmond. Ohio forces were to advance through Kentucky into Tennessee, the Missouri
Department would drive south along the Mississippi River, and the westernmost attack would originate from
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads gunboats and rams,
complicated by torpedoes and fire rafts
Ulysses Grant used river transport and
Andrew Foote’s gunboats of the
Western Flotilla to threaten the
Confederacy's “Gilbraltar of the West”
at Columbus, Kentucky. Grant was
rebuffed at Belmont, but cut off
Columbus. The Confederates, lacking
their own gunboats, were forced to
retreat and the Union took control of
western Kentucky in March 1862.
In addition to ocean-going warships
coming up the Mississippi, the Union
Navy used timberclads, tinclads, and
armored gunboats to Shipyards at
Cairo, Illinois, and St. Louis built new boats or modified steamboats for action.
They took control of the Red,
Tennessee, Cumberland, Mississippi, and Ohio rivers after victories at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, and supplied
Grant's forces as he moved into Tennessee. At Shiloh, (Pittsburg Landing) in Tennessee in April 1862, the
Confederate made a surprise attack that pushed Union forces against the river as night fell. Overnight the Navy
landed additional reinforcements, and Grant counter-attacked. Grant and the Union won a decisive victory – the first
battle with the high casualty rates that would repeat over and over.
Memphis fell to Union forces and became a key base for further advances south along the Mississippi River. In April
1862 Naval forces under Farragut ran past Confederate defenses south of New Orleans. Confederates abandoned the
city, which gave the Union a critical anchor in the deep South.
Naval forces assisted Grant in his long, complex
campaign that resulted in the surrender of Vicksburg in July 1863, and full Union control of the Mississippi soon
Eastern theater
Because of the fierce resistance of a few initial Confederate forces at Manassas, Virginia, in July 1861, a march by
Union troops under the command of Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell on the Confederate forces there was halted in the
First Battle of Bull Run, or First Manassas,
McDowell's troops were forced back to Washington, D.C., by the
Confederates under the command of Generals Joseph E. Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard. It was in this battle that
Confederate General Thomas Jackson received the nickname of "Stonewall" because he stood like a stone wall
against Union troops.
American Civil War
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight. Union troops
committed piecemeal had little effect
Confederate ironclads at Norfolk and New Orleans dispersed
blockade, until Union ironclads could defeat them
Alarmed at the loss, and in an attempt to prevent more slave states from leaving the Union, the U.S. Congress passed
the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution on July 25 of that year, which stated that the war was being fought to preserve the
Union and not to end slavery.
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of the Potomac on July 26 (he was briefly
general-in-chief of all the Union armies, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj. Gen. Henry W.
Halleck), and the war began in earnest in 1862. Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive
operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of 1862 by way of the peninsula between the York River and
James River, southeast of Richmond. Although McClellan's army reached the gates of Richmond in the Peninsula
Johnston halted his advance at the Battle of Seven Pines, then General Robert E. Lee and top
subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson
defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced
his retreat. The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another
victory for the South.
McClellan resisted General-in-Chief Halleck's orders to send reinforcements to John
Pope's Union Army of Virginia, which made it easier for Lee's Confederates to defeat twice the number of combined
enemy troops.
Emboldened by Second Bull Run, the Confederacy made its first invasion of the North. General Lee led 45,000 men
of the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River into Maryland on September 5. Lincoln then restored
Pope's troops to McClellan. McClellan and Lee fought at the Battle of Antietam
near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on
September 17, 1862, the bloodiest single day in United States military history.
Lee's army, checked at last,
returned to Virginia before McClellan could destroy it. Antietam is considered a Union victory because it halted
Lee's invasion of the North and provided an opportunity for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation
When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside.
Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg
on December 13, 1862, when over 12,000 Union
soldiers were killed or wounded during repeated futile frontal assaults against Marye's Heights. After the battle,
Burnside was replaced by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker.
Hooker, too, proved unable to defeat Lee's army; despite outnumbering the Confederates by more than two to one, he
was humiliated in the Battle of Chancellorsville
in May 1863. Gen. Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by
his own men during the battle and subsequently died of complications. Gen. Hooker was replaced by Maj. Gen.
George Meade during Lee's second invasion of the North, in June. Meade defeated Lee at the Battle of
(July 1 to July 3, 1863). This was the bloodiest battle of the war, and has been called the war's
turning point. Pickett's Charge on July 3 is often considered the high-water mark of the Confederacy because it
signaled the collapse of serious Confederate threats of victory. Lee's army suffered 28,000 casualties (versus Meade's
However, Lincoln was angry that Meade failed to intercept Lee's retreat, and after Meade's inconclusive
fall campaign, Lincoln turned to the Western Theater for new leadership. At the same time the Confederate
stronghold of Vicksburg surrendered, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River, permanently isolating the
western Confederacy, and producing the new leader Lincoln needed, Ulysses S. Grant.
Western theater
While the Confederate forces had numerous successes in the Eastern Theater, they were defeated many times in the
West. They were driven from Missouri early in the war as a result of the Battle of Pea Ridge.
Leonidas Polk's
invasion of Columbus, Kentucky ended Kentucky's policy of neutrality and turned that state against the Confederacy.
Nashville and central Tennessee fell to the Union early in 1862, leading to attrition of local food supplies and
livestock and a breakdown in social organization.
American Civil War
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses. Confederate
victory held off Union offensive for two months.
New Orleans captured. Union ironclads forced passage, sank Confederate
fleet, destroyed batteries, held docks for Army.
The Mississippi was opened to Union traffic to the southern border of Tennessee with the taking of Island No. 10
and New Madrid, Missouri, and then Memphis, Tennessee. In April 1862, the Union Navy captured New
which allowed Union forces to begin moving up the Mississippi. Only the fortress city of Vicksburg,
Mississippi, prevented Union control of the entire river.
General Braxton Bragg's second Confederate invasion of Kentucky ended with a meaningless victory over Maj. Gen.
Don Carlos Buell at the Battle of Perryville,
although Bragg was forced to end his attempt at invading Kentucky
and retreat due to lack of support for the Confederacy in that state. Bragg was narrowly defeated by Maj. Gen.
William Rosecrans at the Battle of Stones River
in Tennessee.
The one clear Confederate victory in the West was the Battle of Chickamauga. Bragg, reinforced by Lt. Gen. James
Longstreet's corps (from Lee's army in the east), defeated Rosecrans, despite the heroic defensive stand of Maj. Gen.
George Henry Thomas. Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, which Bragg then besieged.
The Union's key strategist and tactician in the West was Ulysses S. Grant, who won victories at Forts Henry and
Donelson (by which the Union seized control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers); the Battle of Shiloh;
and the Battle of Vicksburg,
which cemented Union control of the Mississippi River and is considered one of the
turning points of the war. Grant marched to the relief of Rosecrans and defeated Bragg at the Third Battle of
driving Confederate forces out of Tennessee and opening a route to Atlanta and the heart of the
Quantrill's Raid captured a hotel in free-state Kansas for a day in a town
of 2,000, burned 185 buildings, killed 182 men and boys
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces
to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government
Extensive Guerrilla warfare characterized the trans-Mississippi region, as the Confederacy lacked the troops and the
logistics to support regular armies that could challenge Union control.
Roving Confederate bands such as
Quantrill's Raiders terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations and civilian settlements.
By 1864 these violent activities harmed the nationwide anti-war movement organizing against the re-election of
Lincoln. The "Sons of Liberty" and "Order of the American Knights" attacked pro-Union people, elected
officeholders and unarmed uniformed soldiers. These partisans could not be entirely driven out of the state of
Missouri until an entire regular Union infantry division was engaged. Missouri not only stayed in the Union, Lincoln
took 70 percent of the vote for re-election.
American Civil War
Areas south and west of Missouri saw numerous small-scale military actions which sought to control Indian
Territory and New Mexico Territory for the Union. Confederate incursions into New Mexico were repulsed in 1862,
the exiled Arizona government withdrew into Texas. In the Indian Territory, civil war broke out inside the tribes.
About 12,000 Indian warriors fought for the Confederacy, and smaller numbers for the Union.
The most
prominent Cherokee was Brigadier General Stand Watie, the last Confederate general to surrender.
After the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, General Kirby Smith in Texas was informed by Jefferson Davis that he
could expect no further help from east of the Mississippi River. Although he lacked resources to beat Union armies,
he built up a formidable arsenal at Tyler, along with his own Kirby Smithdom economy, a virtual "independent
fiefdom" in Texas, including railroad construction and international smuggling. The Union in turn did not directly
engage him.
Its 1864 Red River Campaign to take Shreveport Louisiana was a failure and Texas remained in
Confederate hands throughout the war.
End of war
Conquest of Virginia
At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies. Grant made his headquarters with
the Army of the Potomac, and put Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western
armies. Grant understood the concept of total war and believed, along with Lincoln and Sherman, that only the utter
defeat of Confederate forces and their economic base would end the war.
This was total war not in terms of
killing civilians but rather in terms of destroying homes, farms, and railroads. Grant devised a coordinated strategy
that would strike at the entire Confederacy from multiple directions. Generals George Meade and Benjamin Butler
were ordered to move against Lee near Richmond, General Franz Sigel (and later Philip Sheridan) were to attack the
Shenandoah Valley, General Sherman was to capture Atlanta and march to the sea (the Atlantic Ocean), Generals
George Crook and William W. Averell were to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj. Gen.
Nathaniel P. Banks was to capture Mobile, Alabama.
These dead are from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania,
delaying Grant's advance on Richmond in the Wilderness
The Peacemakers on the River Queen, March 1865. Sherman, Grant, Lincoln,
and Porter pictured discussing plans for the last weeks of the Civil War
Union forces in the East attempted to maneuver past Lee and fought several battles during that phase ("Grant's
Overland Campaign") of the Eastern campaign. Grant's battles of attrition at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold
resulted in heavy Union losses, but forced Lee's Confederates to fall back repeatedly. An attempt to
outflank Lee from the south failed under Butler, who was trapped inside the Bermuda Hundred river bend. Grant was
tenacious and, despite astonishing losses (over 65,000 casualties in seven weeks),
kept pressing Lee's Army of
Northern Virginia back to Richmond. He pinned down the Confederate army in the Siege of Petersburg, where the
two armies engaged in trench warfare for over nine months.
Grant finally found a commander, General Philip Sheridan, aggressive enough to prevail in the Valley Campaigns of
1864. Sheridan was initially repelled at the Battle of New Market by former U.S. Vice President and Confederate
Gen. John C. Breckinridge. The Battle of New Market would prove to be the Confederacy's last major victory of the
American Civil War
war. After redoubling his efforts, Sheridan defeated Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early in a series of battles, including a final
decisive defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek. Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the
Shenandoah Valley,
a strategy similar to the tactics Sherman later employed in Georgia.
Meanwhile, Sherman maneuvered from Chattanooga to Atlanta, defeating Confederate Generals Joseph E. Johnston
and John Bell Hood along the way. The fall of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, guaranteed the reelection of Lincoln as
Hood left the Atlanta area to swing around and menace Sherman's supply lines and invade Tennessee
in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign.
Union Maj. Gen. John Schofield defeated Hood at the Battle of Franklin,
and George H. Thomas dealt Hood a massive defeat at the Battle of Nashville, effectively destroying Hood's army.
Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to
about 20% of the farms in Georgia in his "March to the Sea". He reached the Atlantic Ocean at Savannah, Georgia in
December 1864. Sherman's army was followed by thousands of freed slaves; there were no major battles along the
March. Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Confederate Virginia lines
from the south,
increasing the pressure on Lee's army.
Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's. Union forces won a decisive
victory at the Battle of Five Forks on April 1, forcing Lee to evacuate Petersburg and Richmond. The Confederate
capital fell
to the Union XXV Corps, composed of black troops. The remaining Confederate units fled west and
after a defeat at Sayler's Creek, it became clear to Robert E. Lee that continued fighting against the United States was
both tactically and logistically impossible.
Confederacy surrenders
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Lee surrendered his Army of Northern
Virginia on April 9, 1865, at the McLean
House in the village of Appomattox Court
In an untraditional gesture and
as a sign of Grant's respect and anticipation
of peacefully restoring Confederate states to
the Union, Lee was permitted to keep his
sword and his horse, Traveller. On April 14,
1865, President Lincoln was shot by John
Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer.
Lincoln died early the next morning, and
Andrew Johnson became president.
Meanwhile, Confederate forces across the
South surrendered as news of Lee's
surrender reached them.
Johnson officially declared a virtual end to the insurrection on May 9, 1865.
On June 23, 1865, Cherokee leader
Stand Watie was the last Confederate general to surrender his forces.
Europe in the 1860s was more fragmented than it had been since before the American Revolution. France was in a
weakened state while Britain was still shocked by their poor performance in the Crimean War.
France was
unable or unwilling to support either side without Britain, where popular support remained with the Union though
elite opinion was more varied. They were further distracted by Germany and Italy, who were experiencing
unification troubles, and by Russia, who was almost unflinching in their support for the Union.
American Civil War
Though the Confederacy hoped that Britain and France would join them against the Union, this was never likely, and
so they instead tried to bring Britain and France in as mediators.
The Union, under Lincoln and Secretary of
State William H. Seward worked to block this, and threatened war if any country officially recognized the existence
of the Confederate States of America. In 1861, Southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start
an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war in order to get cotton.
Crewmembers of USS Wissahickon by the ship's
11-inch Dahlgren gun, circa 1863
Cotton diplomacy proved a failure as Europe had a surplus of cotton,
while the 1860–62 crop failures in Europe made the North's grain
exports of critical importance. It also helped to turn European opinion
further away from the Confederacy. It was said that "King Corn was
more powerful than King Cotton", as U.S. grain went from a quarter of
the British import trade to almost half.
When Britain did face a
cotton shortage, it was temporary, being replaced by increased
cultivation in Egypt and India. Meanwhile, the war created
employment for arms makers, ironworkers, and British ships to
transport weapons.
Charles Francis Adams proved particularly adept as minister to Britain for the U.S. and Britain was reluctant to
boldly challenge the blockade. The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in
Britain. The most famous, the CSS Alabama, did considerable damage and led to serious postwar disputes. However,
public opinion against slavery created a political liability for European politicians, especially in Britain (who had
herself abolished slavery in her own colonies in 1834).
War loomed in late 1861 between the U.S. and Britain over the Trent Affair, involving the U.S. Navy's boarding of a
British mail steamer to seize two Confederate diplomats. However, London and Washington were able to smooth
over the problem after Lincoln released the two. In 1862, the British considered mediation—though even such an
offer would have risked war with the U.S. Lord Palmerston reportedly read Uncle Tom’s Cabin three times when
deciding on this.
The Union victory in the Battle of Antietam caused them to delay this decision. The Emancipation Proclamation
over time would reinforce the political liability of supporting the Confederacy. Despite sympathy for the
Confederacy, France's own seizure of Mexico ultimately deterred them from war with the Union. Confederate offers
late in the war to end slavery in return for diplomatic recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris.
After 1863, the Polish revolt against Russia further distracted the European powers, and ensured that they would
continue to remain neutral.
American Civil War
Victory and aftermath
Results and costs
Historians have debated whether the Confederacy could have won the war. Most scholars, such as James McPherson,
argue that Confederate victory was at least possible.
McPherson argues that the North’s advantage in population
and resources made Northern victory likely but not guaranteed. He also argues that if the Confederacy had fought
using unconventional tactics, they would have more easily been able to hold out long enough to exhaust the
Comparison of Union and CSA, 1860-1864
Union CSA
Population 1860 22,100,000 (71%) 9,100,000 (29%)
- - 1864
28,800,000 (90%)
3,000,000 (10%)
Free 1860 21,700,000 (81%) 5,600,000 (19%)
Slave 1860 400,000 (11%) 3,500,000 (89%)
- - 1864 negligible
Soldiers 1860-64 2,100,000 (67%) 1,064,000 (33%)
Railroad miles 1860 21,800 (71%) 8,800 (29%)
- - 1864
29,100 (98%)
[203] negligible
Manufactures 1860 90% 10%
- - 1864 98% negligible
Arms production 1860 97% 3%
- - 1864 98% negligible
Cotton bales 1860 negligible 4,500,000
- - 1864 300,000 negligible
Exports 1860 30% 70%
- - 1864 98% negligible
Confederates did not need to invade and hold enemy territory to win, but only needed to fight a defensive war to
convince the North that the cost of winning was too high. The North needed to conquer and hold vast stretches of
enemy territory and defeat Confederate armies to win.
The Confederacy sought to win independence by
out-lasting Lincoln; however, after Atlanta fell and Lincoln defeated McClellan in the election of 1864, all hope for a
political victory for the South ended. At that point, Lincoln had succeeded in getting the support of the border states,
War Democrats, emancipated slaves, Britain, and France. By defeating the Democrats and McClellan, he also
defeated the Copperheads and their peace platform.
Many scholars argue that the Union held an insurmountable long-term advantage over the Confederacy in terms of
industrial strength and population. Confederate actions, they argue, only delayed defeat.
Civil War
historian Shelby Foote expressed this view succinctly: "I think that the North fought that war with one hand behind
its back...If there had been more Southern victories, and a lot more, the North simply would have brought that other
hand out from behind its back. I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War."
American Civil War
Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border
states committed to the Union cause. Although Lincoln's approach to emancipation was slow, the Emancipation
Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers.
The Confederate government failed in its
attempt to get Europe involved in the war militarily, particularly the United Kingdom and France. Southern leaders
needed to get European powers to help break up the blockade the Union had created around the Southern ports and
Lincoln's naval blockade was 95% effective at stopping trade goods; as a result, imports and exports to the South
declined significantly. The abundance of European cotton and the United Kingdom's hostility to the institution of
slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either
the United Kingdom or France would enter the war.
The war produced about 1,030,000 casualties (3% of the population), including about 620,000 soldier
deaths—two-thirds by disease, and 50,000 civilians.
Binghamton University historian J. David Hacker believes
the number of soldier deaths was approximately 750,000, 20% higher than traditionally estimated, and possibly as
high as 850,000.
The war accounted for roughly as many American deaths as all American deaths in other
U.S. wars combined.
One in thirteen veterans were amputees Remains of both sides were reinterred National cemeteries dot the South; this is one in Andersonville GA
The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering
contention today. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6%
in the North and 18% in the South.
About 56,000 soldiers died in prisons during the Civil War.
estimated 60,000 men lost limbs in the war.
One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the use of Napoleonic tactics, such as charging.
With the advent of more accurate rifled barrels, Minié balls and (near the end of the war for the Union army)
repeating firearms such as the Spencer Repeating Rifle and the Henry Repeating Rifle, soldiers were mowed down
when standing in lines in the open. This led to the adoption of trench warfare, a style of fighting that defined the
better part of World War I.
The wealth amassed in slaves and slavery for the Confederacy's 3.5 million blacks effectively ended when Union
armies arrived; they were nearly all freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves in the border states and those
located in some former Confederate territory occupied prior to the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state
action or (on December 18, 1865) by the Thirteenth Amendment.
The war destroyed much of the wealth that had existed in the South. All accumulated investment in Confederate
bonds was forfeit. Income per person in the South dropped to less than 40% than that of the North, a condition which
lasted until well into the 20th century. Southern influence in the US federal government, previously considerable,
was greatly diminished until the latter half of the 20th century.
The full restoration of the Union was the work of
a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction.
American Civil War
The Emancipation Proclamation enabled African-Americans, both free blacks and escaped slaves, to join the Union
About 190,000 volunteered, further enhancing the numerical advantage the Union armies enjoyed over
the Confederates, who did not dare emulate the equivalent manpower source for fear of fundamentally undermining
the legitimacy of slavery.
During the Civil War, sentiment concerning slaves, enslavement and emancipation in
the United States was divided. In 1861, Lincoln worried that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the
loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game."
and some War Democrats opposed emancipation, although the latter eventually accepted it as part of total war
needed to save the Union.
Contrabands— fugitive slaves - cooks, laudresses, laborers, teamsters, railroad repair crews -
fled to the Union Army, were not officially freed until 1863 Emancipation Proclamation
1863 Union army accepted Freedmen. Here
Black and White teen-aged soldiers
At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipation by Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C.
Frémont (in Missouri) and David Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) to keep the loyalty of the border
states and the War Democrats. Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would
happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected.
only the District of Columbia accepted Lincoln's gradual plan, which was enacted by Congress. When Lincoln told
his cabinet about his proposed emancipation proclamation, Seward advised Lincoln to wait for a victory before
issuing it, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".
Lincoln laid the groundwork for
public support in an open letter published letter to abolitionist Horace Greeley’s newspaper.
In September 1862 the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference
added support for the proclamation.
Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September
22, 1862, and his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. In his letter to Hodges, Lincoln explained his
belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong ... And yet I have never understood that the Presidency
conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling ... I claim not to have
controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me."
Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in getting border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves fighting on
the same side for the Union. The Union-controlled border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware and West
Virginia) and Union controlled regions around New Orleans, Norfolk and elsewhere, were not covered by the
Emancipation Proclamation. All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware.
Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by
Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add
emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty.
The Emancipation Proclamation greatly reduced the
Confederacy's hope of getting aid from Britain or France.
By late 1864 Lincoln was playing a leading role in
getting Congress to vote for the Thirteenth Amendment, which made emancipation universal and permanent.
American Civil War
Reconstruction began during the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 and continued to
It comprised multiple complex methods to resolve the war, the most important of which were the three
"Reconstruction Amendments" to the Constitution which remain in effect to the present time: the 13th (1865), the
14th (1868) and the 15th (1870). From the Union perspective, the goals of Reconstruction were to guarantee the
Union victory on the battlefield by reuniting the Union; to guarantee a "republican form of government for the
ex-Confederate states; and to permanently end slavery--and prevent semi-slavery status.
President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in 1865, when
each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. Radical Republicans, led by
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, took a much more skeptical view. They came to the fore after the 1866
elections and undid much of Johnson's work. They used the Army to dissolve Southern state governments and hold
new elections with Freedmen voting. The result was a Republican coalition that took power in ten states for varying
lengths of time, staying in power with the help of U.S. Army units. Meanwhile the Freedman's Bureau, part of the
Army, played a major role in helping the blacks, while paramilitary groups such as the first Ku Klux Klan used
violence to thwart these efforts.
The "Liberal Republicans", who argued the war goals had been achieved and Reconstruction should end, ran a ticket
in 1872 but were decisively defeated when Grant was reelected. In 1874 Democrats took control of Congress and
opposed reconstruction. The disputed 1876 election was resolved by the Compromise of 1877 which put Republican
Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House. He pulled out the last federal troops and the last Republican state
governments in the South collapsed; historians consider it the end of the Civil War and Reconstruction era.
Memory and historiography
Monument to the Grand Army of the Republic, a
Union veteran organization
The Civil War is one of the central events in America's collective
memory. There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and
archival collections. The memory includes the home front, military
affairs, the treatment of soldiers, both living and dead, in the war's
aftermath, depictions of the war in literature and art, evaluations of
heroes and villains, and considerations of the moral and political
lessons of the war.
The last theme includes moral evaluations of
racism and slavery, heroism in combat and behind the lines, and the
issues of democracy and minority rights, as well as the notion of an
"Empire of Liberty" influencing the world.
Memory of the war in
the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause", which
shaped regional identity and race relations for generations.
150th anniversary
The year 2011 included the American Civil War's 150th anniversary. Many in the South attempted to incorporate
both black history and white perspectives. A Harris Poll given in March 2011 suggested that Americans were still
uniquely divided over the results and appropriate memorials to acknowledge the occasion.
While traditionally
American films of the Civil War feature "brother versus brother" themes
film treatments of the war are evolving
to include African American characters. Benard Simelton, president of the Alabama NAACP, said celebrating the
Civil War is like celebrating the "Holocaust". In reference to slavery, Simelton said that black "rights were taken
away" and that blacks "were treated as less than human beings." National Park historian Bob Sutton said that slavery
was the "principal cause" of the war. Sutton also claimed that the issue of state rights was incorporated by the
Confederacy as a justification for the war in order to get recognition from Britain. Sutton went on to mention that
American Civil War
during the 100th anniversary of the Civil War white southerners focused on the genius of southern generals, rather
than slavery. In Virginia during the fall of 2010, a conference took place that addressed the slavery issue. During
November 2010, black Civil War reenactors from around the country participated in a parade at Harrisburg,
Hollywood's take on the war has been especially influential in shaping public memory, as seen in such films as Birth
of a Nation, Gone with the Wind, and Glory.
• Andersonville (1996) • Gone with the Wind (1939)
• An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge (1962) • The Good The Bad and The Ugly (1967)
• The Battle of Gettysburg (1913) • The Horse Soldiers (1959)
• The Birth of a Nation (1915) • The Hunley (1999)
• The Blue and the Gray (1982 TV series) • The Last Confederate: The Story of Robert Adams (2007)
• The Civil War (1990) • Lincoln (2012)
• Civil War Minutes: Confederate (2007) • Major Dundee (1965)
• Civil War Minutes: Union (2001) • North and South (TV miniseries) Trilogy (1985, 1986, 1994)
• Cold Mountain (2003) • The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976)
• The Colt (2005) • Pharaoh's Army (1995)
• Dances with Wolves (1990) • Raintree County (1957)
• Dog Jack (2010) • The Red Badge of Courage (1951)
• Drums in the Deep South (1951) • Ride with the Devil (1999)
• The General (1926) • The Shadow Riders (1982)
• Gettysburg (1993) • Shenandoah (1965)
• Glory (1989) • Sommersby (1993)
• Gods and Generals (2003) • Wicked Spring (2002)
[1] Howard Jones, Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War (1999), p. 154.
[2] Frank J. Williams, "Doing Less and Doing More: The President and the Proclamation—Legally, Militarily and Politically," in Harold Holzer,
ed. The Emancipation Proclamation (2006) pp. 74–5.
[3] A novel way of calculating casualties by looking at the deviation of the death rate of men of fighting age from the norm through analysis of
census data found that at least 627,000 and at most 888,000 people, but most likely 761,000 people, died through the war. See J. David Hacker
(December 2011). "A Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead" (http:/ / www2. binghamton.edu/ history/ docs/ Hacker_CW_dead.pdf).
Civil War History 57 (4): 307–348. doi:10.1353/cwh.2011.0061. . Retrieved 2012-04-04.
[4] " Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape (http:/ / books. google.com/ ?id=YpAuHGkuIe0C)".
John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6773-6. Viewed cover November 28, 2012.
[5] James C. Bradford, A companion to American military history (2010) vol. 1, p. 101
[6] Foner, Eric (1981). Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (http:// books.google.com/ ?id=rQSYk-LWTxcC).
ISBN 978-0-19-502926-0. . Retrieved 2012-04-20.
[7] [7] Foner, Eric. "The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery" (2011). p. 74.
[8] McPherson, pp. 506–8
[9] [9] McPherson. p. 686
[10] Christopher J. Olsen (2002). Political Culture and Secession in Mississippi: Masculinity, Honor, and the Antiparty Tradition, 1830-1860
(http:// books. google. com/ ?id=RrBb2ThDuCkC& pg=PA237). Oxford University Press. p. 237. .
[11] Miriam Forman-Brunell, Leslie Paris (2010) " The Girls' History and Culture Reader: The Nineteenth Century (http:/ / books. google.com/
?id=bYE0DuIxkHIC&pg=PA136)". University of Illinois Press. p.136. ISBN 978-0-252-07765-4. This famous 1863 photo shows a victim
who likely suffered from keloid, according to Kathleen Collins, making the scars more prominent and extensive. See Kathleen Collins, " The
Scourged Back (http:// www. historybroker.com/ slavery/ slpage3. htm)," History of Photography 9 (January 1985): 43–45.
American Civil War
[12] "Recognized as a searing indictment of slavery, Gordon’s portrait was presented as the latest evidence in the abolitionist campaign. ...
Abolitionist leaders such as William Lloyd Garrison referred to it repeatedly in their work." See Frank H. Goodyear, III, " Photography
changes the way we record and respond to social issues (http:/ / click. si.edu/ Story.aspx?story=297)," Smithsonian Photography Initiative.
[13] Gienapp, William E., "The Crisis of American Democracy: The Political System and the Coming of the Civil War." in Boritt ed. Why the
Civil War Came 79–123. See also Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War
(2nd ed. 1995), pp. 311–12.
[14] Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln: a very short introduction (Oxford U.P., 2009), p. 61. See also Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and
American Slavery (2010), p. 100.
[15] McPherson, “Battle Cry”, pp. 88–91. In Gerson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, p. 68; See also Stowe, Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1953), p. 39.
[16] William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists Triumphant 1854–1861, pp. 9–24. Such fears greatly increased Southern efforts
to make Kansas a slave state. By 1860, the number of white border state families owning slaves plunged to only 16 percent of the total. Slaves
sold to lower South states were owned by a smaller number of wealthy slave owners as the price of slaves increased.
[17] Eugene D. Genovese, The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South (Wesleyan U.P,. 1988).
p. 244
[18] Manisha Sinha, The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (2000), pp. 127–8. Failing that, their
1854 Ostend Manifesto was an unsuccessful attempt to annex Cuba as a slave state. See Potter, David. The Impending Crisis, pp. 201–204.
[19] Lipset, Seymour Martin. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics (Doubleday, 1960), p. 349. As sectional divisions hardened, support for
breaking up the Democratic party and secession on the issue of slavery in the territories was strongly correlated to the number of plantations in
each region. Lipset looked at the secessionist vote in each Southern state in 1860–61. In each state he divided the counties into high, medium
or low proportion of slaves. He found that in the 181 high-slavery counties, the vote was 72% for secession. In the 205 low-slavery counties.
the vote was only 37% for secession. (And in the 153 middle counties, the vote for secession was in the middle at 60%). States of the Deep
South, which had the greatest concentration of plantations, were the first to secede. The upper South slave states of Virginia, North Carolina,
Arkansas, and Tennessee had fewer plantations and rejected secession until the Fort Sumter crisis forced them to choose sides. Border states
had fewer plantations still and never seceded. See McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 242, 255, 282–83. Maps on p. 101 (The Southern Economy) and
p. 236 (The Progress of Secession) are also relevant. See also David Potter. The Impending Crisis. pp. 503–505.
[20] Potter, The Impending Crisis, 299–327.
[21] See Williamjames Hoffer, The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism, and the Origins of the Civil War (2010), pp. 62, 131-33.
[22] Don E. Fehrenbacher, Don E., Slavery, Law, and Politics: The Dred Scott Case in Historical Perspective (http:/ /books. google.com/
?id=3KYFlabs2hQC&pg=PA208). (1981). Oxford U.P. p. 208.
[23] Potter, David. The Impending Crisis, p. 275.
[24] Foner, Eric. 'Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (2nd ed. 1995), pp. 311–12.
[25] Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln: a very short introduction (Oxford U.P., 2009), p. 61
[26] Potter, David. The Impending Crisis, pp. 356–384.
[27] Abraham Lincoln, Speech at New Haven, Conn., March 6, 1860. The slavery issue was related to sectional competition for control of the
territories. See McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 195. The Southern demand for a slave code for the territories was the issue used by Southern
politicians to split the Democratic Party in two, which all but guaranteed the election of Lincoln and secession. When secession was an issue,
South Carolina planter and state Senator John Townsend said that, "our enemies are about to take possession of the Government, that they
intend to rule us according to the caprices of their fanatical theories, and according to the declared purposes of abolishing slavery." See John
Townsend, The Doom of Slavery in the Union, its Safety out of it, October 29, 1860. Similar opinions were expressed throughout the South in
editorials, political speeches and declarations of reasons for secession. Even though Lincoln had no plans to outlaw slavery where it existed,
whites throughout the South expressed fears for the future of slavery. See McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 243.
[28] Martis, Kenneth C., “The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989”, ISBN 0-02-920170-5, p. 111-115.
Though elected in November by the Electoral College with a plurality of popular votes, he was certified Constitutionally elected President by
Congress in December before the Republican majorities were seated. Both Lincoln and the Republican Platform guaranteed no interference
with slavery where it existed, and in his Inaugural Address he supported the proposed Corwin Amendment to Constitutionally restate it. But
secessionists claimed that such guarantees were meaningless. They feared that Republicans would use patronage to incite slaves and
antislavery Southern whites such as Hinton Rowan Helper. Then they feared slavery in the lower South, like a "scorpion encircled by fire,
would sting itself to death." See Freehling, William W., The Road to Disunion: Secessionists Triumphant 1854–1861, pp. 9–24. Besides the
loss of Kansas to free soil Northerners, secessionists feared that the loss of slaves in the border states would lead to emancipation, and that
upper South slave states might be the next dominoes to fall.
[29] Schott, Thomas E. (1996). Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia: A Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. pp. 334.
ISBN 9780807121061.
[30] Eskridge, Larry (Jan 29, 2011). "After 150 years, we still ask: Why ‘this cruel war’?." (http:// www. cantondailyledger.com/ topstories/
x1868081570/After-150-years-we-still-ask-Why-this-cruel-war). Canton Daily Ledger (Canton, Illinois). . Retrieved 2011-01-29. "The power
of the federal government to affect the institution of slavery, specifically limiting it in newly added territories." was the primary political
debate in Southern states over secession, rather than states’ rights in general.
[31] Foner, Eric. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (http:// books.google. com/ ?id=rQSYk-LWTxcC), Oxford U. Press, 1980
ISBN 0-19-502781-7, p.18-20, 21-24.
[32] Charles S. Sydnor, The Development of Southern Sectionalism 1819–1848 (1948).
American Civil War
[33] Robert Royal Russel, Economic Aspects of Southern Sectionalism, 1840–1861 (1973).
[34] Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South (2005).
[35] Kenneth M. Stampp, The Imperiled Union: Essays on the Background of the Civil War (1981) p. 198; Woodworth, ed. The American Civil
War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996), 145 151 505 512 554 557 684; Richard Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians: Turner,
Beard, Parrington (1969).
[36] Clement Eaton, Freedom of Thought in the Old South (1940)
[37] John Hope Franklin, The Militant South 1800–1861 (1956).
[38] [38] Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York, February 27, 1860.
[39] Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (1972) pp. 648–69.
[40] James McPherson, "Antebellum Southern Exceptionalism: A New Look at an Old Question," Civil War History 29 (September 1983).
[41] Forrest McDonald, States' Rights and the Union: Imperium in Imperio, 1776–1876 (2002)
[42] James McPherson, This Mighty Scourge, pp. 3–9.
[43] Frank Taussig, The Tariff History of the United States (1931), pp. 115–61
[44] Richard Hofstadter, "The Tariff Issue on the Eve of the Civil War," The American Historical Review Vol. 44, No. 1 (Oct., 1938), pp. 50–55
full text in JSTOR (http:// www. jstor. org/ pss/ 1840850)
[45] Before 1850, slave owners controlled the presidency for fifty years, the Speaker's chair for forty-one years, and the chairmanship of the
House Ways and Means Committee that set tariffs for forty-two years, while 18 of 31 Supreme Court justices owned slaves. Leonard L.
Richards, The Slave Power: The Free North and Southern Domination, 1780–1860 (2000) pp. 1–9
[46] Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (1970).
[47] Charles C. Bolton, Poor Whites of the Antebellum South: Tenants and Laborers in Central North Carolina and Northeast Mississippi (1993)
p. 67.
[48] Bestor, 1964, pp. 10–11
[49] [49] McPherson, 2007, p. 14.
[50] [50] McPherson, 2007, p. 14.
[51] Stampp, pp. 190–193.
[52] [52] Bestor, 1964, p. 11.
[53] Krannawitter, 2008, pp. 49–50.
[54] McPherson, 2007, pp. 13–14.
[55] Bestor, 1964, pp. 17–18.
[56] Guelzo, pp. 21–22.
[57] [57] Bestor, 1964, p. 15.
[58] [58] Miller, 2008, p. 153.
[59] [59] McPherson, 2007, p. 3.
[60] [60] Bestor, 1964, p. 19.
[61] [61] McPherson, 2007, p. 16.
[62] Bestor, 1964, pp. 19–20.
[63] [63] Bestor, 1964, p. 21
[64] [64] Bestor, 1964, p. 20
[65] [65] Bestor, 1964, p. 20.
[66] [66] Russell, 1966, p. 468-469
[67] [67] Bestor, 1964, p. 23
[68] [68] Varon, 2008, p. 58
[69] [69] Russell, 1966, p. 470
[70] [70] Varon, 2008, p. 34
[71] [71] Bestor, 1964, p. 24
[72] [72] Bestor, 1964, pp. 23-24
[73] Holt, 2004, pp. 34–35.
[74] [74] McPherson, 2007, p. 7.
[75] [75] Krannawitter, 2008, p. 232.
[76] [76] Gara, 1964, p. 190
[77] Bestor, 1964, pp. 24–25.
[78] David M. Potter, "The Historian's Use of Nationalism and Vice Versa," American Historical Review, Vol. 67, No. 4 (July 1962), pp.
924–950 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/stable/ 1845246).
[79] C. Vann Woodward (1971), American Counterpoint: Slavery and Racism in the North-South Dialogue, p.281.
[80] Bertram Wyatt-Brown, The Shaping of Southern Culture: Honor, Grace, and War, 1760s–1880s (2000).
[81] Avery Craven, The Growth of Southern Nationalism, 1848–1861 (1953).
[82] "Republican Platform of 1860," in Kirk H. Porter, and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds. National Party Platforms, 1840–1956, (University of
Illinois Press, 1956) p. 32.
American Civil War
[83] Susan-Mary Grant, North over South: Northern Nationalism and American Identity in the Antebellum Era (2000); Melinda Lawson, Patriot
Fires: Forging a New American Nationalism in the Civil War North (2005).
[84] David Potter, The Impending Crisis, p. 485.
[85] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 254.
[86] President James Buchanan, Message of December 8, 1860 (http:/ / www. presidency.ucsb. edu/ ws/ index.php?pid=29501). Viewed
November 28, 2012.
[87] Ordinances of Secession by State (http:// www. civil-war.net/ pages/ ordinances_secession. asp). Viewed November 28, 2012.
[88] The text of the Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union
(http:/ / avalon. law.yale. edu/ 19th_century/ csa_scarsec. asp).
[89] The text of A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal
Union (http:// avalon. law.yale. edu/ 19th_century/ csa_missec. asp). Viewed November 28, 2012.
[90] The text of Georgia's secession declaration (http:// avalon.law. yale. edu/ 19th_century/csa_geosec. asp). Viewed November 28, 2012.
[91] The text of A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union (http:/ / avalon.law. yale. edu/
19th_century/csa_texsec. asp). Viewed November 28, 2012.
[92] Declaration of Causes of Secession (http:/ / sunsite. utk.edu/ civil-war/reasons. html). Viewed November 28, 2012.
[93] Gibson, Arrell. Oklahoma, a History of Five Centuries (University of Oklahoma Press, 1981) pg. 117–120
[94] "United States Volunteers – Indian Troops" (http:/ / www.civilwararchive.com/ Unreghst/ unindtr.htm). civilwararchive.com. January 28,
2008. . Retrieved 2008-08-10.
[95] "Civil War Refugees" (http:/ / digital. library.okstate. edu/ encyclopedia/ entries/ C/ CI013. html). Oklahoma Historical Society. Oklahoma
State University. . Retrieved 2008-08-10.
[96] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 284–287.
[97] Nevins, The War for the Union (1959) 1:119-29.
[98] Nevins, The War for the Union (1959) 1:129-36.
[99] "A State of Convenience, The Creation of West Virginia" (http:/ / www. wvculture.org/ History/ statehood/ statehood10. html). West
Virginia Archives & History. . Retrieved 2012-04-20.
[100] Curry, Richard Orr (1964), A House Divided, A Study of the Statehood Politics & the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia, Univ. of
Pittsburgh Press, map on page 49.
[101] Weigley, Russell F., "A Great Civil War, A Military and Political History 1861–1865, Indiana Univ. Press, 2000, p. 55.
[102] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 303.
[103] Snell, Mark A., West Virginia and the Civil War, History Press, Charleston, SC, 2011, pg. 28
[104] Mark Neely (1993), Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties, pp. 10–11.
[105] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 234–266.
[106] Schouler, William. (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?vid=ISBN1582180016& id=ub8cqVKoXwgC& pg=PA35)|Massachusetts in the Civil
War, William Schouler. 1868 republished by Digital Scanning Inc, 2003. Viewed book cover November 28, 2012
[107] [107] Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, Monday, March 4, 1861.
[108] [108] Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861.
[109] David Potter. The Impending Crisis. pp. 572–573.
[110] Charleston, South Carolina had additional historical significance. It was the center of the earlier Nullification Crisis where the Union had
faced threats of secession during the Jackson Administration. Throughout the war, Lincoln kept a portrait of Andrew Jackson over his desk at
the War Department where he read army telegraph messages to stay abreast of movement and combat. See Tom Wheeler's "Mr. Lincoln's
T-mails: the untold story of how Abraham Lincoln use the telegraph to win the Civil War"
[111] Bornstein, David (April 14, 2011). "Lincoln's Call to Arms" (http:/ / opinionator.blogs. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 04/ 14/ lincoln-declares-war/
). Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com. Archived (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20110713131234/ http:/ / opinionator.blogs.nytimes. com/ 2011/
04/14/ lincoln-declares-war/) from the original on July 13, 2011. . Retrieved 2011-08-11.
[112] "Lincoln's Call for Troops" (http:/ / www. civilwarhome.com/ lincolntroops.htm). .
[113] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 274.
[114] "Abraham Lincoln: Proclamation 83 – Increasing the Size of the Army and Navy" (http:// www. presidency.ucsb. edu/ ws/ index.
php?pid=70123). Presidency.ucsb.edu. . Retrieved 2011-11-03.
[115] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 276–307.
[116] Keegan, “The American Civil War”, p.73. Over 10,000 military engagements took place during the war, 40% of them in Virginia and
Tennessee. See Gabor Boritt, ed. War Comes Again (1995), p. 247.
[117] "With an actual strength of 1,080 officers and 14,926 enlisted men on June 30, 1860, the Regular Army..." War Extracts (http:/ / www.
history. army.mil/ html/ bookshelves/ resmat/ civil_war/ extracts/ the_civil_war_1861_(pg_199-221).pdf'|Civil) p. 199-221, American
Military History.
[118] Coulter, E. Merton, “Confederate States of America”, p.308. Accounts of historians differ as to the date and the agency of the Confederate
100,000-man call. See also Matloff, Maurice (1973). "American Military History" (http:// www. clemson. edu/ caah/ history/FacultyPages/
EdMoise/ matloff91.html). U.S. Army and U.S. Government Printing Office, ISBN 0938289705, ISBN 978-0938289708. . Retrieved 28
November 2012., "Secession, Sumter, and Standing to Arms", ”…on March 6 the new Confederate Executive, Jefferson Davis, called for a
100,000-man volunteer force to serve for twelve months......." . See also Civil War extracts (http:// www. history. army.mil/ html/
American Civil War
bookshelves/ resmat/ civil_war/extracts/ the_civil_war_1861_(pg_199-221).pdf), American Military History Online. viewed November 28,
2012. and Nicolay, J.G. and Hay, John. Abraham Lincoln: a history (http:// books.google.com/ books?id=9lAfAQAAIAAJ&
pg=PA264#v=onepage&q& f=false), vol. 4, p.264. viewed November 28, 2012. “Since the organization of the Montgomery government in
February, some four different calls for Southern volunteers had been made … In his message of April 29 to the rebel Congress, Jefferson
Davis proposed to organize for instant action an army of 100,000 …”Coulter reports that Alexander Stephens took this to mean Davis wanted
unilateral control of a standing army, and from that moment on became a implacable opponent.
[119] Albert Burton Moore. Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy (1924) online edition (https:// www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o&
[120] Albert Bernhardt Faust, The German Element in the United States (1909) v. 1, p. 523 online (http:/ / books.google.com/
?id=4xgOAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA523). The railroads and banks grew rapidly. See Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. Jay Cooke: Financier Of The Civil
War, (1907) Vol. 2 (http://books. google. com/ books?id=8jHiEwVmB8MC) at Google Books, pp. 378–430. See also Oberholtzer, A History
of the United States Since the Civil War (1926) 3:69–122.
[121] Barnet Schecter, The Devil's Own Work: The Civil War Draft Riots and the Fight to Reconstruct America (2007).
[122] Eugene Murdock, One million men: the Civil War draft in the North (1971).
[123] Mark Johnson, That body of brave men: the U.S. regular infantry and the Civil War in the West (2003) p. 575.
[124] "Desertion No Bar to Pension" (http:// query.nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/
pdf?res=9C0CE0D91630E033A2575BC2A9639C94659ED7CF). New York Times. May 28, 1894. . Retrieved 2011-10-03.
[125] Mark A. Weitz (2005), More Damning than Slaughter: Desertion in the Confederate Army.
[126] Edward M. Coffman, The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784–1898 (1986) p. 193.
[127] Hamner, Christopher. " Great Expectations for the Civil War (http:/ /teachinghistory.org/ history-content/ask-a-historian/ 24413)."
Teachinghistory.org (http:// www. teachinghistory. org/ ). Retrieved 2011-07-11.
[128] Ella Lonn, Desertion during the Civil War (1928), pp. 205-6.
[129] Robert Fantina, Desertion and the American soldier, 1776–2006 (2006), p. 74
[130] Keegan, John. The American Civil War: a military history. 2009. ISBN 978-0-307-26343-8, p. 57.
[131] American Seamen's Friend Society (1865). The sailors' magazine and seamen's friend (http://books.google.com/
?id=u4gfAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA152). p. 152.
[132] Spencer C. Tucker (2010). The Civil War Naval Encyclopedia (http:// books. google.com/ ?id=q4mwAtj2r3UC& pg=PA462).
ABC-CLIO. p. 462.
[133] Donald L. Canney (1998). Lincoln's Navy: The Ships, Men and Organization, 1861-65 (http://books. google.com/ ?id=o_fB_SD5QhIC).
Naval Institute Press. p. ??.
[134] William Richter (2009). The A to Z of the Civil War and Reconstruction (http:// books. google.com/ ?id=obFt-MmS6ygC& pg=PA49).
Scarecrow Press. p. 49. .
[135] Timothy D. Johnson, Winfield Scott (1998) p. 228
[136] Anderson, By Sea and by river, p. 288-289, 296-298.
[137] Anderson, By Sea and by river, p. 300
[138] Gerald F. Teaster and Linda and James Treaster Ambrose, The Confederate Submarine H. L. Hunley (1989)
[139] Mark E. Neely, Jr. "The Perils of Running the Blockade: The Influence of International Law in an Era of Total War," Civil War History
(1986) 32#2, pp. 101-118 in Project MUSE (http:/ / muse. jhu.edu/ journals/civil_war_history/v032/ 32.2.neely. html)
[140] Stephen R. Wise, Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running during the Civil War (1991)
[141] David G. Surdam, "The Union Navy's blockade reconsidered," Naval War College Review (1998) 51#4, pp. 85-107
[142] David G. Surdam, Northern Naval Superiority and the Economics of the American Civil War (University of South Carolina Press, 2001)
[143] Anderson, “By Sea and by river”. p.300"
[144] Howard Jones (2002). Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations to 1913 (http:/ / books. google.com/
?id=TFyLOUrdGFwC&pg=PA225). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 225. .
[145] Bern Anderson, By Sea and by river, p. 91.
[146] Robert D. Whitsell, "Military and Naval Activity between Cairo and Columbus," Register of the Kentucky Historical Society (1963) 62#2,
pp. 107-121
[147] Myron J. Smith, Tinclads in the Civil War: Union Light-Draught Gunboat Operations on Western Waters, 1862-1865 (2009)
[148] Joseph Allan Frank; George A. Reaves (2003). Seeing the Elephant: Raw Recruits at the Battle of Shiloh (http:/ / books.google.com/
?id=J_GlcVOb374C& pg=PA170). University of Illinois Press. p. 170. .
[149] Craig L. Symonds; William J. Clipson (2001). The Naval Institute Historical Atlas of the U.S. Navy (http:// books. google.com/
?id=q_HIcc8n3K4C&pg=PA92). Naval Institute Press. p. 92. .
[150] Ronald Scott Mangum, "The Vicksburg Campaign: A Study In Joint Operations," Parameters: U.S. Army War College (1991) 21#3,
pp. 74-86 online (https:// carlisle-www. army.mil/ usawc/ Parameters/Articles/ 1991/ 1991 mangum.pdf)
[151] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 339–345.
[152] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 342.
[153] Shelby Foote, The Civil War: Fort Sumter to Perryville, pp. 464–519.
[154] Bruce Catton, Terrible Swift Sword, pp. 263–296.
[155] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 424–427.
American Civil War
[156] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 538–544.
[157] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 528–533.
[158] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 543–545.
[159] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 557–558.
[160] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 571–574.
[161] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 639–645.
[162] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 653–663.
[163] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 664.
[164] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 404–405.
[165] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 418–420.
[166] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 419–420.
[167] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 480–483.
[168] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 405–413.
[169] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 637–638.
[170] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 677–680.
[171] [171] Keegan, John. "The American Civil War: a military history" ISBN 978-0-307-26343-8, p.270
[172] [172] Keegan, "The American Civil War: a military history", p.100
[173] James B. Martin, Third War: Irregular Warfare on the Western Border 1861-1865 (Combat Studies Institute Leavenworth Paper series,
number 23, 2012). See also, Michael Fellman, Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri during the Civil War (1989). Missouri alone
was the scene of over 1000 engagements between regular units, and uncounted numbers of guerrilla attacks and raids by informal
pro-Confederate bands, especially in the recently settled western counties.
[174] Sarah Bohl, "A War on Civilians: Order Number 11 and the Evacuation of Western Missouri," Prologue, (2004) 36#1, pp. 44-51
[175] [175] Keegan, "The American Civil War: a military history", p.270
[176] William H. Graves, "Indian Soldiers for the Gray Army: Confederate Recruitment in Indian Territory," Chronicles of Oklahoma (1991)
69#2, pp. 134-145.
[177] J. Frederick Neet, Jr. "Stand Watie: Confederate General in the Cherokee Nation," Great Plains Journal (1996) 6#1 pp36-51.
[178] [178] Keegan, "The American Civil War: a military history", p.220-221
[179] Mark E. Neely Jr.; "Was the Civil War a Total War?" Civil War History, Vol. 50, 2004, pp. 434+
[180] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 724–735.
[181] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 741–742.
[182] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 778–779.
[183] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 773–776.
[184] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 812–815.
[185] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 825–830.
[186] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 846–847.
[187] William Marvel, Lee's Last Retreat: The Flight to Appomattox (2002) pp. 158–81.
[188] Unaware of the surrender of Lee, on April 16 the last major battles of the war were fought at the Battle of Columbus, Georgia and the
Battle of West Point.
[189] "IMPORTANT PROCLAMATIONS. - The Belligerent Rights of the Rebels at an End. All Nations Warned Against Harboring Their
Privateers. If They Do Their Ships Will be Excluded from Our Ports. Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. The Machinery of
Government to be Put in Motion There." (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 1865/ 05/ 10/ news/
important-proclamations-belligerent-rights-rebels-end-all-nations-warned-against.html). Great Britain: NYTimes.com. . Retrieved
[190] Morris, John Wesley, Ghost towns of Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma Press, 1977, pp. 68–69, ISBN 0-8061-1420-7
[191] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 546–557.
[192] George C. Herring, From colony to superpower: U.S. foreign relations since 1776 (2008). p. 237
[193] McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 386.
[194] Allen Nevins, War for the Union 1862–1863, pp. 263–264.
[195] Stephen B. Oates, The Approaching Fury: Voices of the Storm 1820–1861, p. 125.
[196] George C. Herring, From colony to superpower: U.S. foreign relations since 1776 (2008). p. 261
[197] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 855.
[198] James McPherson, Why did the Confederacy Lose?. p. ?.
[199] Railroad length is from: Chauncey Depew (ed.), One Hundred Years of American Commerce 1795–1895, p. 111; For other data see: 1860
US census (http:// www2. census. gov/ prod2/ decennial/ documents/ 1860c-01.pdf) and Carter, Susan B., ed. The Historical Statistics of the
United States: Millennial Edition (5 vols), 2006.
[200] [200] "Union population 1864" aggregates 1860 population, average annual immigration 1855-1864, and population governed formerly by CSA
per Kenneth Martis source. Contrabands and after the Emancipation Proclamation freedmen, migrating into Union control on the coasts and to
the advancing armies, and natural increase are excluded.
American Civil War
[201] Martis, Kenneth C., “The Historical Atlas of the Congresses of the Confederate States of America: 1861–1865” Simon & Schuster (1994)
ISBN 0-13-389115-1 pp.27. At the beginning of 1865, the Confederacy controlled one-third of its congressional districts, which were
apportioned by population. The major slave-populations found in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama were effectively under
Union control by the end of 1864.
[202] [202] "Slave 1864, CSA" aggregates 1860 slave census of VA, NC, SC, GA and TX. It omits losses from contrabands and after the Emancipation
Proclamation, freedmen migrating to the Union controlled coastal ports and those joining advancing Union armies, especially in the
Mississippi Valley.
[203] Digital History Reader, U.S. Railroad Construction, 1860-1880 (http:// www.dhr.history. vt.edu/ modules/ us/ mod05_industry/images/
railroad_construction. jpg) Virginia Tech, viewed August 21, 2012. "Total Union railroad miles" aggregates existing track reported 1860 @
21800 plus new construction 1860-1864 @ 5000, plus southern railroads administered by USMRR @ 2300.
[204] McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 771–772.
[205] Williamson Murray; Alvin Bernstein; MacGregor Knox (1996). The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States, and War (http:// books.google.
com/ ?id=ld8NPYqqUnMC& pg=PA235). Cambridge U.P.. p. 235. .
[206] Dennis Sydney Reginald Welland (1987). The United States: A Companion to American Studies (http:/ / books.google.com/
?id=X5sOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA174). Taylor & Francis. pp. 174–75. .
[207] David Stephen Heidler; Jeanne T. Heidler; David J. Coles (2002). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and
Military History (http:// books. google. com/ ?id=SdrYv7S60fgC&pg=PA1207). W. W. Norton. pp. 1207–10. .
[208] [208] Ward 1990. p. 272
[209] Fehrenbacher, Don (2004). "Lincoln's Wartime Leadership: The First Hundred Days" (http:/ / quod.lib.umich. edu/ cgi/ t/text/
text-idx?c=jala;view=text;rgn=main;idno=2629860. 0009. 103). University of Illinois. . Retrieved 2007-10-16.
[210] Nofi, Al (June 13, 2001). "Statistics on the War's Costs" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20070711050249/ http:/ / www. cwc. lsu. edu/
other/stats/ warcost. htm). Louisiana State University. Archived from the original (http:// www. cwc. lsu. edu/ other/stats/ warcost. htm) on
2007-07-11. . Retrieved 2007-10-14.
[211] "U.S. Civil War Took Bigger Toll Than Previously Estimated, New Analysis Suggests" (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2011/
09/ 110921120124. htm). Science Daily. September 22, 2011. . Retrieved 2011-09-22.
[212] Hacker, J. David (September 20, 2011). "Recounting the Dead" (http:/ / opinionator.blogs. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 09/ 20/
recounting-the-dead/). The New York Times.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-22.
[213] C. Vann Woodward, "Introduction" in James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. xix.
[214] " Toward a social history of the American Civil War: exploratory essays (http:// books. google.com/ ?id=gySktxKYPGoC& pg=PA7)".
Maris Vinovskis (1990). Cambridge University Press. p.7. ISBN 978-0-521-39559-5.
[215] Richard Wightman Fox (2008)." National Life After Death (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20110716083839/ http:/ / www. slate. com/
toolbar. aspx?action=read& id=2180856)". Slate.com.
[216] " U.S. Civil War Prison Camps Claimed Thousands (http:// news. nationalgeographic.com/ news/ 2003/ 07/
0701_030701_civilwarprisons. html)". National Geographic News. July 1, 2003.
[217] " When Necessity Meets Ingenuity: Art of Restoring What's Missing (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2004/ 03/ 08/ business/
technology-when-necessity-meets-ingenuity-art-of-restoring-what-s-missing.html?src=pm)". The New York Times. March 8, 2004
[218] The Economist, " The Civil War: Finally Passing (http:// www.economist.com/ node/ 18486035?story_id=18486035)", April 2, 2011, pp.
[219] At the beginning of the war, some Union commanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters. By 1862, when
it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general. The Southern economy and
military effort depended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying
Southern production. As one Congressman put it, the slaves "...cannot be neutral. As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the
rebels, or of the Union." See McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 495. The same Congressman—and his fellow Radical Republicans—put pressure on
Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves, whereas moderate Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipation and colonization.
See McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 355, 494–6, quote from George Washington Julian on 495. Enslaved African Americans did not wait for
Lincoln's action before escaping and seeking freedom behind Union lines. From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African
Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in occupied areas like Nashville, Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in 1862, Tennessee
from 1862 on, the line of Sherman's march, etc. So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools
for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write. See Catton, Bruce. Never Call Retreat, p. 335. The American Missionary
Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance establishing schools in Norfolk and on
nearby plantations. In addition, approximately 180,000 or more African-American men served as soldiers and sailors with Union troops. Most
of those were escaped slaves. Probably the most prominent of these African-American soldiers is the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
[220] In spite of the South's shortage of soldiers, most Southern leaders — until 1865 — opposed enlisting slaves. They used them as laborers to
support the war effort. As Howell Cobb said, "If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong." Confederate generals
Patrick Cleburne and Robert E. Lee argued in favor of arming blacks late in the war, and Jefferson Davis was eventually persuaded to support
plans for arming slaves to avoid military defeat. The Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox before this plan could be implemented. See
McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 831–837. The great majority of the 4 million slaves were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, as Union
armies moved south. See Historian John D. Winters, in The Civil War in Louisiana (1963), referred to the exhilaration of the slaves when the
Union Army came through Louisiana: "As the troops moved up to Alexandria, the Negroes crowded the roadsides to watch the passing army.
American Civil War
They were 'all frantic with joy, some weeping, some blessing, and some dancing in the exuberance of their emotions.' All of the Negroes were
attracted by the pageantry and excitement of the army. Others cheered because they anticipated the freedom to plunder and to do as they
pleased now that the Federal troops were there." See John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University
Press, 1963, ISBN 978-0-8071-0834-5, p. 237. Confederates enslaved captured black Union soldiers, and black soldiers especially were shot
when trying to surrender at the Fort Pillow Massacre. See Catton, Bruce. Never Call Retreat, p. 335. This led to a breakdown of the prisoner
and mail exchange program and the growth of prison camps such as Andersonville prison in Georgia, where almost 13,000 Union prisoners of
war died of starvation and disease. McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 791–798.
[221] Lincoln's letter to O. H. Browning, September 22, 1861. Sentiment among German Americans was largely anti-slavery especially among
Forty-Eighters, resulting in hundreds of thousands of German Americans volunteered to fight for the Union. " Wittke, Carl (1952). Refugees of
Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania press. ", Christian B. Keller, "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Myths and
Realities of Ethnic Civil War Soldiers", Journal of Military History, Vol/ 73, No. 1, January 2009, pp. 117–145; for primary sources see
Walter D. Kamphoefner and Wolfgang Helbich, eds., Germans in the Civil War: The Letters They Wrote Home (2006). " On the other hand,
many of the recent immigrants in the North viewed freed slaves as competition for scarce jobs, and as the reason why the Civil War was being
fought. " Baker, Kevin (March 2003). " Violent City (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20101019000238/ http:/ / americanheritage.com/
articles/magazine/ ah/ 2003/ 1/ 2003_1_17. shtml)" American Heritage. Retrieved 2010-07-29. " Due in large part to this fierce competition
with free blacks for labor opportunities, the poor and working class Irish Catholics generally opposed emancipation. When the draft began in
the summer of 1863 they launched a major riot in New York City that was suppressed by the military, as well as much smaller protests in
other cities. Barnet Schecter, The Devil's Own Work: The Civil War Draft Riots and the Fight to Reconstruct America (2007), ch 6. Many
Catholics in the North had volunteered to fight in 1861, sending thousands of soldiers to the front and taking high casualties, especially at
Fredericksburg; their volunteering fell off after 1862.
[222] Baker, Kevin (March 2003). " Violent City (http:/ / web.archive. org/web/ 20101019000238/ http:/ / americanheritage.com/ articles/
magazine/ ah/ 2003/ 1/ 2003_1_17. shtml)" American Heritage. Retrieved 2010-07-29. "
[223] McPherson, James in Gabor S. Boritt, ed. Lincoln, the War President pp. 52–54.
[224] Oates, Stephen B. Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, p. 106.
[225] [225] "Lincoln Letter to Greeley, August 22, 1862 "
[226] Pulling, Sr. Anne Francis. “Images of America: Altoona, 2001, 10.
[227] [227] Lincoln's Letter to A. G. Hodges, April 4, 1864.
[228] Harper, Douglas (2003). "SLAVERY in DELAWARE" (http:// www.slavenorth.com/ delaware.htm). Archived (http:// web. archive.
org/web/ 20071016062740/ http:/ / slavenorth. com/ delaware. htm) from the original on October 16, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-10-16.
[229] [229] " James McPherson, The War that Never Goes Away"
[230] Molefi Kete Asante; Ama Mazama (2004). Encyclopedia of Black Studies (http:/ /books. google.com/ ?id=RcBkDlJ7qjwC& pg=PA82).
SAGE. p. 82. .
[231] Harold Holzer; Sara Vaughn Gabbard (2007). Lincoln and Freedom: Slavery, Emancipation, and the Thirteenth Amendment (http:/ / books.
google.com/ ?id=xLbkXsn6xHAC& pg=PA174). SIU Press. pp. 172–74. .
[232] Hans L. Trefousse, Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction (Greenwood, 1991) covers all the main events and leaders.
[233] Eric Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction (1990) is a brief survey
[234] Hans L Trefousse, Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (2005) pp 161-238
[235] C. Vann Woodward, Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (2nd ed. 1991).
[236] Joan Waugh and Gary W. Gallagher, eds. (2009), Wars within a War: Controversy and Conflict over the American Civil War (U. of North
Carolina Press).
[237] David W. Blight, Race and Reunion : The Civil War in American Memory (2001)
[238] Gaines M. Foster (1988), Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause and the Emergence of the New South, 1865–1913.
[239] Braverman, Samantha (March 29, 2011). "150 Years Later Remembering the American Civil War" (http:/ / www. harrisinteractive.com/
NewsRoom/ HarrisPolls/ tabid/ 447/ mid/ 1508/ articleId/739/ ctl/ ReadCustom Default/ Default.aspx). Harris Interactive Polls. . Retrieved
[240] The Reel Civil War: Mythmaking in American Film (http:/ / books.google. com/ ?id=NfKF9RXLyr8C). Random House Digital, Inc. .
Retrieved 2011-11-03.
[241] Suddath, Claire (March 3, 2011). "A Union Divided: South Split on U.S. Civil War Legacy" (http:// www. time. com/ time/ nation/ article/
0,8599,2055981,00. html). Time. . Retrieved 2012-10-20.
[242] Gary Gallagher, Causes Won, Lost, and Forgotten: How Hollywood and Popular Art Shape What We Know about the Civil War (U. of
North Carolina Press, 2008)
American Civil War
• Beringer, Richard E., Archer Jones, and Herman Hattaway, Why the South Lost the Civil War (1986) influential
analysis of factors; an abridged version is The Elements of Confederate Defeat: Nationalism, War Aims, and
Religion (1988)
• Bestor, Arthur. "The American Civil War as a Constitutional Crisis," American Historical Review (1964) 69#2,
pp. 327–52 in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor.org/stable/ 1844986)
• Catton, Bruce, The Civil War, American Heritage, 1960, ISBN 978-0-8281-0305-3, illustrated narrative
• Davis, William C. The Imperiled Union, 1861–1865 3v (1983)
• Donald, David et al. The Civil War and Reconstruction (latest edition 2001); 700 page survey
• Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, (2001), ISBN 978-0-684-84944-7.
• Fellman, Michael et al. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath (2nd ed. 2007), 544 page survey
• Gara, Larry. 1964. The Fugitive Slave Law: A Double Paradox in Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction,
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. (originally published in Civil War History, X, No. 3, Sept 1964)
• Guelzo, Allen C. Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction (2012) 593pp; covers
1848-1877 excerpt and text search (http:// www. amazon. com/ gp/ reader/0199843287/)
• Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative (3 volumes), (1974), ISBN 978-0-394-74913-6. Highly detailed
military narrative covering all fronts
• Holt, Michael F. 2004. The fate of their country: politicians, slavery extension, and the coming of the Civil War
Hill and Wang, New York.
• Katcher, Philip. The History of the American Civil War 1861–5, (2000), ISBN 978-0-600-60778-6. Detailed
analysis of each battle with introduction and background
• Krannawitter, Thomas L. 2008. Vindicating Lincoln: Defending the Politics of Our Greatest President. Rowman
& Littlefield, London.
• McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988), 900 page survey of all aspects of the
war; Pulitzer prize
• McPherson, James M. This Mighty Scourge: Perspectives on the Civil War. Oxford University Press. New York.
• McPherson, James M. Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction (2nd ed 1992), textbook
• Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union, an 8-volume set (1947–1971). the most detailed political, economic and
military narrative; by Pulitzer Prize winner
• 1. Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847–1852; 2. A House Dividing, 1852–1857; 3. Douglas, Buchanan, and Party
Chaos, 1857–1859; 4. Prologue to Civil War, 1859–1861; vol. 5–8 have the series title "War for the Union"; 5.
The Improvised War, 1861–1862; 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863; 7. The Organized War,
1863–1864; 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865
• Rhodes, James Ford. A History of the Civil War, 1861–1865 (1918), Pulitzer Prize; a short version of his
5-volume history
• Miller, William L. 2009. Abraham Lincoln: The Duty of a Statesman Vintage Books.
• Russell, Robert R. 1966. Constitutional Doctrines with Regard to Slavery in Territories in Journal of Southern
History, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Nov. 1966), pp. 466–486. doi=10.2307/2204926 |jstor=2204926
• Stampp, Kenneth M. 1990. America in 1857: a nation on the brink. Oxford University Press, New York.
•• Varon, Elizabeth R. Disunion!: The Coming of the American Civil War, 1789-1859. Chapel Hill [N.C.]:
University of North Carolina Press, 2008.
• Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War (1990), based on PBS series by Ken Burns; visual emphasis
• Weigley, Russell Frank. A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865 (2004); primarily
American Civil War
• American National Biography 24 vol (1999), essays by scholars on all major figures; online and hardcover
editions at many libraries (http:// www. anb. org/aboutanb.html)
• McHenry, Robert ed. Webster's American Military Biographies (1978)
• Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, (1964), ISBN 978-0-8071-0822-2
• Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, (1959), ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9
• Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom's Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War (1998)
• Glatthaar, Joseph T. General Lee's Army: From Victory to Collapse (2009)
• Hess, Earl J. The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat (1997)
• McPherson, James. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998)
• Power, J. Tracy. Lee's Miserables: Life in the Army of Northern Virginia from the Wilderness to Appomattox
• Wiley, Bell Irvin. The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (1962) (ISBN
• Wiley, Bell Irvin. Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952) (ISBN 978-0-8071-0476-7)
Reference books and bibliographies
• Blair, Jayne E. The Essential Civil War: A Handbook to the Battles, Armies, Navies And Commanders (2006)
• Carter, Alice E. and Richard Jensen. The Civil War on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites- 2nd ed. (2003)
• Current, Richard N., et al. eds. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged
version) (ISBN 978-0-13-275991-5)
• Faust, Patricia L. (ed.) Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (1986) (ISBN
978-0-06-181261-3) 2000 short entries
• Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars online edition 1995
• Heidler, David Stephen, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History
(2002), 1600 entries in 2700 pages in 5 vol or 1-vol editions
• North & South - The Official Magazine of the Civil War Society deals with book reviews, battles, discussion &
analysis, and other issues of the American Civil War.
• Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816–1900 (2005)
• Savage, Kirk, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America
(http:// www. worldcat.org/ oclc/ 36470304). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997. (The definitive
book on Civil War monuments.)
• Tulloch, Hugh. The Debate on the American Civil War Era (1999), historiography
• Wagner, Margaret E. Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman, eds. The Library of Congress Civil War Desk
Reference (2002)
• Woodworth, Steven E. ed. American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996) (ISBN
978-0-313-29019-0), 750 pages of historiography and bibliography online edition (http:// www.questia. com/
read/ 14877569?title=The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research)
American Civil War
Primary sources
• Commager, Henry Steele (ed.). The Blue and the Gray. The Story of the Civil War as Told by Participants.
(1950), excerpts from primary sources
• Hesseltine, William B. ed.; The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction (1962), excerpts from primary
• Simpson, Brooks D. et al. eds. The Civil War: The First Year Told by Those Who Lived It (Library of America
2011) 840pp, with 120 documents from 1861 online reviews (http:// www.amazon.com/
Civil-War-First-Library-America/dp/ 1598530887/ )
Further reading
• Gugliotta, Guy. New Estimate Raises Civil War Death Toll (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2012/ 04/ 03/ science/
civil-war-toll-up-by-20-percent-in-new-estimate.html?ref=science&pagewanted=all), The New York Times,
April 3, 2012, pg. D1 (of the New York edition), and April 2, 2012 on NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2012-04-03
External links
• American Civil War (http:// www. dmoz.org/ Society/ History/ By_Region/ North_America/United_States/
Wars/ Civil_War/ / ) at the Open Directory Project
• Civil War photos (http:/ / www. archives.gov/ research/civil-war/photos/ index.html) at the National Archives
• View images (http:/ / www. loc.gov/ pictures/ search?st=grid& c=100& co=cwp) from the Civil War
Photographs Collection (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ pictures/ collection/ cwp/ ) at the Library of Congress
• Civil War Trust (http:// www. civilwar. org/)
• Civil War Era Digital Collection at Gettysburg College (http:/ / www. gettysburg.edu/ library/gettdigital/
civil_war/ civilwar.htm) This collection contains digital images of political cartoons, personal papers, pamphlets,
maps, paintings and photographs from the Civil War Era held in Special Collections at Gettysburg College.
• Civil War 150 (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ lifestyle/ civil-war) Washington Post interactive website on
150th Anniversary of the American Civil War.
• Civil War in the American South (http:// www.american-south.org/) – An Association of Southeastern
Research Libraries (ASERL) portal with links to almost 9,000 digitized Civil War-era items—books, pamphlets,
broadsides, letters, maps, personal papers, and manuscripts—held at ASERL member libraries
• The Civil War (http:/ / www. sonofthesouth. net/ ) – site with 7,000 pages, including the complete run of Harper's
Weekly newspapers from the Civil War
• The short film A HOUSE DIVIDED (1960) (http://www.archive.org/details/ gov.archives. arc.54756) is
available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
• Civil War Living History Reenactments (videos) (http:// www.youtube.com/ results?search_query=U. S.+
Civil+ War+reenactments& oq=U. S. +Civil+ War+reenactments& aq=f&aqi=& aql=&gs_l=youtube. 12.. . 0.
0. 0. 855. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0..0. 0. .. 0. 0. U. S. )
• West Point Atlas of Civil War Battles (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ item/ map66001088)
A. P. Hill
A. P. Hill
Ambrose Powell Hill, Jr.
Nickname "Little Powell"
Born November 9, 1825
Culpeper, Virginia
Died April 2, 1865 (aged 39)
Petersburg, Virginia
Place of burial Richmond, Virginia
Allegiance United States of America
Confederate States of America
Service/branch U.S. Army
Confederate Army
Years of service 1847–61 (USA)
1861–65 (CSA)
Rank First Lieutenant (USA)
Lieutenant General (CSA)
Commands held •• 13th Virginia Infantry
• A. P. Hill's Light Division, Second Corps
•• Third Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
Seminole Wars
American Civil War
Ambrose Powell Hill, Jr. (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865), was a career U.S. Army officer in the
Mexican–American War and Seminole Wars and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He gained early
fame as the commander of the "Light Division" in the Seven Days Battles and became one of Stonewall Jackson's
ablest subordinates, distinguishing himself in the 1862 battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and
Following Jackson's death in May 1863 at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Hill was promoted to lieutenant general and
commanded the Third Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which he led in the Gettysburg
Campaign and the fall campaigns of 1863. His command of the corps in 1864–65 was interrupted on multiple
A. P. Hill
occasions by illness, from which he did not return until just before the end of the war, when he was killed during the
Union Army offensive at the Third Battle of Petersburg.
Hill is usually referred to as A. P. Hill, to differentiate him from another prominent (unrelated) Confederate general,
D. H. Hill.
Early life
Hill, known to his family as Powell (and to his soldiers as Little Powell), was born in Culpeper, Virginia, the seventh
and final child of Thomas and Fannie Russell Baptist Hill. Powell was named for his uncle, Ambrose Powell Hill
(1785–1858), who served in both houses of the Virginia legislature, and Capt. Ambrose Powell, an Indian fighter,
explorer, sheriff, legislator, and close friend of President James Madison.
Hill was nominated to enter the United States Military Academy in 1842, in a class that started with 85 cadets. He
made friends easily, including such prominent future generals as Darius N. Couch, George E. Pickett, Jesse L. Reno,
George Stoneman, Truman Seymour, Cadmus M. Wilcox, and George B. McClellan. His future commander,
Thomas J. Jackson, was in the same class but the two did not get along. Hill had a higher social status in Virginia
and valued having a good time in his off-hours, whereas Jackson scorned levity and practiced his religion more
fervently than Hill could tolerate. In 1844, Hill returned from a furlough with a case of gonorrhea, medical
complications from which caused him to miss so many classes that he was required to repeat his third year.
Reassigned to the class of 1847, he made new friendships in particular with Henry Heth and Ambrose E. Burnside.
He graduated in 1847, ranking 15th of 38. He was appointed to the 1st U.S. Artillery as a brevet second lieutenant.
He served in a cavalry company during the final months of the Mexican-American War, but fought in no major
battles. After some garrison assignments along the Atlantic seaboard, he served in the Seminole Wars, again arriving
near the end of the war and fighting various minor skirmishes. He was promoted to first lieutenant in September
From 1855 to 1860, Hill was employed on the United States' coastal survey. He was once engaged to Ellen B.
Marcy, the future wife of Hill's West Point roommate George B. McClellan, before her parents pressured her to
break off the engagement. Although he felt no ill will about the affair afterward, during the war a rumor spread that
Hill always fought harder if he knew McClellan was present with the opposing army, because of Ellen's rejection.
On July 18, 1859, he married Kitty ("Dolly") Morgan McClung, a young widow, thus becoming the brother-in-law
of future Confederate cavalry generals John Hunt Morgan (Hill's best man at the wedding) and Basil W. Duke.
Civil War
On March 1, 1861, just before the outbreak of the Civil War, Hill resigned his U.S. Army commission. After
Virginia seceded, he was appointed colonel of the 13th Virginia Infantry Regiment
The 13th Virginia was one of
the regiments in Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army that were transported by railroad as reinforcements to the First
Battle of Bull Run, but Hill and his men were sent to guard the Confederate right flank near Manassas and saw no
action during the battle. Hill was promoted to brigadier general on February 26, 1862, and command of a brigade in
the (Confederate) Army of the Potomac.
In the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, Hill performed well as a brigade commander at the Battle of Williamsburg,
where his brigade blunted a Union attack, and was promoted to major general and division command on May 26.
His division did not participate in the Battle of Seven Pines (May 31 – June 1), the battle in which Joseph E.
Johnston was wounded and replaced in command of the Army of Northern Virginia by Robert E. Lee. June 1 was the
first day that Hill began using a nickname for his division: the Light Division. This contradictory name for the largest
division in all of the Confederate armies may have been selected because Powell wished his men to have a reputation
for speed and agility. One of Hill's soldiers wrote after the war, "The name was applicable, for we often marched
without coats, blankets, knapsacks, or any other burdens except our arms and haversacks, which were never heavy
A. P. Hill
and sometimes empty."
Hill launched multiple attacks throughout the Seven Days Battles, including at Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, and
Glendale; his division was held in reserve at Malvern Hill. Following the campaign, Hill became involved in a
dispute with James Longstreet over a series of newspaper articles that appeared in the Richmond Examiner; relations
between Hill and Longstreet deteriorated to the point where Hill was placed under arrest and Hill challenged
Longstreet to a duel. To resolve the dispute, Lee decided in July to send Hill and his division to reinforce Jackson,
who was at Gordonsville, Virginia, to keep watch on the Army of Virginia.
At the Battle of Cedar Mountain on August 8, Hill launched a counterattack that stabilized the Confederate left flank,
preventing it from being routed. Three weeks later at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas), Hill was
placed on the Confederate left along the unfinished railroad cut and held it against repeated Union attacks. During
the campaign, Hill became involved in several minor disputes with Jackson concerning Jackson's marching orders to
Hill's performance at Antietam was particularly noteworthy. While Lee's army was enduring strong attacks by the
Army of the Potomac outside Sharpsburg, Maryland, Hill's Light Division had been left behind to process Union
prisoners at Harpers Ferry. Responding to an urgent call for assistance from Lee, Hill marched his men at a grueling
pace and reached the battlefield just in time to counterattack a strong forward movement by the corps of Maj. Gen.
Ambrose Burnside, which had threatened to destroy Lee's right flank. Hill's arrival neutralized this threat, bringing
an end to the battle with Lee's army battered, but undefeated.
At the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, Hill was positioned near the Confederate right along a ridge;
because of some swampy ground along his front, there was a 600-yard gap in Hill's front line, and the nearest
brigade behind it was nearly a quarter mile away; the dense vegetation prevented the brigade commander from
seeing any Union troops advancing on his position. During the battle, Maj. Gen. George Meade's division routed two
of Hill's brigades and part of a third. Hill required the assistance from Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early's division to repulse
the Union attack. Hill's division suffered over 2,000 casualties during the battle, which was nearly two-thirds of the
casualties in Jackson's corps; two of his brigade commanders were wounded, one (Maxcy Gregg) mortally.
the battle one of his brigade commanders, Brig. Gen. James J. Archer, criticized him about the gap left in the
division's front line, saying that Hill had been warned about it before the battle but had done nothing to correct it.
Hill was also absent from his division, and there is no record of where he was during the battle; this led to a rumor
spread through the lines that he had been captured during the initial Union assault.
Hill's division initially formed part of James Longstreet's command, but after an argument between Hill and
Longstreet, which nearly resulted in a duel,
Hill was transferred to Stonewall Jackson's Second Corps. Hill and
Jackson argued as well several times during the Northern Virginia Campaign and the 1862 Maryland Campaign.
During the invasion of Maryland, Jackson had Hill arrested and after the campaign charged him with eight counts of
dereliction of duty.
During the lull in campaigning following the Battle of Fredericksburg, Hill repeatedly
requested that Lee set up a court of inquiry, but the commanding general did not wish to lose the effective teamwork
of his two experienced lieutenants and so refused to approve Hill's request.
Their feud was put aside whenever a
battle was being fought and then resumed afterward, a practice that lasted until the Battle of Chancellorsville in May
There, Jackson was accidentally wounded by the 18th North Carolina Infantry of Hill's division. Hill
briefly took command of the Second Corps and was wounded himself in the calves of his legs. While in the
infirmary, he requested that the cavalry commander, J. E. B. Stuart, take his place in command.
After Jackson's death of pneumonia, Hill was promoted on May 24, 1863, to lieutenant general (becoming the Army
of Northern Virginia's fourth highest-ranking general) and placed in command of the newly created Third Corps of
Lee's army, which he led in the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863. One of Hill's divisions, led by his West Point
classmate Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, was the first to engage Union troops at the Battle of Gettysburg. Although the first
day of the battle was a resounding Confederate success, Hill received much postbellum criticism from proponents of
the Lost Cause movement, suggesting that he had unwisely brought on a general engagement against orders before
A. P. Hill
Lee's army was fully concentrated.
His division under Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson fought in the unsuccessful
second day assaults against Cemetery Ridge, while his favorite division commander, Maj. Gen. William Dorsey
Pender, commanding the Light Division, was severely wounded, which prevented that division from cooperating
with the assault. On the third day, two thirds of the men in Pickett's Charge were from Hill's corps, but Robert E. Lee
chose James Longstreet to be overall commander of the assault.
Of all three infantry corps of the Army of
Northern Virginia, Hill's suffered the most casualties at Gettysburg, which prompted Lee to order them to lead the
retreat back into Virginia.
During the autumn campaign of the same year, Hill launched his Corps "too hastily" in the Battle of Bristoe Station
and was bloodily repulsed by Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren's II Corps. Lee didn't criticize him for this afterward,
but ordered him to detail himself to the dead and wounded after hearing his account. Hill's corps also took part in the
Battle of Mine Run. Other than a brief visit to Richmond in January 1864, Hill remained with his corps in its winter
encampments near Orange Court House.
In Overland Campaign of 1864, Hill's corps held back multiple Union attacks during the first day of the Battle of the
Wilderness, but became severely disorganized as a result. Despite several requests from his division commanders,
Hill refused to straighten and strengthen his line during the night, possibly due to Lee's plan to relieve them at
daylight. At dawn on the second day of the battle, the Union army launched an attack that briefly drove Hill's corps
back, with several units routed, but the First Corps under Longstreet arrived just in time to reinforce him.
Hill was
medically incapacitated with an unspecified illness at Spotsylvania Court House, so Maj. Gen. Jubal Early
temporarily took command of the Third Corps, but Hill was able to hear that his men were doing well and to observe
the battle at Lee's side.
After recovering and regaining his corps, he was later rebuked by Lee for his piecemeal
attacks at the Battle of North Anna. By then, Lee himself was too ill to coordinate his subordinates in springing a
planned trap of the Union Army.
Hill held the Confederate right flank at Cold Harbor, where his corps defended
against the main Union attack on June 3; when part of the troops to his right gave way, Hill used one brigade to
launch a successful counterattack.
During the Siege of Petersburg of 1864–65, Hill and his men participated in several battles during the various Union
offensives: during the Crater, he fought against his West Point classmate Ambrose Burnside, whom the former
repulsed at Antietam and Fredericksburg. Hill was ill several times that winter; in March 1865, his health had
deteriorated to the point where he had to recuperate in Richmond until April 1, 1865.
Hill once said he had no desire to live to see the collapse of the Confederacy, and on April 2, 1865 (during the Union
breakthrough in the Third Battle of Petersburg, just seven days before Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House),
he was killed by a Union soldier, Corporal John W. Mauck of the 138th Pennsylvania, as he rode to the front of the
Petersburg lines, accompanied by a lone staff officer. The body was recovered by the Confederates shortly afterward;
his family had hoped to take Hill to Richmond for burial but because of the city's capture by Union forces the burial
had to take place in Chesterfield County. In February 1867, the body was transferred to the Hollywood Cemetery in
Richmond. During the late 1880s, several former Confederates raised funds for a monument to Hill in Richmond.
Hill's remains were transferred to the base of the monument when it was dedicated on May 30, 1892.
Hill did not escape controversy during the war. He had a frail physique and suffered from frequent illnesses that
reduced his effectiveness at Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House. (Some historians believe
these illnesses were related to the venereal disease he contracted as a West Point cadet.)
Some analysts consider Hill an example of the Peter Principle. Although he was extremely successful commanding
his famed "Light Division", he was less effective as a corps commander.
Historian Larry Tagg described Hill as
"always emotional ... so high strung before battle that he had an increasing tendency to become unwell when the
fighting was about to commence." This tendency was to some extent balanced by the implied swagger and
combative attitude that he displayed. He often donned a red calico hunting shirt, which his men called his "battle
A. P. Hill
shirt," when a battle was about to commence, and the men under his command would pass the word, "Little Powell's
got on his battle shirt!" and begin to check their weapons.
Wherever the headquarters flag of A.P. Hill floated, whether at the head of a regiment, a brigade, a division, or a corps, in camp or
on the battle-field, it floated with a pace and a confidence born of skill, ability and courage, which infused its confidence and
courage into the hearts of all who followed it.
Confederate General James A. Walker
Hill was affectionate with the rank-and-file soldiers and one officer called him "the most lovable of all Lee's
generals." Although it was said that "his manner [was] so courteous as almost to lack decision," his actions were
often impetuous, and did not lack decision, but judgment.
Nevertheless, Hill was one of the war's most highly regarded generals on either side.
When Hill was a major
general, Robert E. Lee wrote that he was the best at that grade in the Army. He had a reputation for arriving on
battlefields (such as Antietam, Cedar Mountain, and Second Bull Run) just in time to prove decisive. Stonewall
Jackson on his deathbed deliriously called for A.P. Hill to "prepare for action;" some histories have recorded that Lee
also called for Hill in his final moments ("Tell Hill he must come up."), although current medical opinions believe
that Lee was unable to speak during his last illness.
In memoriam
In the Hermitage Road Historic District of Richmond, Virginia, the A.P. Hill Monument is located in the center of
the intersection of Laburnum Avenue and Hermitage Road.
This monument is the only one of its type in
Richmond under which the subject individual is actually interred.
The United States military honored Hill by naming both a fort and a ship after him. Fort A.P. Hill is located in
Caroline County, Virginia, about halfway between Richmond and Washington, D.C..
During World War II, the
United States Navy named a Liberty Ship the SS A. P. Hill in his honor.
Hill's sword is on display at the Chesterfield County Museum in Chesterfield, Virginia.
In popular media
Hill was depicted in both of Ronald F. Maxwell's Civil War films, Gettysburg (1993) and Gods and Generals (2003).
In the former, he was portrayed by historian and Civil War reenactor Patrick Falci;
in the latter, by character actor
William Sanderson.
[1] Robertson, pp. 4–5.
[2] Robertson, pp. 6–12.
[3] [3] Eicher, p. 296.
[4] Robertson, pp. 14–20.
[5] Hassler, pp. 17–22.
[6] Robertson, pp. 30–32; Eicher, p. 296.
[7] [7] Robertson, p. 36, lists the appointment as May 9, 1861; Eicher, p. 296, cites May 22.
[8] Robertson, p. 41–42.
[9] Robertson, p. 52–58.
[10] Robertson, pp. 62–63.
[11] Robertson, pp. 71–98; Hassler, pp. 67–71.
[12] Hassler, pp. 74–79, 88–93.
[13] Robertson, pp. 133–51.
[14] Robertson, pp. 160–67.
[15] Robertson, pp. 167–68.
[16] Hassler, pp. 67–71.
[17] Hassler, pp. 73–74, 243–44.
A. P. Hill
[18] Hassler, pp. 112–14, 128–31.
[19] [19] Hassler, pp. 75, 95.
[20] Hassler, pp. 136–39.
[21] Robertson, pp. 206–15.
[22] Robertson, pp. 216–24.
[23] [23] Hassler, p. 169. The Third Corps suffered 8,982 casualties as opposed to the First's 7,659 and the Second's 6,087.
[24] Hassler, pp. 176–85.
[25] Hassler, p. 185–95.
[26] Hassler, pp. 199–204.
[27] Hassler, pp. 204–208.
[28] Hassler, pp. 209–11.
[29] Hassler, pp. 12, 116, 213–39.
[30] Robertson, p. 317–24.
[31] [31] Robertson, p. 11.
[32] "Ambrose Powell Hill Biography" (http:/ / www. civilwarhome.com/ aphillbio. htm). Biography. www.civilwarhome.com. Archived (http:/
/ web. archive.org/ web/ 20110513235124/ http:/ / www. civilwarhome.com/ aphillbio.htm) from the original on May 13, 2011. . Retrieved
April 28, 2011.
[33] [33] Robertson, p. 69; Tagg, p. 301.
[34] [34] Robertson, p. 324.
[35] [35] Tagg, p. 301.
[36] [36] Robertson, p. 326; Hassler, p. 242.
[37] [37] Robertson, p. 322.
[38] "The Historical Marker Database" (http:/ / www. hmdb. org/marker.asp?marker=19813). Biography. Bill Coughlin, The Historical Marker
Database. . Retrieved April 24, 2012.
[39] "Fort A. P. Hill home page" (http:// www. aphill. army. mil/ sites/ local/ ). Military. United States Army. . Retrieved April 30, 2012.
[40] "Liberty Ships built by the United States Maritime Commission in World War II" (http:// www.usmm. org/libertyships. html). Biography.
United States Merchant Marine. . Retrieved April 29, 2012.
[41] "And Then A.P. Hill Came Up, biography page" (http:/ / www. aphillcsa. goellnitz.org/narrative.html). Biography. Jen Goellnitz. .
Retrieved 30 April 2012.
[42] "Internet Movie DataBase" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0107007/ fullcredits). Film. Internet Movie DataBase. . Retrieved April 30,
[43] "Internet Movie DataBase" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0279111/ fullcredits). Film. Internet Movie DataBase. . Retrieved April 30,
• Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.
ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
• Freeman, Douglas S. R. E. Lee, A Biography (http:// penelope. uchicago. edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/ People/
Robert_E_Lee/ FREREL/ home. html). 4 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934–35. OCLC 166632575.
• Hassler, William W. A.P. Hill: Lee's Forgotten General. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1962.
ISBN 978-0-8078-0973-0.
• Robertson, James I., Jr. General A.P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior. New York: Vintage Publishing,
1992. ISBN 0-679-73888-6.
• Tagg, Larry. The Generals of Gettysburg (http:/ / www.rocemabra.com/ ~roger/tagg/ generals/ ). Campbell, CA:
Savas Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
• Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University Press, 1959. ISBN 0-8071-0823-5.
A. P. Hill
Further reading
• Greene, A. Wilson. The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion.
Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-57233-610-0.
• Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg – The First Day. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. ISBN
External links
• A. P. Hill in Encyclopedia Virginia (http:// encyclopediavirginia. org/Hill_A_P_1825-1865)
• And Then A. P. Hill Came Up website (http:/ / www.aphillcsa. com/ )
"Am I Not A Man And A Brother?" 1787 medallion
designed by Josiah Wedgwood for the British
anti-slavery campaign
Abolitionism, used as a single word, was a movement to end
slavery, whether formal or informal.
The term has become adopted by those seeking the abolishment of
any perceived injustice to a group of people. There are abolition
movements to end human trafficking, the sex slave trafficking,
abortion, children used in war, and many others.
In western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historical
movement to end the African slave trade and set slaves free.
Although European colonists, beginning with the Spanish, initially
enslaved natives, the Dominican priest Bartolomé de las Casas
helped convince the Spanish government to enact the first
European law abolishing colonial slavery in 1542; Spain
weakened these laws by 1545.
In the 17th century English Quakers and evangelical religious
groups condemned slavery (by then applied mostly to Africans) as
un-Christian; in the 18th century, abolition was part of the
message of the First Great Awakening in the Thirteen Colonies;
and in the same period, rationalist thinkers of the Enlightenment criticized it for violating the rights of man. The
Somersett's case in 1772, which emancipated a slave in England, helped launch the British movement to abolish
slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations
that used slave labor continued to do so: French and English territories in the West Indies, South America, and the
South of the United States.
After the American Revolutionary War established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania
in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation.
Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal; freedom suits challenging
Collection box for Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.
Circa 1850.
slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the
state. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of
rights were interpreted by the courts not applicable to Africans.
During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in
northern states, and Congress limited the expansion of slavery in
new states admitted to the union.
Revolutionary France abolished slavery in 1794, but it was
restored by Napoleon in the French colonies more than a decade
later after his subversion of the French Revolution. Haiti achieved
independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery
in its territory, establishing the second republic in the western
hemisphere. Britain banned the importation of African slaves in its
colonies in 1807, and the United States followed in 1808. Britain
abolished slavery throughout the British Empire with the Slavery
Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies abolished it 15 years
later, and slavery in the United States was abolished in 1865, after
the American Civil War, with the 13th Amendment to the U.S.
In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia; and to
emancipate the serfs in Russia (Emancipation reform of 1861). It was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal
Rights of Man of the United Nations. The last country to abolish legal slavery was Mauritania, where it was
officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981.
Today, child and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in
most countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labor and for
sexual bondage continues, believed to affect millions of adults and children.
Great Britain
Lord Mansfield (1705–1793), whose
opinion in Somerset's Case (1772) was
widely taken to have held that slavery
was illegal in England.
The last known form of enforced servitude of adults (villeinage) had
disappeared in England by the beginning of the 17th century. In a 1569 court
case involving Cartwright, who had bought a slave from Russia, the court
ruled that English law could not recognise slavery, as it was never established
officially. This ruling was overshadowed by later developments. It was
upheld in 1700 by the Lord Chief Justice John Holt when he ruled that a slave
became free as soon as he arrived in England.
In addition to English colonists importing slaves to the North American
colonies, by the 18th century, traders began to import slaves from Africa,
India and East Asia (where they were trading) to London and Edinburgh to
work as personal servants. Men who migrated to the North American colonies
often took their East Indian slaves or servants with them, as East Indians have
been documented in colonial records.
Some of the first freedom suits, court cases in the British Isles to challenge
the legality of slavery, took place in Scotland from 1755 to 1778. The cases
were Montgomery v. Sheddan (1755), Spens v. Dalrymple (1769), and Knight
v. Wedderburn (1778). Each of the slaves had been baptized in Scotland and challenged the legality of slavery. They
set the precedent of legal procedure in British courts that would later lead to successful outcomes for the plaintiffs. In
the first two cases, deaths of the plaintiff and defendant, respectively, brought an end before court decisions. The
Knight case was decided in favor of the plaintiff, the former slave.
African slaves were not bought or sold in London but were brought by masters from other areas. Together with
people from other nations, especially non-Christian, Africans were considered foreigners, not able to be English
subjects. At the time, England had no naturalization procedure. The African slaves' legal status was unclear until
1772 and Somersett's Case, when the fugitive slave James Somersett forced a legal decision. Somersett had escaped,
and his master, Charles Steuart, had him captured and imprisoned on board a ship, intending to ship him to Jamaica
to be resold into slavery. While in London, Somersett had been baptised; three godparents issued a writ of habeas
corpus. As a result, Lord Mansfield, Chief Justice of the Court of the King's Bench, had to judge whether Somersett's
abduction was legal or not under English Common Law. No legislation had ever been passed to establish slavery in
England. The case received national attention, and five advocates defended Somersett.
In his judgment of 22 June 1772, Mansfield declared:
"The state of slavery is of such a nature that it is incapable of being introduced on any reasons, moral or
political, but only by positive law, which preserves its force long after the reasons, occasions, and time
itself from whence it was created, is erased from memory. It is so odious, that nothing can be suffered to
support it, but positive law. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may follow from a decision, I cannot
say this case is allowed or approved by the law of England; and therefore the black must be
Although the exact legal implications of the judgement are unclear when analysed by lawyers, it was generally taken
at the time to have determined that slavery did not exist under English common law and was thus prohibited in
The decision did not apply to other British territories; by then, for example, the American colonies had
established slavery by positive laws.
The Somersett's case became a significant part of the common law of slavery
in the English-speaking world, and it helped launch the movement to abolish slavery.
After reading about the Somersett's Case, Joseph Knight, an enslaved African who had been purchased by his master
John Wedderburn in Jamaica and brought to Scotland, left him. Married and with a child, he filed a freedom suit, on
the grounds that he could not be held as a slave in Great Britain. In the case of Knight v. Wedderburn (1778),
Wedderburn said that Knight owed him "perpetual servitude". The Court of Sessions of Scotland ruled against him,
saying that chattel slavery was not recognised under the law of Scotland, and slaves could seek court protection to
leave a master or avoid being forcibly removed from Scotland to be returned to slavery in the colonies.
But at the same time, legally mandated, hereditary slavery of Scots persons in Scotland had existed from 1606
until 1799, when colliers and salters were legally emancipated by an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (39
Geo.III. c56). Skilled workers, they were restricted to a place and could be sold with the works. A prior law enacted
in 1775 (15 Geo.III. c. 28) was intended to end what the act referred to as "a state of slavery and bondage,"
but it
was ineffectual, necessitating the 1799 act.
Ignatius Sancho (c1729–1780) gained fame in his time
as "the extraordinary Negro". To 18th-century British
abolitionists, he became a symbol of the humanity of
Africans and immorality of the slave trade.
First steps
Despite the ending of slavery in Great Britain, the United States
continued to rely on it as an institution in the South, and the West
Indian colonies of the British Empire also kept slavery. In 1785,
the English poet William Cowper wrote:
"We have no slaves at home – Then why abroad?
Slaves cannot breathe in England; if their lungs
receive our air, that moment they are free, They touch
our country, and their shackles fall. That's noble, and
bespeaks a nation proud. And jealous of the blessing.
Spread it then, And let it circulate through every
In 1783, an anti-slavery movement began among the British
public. That year a group of Quakers founded the first British
abolitionist organization. The Quakers continued to be influential throughout the lifetime of the movement, in many
ways leading the campaign.
On 17 June 1783, Sir Cecil Wray (Member of Parliament for Westminster) presented
the Quaker petition to parliament. Also in 1783, Dr Beilby Porteus issued a call to the Church of England to cease its
involvement in the slave trade and to formulate a policy to improve the conditions of Afro-Caribbean slaves. The
exploration of the African continent, by such British groups as the African Association (1788), promoted the
abolitionists' cause. Such expeditions highlighted the legitimate, complex cultures of Africans; before the Europeans
had considered them "other" and uncivilized. The African Association had close ties with William Wilberforce, who
became known as a prominent figure in the battle for abolition in the British Empire.
Africans played an important part in the abolition movement. In Britain, Olaudah Equiano, whose autobiography
was published in nine editions in his lifetime, campaigned tirelessly against the slave trade.
One aspect of the history of abolitionism during this period was the effective use of images such as the famous
Wedgewood medallion of 1787 and the engraving showing the horrific layout of the infamous slave ship, "The
Growth of the movement
William Wilberforce (1759–1833),
politician and philanthropist who was a
leader of the movement to abolish the
slave trade.
After the formation of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in
1787, William Wilberforce led the cause of abolition through the
parliamentary campaign. It finally abolished the slave trade in the British
Empire with the Slave Trade Act 1807. He continued to campaign for the
abolition of slavery in the British Empire, which he lived to see in the Slavery
Abolition Act 1833.
The Atlantic slave trade, also called Triangle trade, encompassed the
trafficking in slaves by British merchants who exported manufactured goods
from ports such as Bristol and Liverpool, sold or exchanged these for slaves
in West Africa (where the African chieftain hierarchy was tied to slavery),
and shipped the slaves to British colonies and other Caribbean countries or
the American colonies. There traders sold or exchanged the slaves for rum
and sugar (in the Caribbean) and tobacco and rice (in the American South),
which they took back to British ports. The merchants traded in three places
with each round-trip. Political influence against the inhumanity of the slave
trade grew strongly in the late 18th century.
People of both European and African ethnicity worked for abolition of the slave trade and slavery. Well-known
abolitionists in Britain included James Ramsay, who had seen the cruelty of the trade at first hand; the Unitarian
William Roscoe who courageously campaigned for parliament in the port city of Liverpool for which he was briefly
M.P., Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson, Josiah Wedgwood, who produced the "Am I Not A Man And A Brother?"
medallion for the Committee; and other members of the Clapham Sect of evangelical reformers, as well as Quakers.
The latter made up most of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, and were the first to present a
petition against the slave trade to the British Parliament. As Dissenters, Quakers were not eligible to become British
MPs in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Anglican evangelist William Wilberforce led the parliamentary
campaign. Clarkson became the group's most prominent researcher, gathering vast amounts of data, and gaining first
hand accounts by interviewing sailors and former slaves at British ports such as Bristol, Liverpool and London.
Olaudah Equiano (c1745–1797) was one
of the most prominent Africans involved
in the British debate for the abolition of
the slave trade.
Mainly because of Clarkson's efforts, a network of local abolition groups was
established across England. They campaigned through public meetings and
the publication of pamphlets and petitions. One of the earliest books
promoted by Clarkson and the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave
Trade was the autobiography of the freed slave Olaudah Equiano. The
movement had support from such freed slaves, from many denominational
groups such as Swedenborgians, Quakers, Baptists, Methodists and others.
They reached out for support from the new industrial workers of the cities in
the midlands and north of England. Even women and children, previously
un-politicised groups, became involved in the campaign. At this time, women
often had to hold separate meetings as there were social rules against their
appearing in public meetings. They could not vote, nor could the majority of
the men in Britain at the time.
The abolitionists negotiated with chieftains in West Africa to purchase land to
establish 'Freetown' – a settlement for former slaves of the British Empire
(the Poor Blacks of London) and the United States. Great Britain had
promised freedom to American slaves who left rebel owners to join its cause
during the American Revolutionary War. It evacuated thousands of slaves
together with its troops and transported 3,000 Black Loyalists to Nova Scotia
for resettlement. About a decade later, they were offered a chance to resettle in Freetown, and several hundred made
the move. Freetown was the first settlement of the colony of Sierra Leone, which was protected under a British Act
of Parliament in 1807–8. British influence in West Africa grew through a series of negotiations with local chieftains
to end trading in slaves. These included agreements to permit British navy ships to intercept chieftains' ships to
ensure their merchants were not carrying slaves.
Blake's "A Negro Hung Alive by the
Ribs to a Gallows", an illustration to J. G.
Stedman's Narrative, of a Five Years'
Expedition, against the Revolted Negroes
of Surinam (1796).
In 1796, John Gabriel Stedman published the memoirs of his five-year voyage
to the Dutch-controlled Surinam in South America as part of a military force
sent out to subdue bosnegers, former slaves living in the inlands. The book is
critical of the treatment of slaves and contains many images by William Blake
and Francesco Bartolozzi depicting the cruel treatment of runaway slaves. It
was an example of what became a large body of abolitionist literature.
Slave Trade Act 1807
Plate to commemorate the abolition of
the slave trade in 1807.
The Slave Trade Act was passed by the British Parliament on 25 March 1807,
making the slave trade illegal throughout the British Empire. The Act
imposed a fine of £100 for every slave found aboard a British ship. At a time
when Napoleon decided to revive slavery, which had been abolished during
the French Revolution, and to send his troops to re-enslave the people of
Haiti, Guadeloupe and the other French Caribbean possessions, the British
took the moral high ground with their prohibition of the slave trade.
The act's intention was to entirely outlaw the slave trade within the British
Empire, but the lucrative trade continued through smuggling. Sometimes
captains at risk of being caught by the Royal Navy would throw slaves into
the sea to reduce their fines. In 1827, Britain defined participation in the slave
trade as piracy and punishable by death. Between 1808 and 1860, the Royal
Navy's West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and
freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.
Britain took action against
African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for
example, in 1851 it deposed "the usurping King of Lagos". Britain signed anti-slavery treaties with more than 50
African rulers.
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
"To the Friends of Negro Emancipation",
an engraving in the West Indies,
celebrating the abolition of slavery in the
British Empire in 1833.
After the 1807 act, slaves were still held, though not sold, within the British
Empire. In the 1820s, the abolitionist movement revived to campaign against
the institution of slavery. In 1823 the first Anti-Slavery Society was founded
in Britain. Many members had previously campaigned against the slave trade.
In 1831 the slave Sam Sharpe led a Christmas rebellion in Jamaica, an event
that catalyzed anti-slavery sentiment.
On 28 August 1833, the Slavery Abolition Act was given Royal Assent,
which paved the way for the abolition of slavery within the British Empire
and its colonies. On 1 August 1834, all slaves in the British Empire were
emancipated, but they were indentured to their former owners in an
apprenticeship system that meant gradual abolition: the first set of
apprenticeships came to an end on 1 August 1838, while the final
apprenticeships were scheduled to cease on 1 August 1840, six years later.
On 1 August 1834, as the Governor in Port of Spain, Trinidad addressed an
audience about the new laws, the mostly elderly, unarmed slaves began
chanting: "Pas de six ans. Point de six ans" ("Not six years. No six years"),
drowning out his voice. Peaceful protests continued until the government
passed a resolution to abolish apprenticeship and the slaves gained de facto freedom. Full emancipation for all slaves
was legally granted on 1 August 1838, ahead of schedule, making Trinidad the first British slave society to fully end
The government set aside £20 million for compensation of slave owners for their "property" across the
Empire, but it did not offer the former slaves compensation or reparations.
"The Anti-Slavery Society Convention,
1840" by Benjamin Haydon (1841).
Campaigning after the act
In 1839, the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society attempted to outlaw
slavery in other countries and also to pressure the government to help enforce
the suppression of the slave trade by declaring slave traders pirates and
pursuing them. The world's oldest international human rights organization, it
continues today as Anti-Slavery International.
In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that "France
signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed. This prompted subsequent
governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies.
As in other "New World" colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labor for their sugar cane
plantations in their Caribbean colonies. The French West Indies included Anguilla (briefly), Antigua and Barbuda
(briefly), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haïti, Montserrat (briefly), Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sint Eustatius (briefly), St Kitts and Nevis (St Kitts, but not Nevis), Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago
only), Saint Croix (briefly), Saint-Barthélemy (until 1784 when became Swedish for nearly a century), the northern
half of Saint Martin, and the current French overseas départements of Martinique and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean
sea. In addition, French colonists in La Louisiane in North America held slaves, particularly in the South around
New Orleans, where they established sugar cane plantations. Over time in all these areas, a class of free people of
color developed, many of whom became educated and property owners.
Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated the slave trade and institution in the colonies. Any slave brought to Metropolitan
France would be immediately considered free. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified corporal punishment
against slaves under certain conditions, it forbid slave owners to torture them and encouraged them to instruct them.
It was instrumental in asserting that Africans were human beings, endowed with a soul.
During the Age of Enlightenment, many philosophers wrote pamphlets against slavery and its moral and economical
justifications, including Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws (1748) or in the Encyclopédie In 1788, Jacques Pierre
Brissot founded the Society of the Friends of the Blacks (Société des Amis des Noirs) to work for abolition of
After the Revolution, on 4 April 1792, France granted free people of color full citizenship.
The revolt of slaves in the largest French colony of Saint-Domingue in 1791 was the beginning of what became the
Haïtian Revolution led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. Rebellion swept through the north of the island, and many whites
and free people of color were killed, as well as slaves. Slavery was first abolished in 1793 in St. Domingue by
Sonthonax, a French Commissioner sent by the Convention in order to safeguard the allegiance of the population to
revolutionary France.
First abolition of slavery (1794)
Jacques Pierre Brissot (1754–1793), who
organised the Society of the Friends of
the Blacks in 1788 in the midst of the
French Revolution.
The Convention, the first elected Assembly of the First Republic
(1792–1804), on 4 February 1794, under the leadership of Maximilien
Robespierre, abolished slavery in law in France and its colonies. Abbé
Grégoire and the Society of the Friends of the Blacks were part of the
abolitionist movement, which had laid important groundwork in building
anti-slavery sentiment in the metropole. The first article of the law stated that
"Slavery was abolished" in the French colonies, while the second article
stated that "slave-owners would be indemnified" with financial compensation
for the value of their slaves. The French constitution passed in 1795 included
in the declaration of the Rights of Man that slavery was abolished.
Re-establishment of slavery (1802)
Napoleon did not include any declaration of the Rights of Man in the
Constitution promulgated in 1799. Lobbied by planters and concerned about
revenues from the Caribbean islands, after becoming First Consul, he decided
to re-establish slavery. He promulgated the law of 20 May 1802 and sent
military governors and troops to the colonies to impose it. On 10 May 1802, Colonel Delgrès launched a rebellion in
Guadeloupe against Napoleon's representative, General Richepanse. The rebellion was repressed, and slavery was
re-established. The news of this event sparked another wave of rebellion in Saint-Domingue. Although from 1802,
Napoleon sent more than 20,000 troops to the island, two-thirds died due to warfare and yellow fever. He withdrew
the remaining 7,000 troops and slaves achieved an independent republic they called Haïti in 1804. Seeing that he had
lost Saint-Domingue, in 1803 Napoleon decided to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States and end his
attempt at empire in North America. The French governments initially refused to recognise Haiti. It forced the nation
to pay a substantial amount of reparations (which it could ill afford) for losses during the revolution and did not
recognise its government until the 1830s.
Second abolition (1848)
"Abolition of Slavery in French
Colonies, 1848" by Auguste François
Biard (1849).
On 27 April 1848, under the Second Republic (1848–52), the decree-law of
Schœlcher abolished slavery in the remaining colonies. The state bought the
slaves from the colons (white colonists; Békés in Creole), and then freed
At about the same time, France started colonising Africa. Its activities
included transferring the Native populations in several countries to mines,
forestry, and rubber plantations under isolated, harsh working conditions
often compared to slavery.
Debates about the dimensions of colonialism continue. Passed on 10 May
2001, the Taubira law officially acknowledges slavery and the Atlantic Slave
Trade as a crime against humanity. 10 May was chosen as the day dedicated to recognition of the crime of slavery.
Anti-colonial activists also want the French Republic to recognise African Liberation Day.
Although France formally recognised slavery as a crime, four years later, the conservative Union for a Popular
Movement (UMP) voted on 23 February 2005 for a French law to require teachers and textbooks to "acknowledge
and recognise in particular the positive role of the French presence abroad, especially in North Africa." This
resolution was met with public uproar and accusations of historic revisionism, both inside France and abroad.
Because of this law, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the president of Algeria, refused to sign the envisioned "friendly treaty"
with France. The writer and politician Aimé Césaire, leader of the Négritude movement from Martinique, refused to
meet UMP leader Nicolas Sarkozy, who cancelled his planned visit to the island. President Jacques Chirac (UMP)
repealed the controversial law at the beginning of 2006.
Moldavia and Wallachia
In the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (both now part of Romania), the government held slavery of the
Roma (often referred to as Gypsies) as legal at the beginning of the 19th century. The progressive pro-European and
anti-Ottoman movement, which gradually gained power in the two principalities, also worked to abolish that slavery.
Between 1843 and 1855, the principalities emancipated all of the 250,000 enslaved Roma people. Many migrated to
Western Europe and North America.
In the Americas
Bartolomé de las Casas was a 16th-century Spanish Dominican priest, the first resident Bishop of Chiapas. As a
settler in the New World he witnessed and opposed the poor treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish
colonists. He advocated before King Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on behalf of rights for the natives. Originally
supporting the importation of African slaves as laborers, he eventually changed and became an advocate for the
Africans in the colonies.
His book, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, contributed to Spanish
passage of colonial legislation known as the New Laws of 1542, which abolished native slavery for the first time in
European colonial history. It ultimately led to the Valladolid debate.
Hugh Elliot was a noted abolitionist. Whilst
Governor in the British West Indies, he was
reported to be the driving force behind the
arrest, trial and execution of a wealthy white
planter Arthur Hodge for the murder of a
Latin America
During the Independence Wars (1810–1822), slavery was abolished in most
of Latin America. It continued in the region until 1873 in Puerto Rico, 1886
in Cuba, and 1888 in Brazil by the Lei Áurea or "Golden Law." Chile
declared freedom of wombs in 1811, followed by the United Provinces of
the Río de la Plata in 1813, but without abolishing slavery completely.
While Chile abolished slavery in 1823, Argentina did so with the signing of
the Argentine Constitution of 1853. Colombia abolished slavery in 1852.
Slavery was abolished in Uruguay during the Guerra Grande, by both the
government of Fructuoso Rivera and the government in exile of Manuel
With slaves escaping to New York and New England, legislation for
gradual emancipation was passed in Upper Canada (1793) and Lower
Canada (1803). In Upper Canada the Assembly ruled that no slaves could
be imported; slaves already in the province would remain enslaved until
death, no new slaves could be brought into Upper Canada, and children
born to female slaves would be slaves but must be freed at age 25. In
practice, some slavery continued until abolished in the entire British Empire in the 1830s.
United States
The historian James M. McPherson defines an abolitionist "as one who before the Civil War had agitated for the
immediate, unconditional, and total abolition of slavery in the United States." He does not include antislavery
activists such as Abraham Lincoln or the Republican Party, which called for the gradual ending of slavery.
The first attempts to end slavery in the British/American colonies came from Thomas Jefferson and some of his
contemporaries. Jefferson included strong anti-slavery language in the original draft of the Declaration of
Independence, but other delegates took it out. As President, he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves on
March 2, 1807, and it took effect in 1808, which was the earliest allowed under the Constitution. In 1820 he
privately supported the Missouri Compromise, believing it would help to end slavery.
He left the anti-slavery
struggle to younger men after that.
In the 1850s in fifteen states constituting the American South, slavery was established legally. While it was fading
away in the cities and border states, it remained strong in plantation areas that grew cotton for export, or sugar,
tobacco or hemp. By the 1860 United States Census, the slave population in the United States had grown to four
American abolitionism was based in the North, and white Southerners alleged it fostered slave rebellion.
The white abolitionist movement in the North was led by social reformers, especially William Lloyd Garrison,
founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society; writers such as John Greenleaf Whittier and Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Black activists included former slaves such as Frederick Douglass; and free blacks such as the brothers Charles
Henry Langston and John Mercer Langston, who helped found the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society.
Some abolitionists
said that slavery was criminal and a sin; they also criticized slave owners of using black women as concubines and
taking sexual advantage of them.
The Republican Party wanted to achieve the gradual extinction of slavery by market forces, for its members believed
that free labor was superior to slave labor. Southern leaders said the Republican policy of blocking the expansion of
slavery into the West made them second-class citizens, and challenged their autonomy. With the 1860 presidential
victory of Abraham Lincoln, seven Deep South states whose economy was based on cotton and slavery decided to
secede and form a new nation. Others joined them. The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with the firing
on Fort Sumter in South Carolina. In 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves held
in the Confederate States; most border states began their own emancipation programs. Thousands of slaves escaped
to freedom behind Union Army lines, and in 1863 many men started serving as the United States Colored Troops.
The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution took effect in December 1865 and finally ended slavery throughout
the United States.
Calls for abolition
The first American call to abolish slavery came in April 1688 when Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania wrote a
two-page condemnation of the practice and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church, the Society of
Friends. The Quaker establishment never took action. The 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was
an unusually early, clear and forceful argument against slavery and initiated the spirit that finally led to the end of
slavery in the Society of Friends (1776) and in the state of Pennsylvania (1780).
Thomas Paine (1737–1805), whose 1775
article "African Slavery in America" was
one of the first article the United States
which advocated abolishing slavery and
freeing the slaves.
The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was
the first American abolition society, formed 14 April 1775, in Philadelphia,
primarily by Quakers. The society suspended operations in the Revolutionary
war and was reorganized in 1784, with Benjamin Franklin as its first
Rhode Island Quakers, associated with Moses Brown, were
among the first in America to free slaves. Benjamin Rush was another leader,
as were many Quakers. John Woolman gave up most of his business in 1756
to devote himself to campaigning against slavery along with other
Among the first articles advocating the emancipation of slaves
and the abolition of slavery was written by Thomas Paine. Titled "African
Slavery in America", it appeared on 8 March 1775 in the Postscript to the
Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser, more popularly known as The
Pennsylvania Magazine, or American Museum.
Abolition in the North
Through the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the Congress of the Confederation
prohibited slavery in the territories northwest of the Ohio River. By 1804,
abolitionists succeeded in passing legislation in most states north of the Ohio River and the Mason-Dixon Line that
would eventually (in conjunction with the 13th amendment) emancipate the slaves. While Massachusetts did not
abolish slavery, its new constitution of 1780 declared the equal rights of men and became the standard against which
slavery ceased. But, emancipation in some of the free states was so gradual that both New York and Pennsylvania,
for example, still listed slaves in their 1840 census returns, and a small number of black slaves (18) were held in
New Jersey in 1860 as "perpetual apprentices".
John Jay (1745–1829), who founded the
New York Manumission Society in 1785.
The principal organized bodies to advocate this reform were the Pennsylvania
Antislavery Society and the New York Manumission Society. The latter was
headed by powerful politicians: John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, later
Federalists, and Aaron Burr, later the Democratic-Republican Vice-President
of the United States. That bill did not pass, because of controversy over the
rights of freed slaves, although every member of the Legislature but one
voted for some version of it. New York did enact a bill in 1799 that ended
slavery over time, but made no provision for the rights of freedmen. Free
blacks were subject to racial segregation and discrimination in the North.
At the United States Constitutional Convention of 1787, delegates debated
over slavery, finally agreeing to protect the international slave trade for 20
years by not regulating it before 1808. By that time, all the states had passed
individual laws abolishing or severely limiting the international buying or
selling of slaves.
The importation of slaves into the United States was
officially banned on 1 January 1808.
No action was taken on the nation's
internal domestic slave trade.
Manumission by owners
After 1776, Quaker and Moravian advocates helped persuade numerous slaveholders in the Upper South to free their
slaves. Manumissions increased for nearly two decades. Many individual acts of manumission freed thousands of
slaves. Slaveholders freed slaves in such number that the percentage of free Negroes in the Upper South increased
sharply from one to ten percent, with most of that increase in Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. By 1810
three-quarters of blacks in Delaware were free. The most notable of individuals was Robert Carter III of Virginia,
who freed more than 450 people by "Deed of Gift", filed in 1791. This number was more slaves than any single
American had freed or would ever free.
Often slaveholders came to their decisions by their own struggles in the
Revolution; their wills and deeds frequently cited language about the equality of men supporting their manumissions.
Slaveholders were also encouraged to do so because the economics of the area was changing. They were shifting
from labor-intensive tobacco culture to mixed crop cultivation and did not need as many slaves.
The free black families began to thrive, together with African Americans free before the Revolution, mostly
descendants of unions between working class white women and African men.
By 1860, in Delaware 91.7 percent
of the blacks were free, and 49.7 percent of those in Maryland. These first free families often formed the core of
artisans, professionals, preachers and teachers in future generations.
Western territories
During the Congressional debate on 1820 Tallmadge Amendment, which sought to limit slavery in Missouri as it
became a state, Rufus King declared that "laws or compacts imposing any such condition [slavery] upon any human
being are absolutely void, because contrary to the law of nature, which is the law of God, by which he makes his
ways known to man, and is paramount to all human control." The amendment failed and Missouri became a slave
state. According to historian David Brion Davis, this may have been the first time in the world that a political leader
openly attacked slavery's perceived legality in such a radical manner.
Beginning in the 1830s, the U.S. Postmaster General refused to allow the mails to carry abolition pamphlets to the
Northern teachers suspected of abolitionism were expelled from the South, and abolitionist literature was
banned. Southerners rejected the denials of Republicans that they were abolitionists. They pointed to John Brown's
attempt in 1859 to start a slave uprising as proof that multiple Northern conspiracies were afoot to ignite bloody
slave rebellions. Although some abolitionists did call for slave revolts, no evidence of any other Brown-like
conspiracy has been discovered.
The North felt threatened as well, for as Eric Foner concludes, "Northerners
came to view slavery as the very antithesis of the good society, as well as a threat to their own fundamental values
and interests".
However, many conservative Northerners were uneasy at the prospect of the sudden addition to the
labor pool of a huge number of freed laborers who were used to working for very little, and thus seen as being
willing to undercut prevailing wages.. The famous, "fiery" Abolitionist, Abby Kelley Foster, from Massachusetts,
was considered an "ultra" abolitionist who believed in full civil rights for all black people. She held to the views that
the freed slaves would colonize Liberia. Parts of the anti-slavery movement became known as "Abby Kellyism". She
recruited Susan B Anthony to the movement.
Colonization and the founding of Liberia
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of the
three founders of the American
Colonization Society.
In the early part of the 19th century, a variety of organizations were
established advocating the movement of black people from the United States
to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom; some endorsed
colonization, while others advocated emigration. During the 1820s and 1830s
the American Colonization Society (A.C.S.) was the primary vehicle for
proposals to return black Americans to freedom in Africa. It had broad
support nationwide among white people, including prominent leaders such as
Abraham Lincoln,
Henry Clay and James Monroe, who saw this as
preferable to emancipation, with Clay stating: "unconquerable prejudice
resulting from their color, they never could amalgamate with the free whites
of this country. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the
residue of the population of the country, to drain them off".
Clay argued
that as blacks could never be fully integrated into society due to
"unconquerable prejudice" by white Americans, it would be better for them to
emigrate to Africa.
There was however, considerable opposition among
African Americans, many of whom did not see colonization as a viable or
acceptable solution to their daunting problems in the United States. One notable opponent of such plans was the
wealthy free black abolitionist James Forten of Philadelphia.
After a series of attempts to plant small settlements on the coast of West Africa, the A.C.S. established the colony of
Liberia in 1821–22. Over the next four decades, it assisted thousands of former slaves and free black people to move
there from the United States. The disease environment they encountered was extreme, and most of the migrants died
fairly quickly. Enough survived to declare independence in 1847. American support for colonization waned
gradually through the 1840s and 1850s, largely because of the efforts of abolitionists to promote emancipation of
slaves and granting of American citizenship. Americo-Liberians ruled Liberia continuously until the military coup of
The emigrationist tradition dated back to the Revolutionary War era. Initially, the thought was that free African
Americans would want to emigrate to Africa, but over time other ideas became popular. After Haiti became
independent, it tried to recruit African Americans to migrate there after it re-established trade relations with the
United States. The Haitian Union was the name of a group formed to promote relations between the countries.
Cincinnati's Black community sponsored founding the Wilberforce Colony, an initially successful settlement of
African American immigrants to Canada. The colony was one of the first such independent political entities. It lasted
for a number of decades and provided a destination for about 200 black families emigrating from a number of
locations in the United States.
Religion and morality
The Second Great Awakening of the 1820s and 1830s in religion inspired groups that undertook many types of
social reform. For some that meant the immediate abolition of slavery because it was a sin to hold slaves and a sin to
tolerate slavery. "Abolitionist" had several meanings at the time. The followers of William Lloyd Garrison, including
Wendell Phillips and Frederick Douglass, demanded the "immediate abolition of slavery", hence the name. A more
pragmatic group of abolitionists, like Theodore Weld and Arthur Tappan, wanted immediate action, but that action
might well be a program of gradual emancipation, with a long intermediate stage. "Antislavery men", like John
Quincy Adams, did not call slavery a sin. They called it an evil feature of society as a whole. They did what they
could to limit slavery and end it where possible, but were not part of any abolitionist group. For example, in 1841
Adams represented the Amistad African slaves in the Supreme Court of the United States and argued that they
should be set free.[50] In the last years before the war, "antislavery" could mean the Northern majority, like
Abraham Lincoln, who opposed expansion of slavery or its influence, as by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, or the
Fugitive Slave Act. Many Southerners called all these abolitionists, without distinguishing them from the
Historian James Stewart (1976) explains the abolitionists' deep beliefs: "All people were equal in God's sight; the
souls of black folks were as valuable as those of whites; for one of God's children to enslave another was a violation
of the Higher Law, even if it was sanctioned by the Constitution."
Slave owners were angry over the attacks on what some Southerners (including the politician John C. Calhoun [52])
referred to as their peculiar institution of slavery. Starting in the 1830s, there was a vehement and growing
ideological defense of slavery.
Slave owners claimed that slavery was a positive good for masters and slaves
alike, and that it was explicitly sanctioned by God. Biblical arguments were made in defense of slavery by religious
leaders such as the Rev. Fred A. Ross and political leaders such as Jefferson Davis.
There were Southern biblical
interpretations that directly contradicted those of the abolitionists, such as the theory that a curse on Noah's son Ham
and his descendants in Africa was a justification for enslavement of blacks.
Garrison and immediate emancipation
William Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879),
publisher of the abolitionist newspaper
The Liberator and one of the founders of
the American Anti-Slavery Society.
A radical shift came in the 1830s, led by William Lloyd Garrison, who
demanded "immediate emancipation, gradually achieved". That is, he
demanded that slave-owners repent immediately, and set up a system of
emancipation. Theodore Weld, an evangelical minister, and Robert Purvis, a
free African American, joined Garrison in 1833 to form the American
Anti-Slavery Society (Faragher 381). The following year Weld encouraged a
group of students at Lane Theological Seminary to form an anti-slavery
society. After the president, Lyman Beecher, attempted to suppress it, the
students moved to Oberlin College. Due to the students' anti-slavery position,
Oberlin soon became one of the most liberal colleges and accepted African
American students. Along with Garrison, were Northcutt and Collins as
proponents of immediate abolition. These two ardent abolitionists felt very
strongly that it could not wait and that action needed to be taken right away.
Abby Kelley Foster became an "ultra abolitionist" and a follower of William
Lloyd Garrison. She led Susan B. Anthony as well as Elizabeth Cady Stanton
into the anti-slavery cause.
Frederick Douglass (1818–1895), a
former slave whose memoirs, Narrative
of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an
American Slave (1845) and My Bondage
and My Freedom (1855), became
bestsellers which aided the cause of
After 1840 "abolition" usually referred to positions like Garrison's; it was
largely an ideological movement led by about 3000 people, including free
blacks and people of color, many of whom, such as Frederick Douglass, and
Robert Purvis and James Forten in Philadelphia, played prominent leadership
roles. Douglass became legally free during a two year stay in England, as
British supporters raised funds to purchase his freedom from his American
owner Thomas Auld, and also helped fund his abolitionist newspapers in the
Abolitionism had a strong religious base including Quakers, and
people converted by the revivalist fervor of the Second Great Awakening, led
by Charles Finney in the North in the 1830s. Belief in abolition contributed to
the breaking away of some small denominations, such as the Free Methodist
Evangelical abolitionists founded some colleges, most notably Bates College
in Maine and Oberlin College in Ohio. The well-established colleges, such as
Harvard, Yale and Princeton, generally opposed abolition, although the
movement did attract such figures as Yale president Noah Porter and Harvard
president Thomas Hill.
In the North, most opponents of slavery supported other modernizing reform movements such as the temperance
movement, public schooling, and prison- and asylum-building. They were split bitterly on the role of women's
Abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison repeatedly condemned slavery for contradicting the principles of freedom
and equality on which the country was founded. In 1854, Garrison wrote:
I am a believer in that portion of the Declaration of American Independence in which it is set forth, as
among self-evident truths, "that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with
certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." Hence, I am
an abolitionist. Hence, I cannot but regard oppression in every form – and most of all, that which turns a
man into a thing – with indignation and abhorrence. Not to cherish these feelings would be recreancy to
principle. They who desire me to be dumb on the subject of slavery, unless I will open my mouth in its
defense, ask me to give the lie to my professions, to degrade my manhood, and to stain my soul. I will
not be a liar, a poltroon, or a hypocrite, to accommodate any party, to gratify any sect, to escape any
odium or peril, to save any interest, to preserve any institution, or to promote any object. Convince me
that one man may rightfully make another man his slave, and I will no longer subscribe to the
Declaration of Independence. Convince me that liberty is not the inalienable birthright of every human
being, of whatever complexion or clime, and I will give that instrument to the consuming fire. I do not
know how to espouse freedom and slavery together.
Uncle Tom's Cabin inflamed public opinion in the
North and in Britain against the personified evils
of slavery.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
The most influential abolitionist tract was Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852),
the best-selling novel and play by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Outraged by
the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (which made the escape narrative part
of everyday news), Stowe emphasized the horrors that abolitionists had
long claimed about slavery. Her depiction of the evil slave owner
Simon Legree, a transplanted Yankee who kills the Christ-like Uncle
Tom, outraged the North, helped sway British public opinion against
the South, and inflamed Southern slave owners who tried to refute it by
showing some slave owners were humanitarian.
Irish Catholics
Daniel O'Connell, the Catholic leader of the Irish in Ireland, supported
the abolition of slavery in the British Empire and in America.
O'Connell had played a leading role in securing Catholic Emancipation
(the removal of the civil and political disabilities of Roman Catholics
in Great Britain and Ireland) and he was one of William Lloyd
Garrison's models. Garrison recruited him to the cause of American
abolitionism. O'Connell, the black abolitionist Charles Lenox Remond,
and the temperance priest Theobald Mathew organized a petition with
60,000 signatures urging the Irish of the United States to support
abolition. O'Connell also spoke in the United States for abolition.
1829 editorial cartoon mocking the
Scottish-born abolitionist Frances
The Repeal Associations in the United States mostly took a pro-slavery
position. Several reasons have been suggested for this: that Irish immigrants
were competing with free blacks for jobs, and disliked having the same
arguments used for Irish and for black freedom; that they were loyal to the
United States Constitution, which defended their liberties, and disliked the
fundamentally extra-constitutional position of the Abolitionists; and that they
perceived abolitionism as Protestant, and were therefore suspicious of them.
In addition, slaveholders had no hesitation in voicing their support for the
freedom of Ireland, a white nation outside the United States. However, it
would be difficult to find evidence in the letters or oral tradition of immigrant
families that would differentiate them from most Americans of the period. In
fact with most immigrants settling in the North, there was actually very little
competition for work between poor immigrants and the North's relatively
small African-American population. Most of the energy of immigrant families was directed at securing their daily
livings and spiritual lives with what was left over for politics channelled into local issues concerning public safety
and education.
Radical Irish nationalists – those who broke with O'Connell over his refusal to contemplate the violent overthrow of
British rule in Ireland – had a diversity of views about slavery. John Mitchel, who spent the years 1853 to 1875 in
America, was a passionate propagandist in favor of slavery; three of his sons fought in the Confederate Army. On the
other hand, his former close associate Thomas Francis Meagher served as a Brigadier General in the United States
Army during the American Civil War.
The Catholic Church in America had long ties in slaveholding Maryland and Louisiana. Despite a firm stand for the
spiritual equality of black people, and the resounding condemnation of slavery by Pope Gregory XVI in his bull In
Supremo Apostolatus issued in 1839, the American church continued in deeds, if not in public discourse, like most of
America, to avoid confrontation with slaveholding interests. In 1842, the Archbishop of New York while denouncing
slavery, objected to O'Connell's petition if authentic as unwarranted foreign interference. The Bishop of Charleston
declared that, while Catholic tradition opposed slave trading, it had nothing against slavery. However, in 1861, the
Archbishop of New York wrote to Secretary of War Cameron: "That the Church is opposed to slavery...Her doctrine
on that subject is, that it is a crime to reduce men naturally free to a condition of servitude and bondage, as slaves."
No American bishop supported extra-political abolition or interference with state's rights before the Civil War.
During the Civil War, however, the Archbishop of New York, John Hughes, who was an ally of Lincoln and Seward
would denounce Southern bishops as follows: "In their periodicals in New Orleans and Charleston, they have
justified the attitude taken by the South on principles of Catholic theology, which I think was an unnecessary,
inexpedient, and, for that matter, a doubtful if not dangerous position, at the commencement of so unnatural and
lamentable a struggle."
One historian observed that ritualist churches separated themselves from heretics rather than sinners; he observed
that Episcopalians and Lutherans also accommodated themselves to slavery. (Indeed, one southern Episcopal bishop
was a Confederate general.) There were more reasons than religious tradition, however, as the Anglican Church had
been the established church in the South during the colonial period. It was linked to the traditions of landed gentry
and the wealthier and educated planter classes, and the Southern traditions longer than any other church. In addition,
while the Protestant missionaries of the Great Awakening initially opposed slavery in the South, by the early decades
of the 19th century, Baptist and Methodist preachers in the South had come to an accommodation with it in order to
evangelize with farmers and artisans. By the Civil War, the Baptist and Methodist churches split into regional
associations because of slavery.
After O'Connell's failure, the American Repeal Associations broke up; but the Garrisonians rarely relapsed into the
"bitter hostility" of American Protestants towards the Roman Church. Some antislavery men joined the Know
Nothings in the collapse of the parties; but Edmund Quincy ridiculed it as a mushroom growth, a distraction from the
real issues. Although the Know-Nothing legislature of Massachusetts honored Garrison, he continued to oppose
them as violators of fundamental rights to freedom of worship.
In deeds, however, if not by proclamations, the Irish would play a leading role in defeating the South and ending
slavery. General William Tecumseh Sherman, General Phil Sheridan, General George Meade, General John
Reynolds, and Dennis Hart Mahan were all raised by Irish families. Indeed Sherman and Sheridan attended mass at
the same Catholic church in Ohio as children. 137 Irish immigrants were awarded the Medal of Honor for Civil War
valor, far more than any other immigrant group. After participating in the assault that broke the Confederate center at
Antietam New York City's Irish Brigade would be worse than decimated in repeated desperate assaults on the
stonewall at Fredericksburg on the eve of Emancipation. In the war's little known last chapter, after Appomottox,
General Phil Sheridan took command to the Union army's African-American 25th Corps and was sent by Grant with
an armada to pacify Texas. Later President Johnson would relieve Sheridan of command because of Sheridan's
aggressive enforcement of Reconstruction in Texas and Louisiana.
In the final analysis, none of Lincoln's most prominent opponents were Irish: George McClellan, August Belmont,
Fernando Wood, James Bennett, and Clement Vallandigham. Of these only Bennett, who shared a mutual dislike of
each other with the "Archbishop of New York" was a Catholic.
Abolitionist Women
Like many Quakers, Lucretia Mott
considered slavery an evil to be opposed.
William Lloyd Garrison’s abolitionist newsletter the Liberator noted in 1847,
“...the Anti-Slavery cause cannot stop to estimate where the greatest
indebtedness lies, but whenever the account is made up there can be no doubt
that the efforts and sacrifices of the WOMEN, who helped it, will hold a most
honorable and conspicuous position.”
As the Liberator states, women
played a crucial role in the anti-slavery movement, not just as subordinates to
men in antislavery organizations, but as true leaders.
Angelina and Sarah Grimké were the first female antislavery agents, and
played a variety of roles in the abolitionist movement. Though born in the
South, the Grimké sisters became disillusioned with slavery and moved north
to get away from it. Perhaps because of their birthplace, the Grimké sisters’
critiques carried particular weight and specificity. Shortly after moving north,
Angelina Grimké spoke of her thrill at seeing white men do manual labor of
any kind.
The different perspectives with which the Grimké sisters
approached slavery, as native southerners as well as women, brought a new, important point of view to the
abolitionist movement. In 1836, they moved to New York and began work for the Anti-Slavery Society, where they
met and were impressed by William Lloyd Garrison.
The sisters wrote many pamphlets (Angelina’s “Appeal to
the Christian Women of the South” was the only appeal directly to southern women to defy slavery laws) and played
leadership roles at the first Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women in 1837.
The Grimkés later proceeded
on their well-known speaking tour around the north, which culminated in Angelina’s February 1838 address to a
Committee of the Legislature of Massachusetts.
Lucretia Mott was also extremely active in the abolitionist movement. Though also well known for her women’s
rights advocacy, Mott also played an important role in the abolitionist movement. Over forty years, she delivered
sermons about abolitionism, women’s rights, and a host of other issues. Mott acknowledged her Quaker beliefs’
determinative role in affecting her abolitionist sentiment. She spoke of the “duty (that) was impressed upon me at the
time I consecrated myself to that Gospel which anoints ‘to preach deliverance to the captive, to set at liberty them
that are bruised...”
Mott’s advocacy took a variety of forms: she worked with the Free Produce Society to boycott
slave-made goods, volunteered with the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, and
helped slaves escape to free territory.
Other luminaries such as Lydia Maria Child, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Harriet Tubman, and
Sojourner Truth all played important roles in abolitionism. But even beyond these well-known women, abolitionism
maintained impressive support from white middle-class and some black women. It was these women who performed
many of the logistical, day-to-day tasks that made the movement successful. They raised money, wrote and
distributed propaganda pieces, drafted and signed petitions, and lobbied the legislatures. Though abolitionism sowed
the seeds of the women’s rights movement, most women became involved in abolitionism because of a gendered
religious worldview, and the idea that they had feminine, moral responsibilities.
For example, in the winter of
1831-1832, three women’s petitions were written to the Virginia legislature, advocating emancipation of the state’s
slave population. The only precedent for such action was Catharine Beecher’s organization of a petition protesting
the Cherokee removal.
The Virginia petitions, while the first of their kind, were by no means the last. Similar
backing increased leading up to the Civil War.
Even as women played crucial roles in abolitionism, the movement simultaneously helped stimulate women’s rights
efforts. A full ten years before the Seneca Falls Convention, the Grimkés were travelling, lecturing about their
experiences with slavery. As Gerda Lerner says, the Grimkés understood their actions’ great impact. “In working for
the liberation of the slave,” Lerner writes, “Sarah and Angelina Grimké found the key to their own liberation. And
the consciousness of the significance of their actions was clearly before them. ‘We Abolition Women are turning the
world upside down.’”
Women gained important experiences in public speaking and organizing that stood them in good stead going
forward. The Grimké sisters’ public speaking played a critical part in legitimizing women’s place in the public
The July 1848 Seneca Falls Convention grew out of a partnership between Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
that blossomed while the two worked, at first, on abolitionist issues. Indeed, the two met at the World’s Anti-Slavery
Convention in the summer of 1840.
Mott brought oratorical skills and an impressive reputation as an abolitionist
to the nascent women’s rights movement.
Abolitionism brought together active women and enabled them to make political and personal connections while
honing communication and organizational skills. Even Sojourner Truth, commonly associated with abolitionism,
delivered her first documented public speech at the 1850 National Women's Rights Convention in Worcester. There,
she argued for women’s reform activism.
Progress of abolition in the United States
To 1804
Although there were several groups that opposed slavery (such as the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes
Unlawfully Held in Bondage), at the time of the founding of the Republic, there were few states which prohibited
slavery outright. The Constitution had several provisions which accommodated slavery, although none used the
word. Passed unanimously by the Congress of the Confederation in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance forbade slavery
in the Northwest Territory, a vast area which had previously belonged to individual states in which slavery was legal.
Samuel Sewall (1652–1730), judge who
wrote The Selling of Joseph (1700) which
denounced the spread of slavery in the
American colonies.
American abolitionism began very early, well before the United States was
founded as a nation. An early law abolishing slavery (but not temporary
indentured servitude) in Rhode Island in 1652 floundered within 50 years.
Samuel Sewall, a prominent Bostonian and one of the judges at the Salem
Witch Trials, wrote The Selling of Joseph
in protest of the widening
practice of outright slavery as opposed to indentured servitude in the colonies.
This is the earliest-recorded anti-slavery tract published in the future United
In 1777, Vermont, not yet a state, became the first jurisdiction in North
America to prohibit slavery: slaves were not directly freed, but masters were
required to remove slaves from Vermont. The first state to begin a gradual
abolition of slavery was Pennsylvania, in 1780. All importation of slaves was
prohibited, but none freed at first; only the slaves of masters who failed to
register them with the state, along with the "future children" of enslaved
mothers. Those enslaved in Pennsylvania before the 1780 law went into effect
were not freed until 1847.
Massachusetts took an opposite and much more radical position. Its Supreme Court ruled in 1783, that a black man
was, indeed, a man; and therefore free under the state's constitution.
An animation showing when states and territories forbade or
admitted slavery 1789–1861
Wood engraving of proslavery riot in Alton, Illinois on
7 November 1837, which resulted in the murder of
abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1802–1837).
All of the other states north of Maryland began gradual
abolition of slavery between 1781 and 1804, based on
the Pennsylvania model.
The institution remained solid in the South, however
and that region's customs and social beliefs evolved
into a strident defense of slavery in response to the rise
of a stronger anti-slavery stance in the North. In 1835
alone abolitionists mailed over a million pieces of
anti-slavery literature to the south. In response southern
legislators banned abolitionist literature and
encouraged harassment of anyone distributing it.
Immediate abolition
Abolitionists included those who joined the American
Anti-Slavery Society or its auxiliary groups in the
1830s and 1840s as the movement fragmented.
fragmented anti-slavery movement included groups
such as the Liberty Party; the American and Foreign
Anti-Slavery Society; the American Missionary
Association; and the Church Anti-Slavery Society.
Historians traditionally distinguish between moderate
antislavery reformers or gradualists, who concentrated
on stopping the spread of slavery, and radical abolitionists or immediatists, whose demands for unconditional
emancipation often merged with a concern for black civil rights. However, James Stewart advocates a more nuanced
understanding of the relationship of abolition and antislavery prior to the Civil War:
While instructive, the distinction [between antislavery and abolition] can also be misleading, especially
in assessing abolitionism's political impact. For one thing, slaveholders never bothered with such fine
points. Many immediate abolitionists showed no less concern than did other white Northerners about the
fate of the nation's "precious legacies of freedom." Immediatism became most difficult to distinguish
from broader anti-Southern opinions once ordinary citizens began articulating these intertwining
Anti-slavery advocates were outraged by the murder of Elijah Parish Lovejoy, a white man and editor of an
abolitionist newspaper on 7 November 1837, by a pro-slavery mob in Illinois. Nearly all Northern politicians
rejected the extreme positions of the abolitionists; Abraham Lincoln, for example. Indeed many northern leaders
including Lincoln, Stephen Douglas (the Democratic nominee in 1860), John C. Fremont (the Republican nominee
in 1856), and Ulysses S. Grant married into slave owning southern families without any moral qualms.
Lysander Spooner (1808–1887), an
individualist anarchist who wrote The
Unconstitutionality of Slavery (1845).
Antislavery as a principle was far more than just the wish to limit the extent
of slavery. Most Northerners recognized that slavery existed in the South and
the Constitution did not allow the federal government to intervene there. Most
Northerners favored a policy of gradual and compensated emancipation. After
1849 abolitionists rejected this and demanded it end immediately and
everywhere. John Brown was the only abolitionist known to have actually
planned a violent insurrection, though David Walker promoted the idea. The
abolitionist movement was strengthened by the activities of free
African-Americans, especially in the black church, who argued that the old
Biblical justifications for slavery contradicted the New Testament.
African-American activists and their writings were rarely heard outside the
black community; however, they were tremendously influential to some
sympathetic white people, most prominently the first white activist to reach
prominence, William Lloyd Garrison, who was its most effective
propagandist. Garrison's efforts to recruit eloquent spokesmen led to the
discovery of ex-slave Frederick Douglass, who eventually became a
prominent activist in his own right. Eventually, Douglass would publish his
own, widely distributed abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
In the early 1850s, the American abolitionist movement split into two camps over the issue of the United States
Constitution. This issue arose in the late 1840s after the publication of The Unconstitutionality of Slavery by
Lysander Spooner. The Garrisonians, led by Garrison and Wendell Phillips, publicly burned copies of the
Constitution, called it a pact with slavery, and demanded its abolition and replacement. Another camp, led by
Lysander Spooner, Gerrit Smith, and eventually Douglass, considered the Constitution to be an antislavery
document. Using an argument based upon Natural Law and a form of social contract theory, they said that slavery
existed outside of the Constitution's scope of legitimate authority and therefore should be abolished.
Another split in the abolitionist movement was along class lines. The artisan republicanism of Robert Dale Owen
and Frances Wright stood in stark contrast to the politics of prominent elite abolitionists such as industrialist Arthur
Tappan and his evangelist brother Lewis. While the former pair opposed slavery on a basis of solidarity of "wage
slaves" with "chattel slaves", the Whiggish Tappans strongly rejected this view, opposing the characterization of
Northern workers as "slaves" in any sense. (Lott, 129–130)
Idealized portrait of John Brown being
adored by an enslaved mother and child
as he walks to his execution.
Many American abolitionists took an active role in opposing slavery by
supporting the Underground Railroad.
This was made illegal by the federal
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Nevertheless, participants like Harriet Tubman,
Henry Highland Garnet, Alexander Crummell, Amos Noë Freeman and
others continued with their work. Abolitionists were particularly active in
Ohio, where some worked directly in the Underground Railroad. Since the
state shared a border with slave states, it was a popular place for slaves'
escaping across the Ohio River and up its tributaries, where they sought
shelter among supporters who would help them move north to freedom. Two
significant events in the struggle to destroy slavery were the
Oberlin-Wellington Rescue and John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. In the
South, members of the abolitionist movement or other people opposing
slavery were often targets of lynch mob violence before the American Civil
Numerous known abolitionists lived, worked, and worshipped in Downtown
Brooklyn, from Henry Ward Beecher, who auctioned slaves into freedom
from the pulpit of Plymouth Church, to Nathan Egelston, a leader of the African and Foreign Antislavery Society,
who also preached at Bridge Street AME and lived on Duffield Street. His fellow Duffield Street residents, Thomas
and Harriet Truesdell were leading members of the Abolitionist movement. Mr. Truesdell was a founding member of
the Providence Anti-slavery Society before moving to Brooklyn in 1851. Harriet Truesdell was also very active in
the movement, organizing an antislavery convention in Pennsylvania Hall in Philadelphia. The Tuesdell's lived at
227 Duffield Street. Another prominent Brooklyn-based abolitionist was Rev. Joshua Leavitt, trained as a lawyer at
Yale who stopped practicing law in order to attend Yale Divinity School, and subsequently edited the abolitionist
newspaper The Emancipator and campaigned against slavery, as well as advocating other social reforms. In 1841
Leavitt published his The Financial Power of Slavery, which argued that the South was draining the national
economy due to its reliance on slavery.
John Brown
John Brown (1800–1859), abolitionist
who advocated armed rebellion by
slaves. He slaughtered pro-slavery
settlers in Kansas and in 1859 was
hanged by the state of Virginia for
leading an unsuccessful slave
insurrection at Harpers Ferry.
Historian Frederick Blue called John Brown "the most controversial of all
19th-century Americans."
When Brown was hanged after his attempt to
start a slave rebellion in 1859, church bells rang, minute guns were fired,
large memorial meetings took place throughout the North, and famous writers
such as Emerson and Henry David Thoreau joined many Northerners in
praising Brown.
Whereas Garrison was a pacifist, Brown resorted to
violence. Historians agree he played a major role in starting the war. Some
historians regard Brown as a crazed lunatic while David S. Reynolds hails
him as the man who "killed slavery, sparked the civil war, and seeded civil
rights." For Ken Chowder he is "the father of American terrorism."
His famous raid in October 1859, involved a band of 22 men who seized the
federal Harpers Ferry Armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, knowing it
contained tens of thousands of weapons. Brown believed that the South was
on the verge of a gigantic slave uprising and that one spark would set it off.
Brown's supporters George Luther Stearns, Franklin B. Sanborn, Thomas
Wentworth Higginson, Theodore Parker, Samuel Gridley Howe and Gerrit
Smith were all abolitionist members of the Secret Six who provided financial backing for Brown's raid. Brown's raid,
says historian David Potter, "was meant to be of vast magnitude and to produce a revolutionary slave uprising
throughout the South." The raid was a fiasco. Not a single slave revolted. Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee of the U.S.
Army was dispatched to put down the raid, and Brown was quickly captured. Brown was tried for treason against
Virginia and hanged. At his trial, Brown exuded a remarkable zeal and single-mindedness that played directly to
Southerners' worst fears. Few individuals did more to cause secession than John Brown, because Southerners
believed he was right about an impending slave revolt. Shortly before his execution, Brown prophesied, "the crimes
of this guilty land will never be purged away; but with Blood."
American Civil War
From the beginning of the American Civil War, Union leaders identified slavery as the social and economic
foundation of the Confederacy, and from 1862 were determined to end that support system. Meanwhile pro-Union
forces gained control of the Border States and began the process of emancipation in Maryland, Missouri and West
Virginia. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on 1 January 1863, and in the next 24 months it effectively
ended slavery throughout the Confederacy. The passage of the Thirteenth Amendment (ratified in December 1865)
officially ended slavery in the United States, and freed the 50,000 or so remaining slaves in the border states.
The abolitionist movements and the abolition of slavery have been commemorated in different ways around the
world in modern times. The United Nations General Assembly declared 2004 the International Year to
Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition. This proclamation marked the bicentenary of the birth
of the first black state, Haiti. Numerous exhibitions, events and research programmes were connected to the
2007 witnessed major exhibitions in British museums and galleries to mark the anniversary of the 1807 abolition act
– 1807 Commemorated
2008 marks the 201st anniversary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade in the British
It also marks the 175th anniversary of the Abolition of Slavery in the British Empire.
The Faculty of Law at the University of Ottawa held a major international conference entitled, "Routes to Freedom:
Reflections on the Bicentenary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade", from 14 to 16 March 2008.
Actor and human
rights activist Danny Glover delivered the keynote speech announcing the creation of two major scholarships
intended for University of Ottawa law students specializing in international law and social justice at the conference's
gala dinner.
Brooklyn, New York has begun work on commemorating the abolitionist movement in New York.
Contemporary abolitionism
On 10 December 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. Article 4 states:
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Although outlawed in most countries, slavery is nonetheless practiced secretly in many parts of the world.
Enslavement still takes place in the United States, Europe, and Latin America,
as well as parts of Africa, the
Middle East, and South Asia.
There are an estimated 27 million victims of slavery worldwide.
In Mauritania
alone, estimates are that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved. Many of
them are used as bonded labour.
Modern-day abolitionists have emerged over the last several years, as awareness of slavery around the world has
grown, with groups such as Anti-Slavery International, the American Anti-Slavery Group, International Justice
Mission, and Free the Slaves working to rid the world of slavery. Zach Hunter,
for example, began a movement
called Loose Change to Loosen Chains
when he was in seventh grade. Also featured on CNN
and other
national news organizations, Hunter has gone on to help inspire other teens and young adults to take action against
injustice with his books, Be the Change and Generation Change.
In the United States, The Action Group to End Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery is a coalition of NGOs,
foundations and corporations working to develop a policy agenda for abolishing slavery and human trafficking.
Since 1997, the United States Department of Justice has, through work with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers,
prosecuted six individuals in Florida on charges of slavery in the agricultural industry. These prosecutions have led
to freedom for over 1000 enslaved workers in the tomato and orange fields of South Florida. This is only one
example of the contemporary fight against slavery worldwide. Slavery exists most widely in agricultural labor,
apparel and sex industries, and service jobs in some regions.
In 2000, the United States passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) "to combat
trafficking in persons, especially into the sex trade, slavery, and involuntary servitude."
The TVPA also "created
new law enforcement tools to strengthen the prosecution and punishment of traffickers, making human trafficking a
Federal crime with severe penalties."
The United States Department of State publishes the annual Trafficking in Persons Report, identifying countries as
either Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 3, depending upon three factors: "(1) The extent to which the country
is a country of origin, transit, or destination for severe forms of trafficking; (2) The extent to which the government
of the country does not comply with the TVPA's minimum standards including, in particular, the extent of the
government's trafficking-related corruption; and (3) The resources and capabilities of the government to address and
eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons."
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[33] John Woolman. A Quaker Abolitionist Travels Through Maryland and Virginia (http:// historymatters.gmu. edu/ d/ 6538/) Extract from
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[37] "Africans in America" (http:// www. pbs.org/ wgbh/ aia/ part4/4narr3.html) – PBS Series – Part 4 (2007)
[38] [38] Ira Berlin and Leslie Harris (2005); Gellman (2006);
[39] Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 12/ 30/ opinion/ 30foner.html), New York Times. 30
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[40] Andrew Levy, The First Emancipator: Slavery, Religion and the Quiet Revolution of Robert Carter, New York: Random House, 2005, p.xi
[41] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619–1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, pp.78, 81–82
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[45] Eric Foner. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970), p. 9
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[47] Maggie Montesinos Sale (1997). The slumbering volcano: American slave ship revolts and the production of rebellious masculinity. p.264.
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[50] http:// www. npg. si. edu/ col/ amistad/ index. htm
[51] James Brewer Stewart, Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (1976)
[52] http:/ / www. clemson. edu/ welcome/ history/ forthill/calhoun.htm
[53] David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage (2006) pp 186–192.
[54] Mitchell Snay, "American Thought and Southern Distinctiveness: The Southern Clergy and the Sanctification of Slavery", Civil War History
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[55] Marianne Ruuth (1996). Frederick Douglass (http:// books.google.com/ books?id=4Lx8nXxmAlcC& pg=PA118& dq=Douglass+ -+
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[57] Noel B, Gerson, Harriet Beecher Stowe (1976) p.68
[58] Dooley 11–15; McKivigan 27 (ritualism), 30, 51, 191, Osofsky; ANB Leonidas Polk
[59] Jeffrey, Julie Roy (1998). The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 1.
[60] Lerner, Gerda (2004). The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Pioneers for Women's Rights and Abolition. Chapel Hill, NC: University of
North Carolina Press. pp. 61.
[61] Lerner, Gerda (2004). The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Pioneers for Women's Rights and Abolition. Chapel Hill, NC: University of
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[62] Lerner, Gerda (October 1963). "The Grimke Sisters and the Struggle Against Race Prejudice". The Journal of Negro History 48 (4): 278 and
[63] Greene, Dana (April 1981). "Quaker Feminism: The Case of Lucretia Mott". Pennsylvania History 48 (2): 149.
[64] Turner, Lorenzo D. (April 1959). "'Lucretia Mott.' by Otelia Cromwell". The Journal of Negro History 44 (2): 186.
[65] Jeffrey, Julie Roy (1998). The Great Silent Army of Abolitionism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 2.
[66] Breen, Patrick H. (2002). "The Female Antislavery Petition Campaign of 1831-32". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 110
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[67] Lerner, Gerda (2004). The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina: Pioneers for Women's Rights and Abolition. Chapel Hill, NC: University of
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[68] Sklar, Kathryn (2000). Women's Rights Emerges Within the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1830-1870: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St
Martin's. pp. 50.
[69] Sklar, Kathryn (2000). Women's Rights Emerges Within the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1830-1870: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St
Martin's. pp. 63.
[70] Lauber, Almon Wheeler, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. New York: Columbia University,
1913. See also the Rhode Island Historical Society FAQ (http:/ / www. rihs. org/ faqatt.htm).
[71] Sewall, Samuel (1700). The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial (http:/ / www. masshist. org/objects/ 2004september.cfm). Boston:
Bartholomew Green and John Allen (Massachusetts Historical Society). . Retrieved 9 December 2011.
[72] Pennsylvania's Gradual Abolition Act (http:/ / www. ushistory. org/presidentshouse/ history/ gradual.htm)
[73] Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery by James Brewer Stewart, p. 78
[74] James Brewer Stewart (1997). Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (http:/ / books. google.com/
books?id=3gR57ahFQBsC& pg=PA78). Macmillan. p. 78. .
[75] [75] Blight, David W. (2001)Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory. Smithsonian Books
[76] Lynching an Abolitionist in Mississippi. (http:// query.nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract.
[77] Frederick J. Blue in American Historical Review (April 2006) v. 111 p 481-2.
[78] David Potter, The Impending Crisis (1976), pp 378–379
[79] David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (2005); Ken
Chowder, "The Father of American Terrorism." American Heritage (2000) 51(1): 81+ online at files.blog-city.com (http:/ / files. blog-city.
com/ files/ M06/ 158072/ b/ chowder. pdf) archive version (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20070808175559/files.blog-city.com/ files/ M06/
158072/b/ chowder.pdf) and Stephen Oates quoted at nps.gov (http:/ / www. nps.gov/ archive/ hafe/jbrown/ oates-text.htm) archive version
(http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20090510102805/ www. nps. gov/ archive/hafe/ jbrown/oates-text.htm)
[80] David Potter, The Impending Crisis: 1848–1861 (1976), chapter 14, quote from p. 367. Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union: A House
Dividing, pages 472–477 and The Emergence of Lincoln, vol 2, pages 71–97
[81] Foner, Eric (2010). The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 9780393066180.
[82] "1807 Commemorated" (http:// www. history. ac. uk/ 1807commemorated). Institute for the Public Understanding of the Past and the
Institute of Historical Research. 2007. . Retrieved 27 November 2010.
[83] "Slave Trade Act 1807 UK" (http:/ / www. anti-slaverysociety.addr.com/ huk-1807act.htm). anti-slaverysociety.addr.com. .
[84] "Slavery Abolition Act 1833 UK" (http:/ / www. anti-slaverysociety.addr. com/ huk-1833act.htm). anti-slaverysociety.addr.com. .
[85] "Les Chemins de la Liberté : Réflexions à l'occasion du bicentenaire de l'abolition de l'esclavage / Routes to freedom : Reflections on the
Bicentenary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade" (http:/ / www. abolition1807-2007.uottawa.ca). University of Ottawa, Canada. . Retrieved
27 November 2010.
[86] Bales, Kevin. Ending Slavery: How We Free Today's Slaves. University of California Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-520-25470-1
[87] Does Slavery Still Exist? (http:// anti-slaverysociety. addr.com/ slavery. htm). Anti-Slavery Society.
[88] Slavery in the Twenty-First Century (http:// www. un. org/ Pubs/ chronicle/ 2005/ issue3/ 0305p28.html). Issue 3. UN Chronicle. 2005. .
[89] "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/6938032.stm). BBC News. 9 August 2007. .
[90] "Just 15, He Leads Fight to Abolish Slavery" (http:/ / abcnews. go.com/ GMA/ Story?id=2951434&page=1). ABC News. 15 March 2007.
Archived (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20101025101901/ http:/ / abcnews. go.com/ GMA/ Story?id=2951434&page=1) from the original
on 25 October 2010. . Retrieved 27 November 2010.
[91] "Lc2lc homepage" (http:// www. lc2lc. org/ ). Archived (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20101104080614/ http:/ / www. lc2lc.org/ ) from
the original on 4 November 2010. . Retrieved 27 November 2010.
[92] "video of Zach Hunter" (http:// www. cnn. com/ video/ #/ video/ specials/ 2007/ 05/ 15/ heroes. zach.hunter.cnn). CNN. .
[93] Public Law 106–386 – 28 October 2000, Victims of trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (http:/ / www. state. gov/
documents/ organization/ 10492. pdf)
[94] US Department of Health and Human Services, TVPA Fact Sheet (http:/ / www.acf.hhs. gov/trafficking/about/ TVPA_2000.pdf)
[95] "US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report 2008, Introduction" (http:// www. state. gov/ g/ tip/ rls/ tiprpt/ 2008/ 105376.htm).
state.gov. .
Further reading
Great Britain and World
• Bader-Zaar, Birgitta: Abolitionism in the Atlantic World: The Organization and Interaction of Anti-Slavery
Movements in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (http:/ / nbn-resolving.de/ urn:nbn:de:0159-2011120524),
European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2010, retrieved: June 14, 2012.
• Brown, Christopher Leslie. Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism (2006)
• Davis, David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (1999); The Problem of Slavery
in Western Culture (1988)
• Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (2009)
• Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of Slavery (1999)
• Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
• Gould, Philip. Barbaric Traffic: Commerce and Antislavery in the 18th-century Atlantic World (2003)
• Hellie, Richard. Slavery in Russia: 1450–1725 (1982)
• Hinks, Peter, and John McKivigan, eds. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2 vol. 2006) ISBN
0-313-33142-1; 846pp; 300 articles by experts
• Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains, Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves (2005)
• Kolchin, Peter. Unfree Labor; American Slavery and Russian Serfdom (1987)
• Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
•• Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. "Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World" (2007)
• Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
• Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440–1870 (2006)
United States and Canada
• Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination. Oxford, 1994. ISBN
• Bacon, Jacqueline. The Humblest May Stand Forth: Rhetoric, Empowerment, and Abolition. Univ of South
Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 1-57003-434-6.
• Barnes, Gilbert H. The Anti-Slavery Impulse 1830–1844. Reprint, 1964. ISBN 0-7812-5307-1.
• Berlin, Ira and Leslie Harris. Slavery in New York. New Press, 2005. ISBN 1-56584-997-3.
• Blue, Frederick J. No Taint of Compromise: Crusaders in Antislavery Politics. Louisiana State Univ Press, 2004.
ISBN 0-8071-2976-3.
• Bordewich, Fergus M. Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America.
HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-052430-8.
• Cogliano, Francis D (2006). Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy. Edinburgh University Press.
ISBN 978-0-7486-2499-7.
• Crawford, Alan Pell (2008). Twilight at Monticello: The Final Years of Thomas Jefferson. Random House.
ISBN 978-1-4000-6079-5.
• Davis, David Brion, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World Oxford, 2006. ISBN
• Filler, Louis. The Crusade Against Slavery 1830–1860. 1960. ISBN 0-917256-29-8.
• Frost, Karolyn Smardz; Osei, Kwasi (Cover design); South, Sunny (Cover art) (2007). I've Got a Home in Glory
Land: A Lost Tale of the Underground Railroad (http:/ / books. google.com/ books?id=ANv1C6liU1QC). New
York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16481-2. ISBN 978-0-374-53125-6. Winner, 2007 Governor
General's Literary Award for Nonfiction; Nominee (Nonfiction), National Book Critics Circle Award 2007. See,
Governor General's Award for English language non-fiction.
• David Nathaniel Gellman. Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery And Freedom, 1777–1827 Louisiana
State Univ Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8071-3174-1.
• Griffin, Clifford S. Their Brothers' Keepers: Moral Stewardship in the United States 1800–1865. Rutgers Univ
Press, 1967. ISBN 0-313-24059-0.
• Harrold, Stanley. The Abolitionists and the South, 1831–1861. Univ Press of Kentucky, 1995. ISBN
• Harrold, Stanley. The American Abolitionists. Longman, 2000. ISBN 0-582-35738-1.
• Harrold, Stanley. The Rise of Aggressive Abolitionism: Addresses to the Slaves. Univ Press of Kentucky, 2004.
ISBN 0-8131-2290-2.
• Hassard, John. The Life of John Hughes: First Archbishop of New York. Arno Press, 1969
• Horton, James Oliver. "Alexander Hamilton: Slavery and Race in a Revolutionary Generation" New-York Journal
of American History 2004 65(3): 16–24. ISSN 1551–5486
• Huston, James L. "The Experiential Basis of the Northern Antislavery Impulse." Journal of Southern History 56:4
(November 1990): 609–640.
• Mayer, Henry All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN
• McKivigan, John R. The War Against Proslavery Religion: Abolitionism and the Northern Churches, 1830–1865
Cornell Univ Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8014-1589-6.
• McPherson, James M. The Abolitionist Legacy: From Reconstruction to the NAACP Princeton Univ Press, 1975.
ISBN 0-691-04637-9.
• Osofsky, Gilbert. "Abolitionists, Irish Immigrants, and the Dilemmas of Romantic Nationalism" American
Historical Review 1975 80(4): 889–912. ISSN 0002-8762 in JSTOR
• Perry, Lewis and Michael Fellman, eds. Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists.
Louisiana State Univ Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8071-0889-8.
• Peterson, Merrill D. John Brown: The Legend Revisited. Univ Press of Virginia, 2002. ISBN 0-8139-2132-5.
• Peterson, Merrill D. (1960). The Jefferson Image in the American Mind. University of Virginia Press.. p. 548.
ISBN 0-8139-1851-0.
• Pierson, Michael D. Free Hearts and Free Homes: Gender and American Antislavery Politics. Univ of North
Carolina Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8078-2782-7.
• Schafer, Judith Kelleher. Becoming Free, Remaining Free: Manumission and Enslavement in New Orleans,
1846–1862. Louisiana State Univ Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8071-2862-7.
• Salerno, Beth A. Sister Societies: Women's Antislavery Organizations in Antebellum America. Northern Illinois
Univ Press, 2005. ISBN 0-87580-338-5.
• Speicher, Anna M. The Religious World of Antislavery Women: Spirituality in the Lives of Five Abolitionist
Lecturers. Syracuse Univ Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8156-2850-1.
• Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Harvard Univ
Press, 2002. ISBN 0-674-00645-3.
• "Thomas Jefferson and Slavery" (http:// www. monticello. org/ site/ plantation-and-slavery/
thomas-jefferson-and-slavery). Monticello.org. 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2012-05-04.</ref>
• Vorenberg, Michael. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment.
Cambridge Univ Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-65267-7.
• Zilversmit, Arthur. The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North. University of Chicago Press,
1967. ISBN 0-226-98332-3.
External links
[1] [1] Ferling 2000, p. 135
• Mémoire St Barth | History of St Barthélemy (archives & history of slavery, slave trade and their abolition) (http:/
/ www.memoirestbarth/EN/), Comité de Liaison et d'Application des Sources Historiques.
• Largest Surviving Anti Slave Trade Petition from Manchester, UK 1806 (http:// www. parliament.uk/ slavetrade)
• Original Document Proposing Abolition of Slavery 13th Amendment (http:/ / www.footnote.com/ viewer.
• "John Brown's body and blood" (http:/ / www.tls. timesonline. co. uk/ article/0,,25340-2597455,00. html) by Ari
Kelman: a review in the TLS (http:// tls. timesonline.co.uk/ ), 14 February 2007.
• Scotland and the Abolition of the Slave Trade – schools resource (http:/ / www.ltscotland. org.uk/ abolition/ )
• Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice (http:// www. brown.edu/ Research/
Slavery_Justice/ documents/ SlaveryAndJustice. pdf)
• Twentieth Century Solutions of the Abolition of Slavery (http:// www.yale.edu/ glc/ events/ cbss/ Miers. pdf)
• Elijah Parish Lovejoy: A Martyr on the Altar of American Liberty (http:/ / www. altonweb.com/ history/ lovejoy/
• Brycchan Carey's pages listing British abolitionists (http:/ / www. brycchancarey.com/ abolition/ )
• Teaching resources about Slavery and Abolition on blackhistory4schools.com (http:// www.
blackhistory4schools. com/ slavetrade/ )
• The National Archives (UK): The Abolition of the Slave Trade (http:// www. nationalarchives.gov. uk/
pathways/ blackhistory/ rights/ abolition.htm)
• Towards Liberty: Slavery, the Slave Trade, Abolition and Emancipation (http:// www. sheffield. gov.uk/
libraries/ archives-and-local-studies/publications/ slavery-and-abolition) Produced by Sheffield City Council's
Libraries and Archives (UK)]
• The slavery debate (http:/ / www. realnews-online.com/ rn0112.htm)
• John Brown Museum (http:/ / www. kshs. org/ places/ johnbrown/index. htm)
• American Abolitionism (http:// americanabolitionist.liberalarts.iupui. edu/ )
• History of the British abolitionist movement by Right Honourable Lord Archer of Sandwell (http://
anti-slaverysociety. addr.com/ huk-history.htm)
• "Slavery – The emancipation movement in Britain" (http:/ / www.gresham. ac. uk/ event.asp?PageId=45&
EventId=476), lecture by James Walvin at Gresham College, 5 March 2007 (available for video and audio
• Underground Railroad: Escape from Slavery | Scholatic.com (http:// teacher.scholastic. com/ activities/ bhistory/
underground_railroad/ index.htmThe)
• "Black Canada and the Journey to Freedom" (http:/ / www. virtualmuseum. ca/ blackhistory/ )
• 1807 Commemorated (http:// www. history.ac.uk/ 1807commemorated)
• The Action Group (http:// www. theactiongroup.org/index. htm)
• US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report 2008 (http:// www. state. gov/ g/tip/ rls/ tiprpt/ 2008/ )
• National Underground Railroad Freedom Center (http:/ / www. freedomcenter.org/) in Cincinnati, Ohio
• The Liberator Files (http:// theliberatorfiles.com), Horace Seldon's collection and summary of research of
William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator original copies at the Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts.
• University of Detroit Mercy Black Abolitionist Archive (http:/ / research. udmercy.edu/ find/special_collections/
digital/ baa/ ), a collection of over 800 speeches by antebellum blacks and approximately 1,000 editorials from the
• Abolitionist movement (http:/ / histclo.com/ Act/ work/ slave/ ast/ abol. html)
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Daguerreotype of Abraham Lincoln at age 54, 1863
16th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin (1861-1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865)
Preceded by James Buchanan
Succeeded by Andrew Johnson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1847 – March 4, 1849
Preceded by John Henry
Succeeded by Thomas Harris
Personal details
Born February 12, 1809
Hodgenville, Kentucky, U.S.
Died April 15, 1865 (aged 56)
Petersen House, Washington, D.C., U.S.
Abraham Lincoln
Resting place Lincoln's Tomb, Oak Ridge Cemetery
Springfield, Illinois
United States
San Marino
Political party Republican (1854–1865)
National Union (1864–1865)
Other political
Whig (Before 1854)
Spouse(s) Mary Todd
Children Robert
Profession Lawyer
Military service
Service/branch Illinois Militia
Years of service 1832
Battles/wars Black Hawk War
Abraham Lincoln
/ˈeɪbrəhæmˈlɪŋkən/ (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United
States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln successfully led his country through
its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union while ending
slavery, and promoting economic and financial modernization. Reared in a poor family on the western frontier,
Lincoln was mostly self-educated, and became a country lawyer, a Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator during
the 1830s, and a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives during the 1840s.
After a series of debates in 1858 that gave national visibility to his opposition to the expansion of slavery, Lincoln
lost a Senate race to his arch-rival, Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state, secured the
Republican Party presidential nomination in 1860. With almost no support in the South, Lincoln swept the North and
was elected president in 1860. His election was the signal for seven southern slave states to declare their secession
from the Union and form the Confederacy. The departure of the Southerners gave Lincoln's party firm control of
Congress, but no formula for compromise or reconciliation was found. Lincoln explained in his second inaugural
address: "Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the Nation survive, and the
other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came."
When the North enthusiastically rallied behind the national flag after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April
12, 1861, Lincoln concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war effort. His goal was now to
reunite the nation. As the South was in a state of insurrection, Lincoln exercised his authority to suspend habeas
corpus, arresting and temporarily detaining thousands of suspected secessionists without trial. Lincoln averted
British recognition of the Confederacy by skillfully handling the Trent affair in late 1861. His efforts toward the
abolition of slavery include issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, encouraging the border states to outlaw
slavery, and helping push through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which
finally freed all the slaves nationwide in December 1865. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the
selection of top generals, including commanding general Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln brought leaders of the major
factions of his party into his cabinet and pressured them to cooperate. Under Lincoln's leadership, the Union set up a
Abraham Lincoln
naval blockade that shut down the South's normal trade, took control of the border slave states at the start of the war,
gained control of communications with gunboats on the southern river systems, and tried repeatedly to capture the
Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. Each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another until finally Grant
succeeded in 1865.
An exceptionally astute politician deeply involved with power issues in each state, Lincoln reached out to War
Democrats and managed his own re-election in the 1864 presidential election. As the leader of the moderate faction
of the Republican party, Lincoln found his policies and personality were "blasted from all sides": Radical
Republicans demanded harsher treatment of the South, War Democrats desired more compromise, Copperheads
despised him, and irreconcilable secessionists plotted his death.
Politically, Lincoln fought back with patronage,
by pitting his opponents against each other, and by appealing to the American people with his powers of oratory.
His Gettysburg Address of 1863 became the most quoted speech in American history.
It was an iconic statement of
America's dedication to the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. At the
close of the war, Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to reunite the nation speedily through a
policy of generous reconciliation in the face of lingering and bitter divisiveness. Six days after the surrender of
Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, however, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate
sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln's death was the first assassination of a U.S. president and sent the nation
into mourning. Lincoln has been consistently ranked by scholars and the public as one of the three greatest U.S.
presidents, the others being George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Family and childhood
Early life
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809, the second child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Lincoln (née Hanks),
in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm in Hardin County, Kentucky
(now LaRue County). Lincoln's
paternal grandfather and namesake, Abraham, had moved his family from Virginia to Kentucky,
where he was
ambushed and killed in an Indian raid in 1786, with his children, including Lincoln's father Thomas, looking on.
Thomas was left to make his own way on the frontier.
Lincoln's mother, Nancy, was the daughter of Lucy Hanks,
and was born in what is now Mineral County, West Virginia, then part of Virginia. Lucy moved with Nancy to
Kentucky. Nancy Hanks married Thomas, who became a respected citizen. He bought and sold several farms,
including Knob Creek Farm. The family attended a Separate Baptists church, which had restrictive moral standards
and opposed alcohol, dancing, and slavery.
Thomas enjoyed considerable status in Kentucky—where he sat on
juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, and guarded prisoners. By the time his son Abraham was
born, Thomas owned two 600-acre (240 ha) farms, several town lots, livestock, and horses. He was among the
richest men in the county.
However, in 1816, Thomas lost all of his land in court cases because of faulty
property titles.
The young Lincoln in sculpture at
Senn Park, Chicago
The family moved north across the Ohio River to free (i.e., non-slave) territory
and made a new start in what was then Perry County but is now Spencer County,
Indiana. Lincoln later noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery" but
mainly due to land title difficulties.
In Indiana, when Lincoln was nine, his
mother Nancy died of milk sickness in 1818.
After the death of Lincoln's
mother, his older sister, Sarah, took charge of caring for him until their father
remarried in 1819; Sarah later died in her 20s while giving birth to a stillborn
Abraham Lincoln
Thomas Lincoln's new wife was the widow Sarah Bush Johnston, the mother of three children. Lincoln became very
close to his stepmother, and referred to her as "Mother".
As a pre-teen, he did not like the hard labor associated
with frontier life. Some in his family, and in the neighborhood, for a time considered him to be lazy.
As he
grew into his teens, he willingly took responsibility for all chores expected of him as one of the boys in the
household and became an adept axeman in his work building rail fences. He attained a reputation for brawn and
audacity after a very competitive wrestling match to which he was challenged by the renowned leader of a group of
ruffians, "the Clary's Grove boys".
Lincoln also agreed with the customary obligation of a son to give his father
all earnings from work done outside the home until age 21.
In later years, Lincoln occasionally loaned his father
Lincoln became increasingly distant from his father, in part because of his father's lack of education.
While young Lincoln's formal education consisted approximately of a year's worth of classes from several itinerant
teachers, he was mostly self-educated and was an avid reader and often sought access to any new books in the
village. He read and reread the King James Bible, Aesop's Fables, Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, Defoe's Robinson
Crusoe, and Franklin's Autobiography.
In 1830, fearing a milk sickness outbreak along the Ohio River, the Lincoln family moved west, where they settled
on public land in Macon County, Illinois, another free, non-slave state.
In 1831, Thomas relocated the family to a
new homestead in Coles County, Illinois. It was then that, as an ambitious 22-year-old, Lincoln decided to seek a
better life and struck out on his own. Canoeing down the Sangamon River, Lincoln ended up in the village of New
Salem in Sangamon County.
In the spring of 1831, hired by New Salem businessman Denton Offutt and
accompanied by friends, he took goods by flatboat from New Salem to New Orleans via the Sangamon, Illinois, and
Mississippi rivers. After arriving in New Orleans—and witnessing slavery firsthand—he walked back home.
Marriage and children
1864 photo of President Lincoln with youngest son, Tad
Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of Abraham Lincoln, age 28
Lincoln's first romantic interest was Ann Rutledge, whom he met when he first moved to New Salem; by 1835, they
were in a relationship but not formally engaged. She died on August 25, most likely of typhoid fever.
In the early
1830s, he met Mary Owens from Kentucky when she was visiting her sister. Late in 1836, Lincoln agreed to a match
Abraham Lincoln
with Mary if she returned to New Salem. Mary did return in November 1836, and Lincoln courted her for a time;
however, they both had second thoughts about their relationship. On August 16, 1837, Lincoln wrote Mary a letter
suggesting he would not blame her if she ended the relationship. She never replied and the courtship was over.
In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, who was from a wealthy slave-holding family in Lexington,
They met in Springfield, Illinois, in December 1839
and were engaged the following December.
A wedding set for January 1, 1841, was canceled when the two broke off their engagement at Lincoln's
They later met again at a party and married on November 4, 1842, in the Springfield mansion of
Mary's married sister.
While preparing for the nuptials and feeling anxiety again, Lincoln, when asked where he
was going, replied, "To hell, I suppose."
In 1844, the couple bought a house in Springfield near Lincoln's law office. Mary Todd Lincoln kept house, often
with the help of a relative or hired servant girl.
Robert Todd Lincoln was born in 1843 and Edward Baker Lincoln
(Eddie) in 1846. Lincoln "was remarkably fond of children",
and the Lincolns were not considered to be strict
with their children.
Edward died on February 1, 1850, in Springfield, likely of tuberculosis. "Willie" Lincoln was
born on December 21, 1850, and died on February 20, 1862. The Lincolns' fourth son, Thomas "Tad" Lincoln, was
born on April 4, 1853, and died of heart failure at the age of 18 on July 16, 1871.
Robert was the only child to live
to adulthood and have children. His last descendant, grandson Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, died in 1985.
The deaths of their sons had profound effects on both parents. Later in life, Mary struggled with the stresses of losing
her husband and sons, and Robert Lincoln committed her temporarily to a mental health asylum in 1875.
Abraham Lincoln suffered from "melancholy", a condition which now is referred to as clinical depression.
Lincoln's father-in-law was based in Lexington, Kentucky; he and others of the Todd family were either slave
owners or slave traders. Lincoln was close to the Todds, and he and his family occasionally visited the Todd estate in
He was an affectionate, though often absent, husband and father of four children.
Early career and militia service
In 1832, at age 23, Lincoln and a partner bought a small general store on credit in New Salem, Illinois. Although the
economy was booming in the region, the business struggled and Lincoln eventually sold his share. That March he
began his political career with his first campaign for the Illinois General Assembly. He had attained local popularity
and could draw crowds as a natural raconteur in New Salem, though he lacked an education, powerful friends, and
money, which may be why he lost. He advocated navigational improvements on the Sangamon River.
A sketch of candidate Abraham
Before the election Lincoln served as a captain in the Illinois Militia during the
Black Hawk War.
Following his return, Lincoln continued his campaign for
the August 6 election for the Illinois General Assembly. At 6 feet 4 inches
(193 cm),
he was tall and "strong enough to intimidate any rival". At his first
speech, when he saw a supporter in the crowd being attacked, Lincoln grabbed
the assailant by his "neck and the seat of his trousers" and threw him.
finished eighth out of 13 candidates (the top four were elected), though he
received 277 of the 300 votes cast in the New Salem precinct.
Lincoln served as New Salem's postmaster and later as county surveyor, all the
while reading voraciously. He then decided to become a lawyer and began
teaching himself law by reading Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of
England and other law books. Of his learning method, Lincoln stated: "I studied
with nobody".
His second campaign in 1834 was successful. He won election
to the state legislature; though he ran as a Whig, many Democrats favored him over a more powerful Whig
Admitted to the bar in 1836,
he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law under John
T. Stuart, Mary Todd's cousin.
Lincoln became an able and successful lawyer with a reputation as a formidable
Abraham Lincoln
adversary during cross-examinations and closing arguments. He partnered with Stephen T. Logan from 1841 until
1844, when he began his practice with William Herndon, whom Lincoln thought "a studious young man".
served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a Whig representative from Sangamon
In the 1835–36 legislative session, he voted to expand suffrage to white males, whether landowners or not.
was known for his "free soil" stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism. He first articulated this in 1837,
saying, "[The] Institution of slavery is founded on both injustice and bad policy, but the promulgation of abolition
doctrines tends rather to increase than abate its evils."
He closely followed Henry Clay in supporting the
American Colonization Society program of making the abolition of slavery practical by helping the freed slaves to
settle in Liberia in Africa.
Congressman Lincoln
From the early 1830s, Lincoln was a steadfast Whig and professed to friends in 1861 to be, "an old line Whig, a
disciple of Henry Clay".
The party, including Lincoln, favored economic modernization in banking, protective
tariffs to fund internal improvements including railroads, and espoused urbanization as well.
In 1846, Lincoln was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served one two-year term. He was the
only Whig in the Illinois delegation, but he showed his party loyalty by participating in almost all votes and making
speeches that echoed the party line.
Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R. Giddings,
wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture
fugitive slaves, and a popular vote on the matter. He abandoned the bill when it failed to garner sufficient Whig
On foreign and military policy, Lincoln spoke out against the Mexican–American War, which he
attributed to President Polk's desire for "military glory—that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood".
Lincoln also supported the Wilmot Proviso, which, if it had been adopted, would have banned slavery in any U.S.
territory won from Mexico.
Lincoln emphasized his opposition to Polk by drafting and introducing his Spot Resolutions. The war had begun
with a Mexican slaughter of American soldiers in territory disputed by Mexico and the U.S.; Polk insisted that
Mexican soldiers had "invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil".
Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed and prove that the spot was
on American soil.
Congress never enacted the resolution or even debated it, the national papers ignored it, and it
resulted in a loss of political support for Lincoln in his district. One Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him
"spotty Lincoln".
Lincoln later regretted some of his statements, especially his attack on the presidential
war-making powers.
Realizing Clay was unlikely to win the presidency, Lincoln, who had pledged in 1846 to serve only one term in the
House, supported General Zachary Taylor for the Whig nomination in the 1848 presidential election.
Taylor won
and Lincoln hoped to be appointed Commissioner of the General Land Office, but that lucrative patronage job went
to an Illinois rival, Justin Butterfield, considered by the administration to be a highly skilled lawyer, but in Lincoln's
view, an "old fossil".
The administration offered him the consolation prize of secretary or governor of the Oregon
Territory. This distant territory was a Democratic stronghold, and acceptance of the post would have effectively
ended his legal and political career in Illinois, so he declined and resumed his law practice.
Abraham Lincoln
Prairie lawyer
Lincoln in his late 30s – photo taken
by one of Lincoln's law students
around 1846
Lincoln returned to practicing law in Springfield, handling "every kind of
business that could come before a prairie lawyer".
Twice a year for 16 years,
10 weeks at a time, he appeared in county seats in the midstate region when the
county courts were in session.
Lincoln handled many transportation cases in
the midst of the nation's western expansion, particularly the conflicts arising
from the operation of river barges under the many new railroad bridges. As a
riverboat man, Lincoln initially favored those interests, but ultimately
represented whoever hired him.
His reputation grew, and he appeared before
the Supreme Court of the United States, arguing a case involving a canal boat
that sank after hitting a bridge.
In 1849, he received a patent for a flotation
device for the movement of boats in shallow water. The idea was never
commercialized, but Lincoln is the only president to hold a patent.
In 1851, he represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with one of
its shareholders, James A. Barret, who had refused to pay the balance on his
pledge to buy shares in the railroad on the grounds that the company had changed
its original train route.
Lincoln successfully argued that the railroad company was not bound by its original
charter in existence at the time of Barret's pledge; the charter was amended in the public interest to provide a newer,
superior, and less expensive route, and the corporation retained the right to demand Barret's payment. The decision
by the Illinois Supreme Court has been cited by numerous other courts in the nation.
Lincoln appeared before the
Illinois Supreme Court in 175 cases, in 51 as sole counsel, of which 31 were decided in his favor.
From 1853 to
1860, another of Lincoln's largest clients was the Illinois Central Railroad.
Lincoln's most notable criminal trial occurred in 1858 when he defended William "Duff" Armstrong, who was on
trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker.
The case is famous for Lincoln's use of a fact established by
judicial notice in order to challenge the credibility of an eyewitness. After an opposing witness testified seeing the
crime in the moonlight, Lincoln produced a Farmers' Almanac showing the moon was at a low angle, drastically
reducing visibility. Based on this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.
Lincoln rarely raised objections in the
courtroom; but in an 1859 case, where he defended a cousin, Peachy Harrison, who was accused of stabbing another
to death, Lincoln angrily protested the judge's decision to exclude evidence favorable to his client. Instead of holding
Lincoln in contempt of court as was expected, the judge, a Democrat, reversed his ruling, allowing the evidence and
acquitting Harrison.
Republican politics 1854–60
Slavery and a "House Divided"
By the 1850s, slavery was still legal in the southern United States, but had been generally outlawed in the northern
states, such as Illinois.
Lincoln disapproved of slavery, and the spread of slavery to new U.S. territory in the
He returned to politics to oppose the pro-slavery Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854); this law repealed the
slavery-restricting Missouri Compromise (1820). Senior Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois had incorporated
popular sovereignty into the Act. Douglas' provision, which Lincoln opposed, specified settlers had the right to
determine locally whether to allow slavery in new U.S. territory, rather than have such a decision restricted by the
national Congress.
Eric Foner (2010) contrasts the abolitionists and anti-slavery Radical Republicans of the
Northeast who saw slavery as a sin, with the conservative Republicans who thought it was bad because it hurt white
people and blocked progress. Foner argues that Lincoln was a moderate in the middle, opposing slavery primarily
because it violated the republicanism principles of the Founding Fathers, especially the equality of all men and
Abraham Lincoln
democratic self-government as expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
Portrait of Dred Scott. Lincoln
denounced the Supreme Court
decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford as
part of a conspiracy to extend
On October 16, 1854, in his "Peoria Speech", Lincoln declared his opposition to
slavery, which he repeated en route to the presidency.
Speaking in his
Kentucky accent, with a very powerful voice,
he said the Kansas Act had a
"declared indifference, but as I must think, a covert real zeal for the spread of
slavery. I cannot but hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of
slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just
influence in the world..."
In late 1854, Lincoln ran as a Whig for the U.S. Senate seat from Illinois. At that
time, senators were elected by the state legislature.
After leading in the first
six rounds of voting in the Illinois assembly, his support began to dwindle, and
Lincoln instructed his backers to vote for Lyman Trumbull, who defeated
opponent Joel Aldrich Matteson.
The Whigs had been irreparably split by the
Kansas–Nebraska Act. Lincoln wrote, "I think I am a Whig, but others say there
are no Whigs, and that I am an abolitionist, even though I do no more than
oppose the extension of slavery."
Drawing on remnants of the old Whig party,
and on disenchanted Free Soil, Liberty, and Democratic Party members, he was
instrumental in forging the shape of the new Republican Party.
At the 1856
Republican National Convention, Lincoln placed second in the contest to become the party's candidate for vice
In 1857–1858, Douglas broke with President James Buchanan, leading to a fight for control of the Democratic Party.
Some eastern Republicans even favored the reelection of Douglas for the Senate in 1858, since he had led the
opposition to the Lecompton Constitution, which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state.
In March 1857,
the Supreme Court issued its decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford; Chief Justice Roger B. Taney opined that blacks
were not citizens, and derived no rights from the Constitution. Lincoln denounced the decision, alleging it was the
product of a conspiracy of Democrats to support the Slave Power.
Lincoln argued, "The authors of the
Declaration of Independence never intended 'to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral developments, or
social capacity', but they 'did consider all men created equal—equal in certain inalienable rights, among which are
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness'."
After the state Republican party convention nominated him for the U.S. Senate in 1858, Lincoln delivered his House
Divided Speech, drawing on Mark 3:25: "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government
cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the
house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other."
speech created an evocative image of the danger of disunion caused by the slavery debate, and rallied Republicans
across the North.
The stage was then set for the campaign for statewide election of the Illinois legislature which
would, in turn, select Lincoln or Douglas as its U.S. senator.
Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln–Douglas debates and Cooper Union speech
Alexander Hessler photographed
Lincoln in 1860.
The Senate campaign featured the seven Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858, the
most famous political debates in American history.
The principals stood in
stark contrast both physically and politically. Lincoln warned that "The Slave
Power" was threatening the values of republicanism, and accused Douglas of
distorting the values of the Founding Fathers that all men are created equal, while
Douglas emphasized his Freeport Doctrine, that local settlers were free to choose
whether to allow slavery or not, and accused Lincoln of having joined the
The debates had an atmosphere of a prize fight and drew
crowds in the thousands. Lincoln stated Douglas's popular sovereignty theory
was a threat to the nation's morality and that Douglas represented a conspiracy to
extend slavery to free states. Douglas said that Lincoln was defying the authority
of the U.S. Supreme Court and the Dred Scott decision.
Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the
Democrats won more seats, and the legislature re-elected Douglas to the Senate. Despite the bitterness of the defeat
for Lincoln, his articulation of the issues gave him a national political reputation.
In May 1859, Lincoln
purchased the Illinois Staats-Anzeiger, a German-language newspaper which was consistently supportive; most of
the state's 130,000 German Americans voted Democratic but there was Republican support that a German-language
paper could mobilize.
On February 27, 1860, New York party leaders invited Lincoln to give a speech at Cooper Union to a group of
powerful Republicans. Lincoln argued that the Founding Fathers had little use for popular sovereignty and had
repeatedly sought to restrict slavery. Lincoln insisted the moral foundation of the Republicans required opposition to
slavery, and rejected any "groping for some middle ground between the right and the wrong".
Despite his
inelegant appearance—many in the audience thought him awkward and even ugly
—Lincoln demonstrated an
intellectual leadership that brought him into the front ranks of the party and into contention for the Republican
presidential nomination. Journalist Noah Brooks reported, "No man ever before made such an impression on his first
appeal to a New York audience."
Historian Donald described the speech as a "superb political move for an
unannounced candidate, to appear in one rival's (William H. Seward) own state at an event sponsored by the second
rival's (Salmon P. Chase) loyalists, while not mentioning either by name during its delivery."
In response to an
inquiry about his presidential intentions, Lincoln said, "The taste is in my mouth a little."
1860 Presidential nomination and campaign
"The Rail Candidate"—Lincoln's 1860 candidacy
is depicted as held up by the slavery issue—a
slave on the left and party organization on the
On May 9–10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was
held in Decatur.
Lincoln's followers organized a campaign team
led by David Davis, Norman Judd, Leonard Swett, and Jesse DuBois,
and Lincoln received his first endorsement to run for the
Exploiting the embellished legend of his frontier days
with his father, Lincoln's supporters adopted the label of "The Rail
On May 18, at the Republican National Convention in
Chicago, Lincoln's friends promised and manipulated and won the
nomination on the third ballot, beating candidates such as William H.
Seward and Salmon P. Chase. A former Democrat, Hannibal Hamlin of
Maine, was nominated for Vice President to balance the ticket.
Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln's success depended on his reputation as a moderate on the slavery issue, and his strong support for Whiggish
programs of internal improvements and the protective tariff.
On the third ballot Pennsylvania put him over the
top. Pennsylvania iron interests were reassured by his support for protective tariffs.
Lincoln's managers had been
adroitly focused on this delegation as well as the others, while following Lincoln's strong dictate to "Make no
contracts that bind me".
Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party, as the Slave Power tightened its grasp
on the national government with the Dred Scott decision and the presidency of James Buchanan. Throughout the
1850s, Lincoln doubted the prospects of civil war, and his supporters rejected claims that his election would incite
Meanwhile, Douglas was selected as the candidate of the Northern Democrats. Delegates from 11
slave states walked out of the Democratic convention, disagreeing with Douglas's position on popular sovereignty,
and ultimately selected John C. Breckinridge as their candidate.
As Douglas and the other candidates went through with their campaigns, Lincoln was the only one of them who gave
no speeches. Instead, he monitored the campaign closely and relied on the enthusiasm of the Republican Party. The
party did the leg work that produced majorities across the North, and produced an abundance of campaign posters,
leaflets, and newspaper editorials. There were thousands of Republican speakers who focused first on the party
platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, emphasizing his childhood poverty. The goal was to demonstrate the
superior power of "free labor", whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts.
The Republican Party's production of campaign literature dwarfed the combined opposition; a Chicago Tribune
writer produced a pamphlet that detailed Lincoln's life, and sold 100,000 to 200,000 copies.
1860 election and secession
In 1860, northern and western electoral votes (shown in red) put Lincoln into the White House.
1861 inaugural at Capitol. The rotunda still under construction
Abraham Lincoln
On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States, beating Democrat Stephen A.
Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the new Constitutional Union Party. He
was the first president from the Republican Party. Winning entirely on the strength of his support in the North and
West, no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 Southern slave states, and he won only two of 996 counties in all
the Southern states.
Lincoln received 1,866,452 votes, Douglas 1,376,957 votes, Breckinridge 849,781 votes,
and Bell 588,789 votes. Turnout was 82.2 percent, with Lincoln winning the free Northern states, as well as
California and Oregon. Douglas won Missouri, and split New Jersey with Lincoln.
Bell won Virginia,
Tennessee, and Kentucky, and Breckinridge won the rest of the South.
Although Lincoln won only a plurality of
the popular vote, his victory in the electoral college was decisive: Lincoln had 180 and his opponents added together
had only 123. There were fusion tickets in which all of Lincoln's opponents combined to support the same slate of
Electors in New York, New Jersey, and Rhode Island, but even if the anti-Lincoln vote had been combined in every
state, Lincoln still would have won a majority in the Electoral College.
As Lincoln's election became evident, secessionists made clear their intent to leave the Union before he took office
the next March.
On December 20, 1860, South Carolina took the lead by adopting an ordinance of secession; by
February 1, 1861, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed.
Six of these
states then adopted a constitution and declared themselves to be a sovereign nation, the Confederate States of
The upper South and border states (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to, but initially rejected, the secessionist appeal.
President Buchanan
and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy, declaring secession illegal.
The Confederacy
selected Jefferson Davis as its provisional President on February 9, 1861.
There were attempts at compromise. The Crittenden Compromise would have extended the Missouri Compromise
line of 1820, dividing the territories into slave and free, contrary to the Republican Party's free-soil platform.
Lincoln rejected the idea, saying, "I will suffer death before I consent ... to any concession or compromise which
looks like buying the privilege to take possession of this government to which we have a constitutional right."
Lincoln, however, did support the Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had passed in Congress and
protected slavery in those states where it already existed.
A few weeks before the war, he went so far as to pen a
letter to every governor asking for their support in ratifying the Corwin Amendment as a means to avoid
En route to his inauguration by train, Lincoln addressed crowds and legislatures across the North.
president-elect then evaded possible assassins in Baltimore, who were uncovered by Lincoln's head of security, Allan
Pinkerton. On February 23, 1861, he arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C., which was placed under substantial
military guard.
Lincoln directed his inaugural address to the South, proclaiming once again that he had no
intention, or inclination, to abolish slavery in the Southern states:
Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican
Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been
any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while
existed and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now
addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that "I have no purpose, directly or
indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful
right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so."
—First inaugural address, 4 March 1861
The President ended his address with an appeal to the people of the South: "We are not enemies, but friends. We
must not be enemies ... The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, to every
living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as
surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature."
The failure of the Peace Conference of 1861 signaled that
Abraham Lincoln
legislative compromise was implausible. By March 1861, no leaders of the insurrection had proposed rejoining the
Union on any terms. Meanwhile, Lincoln and nearly every Republican leader agreed that the dismantling of the
Union could not be tolerated.
The war begins
Major Anderson, Ft. Sumter
The commander of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, Major Robert Anderson, sent a
request for provisions to Washington, and the execution of Lincoln's order to
meet that request was seen by the secessionists as an act of war. On April 12,
1861, Confederate forces fired on Union troops at Fort Sumter, forcing them to
surrender, and began the war. Historian Allan Nevins argued that the newly
inaugurated Lincoln made three miscalculations: underestimating the gravity of
the crisis, exaggerating the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South, and not
realizing the Southern Unionists were insisting there be no invasion.
Tecumseh Sherman talked to Lincoln during inauguration week and was "sadly
disappointed" at his failure to realize that "the country was sleeping on a
volcano" and that the South was preparing for war.
Donald concludes that,
"His repeated efforts to avoid collision in the months between inauguration and
the firing on Ft. Sumter showed he adhered to his vow not to be the first to shed
fraternal blood. But he also vowed not to surrender the forts. The only resolution of these contradictory positions was
for the confederates to fire the first shot; they did just that."
On April 15, Lincoln called on all the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect
Washington, and "preserve the Union", which, in his view, still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding
states. This call forced the states to choose sides. Virginia declared its secession and was rewarded with the
Confederate capital, despite the exposed position of Richmond so close to Union lines. North Carolina, Tennessee,
and Arkansas also voted for secession over the next two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and
Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky tried to be neutral.
Troops headed south towards Washington to protect the capital in response to Lincoln's call. On April 19,
secessionist mobs in Baltimore that controlled the rail links attacked Union troops traveling to the capital. George
William Brown, the Mayor of Baltimore, and other suspect Maryland politicians were arrested and imprisoned,
without a warrant, as Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus.
John Merryman, a leader in the secessionist
group in Maryland, petitioned Chief Justice Roger B. Taney to issue a writ of habeas corpus, saying holding
Merryman without a hearing was unlawful. Taney issued the writ, thereby ordering Merryman's release, but Lincoln
ignored it. Then and throughout the war, Lincoln came under heavy, often vituperative attack from antiwar
Democrats, called Copperheads.
Assuming command for the Union in the war
After the fall of Fort Sumter, Lincoln realized the importance of taking immediate executive control of the war and
making an overall strategy to put down the rebellion. Lincoln encountered an unprecedented political and military
crisis, and he responded as commander-in-chief, using unprecedented powers. He expanded his war powers, and
imposed a blockade on all the Confederate shipping ports, disbursed funds before appropriation by Congress, and
after suspending habeas corpus, arrested and imprisoned thousands of suspected Confederate sympathizers. Lincoln
was supported by Congress and the northern public for these actions. In addition, Lincoln had to contend with
reinforcing strong Union sympathies in the border slave states and keeping the war from becoming an international
Abraham Lincoln
"Running the 'Machine' ": An 1864 political cartoon takes a swing at Lincoln's
administration—featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward,
Gideon Welles, Lincoln and others.
The war effort was the source of continued
disparagement of Lincoln, and dominated
his time and attention. From the start, it was
clear that bipartisan support would be
essential to success in the war effort, and
any manner of compromise alienated
factions on both sides of the aisle, such as
the appointment of Republicans and
Democrats to command positions in the
Union Army. Copperheads criticized
Lincoln for refusing to compromise on the
slavery issue. Conversely, the Radical
Republicans criticized him for moving too
slowly in abolishing slavery.
On August
6, 1861, Lincoln signed the Confiscation
Act that authorized judiciary proceedings to
confiscate and free slaves who were used to
support the Confederate war effort. In practice the law had little effect, but it did signal political support for
abolishing slavery in the Confederacy
In late August 1861, General John C. Frémont, the 1856 Republican presidential nominee, issued, without consulting
Washington, a proclamation of martial law in Missouri. He declared that any citizen found bearing arms could be
court-martialed and shot, and that slaves of persons aiding the rebellion would be freed. Frémont was already under a
cloud with charges of negligence in his command of the Department of the West compounded with allegations of
fraud and corruption. Lincoln overruled Frémont's proclamation. Lincoln believed that Fremont's emancipation was
political; neither militarily necessary nor legal.
Union enlistments from Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
increased by over 40,000 troops.
The Trent Affair of late 1861 threatened war with Great Britain. The U.S. Navy illegally intercepted a British
merchant ship, the Trent, on the high seas and seized two Confederate envoys; Britain protested vehemently while
the U.S. cheered. Lincoln resolved the issue by releasing the two men and war was successfully averted with
Lincoln's foreign policy approach had been initially hands off, due to his inexperience; he left most
diplomacy appointments and other foreign policy matters to his Secretary of State, William Seward. Seward's initial
reaction to the Trent affair, however, was too bellicose, so Lincoln also turned to Senator Charles Sumner, the
chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and an expert in British diplomacy.
To learn technical military terms, Lincoln borrowed and studied Henry Halleck's book, Elements of Military Art and
Science from the Library of Congress.
Lincoln painstakingly monitored the telegraphic reports coming in to the
War Department in Washington, D.C. He kept close tabs on all phases of the military effort, consulted with
governors, and selected generals based on their past success (as well as their state and party). In January 1862, after
many complaints of inefficiency and profiteering in the War Department, Lincoln replaced Simon Cameron with
Edwin Stanton as War Secretary. Stanton was one of many conservative Democrats (he supported Breckenridge in
the 1860 election) who became anti-slavery Republicans under Lincoln's leadership.
In terms of war strategy,
Lincoln articulated two priorities: to ensure that Washington was well-defended, and to conduct an aggressive war
effort that would satisfy the demand in the North for prompt, decisive victory; major Northern newspaper editors
expected victory within 90 days.
Twice a week, Lincoln would meet with his cabinet in the afternoon, and
occasionally Mary Lincoln would force him to take a carriage ride because she was concerned he was working too
Lincoln learned from his chief of staff General Henry Halleck, a student of the European strategist Jomini,
of the critical need to control strategic points, such as the Mississippi River;
he also knew well the importance of
Abraham Lincoln
Vicksburg and understood the necessity of defeating the enemy's army, rather than simply capturing territory.
General McClellan
After the Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run and the retirement of the aged Winfield Scott in late 1861,
Lincoln appointed Major General George B. McClellan general-in-chief of all the Union armies.
McClellan, a
young West Point graduate, railroad executive, and Pennsylvania Democrat, took several months to plan and attempt
his Peninsula Campaign, longer than Lincoln wanted. The campaign's objective was to capture Richmond by moving
the Army of the Potomac by boat to the peninsula and then overland to the Confederate capital. McClellan's repeated
delays frustrated Lincoln and Congress, as did his position that no troops were needed to defend Washington.
Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan's troops in defense of the capital; McClellan, who consistently
overestimated the strength of Confederate troops, blamed this decision for the ultimate failure of the Peninsula
Lincoln and McClellan after the Battle of
Lincoln removed McClellan as general-in-chief and appointed Henry
Wager Halleck in March 1862, after McClellan's "Harrison's Landing
Letter", in which he offered unsolicited political advice to Lincoln
urging caution in the war effort.
McClellan's letter incensed
Radical Republicans, who successfully pressured Lincoln to appoint
John Pope, a Republican, as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope
complied with Lincoln's strategic desire to move toward Richmond
from the north, thus protecting the capital from attack. However,
lacking requested reinforcements from McClellan, now commanding
the Army of the Potomac, Pope was soundly defeated at the Second
Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the
Potomac to defend Washington for a second time.
The war also
expanded with naval operations in 1862 when the CSS Virginia, formerly the USS Merrimack, damaged or
destroyed three Union vessels in Norfolk, Virginia, before being engaged and damaged by the USS Monitor. Lincoln
closely reviewed the dispatches and interrogated naval officers during their clash in the Battle of Hampton
Despite his dissatisfaction with McClellan's failure to reinforce Pope, Lincoln was desperate, and restored him to
command of all forces around Washington, to the dismay of all in his cabinet but Seward.
Two days after
McClellan's return to command, General Robert E. Lee's forces crossed the Potomac River into Maryland, leading to
the Battle of Antietam in September 1862.
The ensuing Union victory was among the bloodiest in American
history, but it enabled Lincoln to announce that he would issue an Emancipation Proclamation in January. Having
composed the Proclamation some time earlier, Lincoln had waited for a military victory to publish it to avoid it being
perceived as the product of desperation.
McClellan then resisted the President's demand that he pursue Lee's
retreating and exposed army, while his counterpart General Don Carlos Buell likewise refused orders to move the
Army of the Ohio against rebel forces in eastern Tennessee. As a result, Lincoln replaced Buell with William
Rosecrans; and, after the 1862 midterm elections, he replaced McClellan with Republican Ambrose Burnside. Both
of these replacements were political moderates and prospectively more supportive of the Commander-in-Chief.
Burnside, against the advice of the president, prematurely launched an offensive across the Rappahannock River and
was stunningly defeated by Lee at Fredericksburg in December. Not only had Burnside been defeated on the
battlefield, but his soldiers were disgruntled and undisciplined. Desertions during 1863 were in the thousands and
they increased after Fredericksburg.
Lincoln brought in Joseph Hooker, despite his record of loose talk about the
need for a military dictatorship.
The mid-term elections in 1862 brought the Republicans severe losses due to sharp disfavor with the administration
over its failure to deliver a speedy end to the war, as well as rising inflation, new high taxes, rumors of corruption,
Abraham Lincoln
the suspension of habeas corpus, the military draft law, and fears that freed slaves would undermine the labor
market. The Emancipation Proclamation announced in September gained votes for the Republicans in the rural areas
of New England and the upper Midwest, but it lost votes in the cities and the lower Midwest. While Republicans
were discouraged, Democrats were energized and did especially well in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and New York.
The Republicans did maintain their majorities in Congress and in the major states, except New York. The Cincinnati
Gazette contended that the voters were "depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by
the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress".
In the spring of 1863, Lincoln was optimistic about upcoming campaigns to the point of thinking the end of the war
could be near if a string of victories could be put together; these plans included Hooker's attack on Lee north of
Richmond, Rosecrans' on Chattanooga, Grant's on Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston.
Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May,
but continued to command his troops for
some weeks. He ignored Lincoln's order to divide his troops, and possibly force Lee to do the same in Harper's
Ferry, and tendered his resignation, which Lincoln accepted. He was replaced by George Meade, who followed Lee
into Pennsylvania for the Gettysburg Campaign, which was a victory for the Union, though Lee's army avoided
capture. At the same time, after initial setbacks, Grant laid siege to Vicksburg and the Union navy attained some
success in Charleston harbor.
After the Battle of Gettysburg, Lincoln clearly understood that his military
decisions would be more effectively carried out by conveying his orders through his War Secretary or his
general-in-chief on to his generals, who resented his civilian interference with their own plans. Even so, he often
continued to give detailed directions to his generals as Commander-in-Chief.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln presents the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet.
Painted by Francis Bicknell Carpenter in 1864
Lincoln understood that the Federal
government's power to end slavery was
limited by the Constitution, which before
1865, committed the issue to individual
states. He argued before and during his
election that the eventual extinction of
slavery would result from preventing its
expansion into new U.S. territory. At the
beginning of the war, he also sought to
persuade the states to accept compensated
emancipation in return for their prohibition
of slavery. Lincoln believed that curtailing
slavery in these ways would economically
expunge it, as envisioned by the Founding
Fathers, under the constitution.
President Lincoln rejected two geographically limited emancipation attempts by
Major General John C. Frémont in August 1861 and by Major General David Hunter in May 1862, on the grounds
that it was not within their power, and it would upset the border states loyal to the Union.
On June 19, 1862, endorsed by Lincoln, Congress passed an act banning slavery on all federal territory. In July 1862,
the Second Confiscation Act was passed, which set up court procedures that could free the slaves of anyone
convicted of aiding the rebellion. Although Lincoln believed it was not within Congress's power to free the slaves
within the states, he approved the bill in deference to the legislature. He felt such action could only be taken by the
Commander-in-Chief using war powers granted to the president by the Constitution, and Lincoln was planning to
take that action. In that month, Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet. In it, he
stated that "as a fit and necessary military measure, on January 1, 1863, all persons held as slaves in the Confederate
states will thenceforward, and forever, be free."
Abraham Lincoln
Privately, Lincoln concluded at this point that the slave base of the Confederacy had to be eliminated. However
Copperhead rhetoric argued that emancipation was a stumbling block to peace and reunification. Republican editor
Horace Greeley of the highly influential New York Tribune fell for the ploy,
and Lincoln refuted it directly in a
shrewd letter of August 22, 1862. The President said the primary goal of his actions as president (he used the first
person pronoun and explicitly refers to his "official duty") was preserving the Union:
My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I
could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I
would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do
about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I
forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. . . . [¶] I have here stated my purpose
according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all
men everywhere could be free.
The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, 1862, and put into effect on January 1, 1863, declared free
the slaves in 10 states not then under Union control, with exemptions specified for areas already under Union control
in two states.
Lincoln spent the next 100 days preparing the army and the nation for emancipation, while
Democrats rallied their voters in the 1862 off-year elections by warning of the threat freed slaves posed to northern
Once the abolition of slavery in the rebel states became a military objective, as Union armies advanced south, more
slaves were liberated until all three million of them in Confederate territory were freed. Lincoln's comment on the
signing of the Proclamation was: "I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this
For some time, Lincoln continued earlier plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He
commented favorably on colonization in the Emancipation Proclamation, but all attempts at such a massive
undertaking failed.
A few days after Emancipation was announced, 13 Republican governors met at the War
Governors' Conference; they supported the president's Proclamation, but suggested the removal of General George
B. McClellan as commander of the Union Army.
Using former slaves in the military was official government policy after the issuance of the Emancipation
Proclamation. By the spring of 1863, he was ready to recruit black troops in more than token numbers. In a letter to
Andrew Johnson, the military governor of Tennessee, encouraging him to lead the way in raising black troops,
Lincoln wrote, "The bare sight of 50,000 armed and drilled black soldiers on the banks of the Mississippi would end
the rebellion at once".
By the end of 1863, at Lincoln's direction, General Lorenzo Thomas had recruited 20
regiments of blacks from the Mississippi Valley.
Frederick Douglass once observed of Lincoln: "In his
company, I was never reminded of my humble origin, or of my unpopular color".
Gettysburg Address
With the great Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, and the defeat of the Copperheads in the Ohio
election in the fall, Lincoln maintained a strong base of party support and was in a strong position to redefine the war
effort, despite the New York City draft riots. The stage was set for his address at the Gettysburg battlefield
Defying Lincoln's prediction that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here," the
Address became the most quoted speech in American history.
The Gettysburg Address was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863. In 272 words, and three minutes, Lincoln asserted
the nation was born not in 1789, but in 1776, "conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are
created equal." He defined the war as an effort dedicated to these principles of liberty and equality for all. The
emancipation of slaves was now part of the national war effort. He declared that the deaths of so many brave soldiers
would not be in vain, that slavery would end as a result of the losses, and the future of democracy would be assured,
that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." Lincoln concluded
Abraham Lincoln
that the Civil War had a profound objective: a new birth of freedom in the nation.
General Grant
President Lincoln (center right) with, from left, Generals Sherman, Grant and
Admiral Porter – 1868 painting of events aboard the River Queen in March 1865
Meade's failure to capture Lee's army as it
retreated from Gettysburg, and the
continued passivity of the Army of the
Potomac, persuaded Lincoln that a change
in command was needed. General Ulysses S.
Grant's victories at the Battle of Shiloh and
in the Vicksburg campaign impressed
Lincoln and made Grant a strong candidate
to head the Union Army. Responding to
criticism of Grant after Shiloh, Lincoln had
said, "I can't spare this man. He fights."
With Grant in command, Lincoln felt the
Union Army could relentlessly pursue a
series of coordinated offensives in multiple
theaters, and have a top commander who
agreed on the use of black troops.
Nevertheless, Lincoln was concerned that Grant might be considering a candidacy for President in 1864, as
McClellan was. Lincoln arranged for an intermediary to make inquiry into Grant's political intentions, and being
assured that he had none, submitted to the Senate Grant's promotion to commander of the Union Army. He obtained
Congress's consent to reinstate for Grant the rank of Lieutenant General, which no officer had held since George
Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in 1864. This is often characterized as a war of attrition, given high
Union losses at battles such as the Battle of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor. Even though they had the advantage of
fighting on the defensive, the Confederate forces had "almost as high a percentage of casualties as the Union
The high casualty figures of the Union alarmed the North; Grant had lost a third of his army, and
Lincoln asked what Grant's plans were, to which the general replied, "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes
all summer."
The Confederacy lacked reinforcements, so Lee's army shrank with every battle, forcing it back to trenches outside
Petersburg, Virginia, where Grant began a siege. Lincoln then made an extended visit to Grant's headquarters at City
Point, Virginia. This allowed the president to confer in person with Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman about the
hostilities, as Sherman coincidentally managed a hasty visit to Grant from his position in North Carolina.
Lincoln and the Republican Party mobilized support for the draft throughout the North, and replaced his losses.
Lincoln authorized Grant to target the Confederate infrastructure—such as plantations, railroads, and
bridges—hoping to destroy the South's morale and weaken its economic ability to continue fighting. Grant's move to
Petersburg resulted in the obstruction of three railroads between Richmond and the South. This strategy allowed
Generals Sherman and Philip Sheridan to destroy plantations and towns in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. The
damage caused by Sherman's March to the Sea through Georgia in 1864 was limited to a 60-mile (97 km) swath, but
neither Lincoln nor his commanders saw destruction as the main goal, but rather defeat of the Confederate armies.
As Neely (2004) concludes, there was no effort to engage in "total war" against civilians, as in World War II.
Confederate general Jubal Anderson Early began a series of assaults in the North that threatened the Capital. During
Early's raid on Washington, D.C. in 1864, Lincoln was watching the combat from an exposed position; Captain
Oliver Wendell Holmes shouted at him, "Get down, you damn fool, before you get shot!"
After repeated calls on
Abraham Lincoln
Grant to defend Washington, Sheridan was appointed and the threat from Early was dispatched.
As Grant continued to wear down Lee's forces, efforts to discuss peace began. Confederate Vice President Stephens
led a group to meet with Lincoln, Seward, and others at Hampton Roads. Lincoln refused to allow any negotiation
with the Confederacy as a coequal; his sole objective was an agreement to end the fighting and the meetings
produced no results.
On April 1, 1865, Grant successfully outflanked Lee's forces in the Battle of Five Forks and
nearly encircled Petersburg, and the Confederate government evacuated Richmond. Days later, when that city fell,
Lincoln visited the vanquished Confederate capital; as he walked through the city, white Southerners were
stone-faced, but freedmen greeted him as a hero. On April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox and the war
was effectively over.
1864 re-election
Lincoln was a master politician, bringing together—and holding together—all the main factions of the Republican
Party, and bringing in War Democrats such as Edwin M. Stanton and Andrew Johnson as well. Lincoln spent many
hours a week talking to politicians from across the land and using his patronage powers—greatly expanded over
peacetime—to hold the factions of his party together, build support for his own policies, and fend off efforts by
Radicals to drop him from the 1864 ticket.
At its 1864 convention, the Republican Party selected Andrew
Johnson, a War Democrat from the Southern state of Tennessee, as his running mate. To broaden his coalition to
include War Democrats as well as Republicans, Lincoln ran under the label of the new Union Party.
When Grant's spring campaigns turned into bloody stalemates and Union casualties mounted, the lack of military
success wore heavily on the President's re-election prospects, and many Republicans across the country feared that
Lincoln would be defeated. Sharing this fear, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election,
he would still defeat the Confederacy before turning over the White House:
This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be
re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the
election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save
it afterward.
Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope.
An electoral landslide (in red) for Lincoln in the 1864 election, southern states (brown) and territories (light brown) not in play
Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
While the Democratic platform followed the Peace wing of the party and called the war a "failure", their candidate,
General George B. McClellan, supported the war and repudiated the platform. Lincoln provided Grant with more
troops and mobilized his party to renew its support of Grant in the war effort. Sherman's capture of Atlanta in
September and David Farragut's capture of Mobile ended defeatist jitters;
the Democratic Party was deeply split,
with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln. By contrast, the National Union Party was united and
energized as Lincoln made emancipation the central issue, and state Republican parties stressed the perfidy of the
Lincoln was re-elected in a landslide, carrying all but three states, and receiving 78 percent of the
Union soldiers' vote.
On March 4, 1865, Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address. In it, he deemed the high casualties on both sides
to be God's will. Historian Mark Noll concludes it ranks "among the small handful of semi-sacred texts by which
Americans conceive their place in the world".
Lincoln said:
Fondly do we hope—fervently do we pray—that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if
God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man's 250 years of unrequited toil shall be
sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was
said 3,000 years ago, so still it must be said, "the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether".
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us
strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the
battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace,
among ourselves, and with all nations.
Reconstruction began during the war, as Lincoln and his associates anticipated questions of how to reintegrate the
conquered southern states, and how to determine the fates of Confederate leaders and freed slaves. Shortly after Lee's
surrender, a general had asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, and Lincoln replied, "Let
'em up easy."
In keeping with that sentiment, Lincoln led the moderates regarding Reconstruction policy, and
was opposed by the Radical Republicans, under Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, Sen. Charles Sumner and Sen. Benjamin
Wade, political allies of the president on other issues. Determined to find a course that would reunite the nation and
not alienate the South, Lincoln urged that speedy elections under generous terms be held throughout the war. His
Amnesty Proclamation of December 8, 1863, offered pardons to those who had not held a Confederate civil office,
had not mistreated Union prisoners, and would sign an oath of allegiance.
Abraham Lincoln
A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865,
entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union." The caption
reads (Johnson): Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than
ever. (Lincoln): A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will
be mended.
As Southern states were subdued, critical decisions
had to be made as to their leadership while their
administrations were re-formed. Of special
importance were Tennessee and Arkansas, where
Lincoln appointed Generals Andrew Johnson and
Frederick Steele as military governors, respectively.
In Louisiana, Lincoln ordered General Nathaniel P.
Banks to promote a plan that would restore statehood
when 10 percent of the voters agreed to it. Lincoln's
Democratic opponents seized on these appointments
to accuse him of using the military to ensure his and
the Republicans' political aspirations. On the other
hand, the Radicals denounced his policy as too
lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis
Bill, in 1864. When Lincoln vetoed the bill, the
Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat representatives
elected from Louisiana, Arkansas, and
Lincoln's appointments were designed to keep both the moderate and Radical factions in harness. To fill Chief
Justice Taney's seat on the Supreme Court, he named the choice of the Radicals, Salmon P. Chase, who Lincoln
believed would uphold the emancipation and paper money policies.
After implementing the Emancipation Proclamation, which did not apply to every state, Lincoln increased pressure
on Congress to outlaw slavery throughout the entire nation with a constitutional amendment. Lincoln declared that
such an amendment would "clinch the whole matter".
By December 1863 a proposed constitutional amendment
that would outlaw slavery absolutely was brought to Congress for passage. This first attempt at an amendment failed
to pass, falling short of the required two-thirds majority on June 15, 1864, in the House of Representatives. Passage
of the proposed amendment became part of the Republican/Unionist platform in the election of 1864. After a long
debate in the House, a second attempt passed Congress on January 31, 1865, and was sent to the state legislatures for
Upon ratification, it became the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on
December 6, 1865.
As the war drew to a close, Lincoln's presidential Reconstruction for the South was in flux; having believed the
federal government had limited responsibility to the millions of freedmen. He signed into law Senator Charles
Sumner's Freedman's Bureau bill that set up a temporary federal agency designed to meet the immediate material
needs of former slaves. The law assigned land for a lease of three years with the ability to purchase title for the
freedmen. Lincoln stated that his Louisiana plan did not apply to all states under Reconstruction. Shortly before his
assassination, Lincoln announced he had a new plan for southern Reconstruction. Discussions with his cabinet
revealed Lincoln planned short-term military control over southern states, until readmission under the control of
southern Unionists.
Abraham Lincoln
Redefining the republic and republicanism
The last high-quality photograph of
Lincoln was taken March 1865.
The successful reunification of the states had consequences for the name of the
country. The term "the United States" has historically been used, sometimes in
the plural ("these United States"), and other times in the singular, without any
particular grammatical consistency. The Civil War was a significant force in the
eventual dominance of the singular usage by the end of the 19th century.
In recent years, historians such as Harry Jaffa, Herman Belz, John Diggins,
Vernon Burton and Eric Foner have stressed Lincoln's redefinition of republican
values. As early as the 1850s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the
sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln redirected emphasis to the Declaration of
Independence as the foundation of American political values—what he called the
"sheet anchor" of republicanism.
The Declaration's emphasis on freedom and
equality for all, in contrast to the Constitution's tolerance of slavery, shifted the
debate. As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union
speech of early 1860, "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the
theory and destiny of republicanism itself."
His position gained strength because he highlighted the moral basis
of republicanism, rather than its legalisms.
Nevertheless, in 1861, Lincoln justified the war in terms of legalisms
(the Constitution was a contract, and for one party to get out of a contract all the other parties had to agree), and then
in terms of the national duty to guarantee a republican form of government in every state.
Burton (2008) argues
that Lincoln's republicanism was taken up by the Freedmen as they were emancipated.
In March 1861, in his First Inaugural Address, Lincoln explored the nature of democracy. He denounced secession
as anarchy, and explained that majority rule had to be balanced by constitutional restraints in the American system.
He said "A majority held in restraint by constitutional checks and limitations, and always changing easily with
deliberate changes of popular opinions and sentiments, is the only true sovereign of a free people."
Other enactments
Lincoln adhered to the Whig theory of the presidency, which gave Congress primary responsibility for writing the
laws while the Executive enforced them. Lincoln only vetoed four bills passed by Congress; the only important one
was the Wade-Davis Bill with its harsh program of Reconstruction.
He signed the Homestead Act in 1862,
making millions of acres of government-held land in the West available for purchase at very low cost. The Morrill
Land-Grant Colleges Act, also signed in 1862, provided government grants for agricultural colleges in each state.
The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 granted federal support for the construction of the United States' First
Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1869.
The passage of the Homestead Act and the Pacific
Railway Acts was made possible by the absence of Southern congressmen and senators who had opposed the
measures in the 1850s.
Abraham Lincoln
The Lincoln Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Abraham Lincoln 1861–1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin 1861–1865
Andrew Johnson 1865
Secretary of State William H. Seward 1861–1865
Secretary of Treasury Salmon P. Chase 1861–1864
William P. Fessenden 1864–1865
Hugh McCulloch 1865
Secretary of War Simon Cameron 1861–1862
Edwin M. Stanton 1862–1865
Attorney General Edward Bates 1861–1864
James Speed 1864–1865
Postmaster General Montgomery Blair 1861–1864
William Dennison, Jr. 1864–1865
Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles 1861–1865
Secretary of the Interior Caleb Blood Smith 1861–1862
John Palmer Usher 1863–1865
Other important legislation involved two measures to raise revenues for the Federal government: tariffs (a policy
with long precedent), and a new Federal income tax. In 1861, Lincoln signed the second and third Morrill Tariff, the
first having become law under James Buchanan. Also in 1861, Lincoln signed the Revenue Act of 1861, creating the
first U.S. income tax.
This created a flat tax of 3 percent on incomes above $800, which was later changed by the
Revenue Act of 1862 to a progressive rate structure.
Lincoln also presided over the expansion of the federal government's economic influence in several other areas. The
creation of the system of national banks by the National Banking Act provided a strong financial network in the
country. It also established a national currency. In 1862, Congress created, with Lincoln's approval, the Department
of Agriculture.
In 1862, Lincoln sent a senior general, John Pope, to put down the "Sioux Uprising" in
Minnesota. Presented with 303 execution warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who were accused of killing
innocent farmers, Lincoln conducted his own personal review of each of these warrants, eventually approving 39 for
execution (one was later reprieved).
President Lincoln had planned to reform federal Indian policy.
In the wake of Grant's casualties in his campaign against Lee, Lincoln had considered yet another executive call for a
military draft, but it was never issued. In response to rumors of one, however, the editors of the New York World and
the Journal of Commerce published a false draft proclamation which created an opportunity for the editors and
others employed at the publications to corner the gold market. Lincoln's reaction was to send the strongest of
messages to the media about such behavior; he ordered the military to seize the two papers. The seizure lasted for
two days.
Lincoln is largely responsible for the institution of the Thanksgiving holiday in the United States.
Lincoln's presidency, Thanksgiving, while a regional holiday in New England since the 17th century, had been
Abraham Lincoln
proclaimed by the federal government only sporadically and on irregular dates. The last such proclamation had been
during James Madison's presidency 50 years before. In 1863, Lincoln declared the final Thursday in November of
that year to be a day of Thanksgiving.
In June 1864, Lincoln approved the Yosemite Grant enacted by Congress,
which provided unprecedented federal protection for the area now known as Yosemite National Park.
Judicial appointments
Supreme Court appointments
• Noah Haynes Swayne - 1862
• Samuel Freeman Miller - 1862
• David Davis - 1862
• Stephen Johnson Field - 1863
• Salmon Portland Chase - 1864 (Chief Justice)
Salmon Portland Chase was Lincoln's choice to
be Chief Justice of the United States.
Lincoln's declared philosophy on court nominations was that "we
cannot ask a man what he will do, and if we should, and he should
answer us, we should despise him for it. Therefore we must take a man
whose opinions are known."
Lincoln made five appointments to
the United States Supreme Court. Noah Haynes Swayne, nominated
January 21, 1862 and appointed January 24, 1862, was chosen as an
anti-slavery lawyer who was committed to the Union. Samuel Freeman
Miller, nominated and appointed on July 16, 1862, supported Lincoln
in the 1860 election and was an avowed abolitionist. David Davis,
Lincoln's campaign manager in 1860, nominated December 1, 1862
and appointed December 8, 1862, had also served as a judge in
Lincoln's Illinois court circuit. Stephen Johnson Field, a previous
California Supreme Court justice, was nominated March 6, 1863 and
appointed March 10, 1863, and provided geographic balance, as well
as political balance to the court as a Democrat. Finally, Lincoln's
Treasury Secretary, Salmon P. Chase, was nominated as Chief Justice,
and appointed the same day, on December 6, 1864. Lincoln believed Chase was an able jurist, would support
Reconstruction legislation, and that his appointment united the Republican Party.
Other judicial appointments
Lincoln appointed 32 federal judges, including four Associate Justices and one Chief Justice to the Supreme Court of
the United States, and 27 judges to the United States district courts. Lincoln appointed no judges to the United States
circuit courts during his time in office.
States admitted to the Union
West Virginia, admitted to the Union June 20, 1863, contained the former north-westernmost counties of Virginia
that seceded from Virginia after that commonwealth declared its secession from the Union. As a condition for its
admission, West Virginia's constitution was required to provide for the gradual abolition of slavery. Nevada, which
became the third State in the far-west of the continent, was admitted as a free state on October 31, 1864.
Abraham Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth was a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland; though he never joined the
Confederate army, he had contacts with the Confederate secret service.
In 1864, Booth formulated a plan (very
similar to one of Thomas N. Conrad previously authorized by the Confederacy)
to kidnap Lincoln in exchange
for the release of Confederate prisoners.
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre,
from left to right, are Henry Rathbone, Clara
Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln,
and his assassin John Wilkes Booth.
After attending an April 11, 1865, speech in which Lincoln promoted
voting rights for blacks, an incensed Booth changed his plans and
became determined to assassinate the president.
Learning that the
President, First Lady, and head Union general Ulysses S. Grant would
be attending Ford's Theatre, Booth formulated a plan with
co-conspirators to assassinate Vice President Andrew Johnson,
Secretary of State William H. Seward and General Grant. Without his
main bodyguard, Ward Hill Lamon, Lincoln left to attend the play Our
American Cousin on April 14. Grant along with his wife chose at the
last minute to travel to Philadelphia instead of attending the play.
Lincoln's bodyguard, John Parker, left Ford's Theater during
intermission to join Lincoln's coachman for drinks in the Star Saloon
next door. The now unguarded President sat in his state box in the balcony. Seizing the opportunity, Booth crept up
from behind and at about 10:13 pm, aimed at the back of Lincoln's head and fired at point-blank range, mortally
wounding the President. Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth, but Booth stabbed him and
After being on the run for 10 days, Booth was tracked down and found on a farm in Virginia, some 70 miles
(110 km) south of Washington, D.C. After a brief fight with Union troops, Booth was killed by Sergeant Boston
Corbett on April 26.
An Army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, was sitting nearby at the theater and immediately assisted the President. He
found the President unresponsive, barely breathing and with no detectable pulse. Having determined that the
President had been shot in the head, and not stabbed in the shoulder as originally thought, he made an attempt to
clear the blood clot, after which the President began to breathe more naturally.
The dying man was taken across
the street to Petersen House. After being in a coma for nine hours, Lincoln died at 7:22 am on April 15. Presbyterian
minister Phineas Densmore Gurley, then present, was asked to offer a prayer, after which Secretary of War Stanton
saluted and said, "Now he belongs to the ages."
Lincoln's flag-enfolded body was then escorted in the rain to the White House by bareheaded Union officers, while
the city's church bells rang. Vice President Johnson was sworn in as President at 10:00 am the day after the
assassination. Lincoln lay in state in the East Room, and then in the Capitol Rotunda from April 19 through April 21.
For his final journey with his son Willie, both caskets were transported in the executive coach "United States" and
for three weeks the Lincoln Special funeral train decorated in black bunting
bore Lincoln's remains on a slow
circuitous waypoint journey from Washington D.C. to Springfield, Illinois stopping at many cities across the North
for large-scale memorials attended by hundreds of thousands, as well as many people who gathered in informal
trackside tributes with bands, bonfires and hymn singing
or silent reverence with hat in hand as the railway
procession slowly passed by.
Abraham Lincoln
Religious and philosophical beliefs
Lincoln: painting by George Peter
Alexander Healy in 1869
Scholars have extensively written on topics concerning Lincoln's beliefs and
philosophy—for example, whether Lincoln's frequent use of religious imagery
and language reflected his own personal beliefs or was a device to appeal to his
audiences, who were mostly evangelical Protestants.
As a young man he was
a religious skeptic.
He never joined a church, although he frequently
attended with his wife,
but he was deeply familiar with the Bible, quoted it
and praised it.
In the 1840s Lincoln subscribed to the Doctrine of Necessity, a belief that
asserted the human mind was controlled by some higher power.
In the 1850s,
Lincoln acknowledged "providence" in a general way, and rarely used the
language or imagery of the evangelicals; he regarded the republicanism of the
Founding Fathers with an almost religious reverence.
When he suffered the
death of his son Edward, Lincoln more frequently acknowledged his own need to
depend on God.
The death of his son Willie in February 1862 may have
caused Lincoln to look toward religion for answers and solace.
After Willie's death, Lincoln considered why,
from a divine standpoint, the severity of the war was necessary. He wrote at this time that God "could have either
saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the contest began. And having begun He could give the
final victory to either side any day. Yet the contest proceeds."
On the day Lincoln was assassinated, he
reportedly told his wife Mary at Ford's Theatre he desired to visit the Holy Land.
Historical reputation
In surveys of scholars ranking Presidents since the 1940s, Lincoln is consistently ranked in the top three, often
A 2004 study found that scholars in the fields of history and politics ranked Lincoln number one, while legal
scholars placed him second after Washington.
Of all the presidential ranking polls conducted since 1948,
Lincoln has been rated at the very top in the majority of polls: Schlesinger 1948, Schlesinger 1962, 1982 Murray
Blessing Survey, Chicago Tribune 1982 poll, Schlesinger 1996, CSPAN 1996, Ridings-McIver 1996, Time 2008,
and CSPAN 2009. Generally, the top three presidents are rated as 1) Lincoln; 2) George Washington; and 3)
Franklin D. Roosevelt, although Lincoln and Washington, and Washington and Roosevelt, occasionally are
President Lincoln's assassination made him a national martyr and endowed him with a recognition of mythic
proportion. Lincoln was viewed by abolitionists as a champion for human liberty. Republicans linked Lincoln's name
to their party. Many, though not all, in the South considered Lincoln as a man of outstanding ability.
The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and
Museum focuses on Lincoln scholarship and
popular interpretation
Schwartz argues that Lincoln's reputation grew slowly in the late 19th
century until the Progressive Era (1900–1920s) when he emerged as
one of the most venerated heroes in American history, with even white
Southerners in agreement. The high point came in 1922 with the
dedication of the Lincoln Memorial on the Mall in Washington.
the New Deal era liberals honored Lincoln not so much as the
self-made man or the great war president, but as the advocate of the
common man who doubtless would have supported the welfare state.
In the Cold War years, Lincoln's image shifted to emphasize the
symbol of freedom who brought hope to those oppressed by
communist regimes.
Abraham Lincoln
By the 1970s Lincoln had become a hero to political conservatives
for his intense nationalism, support for
business, his insistence on stopping the spread of human bondage, his acting in terms of Lockean and Burkean
principles on behalf of both liberty and tradition, and his devotion to the principles of the Founding
As a Whig activist, Lincoln was a spokesman for business interests, favoring high tariffs,
banks, internal improvements, and railroads in opposition to the agrarian Democrats.
William C. Harris found
that Lincoln's "reverence for the Founding Fathers, the Constitution, the laws under it, and the preservation of the
Republic and its institutions undergirded and strengthened his conservatism.".
James G. Randall emphasizes his
tolerance and especially his moderation "in his preference for orderly progress, his distrust of dangerous agitation,
and his reluctance toward ill digested schemes of reform." Randall concludes that, "he was conservative in his
complete avoidance of that type of so-called 'radicalism' which involved abuse of the South, hatred for the
slaveholder, thirst for vengeance, partisan plotting, and ungenerous demands that Southern institutions be
transformed overnight by outsiders."
By the late 1960s, liberals, such as historian Lerone Bennett, were having second thoughts, especially regarding
Lincoln's views on racial issues.
Bennett won wide attention when he called Lincoln a white supremacist in
He noted that Lincoln used ethnic slurs, told jokes that ridiculed blacks, insisted he opposed social
equality, and proposed sending freed slaves to another country. Defenders, such as authors Dirck and Cashin,
retorted that he was not as bad as most politicians;
and that he was a "moral visionary" who deftly advanced the
abolitionist cause, as fast as politically possible.
The emphasis shifted away from Lincoln-the-emancipator to an
argument that blacks had freed themselves from slavery, or at least were responsible for pressuring the government
on emancipation.
Historian Barry Schwartz wrote in 2009 that Lincoln's image suffered "erosion, fading
prestige, benign ridicule," in the late 20th century.
On the other hand, Donald opined in his 1996 biography that
Lincoln was distinctly endowed with the personality trait of negative capability, defined by the poet John Keats and
attributed to extraordinary leaders who were "content in the midst of uncertainties and doubts, and not compelled
toward fact or reason."
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
Lincoln has been memorialized in many town, city, and county
including the capital of Nebraska. The first public
monument to Abraham Lincoln was a statue erected in front of the
District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after his
Lincoln's name and image appear in numerous other
places, such as the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. and
Lincoln's sculpture on Mount Rushmore
Abraham Lincoln
Birthplace National Historical Park in Hodgenville, Kentucky,
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Lincoln City, Indiana,
Lincoln's New Salem, Illinois,
and Lincoln Home National
Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois
commemorate the president.
Ford's Theatre and Petersen House (where
he died) are maintained as museums, as is the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, located in
The Lincoln Tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois, contains his remains and
those of his wife Mary and three of his four sons, Edward, William, and Thomas.
On the evening of November 7, 1876, a group of counterfeiters entered Lincoln's tomb with the intent of absconding
with his mortal remains and holding them for ransom in order to secure the release of their leader, Benjamin Boyd,
an imprisoned engraver of counterfeit currency plates. The group entered his tomb, but had only succeeded in
partially dislodging its marble lid before a US Secret Service agent who had infiltrated their number alerted law
enforcement authorities. Although several escaped, most served a single year prison term in Joliet State Prison. For
much of the next decade (c1876-1887), Lincoln's tomb was mobile, to avoid further unwanted disinterment.
Abraham Lincoln
Within a year of this death, his image began to be disseminated throughout the world on stamps,
and he is the
only U.S. President to appear on a U.S. airmail stamp.
Currency honoring the president includes the United
States' five-dollar bill and the Lincoln cent, which represents the first regularly circulating U.S. coin to feature an
actual person's image.
Lincoln's image on the five-dollar bill was used by Salvador Dali to help commemorate
the U.S. Bicentennial with his creation of "Gala looking at the Mediterranean Sea which at a distance of 20 meters is
transformed into the portrait of Abraham Lincoln (Homage to Rothko)" and Lincoln in Dalivision, the earlier of
which was displayed at The Guggenheim in New York during the 1976 Bicentennial.
The first statue of Lincoln outside the United States was erected in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1893. The work of
George Edwin Bissell, it stands on a memorial to Scots immigrants who enlisted with the Union during the Civil
War, the only memorial to the war erected outside the United States. A large statue of Lincoln standing was unveiled
near Westminster Abbey in London, on July 28, 1920, in an elaborate ceremony. The principal addresses were
delivered in the abbey church.
Abraham Lincoln's birthday, February 12, was never a national holiday, but it was at one time observed by as many
as 30 states.
In 1971, Presidents Day became a national holiday, combining Lincoln's and Washington's
birthdays and replacing most states' celebration of his birthday.
The Abraham Lincoln Association was formed
in 1908 to commemorate the centennial of Lincoln's birth.
In 2000, Congress established the Abraham Lincoln
Bicentennial Commission to commemorate his 200th birthday in February 2009.
Lincoln sites remain popular tourist attractions, but crowds have thinned. In the late 1960s, 650,000 people a year
visited the home in Springfield, slipping to 393,000 in 2000–2003. Likewise visits to New Salem fell by half,
probably because of the enormous draw of the new museum in Springfield. Visits to the Lincoln Memorial in
Washington peaked at 4.3 million in 1987 and have since declined. However crowds at Ford's Theatre in Washington
have grown sharply.
[1] "Office of the Historian - Countries - San Marino" (http:// history. state. gov/ countries/ san-marino). History.state.gov. . Retrieved
[2] "FACTBOX: Five facts: Most Serene Republic of San Marino" (http:// www. reuters. com/ article/ 2009/ 08/ 17/
us-sanmarino-sb-idUSTRE57G0GM20090817). Reuters. . Retrieved 2012-07-05.
[3] The Government of San Marino, in a March 29, 1861 letter from the Captain Regents, offered Lincoln honorary citizenship. On May 7, 1861,
Lincoln accepted the offer by responding, “Although your dominion is small, your State is nevertheless one of the most honored, in all
[4] [4] Tagg, p. xiii.
[5] Randall (1947), pp. 65–87.
[6] [6] Bulla (2010), p. 222.
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[9] Donald (1996), pp. 20–22.
[10] Pessen, pp. 24–25.
[11] White, pp. 12–13.
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[13] Donald (1996), pp. 22–24.
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[16] Donald (1996), pp. 30–33.
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[18] Donald (1996), pp. 26–27.
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Abraham Lincoln
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[31] Sandburg (1926), pp. 46–48.
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[44] Winkle ch 7–8.
[45] Winkle, pp. 86–95.
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[59] Boritt (1994), pp. 137–153.
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[88] Foner (2010), pp. 84–88.
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[97] Oates, pp. 138–139.
[98] Zarefsky, pp. 69–110.
[99] Jaffa, pp. 299–300.
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[109] Holzer, pp. 108–111.
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[115] Oates, pp. 175–176.
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[117] Luthin, pp. 609–629.
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[127] Nevins, Ordeal of the Union vol 4. p. 312.
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[130] [130] Potter, p. 498.
[131] [131] White, p. 362.
[132] Potter, pp. 520, 569–570.
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[138] Donald (1996), pp. 273–277.
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[141] Donald (1996), pp. 283–284.
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[143] Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union (1959) vol 5 p 29
[144] Sherman, pp. 185–186.
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[147] [147] Heidler (2000), p. 174.
[148] Scott, pp. 326–341.
[149] Donald (1996), pp. 303–304; Carwardine (2003), pp. 163–164.
[150] Donald (1996), pp. 315, 331–333, 338–339, 417.
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[154] Adams, pp. 540–562.
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[156] [156] Prokopowicz, p. 127.
[157] Benjamin P. Thomas and Harold M. Hyman, Stanton, the Life and Times of Lincoln's Secretary of War (Knopf, 1962)
[158] Donald (1996), pp. 295–296.
[159] Donald (1996), pp. 391–392.
[160] [160] Ambrose, pp. 7, 66, 159.
[161] Donald (1996), pp. 432–436.
[162] Donald (1996), pp. 318–319.
[163] Donald (1996), pp. 349–352.
[164] Donald (1996), pp. 360–361.
[165] Nevins (1960), pp. 2:159–162.
[166] Donald (1996), pp. 339–340.
[167] Goodwin, pp. 478–479.
[168] Goodwin, pp. 478–480.
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[170] Donald (1996), pp. 389–390.
[171] Donald (1996), pp. 429–431.
[172] [172] Nevins 6:433-44
[173] Nevins vol 6 pp. 318–322, quote on p. 322.
[174] Donald (1996), pp. 422–423.
[175] Nevins 6:432–450.
[176] Donald (1996), pp. 444–447.
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[179] Guelzo (1999), pp. 290–291.
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[182] Guelzo (2004), pp. 147–153.
[183] Roy P. Basler, ed. The collected works of Abraham Lincoln (Rutgers U.P., 1953) vol 5 p. 388
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[185] Louis P. Masur, Lincoln's Hundred Days: The Emancipation Proclamation and the War for the Union (Harvard University Press; 2012)
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[188] Nevins (1960), pp. 2:239–240.
[189] Donald (1996), pp. 430–431.
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[191] Douglass, pp. 259–260.
[192] Donald (1996), pp. 453–460.
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[195] [195] Thomas (2008), p. 315.
[196] Nevins (2000), (Vol. IV), pp. 6–17.
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[201] Thomas (2008), pp. 422–424.
[202] Neely (2004), pp. 434–458.
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[207] Fish, pp. 53–69.
[208] Tegeder, pp. 77–90.
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[213] Randall & Current (1955), p. 307.
[214] Paludan, pp. 274–293.
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[216] Abraham Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln: Selected Speeches and Writings (Library of America edition, 2009) p 450
[217] Thomas (2008), pp. 509–512.
[218] Donald (1996), pp. 471–472.
[219] Donald (1996), pp. 485–486.
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[222] Donald (1996), pp. 562–563.
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[225] Carwardine (2003), pp. 242–243.
[226] "Presidential Proclamation-Civil War Sesquicentennial" (http:// www. webcitation. org/ 62aAPoA6B). The White House. April 12, 2011.
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[231] Orville Vernon Burton, The Age of Lincoln (2008) p 243
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[235] McPherson (1993), pp. 450–452.
[236] Summers, Robert. "Abraham Lincoln" (http:// www. webcitation.org/62dM1T7zn). Internet Public Library 2 (IPL2). U. Michigan and
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[238] [238] Paludan, p. 111.
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[240] [240] Cox, p. 182.
[241] Nichols, pp. 210–232.
[242] Donald (1996), pp. 501–502.
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[244] Schaffer, Jeffrey P. (1999). Yosemite National Park: A Natural History Guide to Yosemite and Its Trails. Berkeley: Wilderness Press. p. 48.
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[247] Donald (1996), pp. 586–587.
[248] [248] Donald (1996), p. 587.
[249] Harrison (2000), pp. 3–4.
[250] Donald (1996), pp. 594–597.
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[252] Martin, Paul (April 8, 2010). "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard" (http:// www. webcitation.org/ 62aAqLOzq). Smithsonian Magazine.
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[254] "Report of first doctor to reach shot Lincoln found" (http:// news. yahoo.com/ report-first-doctor-reach-shot-lincoln-found-175353998.
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[255] Donald (1996), pp. 598–599, 686. Witnesses have provided other versions of the quote, i.e. "He now belongs to the ages." and "He is a
man for the ages."
[256] [ |Scott D. Trostel (http:// www. lincolnfuneraltrain.com/ index. html)]. "The Lincoln Funeral Train" (http:// www. lincolnfuneraltrain.
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[257] Trostel, pp. 31–58.
[258] Goodrich, pp. 231–238.
[259] Carwardine (1997), pp. 27–55.
[260] Douglas L. Wilson (1999). Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=KCM50uZMsQMC& pg=PA84). Random House Digital, Inc.. p. 84. .
[261] On claims that Lincoln was baptized by an associate of Alexander Campbell, see Martin, Jim (1996). "The secret baptism of Abraham
Lincoln" (http:// www. acu. edu/ sponsored/ restoration_quarterly/archives/ 1990s/ vol_38_no_2_contents/ martin.html). Restoration
Quarterly 38 (2). .
[262] Donald (1996), pp. 48–49, 514–515.
[263] Donald (1996), pp. 48–49.
[264] Grant R. Brodrecht, "Our country": Northern evangelicals and the Union during the Civil War and Reconstruction (2008) p. 40
[265] Parrillo, pp. 227–253.
[266] Wilson, pp. 251–254.
[267] [267] Wilson, p. 254.
[268] [268] Guelzo (1999), p. 434
[269] [269] Taranto, p. 264.
[270] Densen, John V., Editor, Reassessing The Presidency, The Rise of the Executive State and the Decline of Freedom (Ludwig von Mises
Institute, 2001), pgs. 1–32; Ridings, William H., & Stuard B. McIver, Rating The Presidents, A Ranking of U.S. Leaders, From the Great and
Honorable to the Dishonest and Incompetent (Citadel Press, Kensington Publishing Corp., 2000).
[271] [271] Chesebrough, pp. 76, 79, 106, 110.
[272] [272] Schwartz (2000), p. 109.
[273] Schwartz (2009), pp. 23, 91–98.
[274] Havers, p. 96. Apart from neo-Confederates such as Mel Bradford who denounced his treatment of the white South.
[275] Belz (2006), pp. 514–518.
[276] Graebner, pp. 67–94.
[277] Smith, pp. 43–45.
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• Harrison, J. Houston (1935). Settlers by the Long Grey Trail. J.K. Reubush. OCLC 3512772.
• Harrison, Lowell Hayes (2000). Lincoln of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2156-6.
• Harris, William C. (2007). Lincoln's Rise to the Presidency. University Press of Kansas.
ISBN 978-0-7006-1520-9.
• Havers, Grant N. (2009). Lincoln and the Politics of Christian Love. University of Missouri Press.
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• Heidler, David S.; Jeanne T. Heidler, ed. (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social,
and Military History. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5.
• Heidler, David Stephen (2006). The Mexican War. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32792-6.
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• Jaffa, Harry V. (2000). A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War. Rowman &
Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-9952-8.
• Kelley, Robin D. G.; Lewis, Earl (2005). To Make Our World Anew: Volume I: A History of African Americans to
1880. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-804006-4.
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PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-676-1.
• Lupton, John A. (September–October 2006). "Abraham Lincoln and the Corwin Amendment" (http:// www. lib.
niu. edu/ 2006/ ih060934. html). Illinois Heritage (The Illinois State Historical Society) 9 (5): 34.
• Luthin, Reinhard H. (July 1994). "Abraham Lincoln and the Tariff". American Historical Review (American
Historical Association) 49 (4): 609–629. doi:10.2307/1850218. JSTOR 1850218.
• Mansch, Larry D. (2005). Abraham Lincoln, President-Elect: The Four Critical Months from Election to
Inauguration. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2026-X.
• McGovern, George S. (2008). Abraham Lincoln. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-8345-3.
• McKirdy, Charles Robert (2011). Lincoln Apostate: The Matson Slave Case. Univ. Press of Mississippi.
ISBN 978-1-60-473987-9.
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also published as vol 5–8 of Ordeal of the Union
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Southern Illinois University. ISBN 0-8093-2961-1.
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• Oates, Stephen B. (1993). With Malice Toward None: a Life of Abraham Lincoln. HarperCollins.
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• Pessen, Edward (1984). The Log Cabin Myth: The Social Backgrounds of American Presidents. Yale University
Press. ISBN 0-300-03166-1.
• Peterson, Merrill D. (1995). Lincoln in American Memory. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509645-3.
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ISBN 978-0-06-131929-7.
• Prokopowicz, Gerald J. (2008). Did Lincoln Own Slaves?. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-307-27929-3.
• Randall, James G. (1947). Lincoln, the Liberal Statesman. Dodd, Mead. OCLC 748479.
• Randall, J.G.; Current, Richard Nelson (1955). Last Full Measure. Lincoln the President. IV. Dodd, Mead.
OCLC 5852442.
• Sandburg, Carl. (1926). Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years. Harcourt, Brace & Company. OCLC 6579822.
• Sandburg, Carl (2002). Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War Years. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
ISBN 0-15-602752-6.
• Schwartz, Barry (2000). Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory. University Of Chicago Press.
ISBN 978-0-226-74197-0.
• Schwartz, Barry (2009). Abraham Lincoln in the Post-Heroic Era: History and Memory in Late
Twentieth-Century America. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-74188-8.
• Scott, Kenneth (September 1948). "Press Opposition to Lincoln in New Hampshire". The New England Quarterly
(The New England Quarterly, Inc.) 21 (3): 326–341. doi:10.2307/361094. JSTOR 361094.
• Sherman, William T. (1990). Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 1-174-63172-4.
• Simon, Paul (1990). Lincoln's Preparation for Greatness: The Illinois Legislative Years. University of Illinois.
ISBN 0-252-00203-2.
• Smith, Robert C. (2010). Conservatism and Racism, and Why in America They Are the Same. State University of
New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-3233-5.
• Steers, Edward (2010). The Lincoln Assassination Encyclopedia. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-178775-2.
• Striner, Richard (2006). Father Abraham: Lincoln's Relentless Struggle to End Slavery. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-518306-1.
• Tagg, Larry (2009). The Unpopular Mr. Lincoln:The Story of America's Most Reviled President. Savas Beatie.
ISBN 978-1-932714-61-6.
• Taranto, James; Leonard Leo (2004). Presidential Leadership: Rating the Best and the Worst in the White House.
Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-5433-5.
• Tegeder, Vincent G. (June 1948). "Lincoln and the Territorial Patronage: The Ascendancy of the Radicals in the
West". Mississippi Valley Historical Review (Organization of American Historians) 35 (1): 77–90.
Abraham Lincoln
doi:10.2307/1895140. JSTOR 1895140.
• Thomas, Benjamin P. (2008). Abraham Lincoln: A Biography. Southern Illinois University.
ISBN 978-0-8093-2887-1.
• Trostel, Scott D. (2002). The Lincoln Funeral Train: The Final Journey and National Funeral for Abraham
Lincoln. Cam-Tech Publishing. ISBN 978-0-925436-21-4.
• Vorenberg, Michael (2001). Final Freedom: the Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth
Amendment. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65267-4.
• White, Jr., Ronald C. (2009). A. Lincoln: A Biography. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-6499-1.
• Wills, Garry (1993). Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. Simon & Schuster.
ISBN 0-671-86742-3.
• Wilson, Douglas L. (1999). Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln. Knopf Publishing Group.
ISBN 978-0-375-70396-6.
• Winkle, Kenneth J. (2001). The Young Eagle: The Rise of Abraham Lincoln. Taylor Trade Publications.
ISBN 978-0-87833-255-7.
• Zarefsky, David S. (1993). Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery: In the Crucible of Public Debate. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-97876-5.
• Zilversmit, Arthur (1980). "Lincoln and the Problem of Race: A Decade of Interpretations" (http:// web. archive.
org/ web/ 20110720234453/ http:/ / www. historycooperative. org/ journals/ jala/ 2/ zilversmit. html). Journal of
the Abraham Lincoln Association (Abraham Lincoln Association) 2 (11): 22–24. Archived from the original
(http:/ / www. historycooperative.org/ journals/ jala/ 2/ zilversmit. html) on 2011-07-20.
Additional references
• Burkhimer, Michael (2003). One Hundred Essential Lincoln Books. Cumberland House.
ISBN 978-1-58182-369-1.
• Burlingame, Michael (2008). Abraham Lincoln: A Life (2 volumes). Johns Hopkins University Press.
ISBN 978-0-8018-8993-6., the most detailed biography
• Cox, LaWanda (1981). Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership. University of South
Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-400-8.
• Foner, Eric (2008). Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World. W.W. Norton.
ISBN 978-0-393-06756-9.
• Holzer, Harold (2008). Lincoln President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter 1860–1861
(http:// books. google. com/ books?id=34cVaFHdgMMC). Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743289474.
• McPherson, James M. (2008). Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. Penguin Press.
ISBN 978-1-59420-191-2.
• Miller, Richard Lawrence (2011). Lincoln and His World: The Rise to National Prominence, 1843–1853 (http://
books. google. com/ books?id=c1odBTiRSJcC). McFarland. ISBN 9780786459285., vol 3. of detailed biography
• Neely, Mark E (1984). The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80209-6.
• Neely, Mark E (1994). The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America. Harvard
University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-51125-5.
• Randall, James G. (1945–1955). Lincoln the President (4 volumes). Dodd, Mead. OCLC 4183070.
• Smith, Adam I.P. "The 'Cult' of Abraham Lincoln and the Strange Survival of Liberal England in the Era of the
World Wars," Twentieth Century British History, (Dec 2010) 21#4 pp 486–509
Abraham Lincoln
External links
• The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (http:// quod.lib.umich.edu/ l/ lincoln/ )
• Abraham Lincoln (http:/ / bioguide.congress.gov/ scripts/ biodisplay. pl?index=L000313) at the Biographical
Directory of the United States Congress
• Mr. Lincoln's Virtual Library (http:// memory.loc. gov/ ammem/ alhtml/ alhome. html)
• Poetry written by Abraham Lincoln (http:/ / www.loc. gov/ rr/program/bib/ prespoetry/al. html)
• The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum (http:/ / www. alplm. org/ home. html) Springfield,
• The Papers of Abraham Lincoln (http:/ / www.papersofabrahamlincoln.org/ ) documentary editing project
• US PATNo. 6,469 (http:/ / www. google.com/ patents?vid=6469)—Manner of Buoying Vessels—A.
• National Endowment for the Humanities Spotlight – Abraham Lincoln (http:// edsitement. neh.gov/
• The Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission (http:/ / www. abrahamlincoln200.org/)
• Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University Libraries (http://
lincoln. lib. niu.edu/ )
• Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress (http:// www.loc.gov/ rr/program/bib/
presidents/ lincoln/ )
• Abraham Lincoln (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20110725003410/ http:/ / americanpresidents. org/ presidents/
president. asp?PresidentNumber=16) at C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits
• C-SPAN's Lincoln 200 Years (http:/ / legacy.c-span. org/ Series/ Lincoln-200-Years.aspx)
African-American history
African-American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or
Black American ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are the descendants of captive Africans
held in the United States from 1619 to 1865. Blacks from the Caribbean whose ancestors immigrated, or who
immigrated to the U.S., also traditionally have been considered African American, as they share a common history of
predominantly West African or Central African roots, the Middle Passage and slavery.
It is these peoples, who in the past were referred to and self-identified collectively as the American Negro, who now
generally consider themselves African Americans. Their history is celebrated and highlighted annually in the United
States during February, designated as Black History Month, and it is their history that is the focus of this article.
Others who sometimes are referred to as African Americans, and who may self-identify as such in US government
censuses, include relatively recent Black immigrants from Africa, South America and elsewhere who self-identify as
being of African descent.
African origins
The majority of African Americans descend from slaves, most of whom were sold into slavery as prisoners of war by
African states or kidnapped by African, Arab, European or American slave traders. Slavery within Africa had
already existed prior and after the arrival of the Europeans. The existing market for slaves in Africa was exploited
and expanded by European powers in search of free labor for New World plantations. The “New World” is a phrase,
coined by Amerigo Vespucci in the 16th century soon after the discovery of the Americas and is meant to include the
lands of North America and the Caribbean Islands.
The American slave population was made up of the various ethnic groups from western and central Africa, including
the Bakongo, Igbo, Mandé, Wolof, Akan, Fon and Makua amongst others. Although these different groups varied in
African-American history
customs, religious theology and language, what they had in common was a way a life that was different from the
However, since a majority of the slaves came from these villages and societies, once sent to the
Americas these different peoples did away with tribal differences and forged a new history and culture that was a
creolization of their common pasts and present.
The Bakongo people were part of a large civilization, in fact, there
was around two million people by the 1400's.
The Kingdoms of Kongo and Ndongo (Angola), are where most
African-Americans trace their ancestors to.
African political organizations were also in a monarchical system
similar to the Europeans.
Studies of contemporary documents reveal seven regions from which Africans were sold or taken during the Atlantic
slave trade. These regions were
• Senegambia, encompassing the coast from the Senegal River to the Casamance River, where captives as far away
as the Upper and Middle Niger River Valley were sold;
• The Sierra Leone region included territory from the Casamance to the Assini River in the modern countries of
Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire;
• The Gold Coast region consisted of mainly modern Ghana;
• The Bight of Benin region stretched from the Volta River to the Benue River in modern Togo, Benin and
southwestern Nigeria;
• The Bight of Biafra extended from southeastern Nigeria through Cameroon into Gabon;
• West Central Africa, the largest region, included the Congo and Angola; and
• The region of Mozambique-Madagascar included the modern countries of Mozambique, parts of Tanzania and
The largest source of slaves to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean for the "New World" was West Africa. West
Africans were skilled iron workers and were therefore able to make tools that aided in their agricultural labor. While
there were many unique tribes with their own customs and religions, by the tenth century, Islam had been soaked up
by many of the residents and became a common religion. Those villages in West Africa there were lucky enough to
good conditions for growth and success, prospered. They also contributed their success to the slave trade.
Origins and Percentages of African Americans imported into British North America and Louisiana (1700–1820)
Region Percentage
West Central Africa 26.1%
Bight of Biafra 24.4%
Sierra Leone 15.8%
Senegambia 14.5%
Gold Coast 13.1%
Bight of Benin 4.3%
Mozambique-Madagascar 1.8%
The Middle Passage
Africa before the Atlantic Slave Trade
Before the Atlantic Slave Trade there was already slavery going on in Africa. The countries in Africa would buy,
sell, and trade slaves with each other and with Europeans because saw it as one society taking over another, there
was no unified African identity. The people of Mali and Benin did not identify themselves as Africans any more than
the people of France or Portugal identified themselves as Europeans.Thus Africans felt no moral distaste for the
practice of capturing and selling slaves.
African-American history
In the accounts of Equiano, he described the process of being transported to the colonies and being on the slave ships
as a horrific experience. On the ships, the slaves were separated from their family and kept chained under the ship
deck. Under the deck, the slaves were cramped and did not have enough space to walk around freely. Due to the lack
of basic hygiene, malnourishment, and dehydration diseases spread wildly. Death was common and the women on
the ships often endured raped from the crewmen.
In the midst of these terrible conditions, African slaves plotted
mutiny. While rebellions did not happen often, they were usually unsuccessful. In order for the crewmembers to
keep the slaves under control and prevent future rebellions, the crewmembers would instill fear into the slaves
through brutality and harsh punishments. From the time of being captured in African to the arrival to the plantations
of the European masters, took an average of six months.
Africans were completely cut off from their families,
home, and community life.
They were forced to adjust to a new way of life.
Early African-American History
The first African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619.ChiefCooper (talk) 03:34, 11 December 2012
(UTC) The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years.
This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean.
As servants were
freed, they became competition for resources. Additionally, released servants had to be replaced. This, combined
with the still ambiguous nature of the social status of Blacks and the difficulty in using any other group of people as
forced servants, led to the relegation of Blacks into slavery. Massachusetts was the first colony to legalize slavery in
1641. Other colonies followed suit by passing laws that passed slavery on to the children of slaves and making
non-Christian imported servants slaves for life.
A former slave displays the telltale criss-cross,
keloid scars from being bullwhipped.
Africans first arrived in 1619, when a Dutch ship sold 19 blacks as
indentured servants (not slaves) to Englishmen at Point Comfort
(today's Fort Monroe), thirty miles downstream from Jamestown,
Virginia. In all, about 10-12 million Africans were transported to the
Western Hemisphere. The vast majority of these people came from that
stretch of the West African coast extending from present-day Senegal
to Angola; a small percentage came from Madagascar and East Africa.
Only 3% (about 300,000) went to the American colonies. The vast
majority went to the West Indies, where they died quickly.
Demographic conditions were highly favorable in the American
colonies, with less disease, more food, some medical care, and lighter
work loads than prevailed in the sugar fields.
At first the Africans in the South were outnumbered by white
indentured servants, who came voluntarily from Britain. They avoided
the plantations. With the vast amount of good land and the shortage of
laborers, plantation owners turned to lifetime slaves who worked for
their keep but were not paid wages and could not easily escape. Slaves
had some legal rights (it was a crime to kill a slave, and a few whites
were hanged for it.) Generally the slaves developed their own family
system, religion and customs in the slave quarters with little
interference from owners, who were only interested in work outputs.
By 1700 there were 25,000 slaves in the American colonies, about 10% of the population. A few had come from
Africa but most came from the West Indies (especially Trinidad, later Trinidad and Tobago), or, increasingly, were
native born. Their legal status was now clear: they were slaves for life and so were the children of slave mothers.
They could be sold, or freed, and a few ran away; some using the Underground Railroad to reach freedom. In the
eyes of the slave owner, they were no more than livestock.
Slowly a free black population emerged, concentrated
African-American history
in port cities along the Atlantic coast from Charleston to Boston. Slaves in the cities and towns had many more
privileges, but the great majority of slaves lived on southern tobacco or rice plantations, usually in groups of 20 or
Wealthy plantation owners eventually would become so reliant on slavery that they devastated their own
lower class.
In years to come the institution of slavery would be so heavily involved in the South's economy it
would divide America into two opposing forces.
The most serious slave rebellion was the Stono Uprising, in September 1739 in South Carolina. The colony had
about 56,000 slaves, who outnumbered whites 2:1. About 150 slaves rose up, and seizing guns and ammunition,
murdered twenty whites, and headed for Spanish Florida. The local militia soon intercepted and killed most of
All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of
the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves.)
These statistics
show the early imbalance that would eventually tip the scale and rid the United States of Slavery.
The Revolution and early America
The later half of the 18th century was a time of political upheaval in the United States. In the midst of cries for relief
from British rule, several people pointed out the apparent hypocrisies of slave holders' demanding freedom. The
Declaration of Independence, a document that would become a manifesto for human rights and personal freedom,
was written by Thomas Jefferson, who owned over 200 slaves. Other Southern statesmen were also major
slaveholders. The Second Continental Congress did consider freeing slaves to disrupt British commerce. They
removed language from the Declaration of Independence that included the promotion of slavery amongst the
offenses of King George III. A number of free Blacks, most notably Prince Hall—the founder of Prince Hall
Freemasonry, submitted petitions for the end of slavery. But these petitions were largely ignored.
This did not deter Blacks, free and slave, from participating in the Revolution. Crispus Attucks, a free Black
tradesman, was the first casualty of the Boston Massacre and of the ensuing American Revolutionary War. 5,000
Blacks, including Prince Hall, fought in the Continental Army. Many fought side by side with White soldiers at the
battles of Lexington and Concord and at Bunker Hill. But when George Washington took command in 1775, he
barred any further recruitment of Blacks.
Approximately 5000 free African American men helped the American Colonists in their struggle for freedom. One
of these men, Agrippa Hull, fought in the American Revolution for over six years. He and the other African
American soldiers fought in order to improve their white neighbor’s views of them and advance their own fight of
By contrast, the British and Loyalists offered emancipation to any slave owned by a Patriot who was willing to join
the Loyalist forces. Lord Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia, recruited 300 African American men into his
Ethiopian regiment within a month of making this proclamation. In South Carolina 25,000 slaves, more than
one-quarter of the total, escaped to join and fight with the British, or fled for freedom in the uproar of war.
Thousands of slaves also escaped in Georgia and Virginia, as well as New England and New York. Well-known
Black Loyalist soldiers include Colonel Tye and Boston King.
The Americans eventually won the war. In the provisional treaty, they demanded the return of property, including
slaves. Nonetheless, the British helped up to 4,000 documented African Americans to leave the country for Nova
Scotia, Jamaica, and Britain rather than be returned to slavery.
Thomas Peters was one of the large numbers of African Americans who fought for the British. He was a North
Carolina slave who left his master’s farm in order to receive Lord Dunmore’s promise of freedom. Peters fought for
the British throughout the war. When the war finally ended, he and other African Americans who fought on the
losing side were taken to Nova Scotia. Here, they were given pieces of land that they could not farm. They also did
not receive the same freedoms of white Englishmen. Peters sailed to London in order to complain to the government.
African-American history
“He arrived at a momentous time, when English abolitionists were pushing a bill through Parliament to charter the
Sierra Leone Company and to grant it trading and settlement rights on the West African coast.” Peters and the other
African Americans on Nova Scotia left for Sierra Leone in 1792. Peters died soon after they arrived but the other
members of his party lived on in their new home.
The Constitutional Convention of 1787 sought to define the foundation for the government of the newly formed
United States of America. The constitution set forth the ideals of freedom and equality while providing for the
continuation of the institution of slavery through the fugitive slave clause and the three-fifths compromise.
Additionally, free blacks' rights were also restricted in many places. Most were denied the right to vote and were
excluded from public schools. Some Blacks sought to fight these contradictions in court. In 1780, Elizabeth Freeman
and Quock Walker used language from the new Massachusetts constitution that declared all men were born free and
equal in freedom suits to gain release from slavery. A free Black businessman in Boston named Paul Cuffe sought to
be excused from paying taxes since he had no voting rights.
In the Northern states, the revolutionary spirit did help African Americans. Beginning in the 1750s, there was
widespread sentiment during the American Revolution that slavery was a social evil (for the country as a whole and
for the whites) that should eventually be abolished. All the Northern states passed emancipation acts between 1780
and 1804; most of these arranged for gradual emancipation and a special status for freedmen, so there were still a
dozen "permanent apprentices" into the 19th century. In 1787 Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance and barred
slavery from the large Northwest Territory.
In 1790, there were more than 59,000 free Blacks in the United
States. By 1810, that number had risen to 186,446. Most of these were in the North, but Revolutionary sentiments
also motivated Southern slaveholders.
For 20 years after the Revolution, more Southerners also freed slaves, sometimes by manumission or in wills to be
accomplished after the slaveholder's death. In the Upper South, the percentage of free blacks rose from about 1%
before the Revolution to more than 10% by 1810. Quakers and Moravians worked to persuade slaveholders to free
families. In Virginia the number of free blacks increased from 10,000 in 1790 to nearly 30,000 in 1810, but 95% of
blacks were still enslaved. In Delaware, three-quarters of all blacks were free by 1810.
By 1860 just over 91% of
Delaware's blacks were free, and 49.1% of those in Maryland.
Among the successful free men was Benjamin Banneker, a Maryland astronomer, mathematician, almanac author,
surveyor and farmer, who in 1791 assisted in the initial survey of the boundaries of the future District of
Despite the challenges of living in the new country, most free Blacks fared far better than the nearly
800,000 enslaved Blacks. Even so, many considered emigrating to Africa.
The Antebellum Period
As the United States grew, the institution of slavery became more entrenched in the southern states, while northern
states began to abolish it. Pennsylvania was the first, in 1780 passing an act for gradual abolition. This law allowed
citizens of other states temporarily living in Pennsylvania to hold slaves for up to 6 months, after which enslaved
Africans have the right to be set free. Members of the U.S. Congress and their personal slaves are specifically not
included in the state law. The Gradual Abolition Act prohibited any further importation of enslaved Africans into the
state and guaranteed that the future children of enslaved Pennsylvania mothers will be born as a free person.
number of events continued to shape views on slavery. One of these events was the Haitian Revolution, which was
the only slave revolt that led to its independence.
The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 allowed the cultivation
of short staple cotton, which could be grown in inland areas. This triggered a huge demand for imported slave labor
to develop new cotton plantations. There was a 70% increase in the number of slaves in the United States in only 20
years, and they were overwhelmingly concentrated in the Deep South. The Deep South's economy was entrenched in
slavery. Unlike the Northern States who put more focus into manufacturing, the Southern States were almost
exclusively dependent on the agriculture and climate of the South. A relatively small portion of landowners in the
South held a significant portion of the wealth. This skewed the distribution of wealth and social class all while
African-American history
creating an economy dependent on the institution of slavery.
Southern political economists at this time supported
the institution by concluding that nothing was inherently contradictory about owning slaves and that a future of
slavery existed even if the South were to industrialize.
Racial, economic, and political turmoil reached an all time
high regarding slavery up to the events of the Civil War.
In 1808, Congress abolished the international slave trade. While American Blacks celebrated this as a victory in the
fight against slavery, the ban increased the demand for slaves. Changing agricultural practices in the Upper South
from tobacco to mixed farming decreased labor requirements, and slaves were sold to traders for the developing
Deep South. In addition, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 allowed any Black person to be claimed as a runaway unless
a White person testified on their behalf. A number of free Blacks, especially indentured children, were kidnapped
and sold into slavery with little or no hope of rescue. By 1819 there were exactly 11 free and 11 slave states, which
increased sectionalism. Fears of an imbalance in Congress led to the 1820 Missouri Compromise that required states
to be admitted to the union in pairs, one slave and one free.
In 1850 after wining the Mexican war a crisis griped the nation what to do about the territories won from Mexico.
Henry Clay the man behind the compromise of 1820 once more rose to the challenge to craft the compromise of
1850. In this compromise the territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada would be organized but the
issue of slavery would be decided later. Washington D.C would abolish the slave trade but not slavery its self.
California would be admitted as a free state but the South would receive a new fugitive slave act which required
Northerners to return slaves who escaped to the North to their owners. The compromise of 1850 would maintain a
shaky peace until the election of Lincoln in 1860.
In 1851 the battle between slaves and slave owners was met in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The Christian Riot
(Incident) demonstrated the growing conflict between states rights and the federal legislature on the issue of
In 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe would publish a novel that changed how the North would view slavery. Uncle Tom's
Cabin tells the story of the life of a slave and the brutality that is faced by that life day after day. It would sell over
100,000 copies in its first year.The popularity of Uncle Toms cabin would solidify the North in its opposition to
slavery. Lincoln would later invite Stowe to the White House in honor of this book that changed America.
In 1856 Charles Sumner a Massachusetts congressmen would be assaulted on the the House floor by Preston Brooks
of South Carolina. Sumner who was anti slavery offended Brooks and Brooks proceeded to bash his Cain over
Sumner's head. Brooks received praise in the South for his actions while being condemned in the North and Sumner
would be regarded as a hero in the North.
Over 1 million slaves were moved from the older seaboard slave states, with their declining economies to the rich
cotton states of the southwest; many others were sold and moved locally.
Berlin (2000) argues that this "Second
Middle Passage shredded the planters' paternalist pretenses in the eyes of black people and prodded slaves and free
people of color to create a host of oppositional ideologies and institutions that better accounted for the realities of
endless deportations, expulsions and flights that continually remade their world.
The Black community
The number of free Blacks grew during this time as well. By 1830 there were 319,000 free Blacks in the United
States. 150,000 lived in the northern states. Blacks generally settled in cities creating the core of black community
life in the region. They established churches and fraternal orders. Many of these early efforts were weak and often
failed, but they represented the initial steps in the evolution of black communities.
During the early period of Antebellum the creation of free black communities began to expand laying out the
foundation of African Americans future. Only a few thousand of Arican Americans had their freedom. As the years
went by the number of blacks being freed expandaned tramendously leaving at 233,000 by the 1820s. In order for
them to gain their freedom they either sued for it or purchased their freedom. Slave owners had freed their
bondspeople and a few state legislatures abolish slavery. In the South 60 percent and 40 percent in the North free
African-American history
black people lived their during the new republic. .
African Americans tried to take the advantage of establishing homes and jobs in the cities. In the industrial business
they started to become more advance and using machines instead of people to do the hand work. The companies
preferred native-born and immigrant whites instead of blacks. Black men work as stevedores loading and unloading
cargo o the wharves, cellar,well and gravediggers. Black women worked as washerwomen or domestic servants for
the white families. In some cities they had independant black seamstresses, cooks, basketmaker, confectioners and
more.Even in the lowpoverty areas African Americans maintained their independence by scheduling their job when
possible.James Forten was a driving force in finding work and making himself known to the white culture. After war
he sailed to london, where he began to sew canvas sails on the Thames River docks. .
While the African Americans left the thought of slavery behind, they made a priority to reunite with their family and
friends. The cause of the Revolutionary War forced blacks to migrate to the west afterwards, and the scourge of
poverty created much difficulty with housing formations. Even though African Americans competed with the Irish
and German in jobs they had to share space with them. .
While the majority of free blacks lived in poverty, some were able to establish successful businesses that catered to
the Black community. Racial discrimination often meant that Blacks were not welcome or would be mistreated in
White businesses and other establishments. To counter this, Blacks like James Forten developed their own
communities with Black-owned businesses. Black doctors, lawyers and other businessmen were the foundation of
the Black middle class.
A large group of African-American spectators
stands on the banks of Buffalo Bayou to witness a
baptism (ca. 1900).
Blacks organized to help strengthen the Black community and continue
the fight against slavery. One of these organizations was the American
Society of Free Persons of Colour, founded in 1830. This organization
provided social aid to poor blacks and organized responses to political
issues. Further supporting the growth of the Black Community was the
Black church, usually the first community institution to be established.
Starting in the early 1800s
with the African Methodist Episcopal
Church, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and other churches,
the Black church grew to be the focal point of the Black community.
The Black church- was both an expression of community and unique
African-American spirituality, and a reaction to European American
discrimination. The church also served as neighborhood centers where
free black people could celebrate their African heritage without
intrusion by white detractors.
The church was the center of the Black communtities, but it was also the center of
education. Since the church was part of the community and wanted to provide education; they educated the freed and
enslaved Blacks.
At first, Black preachers formed separate congregations within the existing denominations, such
as social clubs or literary societies. Because of discrimination at the higher levels of the church hierarchy, some
blacks like Richard Allen (bishop) simply founded separate Black denominations.
Free blacks also established Black churches in the South before 1800. After the Great Awakening, many blacks
joined the Baptist Church, which allowed for their participation, including roles as elders and preachers. For
instance, First Baptist Church and Gillfield Baptist Church of Petersburg, Virginia, both had organized congregations
by 1800 and were the first Baptist churches in the city.
Petersburg, an industrial city, by 1860 had 3,224 free
blacks, the largest population in the South.
In Virginia, free blacks also created communities in Richmond,
Virginia and other towns, where they could work as artisans and create businesses. Others were able to buy land and
farm in frontier areas further from white control.
The Black community also established schools for Black children, since they were often banned from entering public
Richard Allen organized the first Black Sunday school in America; it was established in Philadelphia
during 1795. Then five years later, the priest Absalom Jones established a school for black youth. Black Americans
African-American history
regarded education as the surest path to economic success, moral improvement and personal happiness. Only the
sons and daughters of the black middle class had the luxury of studying.
During the time of the early 1800's free blacks took several steps to establish fulfilling work lives in the city. The rise
of industrialization, which depended on power driven machinery more than human labor, might have afforded them
employment, but many owners of textile mills refused to fire black worker. These owners considered white to be
more reliable and educable. Resulting to many black performing in unskilled labor. For example, cellar-diggers,
well-diggers, gravediggers, chimney-sweepers, ash-haulers and construction workers. As for black women workers,
they worked as servants for white families. Some women were also cooks, seamstresses, basket-makers, midwives,
teachers and nurses.
Haiti's Effect on Slavery
The revolt of Haitian slaves against their white slave owners, which began in 1791 and lasted until 1801, was a
primary source of fuel for both slaves and abolitionist arguing for the freedom of Africans in the U.S. In the 1833
edition of Nile's Weekly Register it is stated that freed blacks in Haiti are better off than their Jamaican counterparts,
and the positive effects that American Emancipation would have are alluded to, throughout the paper.
anti-slavery sentiments were popular amongst both white abolitionists and African-American slaves. Slaves rallied
around these ideas with rebellions against their masters as well as innocent white bystanders during the Denmark
Vesey Conspiracy of 1822 and the Nat Turner Rebellion of 1831. Leaders and plantation owners were also very
concerned about the consequences Haiti's revolution would have on early America for different reasons. Thomas
Jefferson, for one, was wary of the “instability of the West Indies”, referring to Haiti.
The Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott was a slave whose master had taken him to live in the free state of Illinois. After his masters death Dred
Scott sued in court for his freedom based off his living in a free state for a long period.The black community
received an enormous shock with the Supreme Court's "Dred Scott" decision in March 1857.
Blacks were not
American citizens and could never be citizens, the court said in a decision roundly denounced by the Republican
Party as well as the abolitionists. Because slaves were property not people by this ruling they could not sue in court.
The decision was finally reversed by the Civil Rights Act of 1865.
In what is sometimes considered mere obiter
dictum the Court went on to hold that Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories because
slaves are personal property and the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution protects property owners against
deprivation of their property without due process of law. Although the Supreme Court has never explicitly overruled
the Dred Scott case, the Court stated in the Slaughter-House Cases that at least one part of it had already been
overruled by the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, which begins by stating, "All persons born or naturalized in the
United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they
Emancipation and Reconstruction
In 1863, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation
Proclamation, which promised freedom to slaves in the Southern states if the Union won the war.
"In this
preliminary Emancipation Proclamation,Lincoln chose his words carefully. Emphasizing that he was not planning to
free the slaves in states loyal to the Union, he promised that any confederate state rejoined the Union by January first
1863 would be allowed to retain slavery."
Emancipation Proclamation main attempt was to free those slaves that
were not control in Union territory. However, the 13th Amendment had to be passed because if the war ended before
the 13th amendment the Emancipation Proclamation would be null and void.
The Emancipation would be Null
and void if the war ended because Lincoln created the Proclamation at a time of war which allowed it to bypass the
senate and congress. However, if the congress and senate would have voted it would not have passed. The time at
African-American history
war allowed the Commander and Chief the rights to make such proclamations. Therefore if the war ended it would
be no more.
The 13th amendment of the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865, outlawed slavery in the United States.
The exact number of slaves freed in the Emancipation Proclamation is very difficult to tell, however Lincoln
believed close to 200,000 were free by February 1865.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 made blacks full U.S.
citizens (and this repealed the Dred Scott decision). In 1868, the 14th amendment granted full U.S. citizenship to
African-Americans. The 15th amendment, ratified in 1870, extended the right to vote to black males. The
Freedmen's Bureau was an important institution established to create social and economic order in southern
The Emancipation Proclamation.
After the Union victory over the Confederacy, a brief period of
southern black progress, called Reconstruction, followed. During the
Reconstruction the entire face of the south changed because the
remaining states were readmitted into the Union.
From 1865 to
1877, under protection of Union troops, some strides were made
toward equal rights for African-Americans. Southern black men began
to vote and were elected to the United States Congress and to local
offices such as sheriff. The safety provided by the troops did not last
long, and white southerners frequently terrorized black voters.
Coalitions of white and black Republicans passed bills to establish the
first public school systems in most states of the South, although
sufficient funding was hard to find. Blacks established their own
churches, towns and businesses. Tens of thousands migrated to
Mississippi for the chance to clear and own their own land, as 90% of
the bottomlands were undeveloped. By the end of the 19th century,
two-thirds of the farmers who owned land in the Mississippi Delta
bottomlands were black.
Hiram Revels became the first African American Senator in the U.S.
Congress in 1870. Other African Americans soon came to Congress
from South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. These new politicians supported the Republicans and tried
to bring further improvements to the lives of African Americans. Revels and others understood that white people
may have felt threatened by the African American Congressmen. Revels stated, "The white race has no better friend
than I. I am true to my own race. I wish to see all done that can be done...to assist [black men]in acquiring property,
in becoming intelligent, enlightened citizens...but at the same time, I would not have anything done which would
harm the white race,"
Blanche K. Bruce was the other African American who became a U.S. Senator. African
Americans elected to the House of Representatives during this time included Benjamin S. Turner, Josiah T. Walls,
Joseph H. Rainey, Robert Brown Elliot, Robert D. De Large. and Jefferson H. Long. Frederick Douglass also served
in the different government jobs during Reconstruction. These jobs included Minister Resident and Counsel General
to Hait, Recorder of Deeds, and U.S. Marshall.
Bruce became a Senator in 1874 and represented the state of
Mississippi. He worked with white politicians from his region in order to hopefully help his fellow African
Americans and other minority groups such as Chinese immigrants and Native Americans. He even supported efforts
to "end restrictions on former Confederates' political participation.
The aftermath of the Civil War accelerated the process of a national African-American identity formation.
civil rights activists, such as W. E. B. Du Bois, disagree that identity was achieved after the Civil War.
African-Americans in the post-civil war era were faced with many rules and regulations that, even though they were
"free", prevented them from living with the same amount of freedom as white citizens had.
Tens of thousands of
Black northerners left homes and careers and also migrated to the defeated South, building schools, printing
newspapers, and opening businesses. As Joel Williamson puts it:
African-American history
Many of the migrants, women as well as men, came as teachers sponsored by a dozen or so benevolent
societies, arriving in the still turbulent wake of Union armies. Others came to organize relief for the refugees....
Still others... came south as religious missionaries... Some came south as business or professional people
seeking opportunity on this... special black frontier. Finally, thousands came as soldiers, and when the war was
over, many of [their] young men remained there or returned after a stay of some months in the North to
complete their education.
Jim Crow, disfranchisement and challenges
The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated
de jure segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In
reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans,
systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.
In the face of years of mounting violence and intimidation directed at blacks as well as whites sympathetic to their
cause, the U.S. government retreated from its pledge to guarantee constitutional protections to freedmen and women.
When President Rutherford B. Hayes withdrew Union troops from the South in 1877 as a result of a national
compromise on the election, white Democratic southerners acted quickly to reverse the groundbreaking advances of
Reconstruction. To reduce black voting and regain control of state legislatures, Democrats had used a combination of
violence, fraud, and intimidation since the election of 1868. These techniques were prominent among paramilitary
groups such as the White League and Red Shirts in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida prior to the 1876 elections. In
South Carolina, for instance, one historian estimated that 150 blacks were killed in the weeks before the election.
Massacres occurred at Hamburg and Ellenton.
White paramilitary violence against African Americans intensified. Many blacks were fearful of this trend, and men
like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began speaking of separating from the South. This idea culminated in the 1879-1880
movement of the Exodusters, who migrated to Kansas.
Sign for "Colored waiting room", Georgia, 1943
White Democrats first passed laws to make voter registration and
elections more complicated. Most of the rules acted
overwhelmingly against blacks, but many poor whites were also
disfranchised. Interracial coalitions of Populists and Republicans
in some states succeeded in controlling legislatures in the 1880s
and 1894, which made the Democrats more determined to reduce
voting by poorer classes. When Democrats took control of
Tennessee in 1888, they passed laws making voter registration
more complicated and ended the most competitive political state in
the South. Voting by blacks in rural areas and small towns
dropped sharply, as did voting by poor whites.
From 1890 to 1908, starting with Mississippi and ending with
Georgia, ten of eleven Southern states adopted new constitutions
or amendments that effectively disfranchised most blacks and
many poor whites. Using a combination of provisions such as poll
taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests, states dramatically decreased black voter registration and turnout, in
some cases to zero.
The grandfather clause was used in many states temporarily to exempt illiterate white voters
from literacy tests. As power became concentrated under the Democratic Party in the South, the party positioned
itself as a private club and instituted white primaries, closing blacks out of the only competitive contests. By 1910
one-party white rule was firmly established across the South.
African-American history
Although African Americans quickly started litigation to challenge such provisions, early court decisions at the state
and national level went against them. In Williams v. Mississippi (1898), the US Supreme Court upheld state
provisions. This encouraged other Southern states to adopt similar measures over the next few years, as noted above.
Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee Institute secretly worked with Northern supporters to raise funds and provide
representation for African Americans in additional cases, such as Giles v. Harris (1903) and Giles v. Teasley (1904),
but again the Supreme Court upheld the states.
Seeking to return blacks to their subordinate status under slavery, white supremacists resurrected de facto barriers
and enacted new laws to segregate society along racial lines. They limited black access to transportation, schools,
restaurants and other public facilities. White supremacists also promoted the idea that blacks' participation in
government in the South was ended due to incompetence; this view was disseminated in school textbooks and
movies such as The Birth of a Nation in 1915. Although slavery had been abolished, most southern blacks for
decades continued to struggle in grinding poverty as agricultural, domestic and menial laborers. Many became
sharecroppers, their economic status little changed by emancipation.
Racial terrorism
After its founding in 1867, the Ku Klux Klan, a secret vigilante organization dedicated to destroying the Republican
Party in the South, especially by terrorizing black leaders. Klansmen hid behind masks and robes to hide their
identity while they carried out violence and property damage. The Klan used terrorism, especially murder and threats
of murder, arson and intimidation. The Klan's excesses led to the passage of legislation against it, and with Federal
enforcement, it was destroyed by 1871.
The anti-Republican and anti-freedmen sentiment only briefly went underground, as violence arose in other
incidents, especially after Louisiana's disputed state election in 1872, which contributed to the Colfax and Coushatta
massacres in Louisiana in 1873 and 1874. Tensions and rumors were high in many parts of the South. when violence
erupted, African Americans consistently were killed at a much higher rate than were European Americans.
Historians of the 20th century have renamed events long called "riots" in southern history. The common stories
featured whites' heroically saving the community from marauding blacks. Upon examination of the evidence,
historians have called numerous such events "massacres", as at Colfax, because of the disproportionate number of
fatalities for blacks as opposed to whites. The mob violence there resulted in 40-50 blacks dead for each of the three
whites killed.
While not as widely known as the Klan, the paramilitary organizations that arose in the South during the mid-1870s
as the white Democrats mounted a stronger insurgency, were more directed and effective than the Klan in
challenging Republican governments, suppressing the black vote and achieving political goals. Unlike the Klan,
paramilitary members operated openly, often solicited newspaper coverage, and had distinct political goals: to turn
Republicans out of office and suppress or dissuade black voting in order to regain power in 1876. Groups included
the White League, that started from white militias in Grant Parish, Louisiana, in 1874 and spread in the Deep South;
the Red Shirts, that started in Mississippi in 1875 but had chapters arise and was prominent in the 1876 election
campaign in South Carolina, as well as in North Carolina; and other White Line organizations such as rifle clubs.
The Jim Crow era accompanied the most cruel wave of "racial" suppression that America has yet experienced.
Between 1890 and 1940, millions of African Americans were disfranchised, killed, and brutalized. According to
newspaper records kept at the Tuskegee Institute, about 5,000 men, women, and children were murdered outright,
tortured to death in documented extrajudicial public rituals of mob violence —human sacrifices called "lynchings."
The journalist Ida B. Wells estimated that lynchings not reported by the newspapers, plus similar executions under
the veneer of "due process", may have amounted to about 20,000 killings.
Of the tens of thousands of lynchers and onlookers during this period, it is reported that fewer than 50 whites were
ever indicted for their crimes, and only four sentenced. Because blacks were disfranchised, they could not sit on
juries or have any part in the political process, including local offices. Meanwhile, the lynchings were used as a
African-American history
weapon of terror to keep millions of African-Americans living in a constant state of anxiety and fear.
Most blacks
were denied their right to keep and bear arms under Jim Crow laws, and they were therefore unable to protect
themselves or their families.
Civil rights
In response to these and other setbacks, in the summer of 1905, W. E. B. Du Bois and 28 other prominent,
African-American men met secretly at Niagara Falls, Ontario. There, they produced a manifesto calling for an end to
racial discrimination, full civil liberties for African Americans and recognition of human brotherhood. The
organization they established came to be called the Niagara Movement. After the notorious Springfield, Illinois race
riot of 1908, a group of concerned Whites joined with the leadership of the Niagara Movement and formed the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) a year later, in 1909. Under the leadership
of Du Bois, the NAACP mounted legal challenges to segregation and lobbied legislatures on behalf of black
Americans. During this period, African Americans continued to create independent community and institutional lives
for themselves. They established schools, churches, social welfare institutions, banks, newspapers and small
businesses to serve the needs of their communities.
The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance
During the first half of the 20th century, the largest internal population shift in U.S. history took place. Starting about
1910, through the Great Migration over five million African Americans made choices and "voted with their feet" by
moving from the South to northern cities, the West and Midwest in hopes of escaping political discrimination and
hatred, violence, finding better jobs, voting and enjoying greater equality and education for their children. In the
1920s, the concentration of blacks in New York led to the cultural movement known as the Harlem Renaissance,
whose influence reached nationwide. Black intellectual and cultural circles were influenced by thinkers such as
Aimé Césaire and Léopold Sédar Senghor, who celebrated blackness, or négritude; and arts and letters flourished.
Writers Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Nella Larsen, Claude McKay and Richard Wright; and artists Lois
Mailou Jones, William H. Johnson, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence and Archibald Motley gained prominence.
The South Side of Chicago, a destination for many on the trains up from Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana,
became the black capital of America, generating flourishing businesses, music, arts and foods. A new generation of
powerful African American political leaders and organizations also came to the fore. Membership in the NAACP
rapidly increased as it mounted an anti-lynching campaign in reaction to ongoing southern white violence against
blacks. Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, the Nation of
Islam, and union organizer A. Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters all were established during this
period and found support among African Americans, who became urbanized.
African-American history
World War I
Soldiers of the 369th (15th N.Y.) who won the
Croix de Guerre for gallantry in action, 1919
The U.S. armed forces remained segregated during World War I. Still,
many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause
following America's entry into the war. More than two million African
American men rushed to register for the draft. By the time of the
armistice with Germany in November 1918, over 350,000 African
Americans had served with the American Expeditionary Force in on
the Western Front.
Most African American units were relegated to support roles and did
not see combat. Still, African Americans played a minor role in
America's war effort.
Four African American regiments were integrated into French units
because the French suffered heavy losses and badly needed men after three years of a terrible war.
One of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which
was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. 171 members of the 369th
were awarded the Legion of Merit.
157th I.D.Red Hand flag
drawn by General
Mariano Goybet
The 371st and 372nd African American Regiments were integrated
under the 157th Red Hand Division
commanded by the French
General Mariano Goybet. They earned glory in the decisive final
offensive in Champagne region of France.
The two Regiments were
decorated by the French Croix de Guerre for their gallantry in the
Meuse-Argonne Offensive .
Corporal Freddie Stowers of the 371st Infantry Regiment was
posthumously awarded a Medal of honor
—the only African
American to be so honored for actions in World War I. During action
in France, Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing
to lead and encourage his men even after being wounded twice.
Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued the fight on a
German machine gun nest near Bussy farm in Champagne, and
eventually defeated the German troops.
Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his
death, but according to the Army, the nomination was misplaced.
Many believed the recommendation had been intentionally ignored due
to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In 1990, under pressure from Congress, the Defense Department
launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the
award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, 1991–73 years after he was killed in action—Stowers' two
surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H.W. Bush at the White House.
African-American history
World War II
Black soldiers in France, 1944
Over 1.5 million blacks served in uniform during World War II. They
served in segregated units.
Famous segregated units, such as the Tuskegee Airmen and the U.S.
761st Tank Battalion proved their value in combat. Approximately 75
percent of the soldiers who served in the European theater as truckers
for the Red Ball Express and kept Allied supply lines open were
African American.
A total of 708 African Americans were killed in
combat during World War II.
The distinguished service of these units was a factor in President Harry
S. Truman's order to end discrimination in the Armed Forces in July 1948, with the promulgation of Executive Order
9981. This led in turn to the integration of the Air Force and the other services by the early 1950s.
Large numbers migrated from poor Southern farms to munitions centers. Racial tensions were high in overcrowded
cities like Chicago; Detroit and Harlem experienced race riots in 1943.
Politically they left the Republican Party
and joined the Democratic New Deal Coalition of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, whom they widely admired.
The political leaders, ministers and newspaper editors who shaped opinion resolved on a Double V Campaign:
Victory over German and Japanese fascism abroad, and victory over discrimination at home. Black newspapers
created the Double V Campaign to build black morale and head off radical action.
Most Black women had been farm laborers or domestics before the war.
Despite discrimination and segregated
facilities throughout the South, they escaped the cotton patch and took blue-collar jobs in the cities. Working with
the federal Fair Employment Practices Committee, the NAACP and CIO unions, these Black women fought a
“Double V” campaign—against the Axis abroad and against restrictive hiring practices at home. Their efforts
redefined citizenship, equating their patriotism with war work, and seeking equal employment opportunities,
government entitlements, and better working conditions as conditions appropriate for full citizens.
In the South
black women worked in segregated jobs; in the West and most of the North they were integrated, but wildcat strikes
erupted in Detroit, Baltimore, and Evansville where white migrants from the South refused to work alongside black
Second Great Migration
The Second Great Migration was the migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the
other three regions of the United States. It took place place from 1941, through World War II, and lasted until
It was much larger and of a different character than the first Great Migration (1910–1940). Some historians
prefer to distinguish between the movements for those reasons.
In the Second Great Migration, more than five million African Americans moved to cities in states in the North,
Midwest and West, including many to California, where Los Angeles and Oakland offered many skilled jobs in the
defense industry. More of these migrants were already urban laborers who came from the cities of the South. They
were better educated and had better skills than people who did not migrate.
Compared to the more rural migrants of the period 1910-1940, many African Americans in the South were already
living in urban areas and had urban job skills before they relocated. They moved to take jobs in the burgeoning
industrial cities and especially the many jobs in the defense industry during World War II (WWII). Workers who
African-American history
were limited to segregated, low-skilled jobs in Southern cities were able to get highly skilled, well-paid jobs at
California shipyards.
By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80
percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the
Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West.
The Civil Rights Movement
The Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) of Topeka.
This decision led to the dismantling of legal segregation in all areas of southern life, from schools to restaurants to
public restrooms, but it occurred slowly and only after concerted activism by African Americans. The ruling also
brought new momentum to the Civil Rights Movement. Boycotts against segregated public transportation systems
sprang up in the South, the most notable of which was the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Civil rights groups such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) organized across the South with
tactics such as boycotts, voter registration campaigns, Freedom Rides and other nonviolent direct action, such as
marches, pickets and sit-ins to mobilize around issues of equal access and voting rights. Southern segregationists
fought back to block reform. The conflict grew to involve steadily escalating physical violence, bombings and
intimidation by Southern whites. Law enforcement responded to protesters with batons, electric cattle prods, fire
hoses, attack dogs and mass arrests.
In Virginia, state legislators, school board members and other public officials mounted a campaign of obstructionism
and outright defiance to integration called Massive Resistance. It entailed a series of actions to deny state funding to
integrated schools and instead fund privately run "segregation academies" for white students. Farmville, Virginia, in
Prince Edward County, was one of the plaintiff African-American communities involved in the 1954 Brown v.
Board of Education Supreme Court decision. As a last-ditch effort to avoid court-ordered desegregation, officials in
the county shut down the county's entire public school system in 1959 and it remained closed for five years.
White students were able to attend private schools established by the community for the sole purpose of
circumventing integration. The largely black rural population of the county had little recourse. Some families were
split up as parents sent their children to live with relatives in other locales to attend public school; but the majority of
Prince Edward's more than 2,000 black children, as well as many poor whites, simply remained unschooled until
federal court action forced the schools to reopen five years later.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his famous "I
Have a Dream" speech during the March on
Perhaps the high point of the Civil Rights Movement was the 1963
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which brought more than
250,000 marchers to the grounds of the Lincoln Memorial and the
National Mall in Washington, D.C., to speak out for an end to southern
racial violence and police brutality, equal opportunity in employment,
equal access in education and public accommodations. The organizers
of the march were the "Big Seven" of the Civil Rights Movement:
Bayard Rustin the strategist who has been called the "invisible man" of
the civil rights movement; labor organizer and initiator of the march,
A. Phillip Randolph; Roy Wilkins of the NAACP; Whitney Young, Jr.,
of the National Urban League; Martin Luther King, Jr., of the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC); James Farmer of the
Congress on Racial Equality (CORE); and John Lewis of the Student
Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Also active behind the
scenes and sharing the podium with Dr. King was Dorothy Height,
African-American history
head of the National Council of Negro Women. It was at this event, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, that King
delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech. This march and the conditions which brought it into being are
credited with putting pressure on President John F. Kennedy and then Lyndon B. Johnson that culminated in the
passage the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and labor
President Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The "Mississippi Freedom Summer" of 1964 brought
thousands of idealistic youth, black and white, to the
state to run "freedom schools", to teach basic literacy,
history and civics. Other volunteers were involved in
voter registration drives. The season was marked by
harassment, intimidation and violence directed at civil
rights workers and their host families. The
disappearance of three youths, James Chaney, Andrew
Goodman and Michael Schwerner in Philadelphia,
Mississippi, captured the attention of the nation. Six
weeks later, searchers found the savagely beaten body
of Chaney, a black man, in a muddy dam alongside the
remains of his two white companions, who had been
shot to death. Outrage at the escalating injustices of the "Mississippi Blood Summer",as it by then had come to be
known, and at the brutality of the murders, brought about the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Act
struck down barriers to black enfranchisement and was the capstone to more than a decade of major civil rights
By this time, African Americans who questioned the effectiveness of nonviolent protest had gained a greater voice.
More militant black leaders, such as Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam and Eldridge Cleaver of the Black Panther
Party, called for blacks to defend themselves, using violence, if necessary. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, the
Black Power movement urged African Americans to look to Africa for inspiration and emphasized black solidarity,
rather than integration.
African-American history
Post Civil Rights Era African-American history
The first African-American President of the
United States, Barack Obama
Politically and economically, blacks have made substantial strides in
the post-civil rights era. Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson, who ran for
the Democratic Party's presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988,
brought unprecedented support and leverage to blacks in politics.
In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African-American elected
governor in U.S. history. In 1992 Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois
became the first black woman elected to the U.S. Senate. There were
8,936 black officeholders in the United States in 2000, showing a net
increase of 7,467 since 1970. In 2001 there were 484 black mayors.
The 38 African-American members of Congress form the
Congressional Black Caucus, which serves as a political bloc for issues
relating to African Americans. The appointment of blacks to high
federal offices—including General Colin Powell, Chairman of the U.S.
Armed Forces Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1989–1993, United States
Secretary of State, 2001–2005; Condoleezza Rice, Assistant to the
President for National Security Affairs, 2001–2004, Secretary of State
in, 2005–2009; Ron Brown, United States Secretary of Commerce,
1993–1996; and Supreme Court justices Thurgood Marshall and
Clarence Thomas—also demonstrates the increasing visibility of blacks in the political arena.
Economic progress for blacks' reaching the extremes of wealth has been slow. According to Forbes richest lists,
Oprah Winfrey was the richest African American of the 20th century and has been the world's only black billionaire
in 2004, 2005, and 2006.
Not only was Winfrey the world's only black billionaire but she has been the only black
on the Forbes 400 list nearly every year since 1995. BET founder Bob Johnson briefly joined her on the list from
2001-2003 before his ex-wife acquired part of his fortune; although he returned to the list in 2006, he did not make it
in 2007. With Winfrey the only African American wealthy enough to rank among America's 400 richest people,
blacks currently comprise 0.25% of America's economic elite and comprise 13% of the U.S. population.
The dramatic political breakthrough came in the 2008 election, with the election of Barack Obama. He won
overwhelming support from African American voters in the Democratic primaries, even as his main opponent
Hillary Clinton had the support of many black politicians. African Americans continued to support Obama
throughout his term.
After completing his first term, Obama ran for a second term. In 2012, he won the
presidential election against candidate Mitt Romney and was re-elected as the president of the United States.
Social issues
After the Civil Rights Movement gains of the 1950s-1970s, due to government neglect, unfavorable social policies,
high poverty rates, changes implemented in the criminal justice system and laws, and a breakdown in traditional
family units, African American communities have been suffering from extremely high incarceration rates. African
Americans have the highest imprisonment rate of any major ethnic group in the world. The southern states, which
historically had been involved in slavery and post-Reconstruction oppression, now produce the highest rates of
incarceration and death penalty application.
African-American history
The history of slavery has always been a major research topic for white scholars, but until the 1950s they generally
focused on the political and constitutional themes as debated by white politicians; they did not study the lives of the
black slaves. During Reconstruction and the late 19th century, blacks became major actors in the South. The
Dunning School of white scholars generally cast the blacks as pawns of white Carpetbaggers during this period, but
W. E. B. Du Bois, a black historian, and Ulrich B. Phillips, a white historian, studied the African-American
experience in depth. Du Bois' study of Reconstruction provided a more objective context for evaluating its
achievements and weaknesses; in addition, he did studies of contemporary black life. Phillips set the main topics of
inquiry that still guide the analysis of slave economics.
During the first half of the 20th century, Carter G. Woodson was the major black scholar studying and promoting the
black historical experience. Woodson insisted that the study of African descendants be scholarly sound, creative,
restorative, and, most important, directly relevant to the black community. He popularized black history with a
variety of innovative strategies, including Association for the Study of Negro Life outreach activities, Negro History
Month (now Black History Month, in February), and a popular black history magazine. Woodson democratized,
legitimized, and popularized black history.
Benjamin Quarles (1904–96) had a significant impact on the teaching of African-American history. Quarles and
John Hope Franklin provided a bridge between the work of historians in historically black colleges, such as
Woodson, and the black history that is now well established in mainline universities. Quarles grew up in Boston,
attended Shaw University as an undergraduate, and received a graduate degree at the University of Wisconsin. He
began in 1953 teaching at Morgan State College in Baltimore, where he stayed, despite a lucrative offer from Johns
Hopkins University. Quarles' books included The Negro in the American Revolution (1961), Black Abolitionists
(1969), The Negro in the Civil War (1953), and Lincoln and the Negro (1962), which were narrative accounts of
critical wartime episodes that focused on how blacks interacted with their white allies.
Black history attempted to reverse centuries of ignorance. While black historians were not alone in advocating a new
examination of slavery and racism in the United States, the study of African-American history has often been a
political and scholarly struggle to change assumptions. One of the foremost assumptions was that slaves were
passive and did not rebel. A series of historians transformed the image of African Americans, revealing a much
richer and complex experience. Historians such as Leon F. Litwack showed how former slaves fought to keep their
families together and struggled against tremendous odds to define themselves as free people. Others wrote of
rebellions small and large.
In the 21st century, black history is regarded as mainstream. Since proclamation by President Jimmy Carter, it is
celebrated every February in the United States during "Black History Month." Proponents of black history believe
that it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue such curricula
are dishonest, divisive, and lack academic credibility and rigor.
Knowledge of black history
Surveys of 11th and 12th-grade students and adults in 2005 show that American schools have given students an
awareness of some famous figures in black history. Both groups were asked to name ten famous Americans,
excluding presidents. Of those named, the three most mentioned were black: 67% named Martin Luther King, 60%
Rosa Parks, and 44% Harriet Tubman. Among adults, King was 2nd (at 36%) and Parks was tied for 4th with 30%,
while Tubman tied for 10th place with Henry Ford, at 16%. When distinguished historians were asked in 2006 to
name the most prominent Americans, Parks and Tubman did not make the top 100.
African-American history
Scholars of African-American history
•• Herbert Aptheker •• Peter Kolchin
•• Ira Berlin •• David Levering Lewis
•• John Henrik Clarke •• Leon F. Litwack
•• W. E. B. Du Bois •• Rayford Logan
•• Eric Foner •• Manning Marable
•• Elizabeth Fox-Genovese •• Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
•• Steven Hahn •• Cedric Robinson
•• John Hope Franklin •• Mark S. Weiner
•• Henry Louis Gates, Jr. •• Nell Irvin Painter
•• Eugene Genovese •• Charles H. Wesley
•• Annette Gordon-Reed •• Carter G. Woodson
•• Lorenzo Greene •• George G.M James
•• Vincent Harding •• Asa G. Hilliard
•• William Loren Katz •• Thurgood Marshall
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[59] John C. Willis,Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 2000
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[64] "Post-Civil War History: African Americans After Reconstruction" (http:// voices. yahoo.com/
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[66] Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2007, p. 174
[67] Connie L. Lester, "Disfranchising Laws", Tennessee Encyclopedia (http:// tennesseeencyclopedia. net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=D033),
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[68] Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, p. 27 (http:// papers. ssrn.
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[70] Allen W. Trelease, White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (1995)
[71] "Military Report on Colfax Riot, 1875", from the Congressional Record (http:/ / ftp.rootsweb.com/ pub/ usgenweb/ la/ state/ history/
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[72] Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2007, pp.70-76.
[73] For the story of the lynchings, see Philip Dray, At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America (New York: Random
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[74] The Second Amendment: Toward an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration (http:/ / www. guncite.com/ journals/ cd-recon.html)
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[78] Neil A. Wynn, African American Experience During World War II (2011) pp 43-62
[79] Ulysses Lee, The Employment of Negro Troops, Vol. 8 The United States Army in World War II (1966)
[80] Williams, Rudi. "African Americans Gain Fame as World War II Red Ball Express Drivers (http:// www. defenselink. mil/news/
newsarticle.aspx?id=43934)." American Armed Forces Press Service, February 15, 2002. Retrieved 2007-06-10
[81] Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN
[82] Alan L. Gropman, Air Force Integrates 1949-64 (1986)
[83] Morris J. MacGregor, Jr., Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1965 (Washington, 1981).
[84] Wynn, African American Experience During World War II (2011) pp 25-42, 63-80
[85] David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 (2001)
[86] Lee Finkle, "The Conservative Aims of Militant Rhetoric: Black Protest during World War II,: Journal of American History, December
1973, Vol. 60 Issue 3, pp 692-713 in JSTOR (http:// www.jstor.org/pss/ 1917685)
[87] Maureen Honey Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War II (1999).
[88] Megan Taylor Shockley, "Working For Democracy: Working-Class African-American Women, Citizenship, and Civil Rights in Detroit,
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[89] D'Ann Campbell, Women at War with America (1984) pp 128-9
[90] Daniel Kryder, Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II (2000), pp 113-29)
[91] "In Motion: African American Migration Experience, The Second Great Migration" (http:// www. inmotionaame.org/ migrations/topic.
cfm?migration=9&topic=1). Archived (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20070416164205/ http:/ / www. inmotionaame.org/ migrations/ topic.
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[92] Mercy Seat Films - 'THEY CLOSED OUR SCHOOLS' - Film Credits (http:// www. mercyseatfilms. com/ filmcredits.html)
[93] http:// www. aframnews.com/ html/ 2006-05-10/publisher. htm
[94] http:/ / biz.yahoo. com/ ap/ 070920/ apfn_forbes_400_alphabetical_list.html
[95] Shayla C. Nunnally, "African American Perspectives on the Obama Presidency," in William Crotty, ed. The Obama Presidency: Promise
and Performance (2012) pp 127-50
[96] "One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008" (http:/ / www. pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/
8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf), Pew Research Center
[97] "One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections" (http:// www. pewcenteronthestates. org/report_detail.aspx?id=49382), Pew
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[98] Pero Gaglo Dagbovie, "Making Black History Practical and Popular: Carter G. Woodson, the Proto Black Studies Movement, and the
Struggle for Black Liberation." Western Journal of Black Studies 2004 28(2): 372-383. Issn: 0197-4327 Fulltext: Ebsco
[99] August Meier, "Benjamin Quarles and the Historiography of Black America," Civil War History, June 1980, Vol. 26#2 pp 101-116
African-American history
[100] Abul Pitre and Ruth Ray, "The Controversy Around Black History," Western Journal of Black Studies 2002 26(3): 149-154. Issn:
0197-4327 Fulltext: Ebsco
[101] Sam Wineburg and Chauncey Monte-Sano, "'Famous Americans': The Changing Pantheon of American Heroes," Journal of American
History (March 2008) 94#4 pp. 1186–1202.
Further reading
• Earle, Jonathan, and Malcolm Swanston. The Routledge Atlas of African American History (2000) excerpt and
text search (http:// www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0415921422/ )
• Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age
of Frederick Douglass (3 vol 2006)
• Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of
Segregation to the Twenty-first Century (5 vol 2009) excerpt and text search (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ dp/
• Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred Moss, From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African Americans, (2001),
standard textbook; first edition in 1947 excerpt and text search (http:// www.amazon. com/ dp/ 0375406719/ )
• Harris, William H. The Harder We Run: Black Workers Since the Civil War. (1982). online edition (http:/ / www.
questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=16297018)
• Hine, Darlene Clark, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn and Elsa Barkley Brown, eds. Black Women in America - An
Historical Encyclopedia, (2005) excerpt and text search (http:// www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0253327741/ )
• Hine, Darlene Clark, et al. The African-American Odyssey (2 vol, 4th ed. 2007) textbook excerpt and text search
vol 1 (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0136150136/ )
• Holt, Thomas C. ed. Major Problems in African-American History: From Freedom to "Freedom Now,"
1865-1990s (2000) reader in primary and secondary sources
• Holt, Thomas C. Children of Fire: A History of African Americans (Hill & Wang; 2010) 438 pages
• Kelley, Robin D. G., and Earl Lewis, eds. To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans. (2000).
672pp; 10 long essays by leading scholars online edition (http:/ / www. questia. com/ read/ 108611978?title=To
Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans)
• Litwack, Leon, and August Meier. Black Leaders of the 19th Century. (1988)
• Franklin, John Hope, and August Meier, eds. Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century. (1982), short
biographies by scholars.
• Lowery, Charles D. and John F. Marszalek, eds. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: From
Emancipation to the Present (1992) online edition (http:// www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=71235565)
• Mandle, Jay R. Not Slave, Not Free: The African American Economic Experience since the Civil War (1992)
online edition (http:// www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=3099697)
• Painter, Nell Irvin. Creating Black Americans: African American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present.
(2006), 480 pp
• Palmer, Colin A. ed. Encyclopedia Of African American Culture And History: The Black Experience In The
Americas (6 vol. 2005)
• Pinn, Anthony B. The African American Religious Experience in America (2007) excerpt and text search (http://
www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0813031974/ )
• Salzman, Jack, David Lionel Smith, and Cornel West, eds. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and
History. (5 vol. 1996).
• Smallwood, Arwin D The Atlas of African-American History and Politics: From the Slave Trade to Modern
Times (1997)
• Weiner, Mark S. Black Trials: Citizenship from the Beginnings of Slavery to the End of Caste, (2004)
African-American history
Since 1940
• Graham, Hugh Davis. The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960-1972 (1990)
• Patterson, James T. Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974 (Oxford History of the United States)
• Patterson, James T. Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore (Oxford History of the
United States) (2007)
• Wynn, Neil A. African American Experience During World War II (2011)
Cities and suburbs
• Black Jr., Timuel D. Bridges of Memory; Chicago's First Wave of Black Migration: An Oral History, (2005)
ISBN 0-8101-2315-0
• Boyd, Herb, ed. The Harlem Reader: A Celebration of New York's Most Famous Neighborhood, from the
Renaissance Years to the 21st Century (2003), primary sources
• Grossman, James R. Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (1991)
• Hornsby, Alton. Black Power in Dixie: A Political History of African Americans in Atlanta (2009)
• Hunt, Darnell, and Ana-Christina Ramon, eds. Black Los Angeles: American Dreams and Racial Realities (2010)
• Kusmer, Kenneth L. and Joe W. Trotter, eds. African-American Urban History since World War II, (2009)
• Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. To Place Our Deeds: The African American Community in Richmond, California,
1910–1963 (2000)
• Osofsky, Gilbert. Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto: Negro New York, 1890-1930 (1966)
• Orser, W. Edward. “Secondhand Suburbs: Black Pioneers in Baltimore’s Edmondson Village, 1955–1980.”
Journal of Urban History 10, no. 3 (May 1990): 227–62.
• Pattillo-McCoy, Mary. Black Pickett Fences: Privilege and Peril among the Black Middle Class. (1999).
• Self, Robert O. American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. (2003)
• Spear, Allan H. Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto, 1890-1920 (1969)
• Sugrue, Thomas J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. (1996)
• Thomas, Richard Walter. Life for Us Is What We Make It: Building Black Community in Detroit, 1915--1945
(Blacks in the Diaspora) (1992)
• Weise, Andrew. Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century (2004).
• Weise, Andrew. “Black Housing, White Finance: African American Housing and Home Ownership in Evanston,
Illinois, before 1940.” Journal of Social History 33, no. 2 (Winter 1999): 429–60.
• Weise, Andrew. “Places of Our Own: Suburban Black Towns before 1960.” Journal of Urban History 19, no. 3
(1993): 30–54.
• Wilson, William H. Hamilton Park: A Planned Black Community in Dallas (1998)
Historiography and teaching
• Arnesen, Eric. "Up From Exclusion: Black and White Workers, Race, and the State of Labor History," Reviews in
American History 26#1 March 1998, pp. 146–174 in Project Muse
• Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. African American History Reconsidered (2010); 255 pages; excerpt and text search (http:/
/ www.amazon.com/ dp/ 0252077016/ )
• Dagbovie, Pero. The Early Black History Movement, Carter G. Woodson, and Lorenzo Johnston Greene
(2007) excerpt and text search (http:// www.amazon.com/ dp/ 0252074351/ )
• Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. "Exploring a Century of Historical Scholarship on Booker T. Washington." Journal of
African American History 2007 92(2): 239-264. Issn: 1548-1867 Fulltext: Ebsco
• Dorsey, Allison. "Black History Is American History: Teaching African American History in the Twenty-first
Century." Journal of American History 2007 93(4): 1171-1177. Issn: 0021-8723 Fulltext: History Cooperative
African-American history
• Ernest, John. "Liberation Historiography: African-American Historians before the Civil War," American Literary
History 14#3, Fall 2002, pp. 413–443 in Project Muse
• Eyerman, Ron. Cultural Trauma: Slavery and the Formation of African American Identity (2002) argues that
slavery emerged as a central element of the collective identity of African Americans in the post-Reconstruction
• Fields, Barbara J. "Ideology and Race in American History," in J. Morgan Kousser and James M. McPherson,
eds., Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward (1982),
• Franklin, John Hope. "Afro-American History: State of the Art," Journal of American History (June 1988):
163-173. in JSTOR (http:// www. jstor.org/pss/ 1889663)
• Goggin, Jacqueline. Carter G. Woodson: A Life in Black History (1993)
• Hall, Stephen Gilroy. "'To Give a Faithful Account of the Race': History and Historical Consciousness in the
African-American Community, 1827-1915." PhD disseratation, Ohio State U. 1999. 470 pp. DAI 2000 60(8):
3084-A. DA9941339 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
• Harris, Robert L., "Coming of Age: The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography," Journal of Negro
History 57 (1982): 107-121. in JSTOR (http:// www. jstor. org/pss/ 2717569)
• Harris, Robert L., Jr. "The Flowering of Afro-American History." American Historical Review 1987 92(5):
1150-1161. Issn: 0002-8762 in Jstor (http:// www.jstor.org/stable/ 1868489)
• Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, "African-American Women’s History and the Metalanguage of Race," Signs:
Journal of Women in Culture and Society 17 (1992): 251-274.
• Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future. (1986).
• Hine, Darlene Clark. Hine Sight: Black Women and the Re-Construction of American History (1994) excerpt and
text search (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0253211247/ )
• Hornsby Jr., Alton, et al. eds. A Companion to African American History. (2005). 580 pp. 31 long essays by
experts covering African and diasporic connections in the context of the transatlantic slave trade; colonial and
antebellum African, European, and indigenous relations; processes of cultural exchange; war and emancipation;
post-emancipation community and institution building; intersections of class and gender; migration; and struggles
for civil rights. ISBN 0-631-23066-1
• McMillen, Neil R. "Up from Jim Crow: Black History Enters the Profession's Mainstream." Reviews in American
History 1987 15(4): 543-549. Issn: 0048-7511 in Jstor (http:/ / www.jstor. org/stable/ 2701928)
• Meier, August, and Elliott Rudwick. Black History and the Historical Profession, 1915-1980 (1986)
• Nelson, Hasker. Listening For Our Past: A Lay Guide To African American Oral History Interviewing (2000)
excerpt and text search (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/0964732106/)
• Quarles, Benjamin. Black Mosaic: Essays in Afro-American History and Historiography (1988).
• Rabinowitz, Howard N. "More Than the Woodward Thesis: Assessing The Strange Career of Jim Crow", Journal
of American History 75 (December 1988): 842-56. in JSTOR (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 1901533)
• Reidy, Joseph P. "Slave Emancipation Through the Prism of Archives Records" (1997) online (http:/ / www.
archives. gov/ publications/ prologue/ 1997/ summer/ slave-emancipation. html)
• Roper, John Herbert. U. B. Phillips: A Southern Mind (1984), on the white historian of slavery
• Trotter, Joe W. "African-American History: Origins, Development, and Current State of the Field," OAH
Magazine of History 7#4 Summer 1993 online edition (http:/ /www. oah. org/pubs/ magazine/ africanamerican/
• Wright, William D. Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography (2002), proposes new
racial and ethnic terminology and classifications for the study of black people and history. excerpt and text search
(http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0275974421/ )
African-American history
Primary Sources
• Aptheker, Herbert, ed. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. (7 vol 1951-1994)
• Berlin, Ira, ed. Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War (1995)
• Bracey, John H., and Manisha Sinha, eds. African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave
Trade to the Twenty-First Century, (2 vol 2004)
• Chafe, William Henry, Raymond Gavins, and Robert Korstad, eds. Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans
Tell About Life in the Segregated South (2003) excerpt and text search (http:// www.amazon. com/ dp/
1565847784/ )
• Finkenbine, Roy E. Sources of the African-American Past: Primary Sources in American History (2nd ed. 2003)
• Hampton, Henry, and Steve Fayer, eds. Voices of Freedom (1990), oral histories of civil rights movement
• King, Martin Luther. I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches That Changed the World, (1992) excerpt and text
search (http:// www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0062505521/ )
• King, Martin Luther. Why We Can't Wait (1963/1964; 2000)
• King, Martin Luther. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.: Volume VI: Advocate of the Social Gospel,
September 1948-March 1963 (2007) excerpt and text search (http:// www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0520248740/ )
• Levy, Peter B. Let Freedom Ring: A Documentary History of the Modern Civil Rights Movement (1992) online
edition (http:/ / www. questia. com/ read/27510341?title=Let Freedom Ring: A Documentary History of the
Modern Civil Rights Movement)
• Rawick, George P. ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (19 vols., (1972) oral histories with
ex-slaves conducted in 1930s by Works Progress Administration
• Sernett, Milton C. African American Religious History: A Documentary Witness (1999) excerpt and text search
(http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0822305941/ )
• Wright, Kai, ed. The African-American Archive: The History of the Black Experience Through Documents (2001)
• A daily look into the great events and people in African American history (http:// www.
todayinafricanamericanhistory. com)
• Pioneering African American oral history video excerpts (http:// www. visionaryproject.org/videos) at The
National Visionary Leadership Project
• Black History Daily - 365 days of Black History (http:/ / blackhistorydaily. com)
• African-American history connection (http:// www. aawc. com/ aah. html)
• "African American History Channel" (http:/ / www.africanamericanhistory.tv) - African-American History
• "Africans in America" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ aia) - PBS 4-Part Series (2007)
• (http:/ / www. pbs. org/opb/ historydetectives/ investigations/ 602_redhandflag.html) PBS Red Hand flag
Episode 2008
• (http:// goybet. e-monsite.com/ rubrique,general-goybet-the-red-hands,8693.html)- General Mariano Goybet
and the Red Hands.
• Living Black History: (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ 0465043895) How Reimagining the African-American
Past Can Remake America's Racial Future by Dr. Manning Marable (http:/ / www. manningmarable.net/ ) (2006)
• Library of Congress (http:// www. loc. gov/ rr/mss/ guide/ african.html) - African American History and Culture
• Center for Contemporary Black History (http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ cu/ ccbh/ ) at Columbia University
• Encyclopædia Britannica - Guide to Black History (http:/ / search. eb. com/ Blackhistory/ home. do)
• Missouri State Archives - African-American History Initiative (http:// www.sos. mo.gov/ archives/ resources/
africanamerican/ intro.asp)
• Black History Month (http:/ / www. blackhistory. com)
• "Remembering Jim Crow" (http:/ / americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/remembering/) - Minnesota
Public Radio (multi-media)
African-American history
• Educational Toys focused on African-American History (http:// www.hiatoys. com/ index. html), History in
Action Toys
• "Slavery and the Making of America" (http:/ / www.pbs. org/ wnet/ slavery) - PBS - WNET, New York (4-part
• Timeline (http:/ / www. pbs. org/wnet/ slavery/ timeline/ index.html) of Slavery in America
• Tennessee Technological University - African-American History and Studies (http:// www.tntech. edu/history/
black. html)
• "They Closed Our Schools", the story of Massive Resistance and the closing of the Prince Edward County,
Virginia public schools (http:/ / www. mercyseatfilms.com/ filmcredits.html)
• Black People in History (http:/ / www. itzcaribbean.com/ black_people_history. php)
• Comparative status of African-Americans in Canada in the 1800s (http:/ / www. yorku. ca/aconline/ culture/
pioneers. html#cdoctor)
• Historical resources related to African American history provided free for public use by the State Archives of
Florida (http:// www. floridamemory.com/ OnlineClassroom/ blackhistory/ )
• USF Africana Project (http:// www. africanaheritage.com/ ) A guide to African-American genealogy
• Ancient Egyptian Photo Gallery (http:/ / www.freemaninstitute.com/ RTGhistory.htm)
• Research African-American Records at the National Archives (http:/ / www. archives. gov/ research/
african-americans/ )
• Memphis Civil Rights Digital Archive (http:/ / www. crossroadstofreedom.org/)
• Randolph Linsly Simpson African-American Collection (http:// beinecke. library.yale. edu/ digitallibrary/
simpson. html) Photographs of African-American life and racial attitudes, 1850–1940, from the collection of the
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University (http:// www. library.yale. edu/ beinecke/ )
• Black History Milestones (http:/ / www. history. com/ topics/ black-history-milestones)
Agriculture in the United States
This photo from a 1921 encyclopedia shows a tractor ploughing a crop
Agriculture is a major industry in the United States
and the country is a net exporter of food. As of the
last census of agriculture in 2007, there were 2.2
million farms, covering an area of 922 million acres
(3,730,000 km
), an average of 418 acres (1.69 km
per farm.
Agriculture in the United States
Cotton farming on a Southern plantation in 1921
Corn, turkeys, tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, and sunflower seeds
constitute some of the major holdovers from the agricultural
endowment of the Americas.
European agricultural practices greatly affected the New England
landscape, leaving behind many physical foot prints. Colonists brought
livestock over from Europe which caused many changes to the land.
Grazing animals required a lot of land and food to sustain them and
due to grazing, native grasses were destroyed and European species
began to replace them. New species of weeds were introduced and
began to thrive as they were capable of withstanding the grazing of
animals, whereas native species could not.
The practices associated with keeping livestock also contributed to the
deterioration of the forests and fields. Colonists would cut down the
trees and then allow their cattle and livestock to graze freely in the
forest and never plant more trees. The animals trampled and tore up the
ground so much as to cause long-term destruction and damage.
Soil exhaustion was a huge problem in New England agriculture. Farming with oxen did allow the colonist to farm
more land but it increased erosion and decreased soil fertility. This was due to deeper plow cuts in the soil that
allowed the soil more contact with oxygen causing nutrient depletion. In grazing fields, the large number of cattle in
the New England, the soil was being compacted by the cattle and this didn’t give the soil enough oxygen to sustain
In the U.S., farms spread from the colonies westward along with the settlers. In cooler regions, wheat was often the
crop of choice when lands were newly settled, leading to a "wheat frontier" that moved westward over the course of
years. Also very common in the antebellum Midwest was farming corn while raising hogs, complementing each
other especially since it was difficult to get grain to market before the canals and railroads. After the "wheat frontier"
had passed through an area, more diversified farms including dairy cattle generally took its place. Warmer regions
saw plantings of cotton and herds of beef cattle. In the early colonial south, raising tobacco and cotton was common,
especially through the use of slave labor until the Civil War. In the northeast, slaves were used in agriculture until
the early 19th century. In the Midwest, slavery was prohibited by the Freedom Ordinance of 1787.
The introduction and broad adoption of scientific agriculture since the mid nineteenth century has made a large
improvement in the USA's economic growth. This development was facilitated by the Morrill Act and the Hatch Act
of 1887 which established in each state a land-grant university (with a mission to teach and study agriculture) and a
federally funded system of agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension networks which place
extension agents in each state.
Soybeans were not widely cultivated in the United States until the 1950s, when soybeans began to replace oats and
Significant areas of farmland were abandoned during the Great Depression and incorporated into nascent national
forests. Later, "Sodbuster" and "Swampbuster" restrictions written into federal farm programs starting in the 1970s
reversed a decades-long trend of habitat destruction that began in 1942 when farmers were encouraged to plant all
possible land in support of the war effort. In the United States, federal programs administered through local Soil and
Water Conservation Districts provide technical assistance and partial funding to farmers who wish to implement
management practices to conserve soil and limit erosion.
Agriculture in the United States
Major agricultural products
Satellite image of circular crop fields characteristic of center pivot irrigation in
Kansas (June 2001). Healthy, growing crops are green. Corn would be growing
into leafy stalks by late June. Sorghum, which resembles corn, grows more slowly
and would be much smaller and therefore, possibly paler. Wheat is a brilliant gold
as harvest occurs in June. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and
plowed under or lie fallow for the year.
The top twenty agricultural products of the
United States by value as reported by the
FAO in 2003 (ranked in order of value with
volume in metric tons)
1. Corn 256,900,000
2. Cattle meat 11,736,000
3. Cow's milk, whole, fresh 78,155,000
4. Chicken meat 15,006,000
5. Soybeans 65,800,000
6. Pig meat 8,574,000
7. Wheat 63,590,000
8. Cotton lint 3,968,000
9. Hen eggs 5,141,000
10. Turkey meat 2,584,000
11. Tomatoes 12,275,000
12. Potatoes 20,820,000
13. Grapes 6,126,000
14. Oranges 10,473,000
15. Rice, paddy 9,034,000
16. Apples 4,242,000
17. Sorghum 10,446,000
Agriculture in the United States
18. Lettuce 4,490,000
19. Cottonseed 6,073,000
20. Sugar beets 27,760,000
The only other crops to ever appear in the top 20 in the last 40 years were, commonly, tobacco, barley, and oats, and,
rarely, peanuts, almonds, and sunflower seeds (in all, only 26 of the 188 crops the FAO tracks worldwide). Alfalfa
and hay would both be in the top ten in 2003 if they were tracked by FAO.
Value of production
Rice paddy, California
Major Crops in the U.S.A. - 1997
(in US$ billions)
Corn $24.4
Soybeans $17.7
Wheat $8.6
Alfalfa $8.3
Cotton $6.1
Hay, other than alfalfa $5.1
Tobacco $3.0
Rice $1.7
Sorghum $1.4
Barley $.9
1997 USDA-NASS reports, [4]
Note alfalfa and hay are not tracked by the FAO and the production of tobacco in the U.S. has fallen 60% between
1997 and 2003.
Agriculture in the United States
U.S. agriculture has a high yield relative to other countries. The yield was (in 2004):[5]
•• Corn for grain, average of 160.4 bushels harvested per acre (10.07 t/ha)
•• Soybean for beans, average of 42.5 bushels harvested per acre (2.86 t/ha)
•• Wheat, average of 43.2 bushels harvested per acre (2.91 t/ha, was 44.2 bu/ac or 2.97 t/ha in 2003)
The major livestock industries in the United States are:
• Dairy cattle
• Beef cattle
• Swine (also called hogs or pigs)
•• Poultry
•• Sheep
Type 1997 2002 2007
Cattle and calves 99,907,017 95,497,994 96,347,858
Hogs and pigs 61,188,149 60,405,103 67,786,318
Sheep and lambs 8,083,457 6,341,799 5,819,162
Broilers & other meat chickens 1,214,446,356 1,389,279,047 1,602,574,592
Laying hens 314,144,304 334,435,155 349,772,558
Goats, horses, turkeys and bees are also raised, though in lesser quantities. Inventory data is not as readily available
as for the major industries. For the three major goat-producing states (AZ, NM, and TX) there were 1,200,000 goats
at the end of 2002. There were 5,300,000 horses in the United States at the end of 1998. There were 2,500,000
colonies of bees at the end of 2002.
Farm type or majority enterprise type
Farm type is based on which commodities are the majority crops grown on a farm. Nine common types include:
• Cash grains includes corn, soybeans and other grains (wheat, oats, barley, sorghum), dry edible beans, peas, and
•• Tobacco
•• Cotton
• Other field crops includes peanuts, potatoes, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, broomcorn, popcorn, sugar
beets, mint, hops, seed crops, hay, silage, forage, etc. Tobacco and cotton can be included here if not in their own
separate category.
• High value crops includes fruits, vegetables, melons, tree nuts, greenhouse, nursery crops, and horticultural
•• Cattle
•• Hogs
•• Dairy
• Poultry and Eggs
[6] [7] [8]
Agriculture in the United States
Agriculture subsidy, from a Congressional
Budget Office report. Note: chart does not show
sugar subsidies.
Agriculture in the United States is primarily governed by periodically
renewed U.S. farm bills. Governance is both a federal and a local
responsibility with the United States Department of Agriculture being
the federal department responsible. Government aid includes research
into crop types and regional suitability as well as many kinds of
subsidies, some price supports and loan programs. U.S. farmers are not
subject to production quotas and some laws are different for farms
compared to other workplaces.
Labor laws prohibiting children in other workplaces provide some
exemptions for children working on farms with complete exemptions
for children working on their family's farm. Children can also gain
permits from vocational training schools or the 4-H club which allow
them to do jobs they would otherwise not be permitted to do.
A large part of the U.S. farm workforce is made up of migrant and
seasonal workers, many of them recent immigrants from Latin America or aliens working under work permits.
Additional laws apply to these workers and their housing which is often provided by the farmer.
In 1870, 70-80 percent of the US population was employed in agriculture. As of 2008, approximately 2-3 percent of
the population is directly employed in agriculture.
In 2010, there were 1,202,500 farmers, ranchers and other agricultural managers and an estimated 757,900
agricultural workers were employed in the US. Animal breeders accounted for 11,500 of those workers with the rest
categorized as miscellaneous agricultural workers. The median pay was $9.12 per hour or $18,970 per year.[10]
Agriculture safety and health
Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries.
Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries,
work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, chemical-related illnesses, and certain cancers
associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure.
In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm work
in the U.S. (1992–2005). Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries, and about 5% of
these result in permanent impairment.
Tractor overturns are the leading cause of agriculture-related fatal injuries,
and account for over 90 deaths every year. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health recommends the
use of roll over protection structures on tractors to reduce the risk of overturn-related fatal injuries.
Farming is one of the few industries in which families (who often share the work and live on the premises) are also
at risk for injuries, illness, and death. Agriculture is the most dangerous industry for young workers, accounting for
42% of all work-related fatalities of young workers in the U.S. between 1992 and 2000. Unlike other industries, half
the young victims in agriculture were under age 15.
For young agricultural workers aged 15–17, the risk of fatal
injury is four times the risk for young workers in other workplaces
Agricultural work exposes young workers to
safety hazards such as machinery, confined spaces, work at elevations, and work around livestock. The most
common causes of fatal farm-related youth injuries involve machinery, motor vehicles, or drowning. Together these
three causes comprise more than half of all fatal injuries to youth on U.S. farms.
An estimated 1.26 million children and adolescents under 20 years of age resided on farms in 2004, with about
699,000 of these youth performing work on the farms. In addition to the youth who live on farms, an additional
337,000 children and adolescents were hired to work on U.S. farms in 2004. On average, 103 children are killed
Agriculture in the United States
annually on farms (1990–1996). Approximately 40 percent of these deaths were work-related. In 2004, an estimated
27,600 children and adolescents were injured on farms; 8,100 of these injuries were due to farm work.
To reduce
the number of farm-related youth injuries, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation have issued a set of guidelines known as the North American Guidelines for
Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT)
based on child development principles that matched children's abilities
with the requirements of specific farm work. These guidelines have proven effective at reducing work-related injury
rates among youth living on farms in the United States.
Research centers
Some US research centers are focused on the topic of health and safety in agricultural practices. These centers not
only conduct research on the subject of occupational disease and injury prevention, but also promote agricultural
health and safety through educational outreach programs. Most of these groups are funded by the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health, the US Department of Agriculture, or other state agencies.
Centers include:
• Northeast Center for Agricultural and Occupational Health, New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and
Health, Cooperstown, NY
• Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health, Iowa State University, Ames, IA
• The High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety, Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, CO
• Southeast Center for Agricultural Health and Injury Prevention, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
• Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, University of Texas, Tyler, TX
• Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety, University of California, Davis, CA
• Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
• National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, Marshfield Medical Center, Marshfield,
[1] US Census of Agriculture, 2007 (http:// www. agcensus. usda. gov/ Publications/ 2007/ Full_Report/ index. asp)
[2] Cronon, William. Changes in the Land : Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill & Wang, 2003.
[3] FAO Statistics (http:/ / faostat.fao.org/site/ 339/ default.aspx)
[4] http:/ / usda. mannlib. cornell. edu/ usda/ nass/ CropRank/ 98180/ crprnkus.txt
[5] http:/ / www.usda. gov/ nass/ pubs/ agr05/05_ch9. PDF
[6] http:// www.ers.usda. gov/ publications/ aib746/ aib746e. pdf
[7] http:// www.ers.usda. gov/ Briefing/ FarmStructure/Questions/ smallfarmsinag.htm
[8] http:/ / www.usda. gov/ factbook/ chapter3.pdf
[9] http:/ / www.csrees. usda. gov/ qlinks/ extension. html
[10] http:// www. bls. gov/ ooh/ farming-fishing-and-forestry/agricultural-workers.htm
[11] "NIOSH- Agriculture" (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ agriculture/). United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health. Archived (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20071009224012/ http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ agriculture/) from the original on 9
October 2007. . Retrieved 2007-10-10.
[12] [12] [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2012-108/|NIOSH Pesticide Poisoning MOnitoring Program Protects Farmworkers
[13] "NIOSH- Agriculture Injury" (http:/ /www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ aginjury/). United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health. Archived (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20071028181205/ http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ aginjury/) from the original on 28
October 2007. . Retrieved 2007-10-10.
[14] NIOSH [2003]. Unpublished analyses of the 1992–2000 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Special Research Files provided to NIOSH
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (includes more detailed data than the research file, but excludes data from New York City). Morgantown,
WV: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Safety Research, Surveillance and Field Investigations Branch, Special Studies Section.
Unpublished database.
[15] BLS [2000]. Report on the youth labor force. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, pp. 58–67.
[16] Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks Demonstrate Effectiveness (http://www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ docs/ 2011-129/)
[17] http:/ / www. nagcat. org/nagcat/ ?page=guideline_search
Agriculture in the United States
[18] CDC-NIOSH Agricultural Research Centers (http:// www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ agctrhom.html)
[19] http:/ / www. nycamh. com/ northeastcenter/>
[20] http:// www. marshfieldclinic.org/ nccrahs/
External links
• United States Department of Agriculture (http:// www. usda. gov/ )
• National Ag Safety Database (http:/ / nasdonline. org/)
• North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (http:// www.nagcat. org/ nagcat/
State of Alabama
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Yellowhammer State; Heart of Dixie; Cotton State
Motto(s): Audemus jura nostra defendere (Latin)
Official language(s) English
Spoken language(s) English (96.17%)
Spanish (2.12%)
Capital Montgomery
Largest city Birmingham
212,237 (2010 census)
Largest metro area Greater Birmingham Area
Area Ranked 30th in the U.S.
 - Total
52,419 sq mi
(135,765 km
 - Width 190 miles (305 km)
 - Length 330 miles (531 km)
 - % water 3.20
 - Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N
 - Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
Population Ranked 23rd in the U.S.
 - Total
4,802,740 (2011 est.)
 - Density
94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011
Ranked 27th in the U.S.
 - Highest point
Mount Cheaha
2,413 ft (735.5 m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 - Lowest point
Gulf of Mexico
sea level
Admission to Union December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Governor Robert J. Bentley (R)
Lieutenant Governor Kay Ivey (R)
Legislature Alabama Legislature
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Richard Shelby (R)
Jeff Sessions (R)
U.S. House delegation 6 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list)
Time zones
 - most of state Central: UTC -6/-5
 - Phenix City, Alabama area Eastern: UTC −5/−4
Abbreviations AL Ala. US-AL
Website [www.Alabama.gov www.Alabama.gov]
Alabama State symbols
The Flag of Alabama.
Animate insignia
Amphibian Red Hills salamander
Bird(s) Yellowhammer, Wild Turkey
Butterfly Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
Fish Largemouth bass, Fighting tarpon
Flower(s) Camellia, Oak-leaf Hydrangea
Insect Monarch Butterfly
Mammal(s) American Black Bear, Racking horse
Reptile Alabama red-bellied turtle
Tree Longleaf Pine
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Conecuh Ridge Whiskey
Colors Red, White
Dance Square Dance
Food Pecan, Blackberry, Peach
Fossil Basilosaurus
Gemstone Star Blue Quartz
Mineral Hematite
Rock Marble
Shell Johnstone's Junonia
Slogan(s) Share The Wonder,
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice,
Sweet Home Alabama
Soil Bama
Song(s) Alabama (song)
Route marker(s)
State Quarter
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state insignia
Alabama (
/ˌæləˈbæmə/) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by
Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west.
Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 23rd-most populous of the 50 United States. At 1,300 miles (2,100 km),
Alabama has one of the longest navigable inland waterways in the nation.
From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern states, suffered economic hardship,
in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers,
white rural interests dominated the state legislature until the 1960s, while urban interests and African Americans
were under-represented.
Following World War II, Alabama experienced growth as the economy of the state transitioned from one primarily
based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The establishment or expansion of multiple United States
Armed Forces installations added to the state economy and helped bridge the gap between an agricultural and
industrial economy during the mid-20th century. The state economy in the 21st century is dependent on
management, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.
Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the
"Heart of Dixie." The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is
Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham.
The largest city by total land area is Huntsville. The
oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists.
One of the entrances to Russell Cave in Jackson
County. Charcoal from camp fires in the cave has
been dated as early as 6550 to 6145 BC.
The Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members
lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on
the upper reaches of the Alabama River,
served as the etymological
source of the names of the river and state. In the Alabama language,
the word for an Alabama person is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or
Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form "Alabama persons" is
The word Alabama is believed to have originated
from the Choctaw language
and was later adopted by the Alabama
tribe as their name.
The spelling of the word varies significantly
between sources.
The first usage appears in three accounts of the
Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using
Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively.
As early as
1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des
Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama,
Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou.
Although the origin of Alabama could be discerned, sources disagree on its meaning. An 1842 article in the
Jacksonville Republican originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest."
This notion was popularized
in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek.
Experts in the Muskogean languages have been
unable to find any evidence to support such a translation.
Scholars believe the word comes from the Choctaw
alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").
The meaning
may have been "clearers of the thicket"
or "herb gatherers"
which may refer to clearing of land for
or to collecting medicinal plants.
Alabama is but one of many place names in the state of Native
American origin.
Pre-European settlement
The Moundville Archaeological Site in Hale
County. It was occupied by Native Americans of
the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to 1450
Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands
of years before European colonization. Trade with the Northeast via
the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period
(1000 BC–AD 700) and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from AD
1000 to 1600, with one of its major centers being at the Moundville
Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama.
Analysis of
artifacts recovered from archaeological excavations at Moundville
were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC).
Contrary to popular
belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican
culture, but developed independently. The Ceremonial Complex
represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary means by which
their religion is understood.
Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in the area of present-day Alabama at the time of
European contact were Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee, and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw,
Choctaw, Creek, and Koasati.
European settlement
French map from 1725 showing the "Plan Profile
and Elevation of Fort Condé at Mobile."
The French founded the first European settlement in the region at Old
Mobile, in 1702.
The city was moved to the current site of Mobile
in 1711. This area was French from 1702 to 1763, part of British West
Florida from 1763 to 1783, and split between the United States and
Spain from 1783 to 1821. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British
monarchy, was the one of the earliest white settlers in the state outside
of the Mobile area. He settled in the Tombigbee settlements, in what is
now Washington County, during the early 1770s.
What is now the
counties of Baldwin and Mobile became part of Spanish West Florida
in 1783, part of the independent Republic of West Florida in 1810, and
was finally added to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. The area
making up today's northern and central Alabama and Mississippi, then
known as the Yazoo lands, had been claimed by the Province of Georgia after 1767. Following the Revolutionary
War, it remained a part of Georgia, although heavily disputed.
Map showing the formation of the Mississippi
and Alabama territories.
With the exception of the immediate area around Mobile and the
Yazoo lands, what is now central Alabama was made part of the
Mississippi Territory upon its creation in 1798. The Yazoo lands were
added to the territory in 1804, following the Yazoo land scandal. Spain
had kept a governmental presence in Mobile after 1812. When Andrew
Jackson's forces occupied Mobile in 1814 he demonstrated the United
States' de facto authority over the region, which effectively ended
Spanish influence, although not its claim, while gaining an
unencumbered passage to the Gulf of Mexico from the hinterlands of
the territory.
Prior to the admission of Mississippi as a state on
December 10, 1817, the more sparsely settled eastern half of the
territory was separated and named the Alabama Territory. The
Alabama Territory was created by the United States Congress on
March 3, 1817. St. Stephens, now a ghost town, served as the territorial capital from 1817 to 1819.
Early statehood
Ruins of the former capitol building at Capitol
Park in Tuscaloosa. Designed by William
Nichols, it was built from 1827 to 1829. It
became the Alabama Central Female College in
1857, more than a decade after the capital had
been moved to Montgomery. It was destroyed by
fire in 1923.
Alabama was admitted to the Union in 1819 as the 22nd state. Cahaba,
also now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital, from 1820
to 1825.
Alabama Fever was already underway when the state was
admitted to the Union, with settlers and land speculators pouring into
the state to take advantage of fertile land suitable for cotton
Part of the frontier in the 1820s and 1830s, its
constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men.
Southeastern planters and traders from the Upper South brought slaves
with them as the cotton plantations in Alabama expanded. The
economy of the central Black Belt (named for its dark, productive soil)
was built around large cotton plantations whose owners' wealth grew
largely from slave labor.
The area also drew many poor,
disfranchised people who became subsistence farmers. Alabama had a
population estimated at under 10,000 people in 1810, but it had
increased to more than 300,000 people by 1830.
Most Native
American tribes were completely removed from the state within a few years of the passage of the Indian Removal
Act by the United States Congress in 1830.
The main house (built 1833) at Thornhill, a Black
Belt plantation.
From 1826 to 1846, Tuscaloosa served as the capital of Alabama. On
January 30, 1846, the Alabama legislature announced that it had voted
to remove the capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery. The first
legislative session in the new capital met in December 1847.
A new
capitol building was erected under the direction of Stephen Decatur
Button of Philadelphia. The first structure burned down in 1849, but
was rebuilt on the same site in 1851. This second capitol building in
Montgomery remains to the present day. It was designed by Barachias
Holt of Exeter, Maine.
By 1860 the population had increased to
a total of 964,201 people, of which 435,080 were enslaved African
Americans and 2,690 were free people of color.
Civil War and Reconstruction
Union Army troops occupying Courthouse
Square in Huntsville, following its capture and
reoccupation by federal forces in 1864.
On January 11, 1861, Alabama declared its secession from the Union
and joined the Confederate States of America. While few battles were
fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the
American Civil War. Alabama's slaves were freed by the 13th
Amendment in 1865.
A company of cavalry soldiers from
Huntsville, Alabama joined Gen. Forrest's troops in Kentucky. The
Huntsville company wore fine, new uniforms with yellow cloth on the
sleeves, collars and coat tails. This led to them being greeted with
"Yellowhammer" and later all Alabama troops in the Confederate
Army were nicknamed "Yellowhammers".
Alabama was under military rule from the end of the war until official
restoration to the Union in 1868. From 1867 to 1874 many African Americans emerged as political leaders in the
state. The state was represented in Congress during this period by three African American congressmen: Jeremiah
Haralson, Benjamin S. Turner, and James T. Rapier.
The Alabama Legislature during Reconstruction
in 1872.
Following the war, the state was still chiefly agricultural, with an
economy tied to cotton. During Reconstruction, state legislators
ratified a new state constitution in 1868 that created a public school
system for the first time and expanded women's rights. Legislators
funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these
were plagued with allegations of fraud and misappropriation.
During this time, organized resistance groups acted to suppress
freedmen and Republicans. Although the Ku Klux Klan is the most
well known, also among these groups were the Pale Faces, Knights of
the White Camellia, Red Shirts, and White League.
Reconstruction in Alabama ended in 1874, when Democrats took
control of the legislature and governor's office. They wrote a new constitution in 1875.
Also in 1875, the
legislature passed the Blaine Amendment, to prohibit public money from being used to finance religious affiliated
In that same year, legislation was approved that called for racially segregated schools.
passenger cars were segregated in 1891.
Additional Jim Crow laws were passed after the start of the 20th century.
The developing skyline of Birmingham in 1915.
The new 1901 Constitution of Alabama included electoral laws that
effectively disfranchised African Americans and most poor whites
through voting restrictions, including poll taxes and literacy
While the planter class had persuaded poor whites to
support these legislative efforts, the new restrictions resulted in their
disfranchisement as well, due mostly to the imposition of a cumulative
poll tax. In 1900, Alabama had more than 181,000 African Americans
eligible to vote. By 1903, only 2,980 had qualified to register, although
at least 74,000 black voters were literate.
By 1941, a total of more
whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000
Nearly all African Americans lost the ability to vote.
The 1901 constitution reiterated that schools be racially segregated. It also restated that interracial marriage was
illegal, although it had already been against the law since 1867. Further racial segregation laws were passed into the
1950s: jails in 1911; hospitals in 1915; toilets, hotels, and restaurants in 1928; and bus stop waiting rooms in
The former Mount Sinai School in rural Autauga
County. Completed in 1919, it was one of the 387
Rosenwald Schools built in the state for African
American children.
The rural-dominated Alabama legislature consistently underfunded
schools and services for the disfranchised African Americans in the
segregated state, but did not relieve them of paying taxes.
as a response to chronic underfunding of education for African
Americans in the South, the Rosenwald Fund began funding the
building of what came to be known as Rosenwald Schools. In Alabama
these schools were designed and the construction partially financed
with Rosenwald funds. The fund provided one-third of the construction
money, with the community and state splitting the remainder.
Beginning in 1913, the first 80 Rosenwald Schools were built in
Alabama. A total of 387 schools, 7 teacher's houses, and several
vocational buildings had been completed within the state by 1937.
Several of the surviving school buildings in the state are now listed on
the National Register of Historic Places.
Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil
infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek opportunities in northern cities. They left Alabama in
the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities.
The population growth rate in Alabama (see "Historical Populations" table below) dropped by nearly half from 1910
to 1920, reflecting the effect of emigration.
At the same time, many rural whites and blacks migrated to the city of Birmingham for work in new industrial jobs.
It experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed "The Magic City". By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th
largest city in the U.S. and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the
basis of the economy.
Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought a level of
prosperity not seen since before the Civil War.
Rural workers poured into the largest cities in the state for better
jobs and a higher standard of living. One example of this massive influx of workers can be shown by what happened
in Mobile. Between 1940 and 1943, more than 89,000 people moved into the city to work for war effort
Cotton and other cash crops faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service
Saturn V being assembled at Marshall Space
Flight Center in Huntsville during 1964.
Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the
rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate
seats based on population. They held on to old representation to
maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In
addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham
legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside
One result was that Jefferson County, containing Birmingham's
industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third
of all tax revenue to the state, but did not receive a proportional
amount in services. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented
in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination,
"A minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature."
African Americans were presumed partial to Republicans for historical reasons, but they were disfranchised. White
Alabamans felt bitter towards the Republican Party in the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction. These
factors created a longstanding tradition that any candidate who wanted to be viable with white voters had to run as a
Democrat regardless of political beliefs.
Although efforts had already started decades earlier, African Americans began to more actively attempt to end the
disfranchisement and segregation in the state during the 1950s and 1960s with the Civil Rights Movement. These
efforts directly led to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 by the United
States Congress. During the 1960s, under Governor George Wallace, failed attempts were made at the state level to
resist federally-sanctioned desegregation efforts.
During the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a protection of voting and other civil rights through
the passage of the national Civil Rights Act of 1964,
and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Legal segregation ended
in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed.
Under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, cases were filed in Federal courts to force Alabama to redistrict by population
both the House and Senate of the state legislature. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature implemented
the Alabama constitution's provision for periodic redistricting based on population. This benefited the urban areas
that had developed, as well as all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years.
Map of major cities, roads, lakes, and
rivers in Alabama.
Alabama is the thirtieth-largest state in the United States with 52,419 square
miles (135,760 km
) of total area: 3.2% of the area is water, making Alabama
23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second-largest inland
waterway system in the United States.
About three-fifths of the land area is a
gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of
Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee
River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains,
and lakes.
The states bordering Alabama are Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east;
Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline at the
Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state.
Alabama ranges in
elevation from sea level
at Mobile Bay to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the
Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha,
at a height of 2,413 ft (735 m).
Alabama's land consists of 22 million acres
(89,000 km
) of forest or 67% of total land area.
Suburban Baldwin County,
along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water
Mount Cheaha, is Alabama's largest mountain.
This foothill of the Appalachian Mountains is the
highest point in the state.
Areas in Alabama administered by the National Park Service include
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little
River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave
National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic
Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near
Additionally, Alabama has four National Forests:
Conecuh, Talladega, Tuskegee, and William B. Bankhead.
also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery
National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail.
A notable natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the
longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of
A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the
Wetumpka crater, the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster." A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area
about 80 million years ago.
The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the
impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme
("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the
In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence
and established the site as 157th recognized impact crater on Earth.
The northernmost point of Alabama lies approximately six miles northwest of Waterloo in Lauderdale County in the
far northwest corner of the state. The southernmost point is Sand Island, near Dauphin Island, in Mobile County. The
easternmost point lies eight miles southeast of Fort Mitchell in Russell County on the Georgia border. The
westernmost point is the southern third of the Mississippi State line, ending near the town of Melvin in Choctaw
Urban areas
Birmingham, largest city and metropolitan area. Huntsville, second-largest metropolitan area.
Mobile, third-largest metropolitan area. Montgomery, fourth-largest metropolitan area.
Tuscaloosa, fifth-largest metropolitan area.
Rank Metropolitan Area Population
(2010 Census)
1 Birmingham-Hoover 1,128,047 Bibb, Blount, Chilton, Jefferson, St. Clair, Shelby, Walker
2 Huntsville 417,593 Limestone, Madison
3 Mobile 412,992 Mobile
4 Montgomery 374,536 Autauga, Elmore, Lowndes, Montgomery
5 Tuscaloosa 219,461 Greene, Hale, Tuscaloosa
6 Decatur 153,829 Lawrence, Morgan
7 Florence-Muscle Shoals 147,137 Colbert, Lauderdale
8 Dothan 145,639 Geneva, Henry, Houston
9 Auburn-Opelika 140,247 Lee
10 Anniston-Oxford 112,249 Calhoun
11 Gadsden 104,430 Etowah
Total 3,362,483
Rank City Population
(2010 Census)
1 Birmingham 212,237 Jefferson
2 Montgomery 205,764 Montgomery
3 Mobile 195,111 Mobile
4 Huntsville 180,105 Madison
5 Tuscaloosa 90,468 Tuscaloosa
6 Hoover 81,619 Jefferson
7 Dothan 65,496 Houston
8 Decatur 55,683 Morgan
9 Auburn 53,380 Lee
10 Madison 42,938 Madison
11 Florence 39,319 Lauderdale
12 Gadsden 36,856 Etowah
13 Vestavia Hills 34,033 Jefferson
14 Prattville 33,960 Autauga
15 Phenix City 32,822 Russell
The state is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa) under the Koppen Climate Classification.
The average annual
temperature is 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to
the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast,
tend to be slightly cooler.
Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation
throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy
growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.
Tornado damage in Phil Campbell following the
statewide April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak.
Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with
high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the
summer in some parts of the state. Alabama is also prone to tropical
storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf
are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump
tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.
South Alabama reports many thunderstorms. The Gulf Coast, around
Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder
reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state,
but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per
year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning
and large hail; the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks
seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per
Alabama, along with Kansas, has the most reported EF5 tornadoes of any state, according to statistics from the
National Climatic Data Center for the period January 1, 1950, to October 31, 2006.
Several long-tracked F5
tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state, even surpassing Texas
which has a much larger area within Tornado Alley. The state suffered damage in the Super Outbreak of April 1974,
and the April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak. The outbreak in April 2011 produced a record amount of tornadoes in
the state. The tally reached 62.
Snowfall outside Birmingham City Hall in
February 2010.
The peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern
parts of the state. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that
has a secondary tornado season in November and December, along
with the spring severe weather season. The northern part of the
state—along the Tennessee Valley—is one of the areas in the U.S.
most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and
Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as
Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains.
Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of
the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures
around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham.
Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of
snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. Historic snowfall
events include New Year's Eve 1963 snowstorm and the 1993 Storm of the Century. The annual average snowfall for
the Birmingham area is 2 inches (51 mm) per year. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes
going several years without any snowfall.
Alabama's highest temperature of 112 °F (44 °C) was recorded on September 5, 1925 in the unincorporated
community of Centerville. The record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) occurred on January 30, 1966 in New Market.
Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities [°F (°C)]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Huntsville Average
Birmingham Average
Montgomery Average
Mobile Average
Source: NOAA
Flora and fauna
A stand of Cahaba lilies (Hymenocallis
coronaria) in the Cahaba River, within the
Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge.
Alabama is home to a diverse array of flora and fauna, due largely to a
variety of habitats that range from the Tennessee Valley, Appalachian
Plateau, and Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians of the north to the
Piedmont, Canebrake and Black Belt of the central region to the Gulf
Coastal Plain and beaches along the Gulf of Mexico in the south. The
state is usually ranked among the top in nation for its range of overall
Alabama once boasted huge expanses of pine forest, which still form
the largest proportion of forests in the state.
It currently ranks fifth
in the nation for the diversity of its flora. It is home to nearly 4,000
pteridophyte and spermatophyte plant species.
Indigenous animal species in the state include 62 mammal species,
93 reptile species,
73 amphibian
roughly 307 native freshwater fish species,
and 420 bird species that spend at least part of their year
within the state.
Invertebrates include 83 crayfish species and 383 mollusk species. 113 of these mollusk species
have never been collected outside of the state.
Census Pop. %±
1800 1,250 —
1810 9,046 6237%
1820 127,901 1,3139%
1830 309,527 1420%
1840 590,756 909%
1850 771,623 306%
1860 964,201 250%
1870 996,992 34%
1880 1,262,505 266%
1890 1,513,401 199%
1900 1,828,697 208%
1910 2,138,093 169%
1920 2,348,174 98%
1930 2,646,248 127%
1940 2,832,961 71%
1950 3,061,743 81%
1960 3,266,740 67%
1970 3,444,165 54%
1980 3,893,888 131%
1990 4,040,587 38%
2000 4,447,100 101%
2010 4,779,736 75%
Sources: 1910–2010
Alabama population density map.
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Alabama was 4,802,740 on July 1, 2011, a 0.48% increase since the
2010 United States Census.
The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2008, estimated
Alabama's population at 4,661,900,
which represents an increase of
214,545, or 4.8%, since the last census in 2000.
This includes a
natural increase since the last census of 121,054 people (that is 502,457
births minus 381,403 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of
104,991 people into the state.
Immigration from outside the United
States resulted in a net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within
the country produced a net gain of 73,811 people.
The state had
108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an
estimated 22.2% were illegal immigrants (24,000).
The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside of the town of Jemison.
Race and ancestry
According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Alabama had a population of 4,779,736. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state
was 68.5% White (67.0% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 26.2% Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian
and Alaska Native, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 2.0% from Some Other Race, and
1.5% from Two or More Races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 3.9% of the population.
As of 2011, 46.6% of Alabama's population younger than age 1 were minorities.
The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama are: African American (26.2%), English (23.6%), Irish (7.7%),
German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%).
Those citing "American" ancestry in Alabama are of
overwhelmingly English extraction, however most English Americans identify simply as having American ancestry
because their roots have been in North America for so long, in some cases since the 1600s. Demographers estimate
that a minimum of 20–23% of people in Alabama are of predominantly English ancestry and state that the figure is
probably much higher. In the 1980 census, 41% of the people in Alabama cited that they were of English ancestry,
making them the largest ethnic group at the time.
There are also many more people in Alabama of
Scots-Irish origins than are self-reported.
Many people in Alabama claim Irish ancestry because of the term
Scots-Irish, but most of the time in Alabama this term is used for those with Scottish roots, rather than Irish.
In 1984, under the Davis–Strong Act, the state legislature established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission and
officially recognized seven American Indian tribes. Now expanded to nine, these include the Poarch Band of Creek
Indians, MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, Star Clan of Muscogee Creeks, Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama,
Cherokees of Northeast Alabama, Cherokees of Southeast Alabama, Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe, Piqua Sept
of Ohio Shawnee Tribe, and United Cherokee Ani-Yun-Wiya Nation.
First Baptist Church of Mobile, established in
Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt, a region of high
Christian followers. Alabama has been identified as one of the most
religious states in the US, with about 58% of the population attending
church regularly.
A majority of people in the state identify as
Protestant. As of 2000, the three largest denominational groups in
Alabama are Evangelical Protestant, Mainline Protestant, and Catholic.
The Southern Baptist Convention has the highest number of adherents
in Alabama with 1,380,121, followed by the United Methodist Church
with 327,734 members, and the Catholic Church with 150,647
In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a
religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further
In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the
In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey, 80% of Alabama respondents reported their
religion as Christian, 6% as Catholic, and 11% as having no religion.
Temple B'Nai Shalom in Huntsville, established
in 1876. It is the oldest synagogue building in
continuous use in the state.
Other faiths
Although in much smaller numbers, many other religious faiths are
represented in the state as well, including Judaism, Islam, Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and the Bahá'í Faith.
Jews have been present in what is now Alabama since 1763, during the
colonial era of Mobile.
The oldest Jewish congregation in the state
is Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim in Mobile. It was formally
recognized by the state legislature on January 25, 1844.
denominations in the state include two Orthodox, four Conservative,
ten Reform, and one Humanistic synagogue.
Islam has seen a growing presence in Alabama, with thirty-one mosques built by 2011.
There are a number of Hindu temples and cultural centers in the state, with the most well-known including the Shri
Swaminarayan Mandir in Birmingham, the Hindu Temple and Cultural Center Of Birmingham in Pelham, the Hindu
Cultural Center of North Alabama in Capshaw, and the Hindu Mandir and Cultural Center in Tuscaloosa.
There are six Dharma centers and organizations for Buddhists scattered throughout the state.
Most Buddhist
monastic temples in the state are concentrated in southern Mobile County, near Bayou La Batre. This area saw an
influx of refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam during the 1970s and thereafter.
There are four temples
within a ten mile radius of Bayou La Batre, including Chua Chanh Giac, Wat Buddharaksa, and Wat Lao
A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study in 2008 showed that obesity in Alabama was a problem, with
most counties having over 29% of adults obese, except for ten which had a rate between 26% and 29%.
Residents of the state, along with those in five other states, were least likely in the nation to be physically active
during leisure time.
Alabama, and the southeastern U.S. in general, has one of the highest incidences of adult
onset diabetes in the country, exceeding 10% of adults.
The state has invested in aerospace, education, health care, banking, and various heavy industries, including
automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication. By 2006, crop and animal
production in Alabama was valued at $1.5 billion. In contrast to the primarily agricultural economy of the previous
century, this was only about 1% of the state's gross domestic product. The number of private farms has declined at a
steady rate since the 1960s, as land has been sold to developers, timber companies, and large farming
Occupations outside of agriculture were widespread by 2008. Employment in that year was
121,800 in management occupations; 71,750 in business and financial operations; 36,790 in computer-related and
mathematical occupation; 44,200 in architecture and engineering; 12,410 in life, physical, and social sciences;
32,260 in community and social services; 12,770 in legal occupations; 116,250 in education, training, and library
services; 27,840 in art, design and media occupations; 121,110 in healthcare; 44,750 in fire fighting, law
enforcement, and security; 154,040 in food preparation and serving; 76,650 in building and grounds cleaning and
maintenance; 53,230 in personal care and services; 244,510 in sales; 338,760 in office and administration support;
20,510 in farming, fishing, and forestry; 120,155 in construction and mining, gas, and oil extraction; 106,280 in
installation, maintenance, and repair; 224,110 in production; and 167,160 in transportation and material moving.
According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2008 total gross state product was $170 billion, or
$29,411 per capita. Alabama's 2008 GDP increased 0.7% from the previous year. The single largest increase came in
the area of information.
In 2010, per capita income for the state was $22,984.
As of June 2012, the state's unemployment rate is 7.8%.
Largest employers
The Space Shuttle Enterprise being tested at
Marshall Space Flight Center during 1978.
According to the Birmingham Business Journal, the five employers
which employ the most employees in Alabama as of April 2011
Employer Number of employees
Redstone Arsenal 25,373
University of Alabama at Birmingham (includes UAB Hospital) 18,750
Maxwell Air Force Base 12,280
State of Alabama 9,500
Mobile County Public School System 8,100
The next twenty largest, as identified in the Birmingham Business Journal in 2011, included:
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama in
Montgomery during 2010.
Shelby Hall, College of Engineering, at the
University of South Alabama in Mobile.
Employer Location
Anniston Army Depot Anniston
AT&T Multiple
Auburn University Auburn
Baptist Medical Center South Montgomery
Birmingham City Schools Birmingham
City of Birmingham Birmingham
DCH Health System Tuscaloosa
Huntsville City Schools Huntsville
Huntsville Hospital System Huntsville
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama Montgomery
Infirmary Health System Mobile
Jefferson County Board of Education Birmingham
Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville
Mercedes-Benz U.S. International Vance
Montgomery Public Schools Montgomery
Regions Financial Corporation Multiple
Boeing Multiple
University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
University of South Alabama Mobile
Walmart Multiple
Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, fish, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such
as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama
ranks between eighth and tenth in national cotton production, according to various reports,
with Texas,
Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three.
Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and
wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Also, Alabama produces
aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, the location of NASA's George C. Marshall Space
Flight Center and the U.S. Army Materiel Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal.
A view of the hot dip galvanizing lines at
ThyssenKrupp Steel USA in Calvert, near
A great deal of Alabama's economic growth since the 1990s has been
due to the state's expanding automotive manufacturing industry.
Located in the state are Honda Manufacturing of Alabama, Hyundai
Motor Manufacturing Alabama, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International,
and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama, as well as their various
suppliers. Since 1993, the automobile industry has generated more than
67,800 new jobs in the state. Alabama currently ranks 4th in the nation
in automobile output.
Steel producers Nucor, SSAB, ThyssenKrupp, and U.S. Steel have
facilities in Alabama and employ over 10,000 people. In May 2007,
German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp selected Alabama for a $3.7 billion
steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs.
The Hunt Refining Company, a subsidiary of Hunt Consolidated, Inc., is based in Tuscaloosa and operates a refinery
there. The company also operates terminals in Mobile, Melvin, and Moundville.
JVC America, Inc. operates an
optical disc replication and packaging plant in Tuscaloosa.
Alabama's beaches have a strong impact on the
state's economy.
An estimated 20 million tourists annually visit the state. Over 100,000
of these are from other countries, including from Canada, the United
Kingdom, Germany and Japan. In 2006, 22.3 million tourists spent
$8.3 billion providing an estimated 162,000 jobs in the
UAB Hospital is the only Level I trauma center in Alabama.
UAB is the largest state government employer in Alabama, with a
workforce of about 18,000.
Regions-Harbert Plaza, Regions Center, and
Wells Fargo Tower in Birmingham's financial
Alabama has the headquarters of Regions Financial Corporation,
BBVA Compass, Superior Bancorp and the former Colonial
Bancgroup. Birmingham-based Compass Banchshares was acquired by
Spanish-based BBVA in September 2007, although the headquarters of
BBVA Compass remains in Birmingham. In November 2006, Regions
Financial completed its merger with AmSouth Bancorporation, which
was also headquartered in Birmingham. SouthTrust Corporation,
another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by
Wachovia in 2004 for $14.3 billion. The city still has major operations
for Wachovia and its now post-operating bank Wells Fargo, which
includes a regional headquarters, an operations center campus and a
$400 million dollar data center. Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also
headquartered in the Birmingham, such as Superior Bancorp, ServisFirst and New South Federal Savings Bank.
Birmingham also serves as the headquarters for several large investment management companies, including Harbert
Management Corporation.
Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, also has a major presence in Alabama with several large
offices in Birmingham. The company has over 6,000 employees and more than 1,200 contract employees.
Many commercial technology companies are headquartered in Huntsville, such as the network access company
ADTRAN, computer graphics company Intergraph, design and manufacturer of IT infrastructure Avocent, and
telecommunications provider Deltacom. Cinram manufactures and distributes 20th Century Fox DVDs and Blu-ray
Discs out of their Huntsville plant.
The lock of the Howell Heflin Lock and Dam on
the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway in Sumter
Rust International has grown to include Brasfield & Gorrie, BE&K,
Hoar Construction and B.L. Harbert International, which all routinely
are included in the Engineering News-Record lists of top design,
international construction, and engineering firms. (Rust International
was acquired in 2000 by Washington Group International, which was
in turn acquired by San-Francisco based URS Corporation in 2007.)
Law and government
State government
The State Capitol Building in Montgomery,
completed in 1851
The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama
Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. At almost 800 amendments
and 310,000 words, it is the world's longest constitution and is roughly
forty times the length of the U.S. Constitution.
There is a
significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's
This movement is based upon the fact that Alabama's
constitution highly centralizes power in Montgomery and leaves
practically no power in local hands. Any policy changes proposed
around the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature
and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current
constitution claims that its complexity and length were intentional to codify segregation and racism.
The Alabama Judicial Building in Montgomery.
It houses the Alabama Supreme Court, Alabama
Court of Civil Appeals, and Alabama Court of
Criminal Appeals.
Alabama's government is divided into three equal branches: The
legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly
composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105
members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature
is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state
legislation. The Republican Party currently holds a majority in both
houses of the Legislature. The Legislature has the power to override a
gubernatorial veto by a simple majority (most state Legislatures require
a two-thirds majority to override a veto).
The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of
laws. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. Other members of
executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of
Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama State
Treasurer, and the State Auditor of Alabama. The current governor of the state is Republican Robert Bentley. The
lieutenant governor is Republican Kay Ivey.
The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil
cases. The highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama. The Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court is
Republican Chuck Malone. All sitting justices on the Alabama Supreme Court are members of the Republican Party.
The members of the Legislature take office immediately after the November elections. The statewide officials, such
as the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, and other constitutional offices take office in the following
Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5 percent personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status.
Taxpayers are allowed to deduct their federal income tax from their Alabama state tax, and can do so even if taking
the standard deduction. Taxpayers who file itemized deductions are also allowed to deduct federal Social Security
and Medicare taxes.
The state's general sales tax rate is 4%.
The collection rate could be substantially higher, depending upon
additional city and county sales taxes. For example, the total sales tax rate in Mobile is 10% and there is an
additional restaurant tax of 1%, which means that a diner in Mobile would pay a 11% tax on a meal. Sales and excise
taxes in Alabama account for 51% of all state and local revenue, compared with an average of about 36%
nationwide. Alabama is also one of the few remaining states that levies a tax on food and medicine. Alabama's
income tax on poor working families is among the nation's very highest.
Alabama is the only state that levies
income tax on a family of four with income as low as $4,600, which is barely one-quarter of the federal poverty
Alabama's threshold is the lowest among the 41 states and the District of Columbia with income taxes.
The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the
state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country.
Property taxes are the lowest in the United States. The
current state constitution requires a voter referendum to raise property taxes.
Since Alabama's tax structure largely depends on consumer spending, it is subject to high variable budget structure.
For example, in 2003 Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million.
Local and county government
Alabama counties (clickable map)
Alabama has 67 counties. Each county has its own elected legislative
branch, usually called the County Commission, which usually also has
executive authority in the county. Because of the restraints placed in
the Alabama Constitution, all but seven counties (Jefferson, Lee,
Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state
have little to no home rule. Instead, most counties in the state must
lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get
simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning.
On November 9, 2011, Jefferson County declared bankruptcy.
Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state; the government holds a
monopoly on the sale of alcohol. However, counties can declare
themselves "dry"; the state does not sell alcohol in those areas.
•• List of counties in Alabama
Rank County Population
(2010 Census)
Seat Largest city
1 Jefferson 658,466 Birmingham Birmingham
2 Mobile 412,992 Mobile Mobile
3 Madison 334,811 Huntsville Huntsville
4 Montgomery 229,363 Montgomery Montgomery
5 Shelby 195,085 Columbiana Hoover
6 Tuscaloosa 194,656 Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa
7 Baldwin 182,265 Bay Minette Daphne
8 Lee 140,247 Opelika Auburn
9 Morgan 119,490 Decatur Decatur
10 Calhoun 118,572 Anniston Anniston
Robert J. Bentley, governor since
January 17, 2011.
Kay Ivey, lieutenant governor.
During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was
occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John
Pope. In 1874, the political coalition known as the Redeemers took control of the
state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the African
American vote.
After 1890, a coalition of whites passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise
black residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution.
Provisions which disfranchised African Americans also disfranchised poor
whites, however. By 1941 more whites than blacks had been disfranchised:
600,000 to 520,000, although the impact was greater on the African-American
community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised.
From 1901 through the 1960s, the state did not redraw election districts as
population grew and shifted within the state. The result was a rural minority that
dominated state politics until a series of court cases required redistricting in
Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s
and 1960s during the American Civil Rights Movement, when majority whites
bureaucratically, and at times, violently resisted protests for electoral and social
reform. Democrat George Wallace, the state's only four-term governor, was a
controversial figure. Only with the passage of the Federal Civil Rights Act of
and Voting Rights Act of 1965 did African Americans regain suffrage,
among other civil rights.
In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed, and Republican Governor Bob Riley
signed a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering
impact. In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama State
Capitol, which housed Congress of the Confederate States of America.
In 2010, Republicans won control of both houses of the legislature for the first
time in 136 years.
State elections
With the disfranchisement of African Americans, the state became part of the "Solid South", a system in which the
Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and
state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican
challengers running in the General Election.
Republicans hold all nine seats on the Alabama Supreme Court
and all ten seats on the state appellate courts.
Until 1994, no Republicans held any of the court seats. This change also began, likely in part, due to the same
perception by voters of Democratic party efforts to disenfranchise voters again in 1994. In that general election, the
then-incumbent Chief Justice of Alabama, Ernest C. Hornsby, refused to leave office after losing the election by
approximately 3,000 votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr.. Hornsby sued Alabama and defiantly remained in
office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing in court. This ultimately led to a collapse of
support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. The Democrats lost the last of the
nineteen court seats in August 2011 with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench.
Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Republicans hold six of the eight
elected seats on the Alabama State Board of Education. In 2010, Republicans took large majorities of both chambers
of the state legislature giving them control of that body for the first time in 136 years. Democrats hold one of the
three seats on the Alabama Public Service Commission.
Only two Republican Lieutenant Governors have been elected since Reconstruction, one is Kay Ivey, the current
Lieutenant Governor.
Local elections
Many local offices (County Commissioners, Boards of Education, Tax Assessors, Tax Collectors, etc.) in the state
are still held by Democrats. Local elections in most rural counties are generally decided in the Democratic primary
and local elections in metropolitan and suburban counties are generally decided in the Republican Primary, although
there are exceptions.
Alabama's 67 County Sheriffs are elected in partisan races and Democrats still retain the majority of those posts. The
current split is 42 Democrats, 24 Republicans, and one Independent (Choctaw).
However, most of the
Democratic sheriffs preside over rural and less populated counties and the majority of Republican sheriffs preside
over more urban/suburban and heavily populated counties.
Two Alabama counties (Montgomery and Calhoun)
with a population of over 100,000 have Democratic sheriffs and five Alabama counties with a population of under
75,000 have Republican sheriffs (Autauga, Coffee, Dale, Coosa, and Blount).
As of 2012, the state of Alabama
has one female sheriff, in Morgan County, Alabama, and nine African American sheriffs.
Federal elections
The state's two U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans.
In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, six of whom are Republicans: (Jo
Bonner, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Morris J. Brooks, Martha Roby, and Spencer Bachus) and one Democrat:
Terri Sewell).
Primary and secondary education
Vestavia Hills High School in the suburbs of
Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the
overview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local
oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education.
Together, 1,541 individual schools provide education for 743,364
elementary and secondary students.
Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature
through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006–2007, Alabama
appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education.
That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal
In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency
under the National No Child Left Behind law, using measures determined by the state of Alabama. In 2004, 23
percent of schools met AYP.
While Alabama's public education system has improved in recent decades, it lags behind in achievement compared
to other states. According to U.S. Census data, Alabama's high school graduation rate—75%—is the fourth lowest in
the United States (after Kentucky, Louisiana and Mississippi).
The largest educational gains were among people
with some college education but without degrees.
Harrison Plaza at the University of North
Alabama in Florence. The school was chartered
as LaGrange College by the Alabama Legislature
in 1830.
Colleges and universities
Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public
universities, two-year community colleges, and 17 private,
undergraduate and graduate universities. In the state are three medical
schools (University of Alabama School of Medicine, University of
South Alabama and Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine), two
veterinary colleges (Auburn University and Tuskegee University), a
dental school (University of Alabama School of Dentistry), an
optometry college (University of Alabama at Birmingham), two
pharmacy schools (Auburn University and Samford University), and
five law schools (University of Alabama School of Law, Birmingham
School of Law, Cumberland School of Law, Miles Law School, and
the Thomas Goode Jones School of Law). Public, post-secondary
education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Colleges and universities in
Alabama offer degree programs from two-year associate degrees to 16 doctoral level programs.
William J. Samford Hall at Auburn University in
The largest single campus is the University of Alabama, located in
Tuscaloosa, with 33,602 enrolled for fall 2012.
Troy University
was the largest institution in the state in 2010, with an enrollment of
29,689 students across four Alabama campuses (Troy, Dothan,
Montgomery, and Phenix City), as well as sixty learning sites in
seventeen other states and eleven other countries. The oldest
institutions are the public University of North Alabama in Florence and
the Catholic Church-affiliated Spring Hill College in Mobile, both
founded in 1830.
Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern
Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) as well as other
subject-focused national and international accreditation agencies such as the Association for Biblical Higher
Education (ABHE),
the Council on Occupational Education (COE),
and the Accrediting Council for
Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS).
According to the 2011 U.S. News and World Report, Alabama had three universities ranked in the top 100 Public
Schools in America (University of Alabama at 31, Auburn University at 36, and University of Alabama at
Birmingham at 73).
Hank Aaron Stadium in Mobile.
Alabama has several professional and semi-professional sports teams,
including four minor league baseball teams.
Von Braun Center in Huntsville.
Regions Park in Hoover.
Club City Sport League Venue
Alabama Hammers Huntsville Indoor football Southern Indoor Football League Von Braun Center
Birmingham Barons Hoover Baseball Southern League Regions Park
Birmingham Sabers Birmingham Basketball Continental Basketball League Altamont School
Dixie Derby Girls Huntsville Roller derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association Von Braun Center
Huntsville Havoc Huntsville Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League Von Braun Center
Huntsville Stars Huntsville Baseball Southern League Joe W. Davis Stadium
Mobile BayBears Mobile Baseball Southern League Hank Aaron Stadium
Mobile Bay Hurricanes Mobile Basketball American Basketball Association Davidson High School
Montgomery Biscuits Montgomery Baseball Southern League Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium
Rocket City United Madison Soccer National Premier Soccer League Madison City Schools Stadium
Tennessee Valley Tigers Huntsville Football Independent Women's Football League Milton Frank Stadium
Tragic City Rollers Birmingham Roller derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association Zamora Shrine Temple
Alabama has four of the world's largest stadiums by seating capacity: Talladega Superspeedway in Talladega,
Bryant-Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Jordan-Hare Stadium in Auburn and Legion Field in Birmingham.
Bryant-Denny Stadium at the University of
Alabama in Tuscaloosa.
The Talladega Superspeedway motorsports complex hosts a series of
NASCAR events. It has a seating capacity of 143,000 and is the
thirteenth largest stadium in the world and sixth largest stadium in
America. Bryant-Denny Stadium serves as the home of the University
of Alabama football team has a seating capacity of 101,821. It is the
fifth largest stadium in America and the eighth largest non-racing
stadium in the world. Jordan-Hare Stadium is the home field of the
Auburn University football team and has a seating capacity of 87,451.
It is the twelfth largest college football stadium in America. Legion
Field is home for the UAB Blazers football program and the
Papajohns.com Bowl. It seats 71,594.
Ladd-Peebles Stadium in Mobile serves as the home of the NCAA Senior Bowl, GoDaddy.com Bowl,
Alabama-Mississippi All Star Classic and home of the University of South Alabama football team. Ladd-Peebles
Stadium opened in 1948 and seats 40,646.
In 2009, Bryant-Denny Stadium and Jordan-Hare Stadium became the homes of the Alabama High School Athletic
Association state football championship games, known as the Super Six. Bryant-Denny hosts the Super Six in
odd-numbered years, with Jordan-Hare taking the games in even-numbered years. Previously, the Super Six was
held at Legion Field in Birmingham.
Control tower and terminal at the
Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport
Air transportation
Major airports in Alabama include Birmingham-Shuttlesworth
International Airport (BHM), Huntsville International Airport (HSV),
Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB),
Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals – Northwest
Alabama Regional Airport (MSL), Tuscaloosa Regional Airport
(TCL), and Pryor Field Regional Airport (DCU).
For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger
train, running from New York to New Orleans with stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa.
Interstate 59 (co-signed with Interstate 20)
approaching Interstate 65 in downtown
Eastbound Interstate 10 in Mobile as it
approaches the George Wallace Tunnel.
Alabama has five major interstate roads that cross the state: I-65 runs
north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-59/I-20 travels
from the central west border to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to
the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards
Atlanta; I-85 originates in Montgomery and runs east-northeast to the
Georgia border, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10
traverses the southernmost portion of the state, running from west to
east through Mobile. Another interstate road, I-22, is currently under
construction. When completed around 2014 it will connect
Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. In addition, there are currently
five auxiliary interstate routes in the state: I-165 in Mobile, I-359 in
Tuscaloosa, I-459 around Birmingham, I-565 in Huntsville, and I-759
in Gadsden. A sixth route, I-685, will be created when I-85 is rerouted
along a new southern bypass of Montgomery. A proposed northern
bypass of Birmingham will designated as I-422.
Several U.S. Highways also pass through the state, such as US 11, US
29, US 31, US 43, US 45, US 72, US 78, US 80, US 82, US 84, US 90,
US 98, US 231, US 278, US 280, US 331, US 411, and US 431.
There are four toll roads in the state: Montgomery Expressway in
Montgomery; Tuscaloosa Bypass in Tuscaloosa; Emerald Mountain
Expressway in Wetumpka; and Beach Express in Orange Beach.
In March 2011, Alabama ranked among the top five "Worst" states on
the American State Litter Scorecard, for overall poor effectiveness and
quality of its statewide public space cleanliness—primarily roadway and adjacent litter removals—from state and
related efforts.
Aerial view of the port of Mobile
The Port of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a busy seaport on
the Gulf of Mexico with inland waterway access to the Midwest by
way of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The Port of Mobile is
currently the 9th-largest by tonnage in the U.S.
The state's other
ports are on rivers with access to the Gulf.
Water ports of Alabama, listed from north to south:
Port name Location Connected to
Port of Florence Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Pickwick Lake Tennessee River
Port of Decatur Decatur, on Wheeler Lake Tennessee River
Port of Guntersville Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville Tennessee River
Port of Birmingham Birmingham, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Montgomery Montgomery, on Woodruff Lake Alabama River
Port of Mobile Mobile, on Mobile Bay Gulf of Mexico
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61742e5Ls) from the original on August 21, 2011. . Retrieved July 22, 2011.
[170] "The Mission Statement of Spring Hill College: History" (http:// www. shc. edu/ about-shc/ employment/ hiring/
the-mission-statement-of-spring-hill-college/ ). Spring Hill College. Archived (http:// www.webcitation.org/61746iAFs) from the original
on August 21, 2011. . Retrieved July 22, 2011.
[171] "Members" (http:// directory.abhe. org/ default.aspx?status=Member). Association for Biblical Higher Education. Archived (http:/ /
www. webcitation. org/6174AJ383) from the original on August 21, 2011. . Retrieved June 24, 2011.
[172] "Membership Directory" (http:/ / www. council. org/ forms/acc_membership.pdf) (PDF). Council on Operational Education. November
2010. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/60iiYeIyB) from the original on August 5, 2011. . Retrieved August 5, 2011.
[173] "ACICS Website Directory" (http:// www. acics. org/ uploadedFiles/ Publications/ 7_20_09.pdf) (PDF). Accrediting Council for
Independent Colleges and Schools. July 20, 2009. Archived (http:// www. webcitation.org/ 60iiMuVRG) from the original on August 5,
2011. . Retrieved August 5, 2011.
[174] "Top Public Schools" (http:// www. webcitation. org/61mTinjiN). U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original (http://
colleges.usnews. rankingsandreviews. com/ best-colleges/ rankings/ national-universities/ top-public/ spp+ 50) on September 17, 2011. .
Retrieved September 17, 2011.
[175] (http:// www. tidesports. com/ article/20100804/ NEWS/100809854/ 1011?Title=Bryant-Denny-expansion-brings-capacity-to-101-821)
[176] "Stadium List :: 100 000+ Stadiums" (http:// www. worldstadiums. com/ stadium_menu/ stadium_list/ 100000.shtml). World Stadiums. .
Retrieved February 10, 2012.
[177] "Welcome to Ladd Peebles Stadium" (http:// www. laddpeeblesstadium. com/ ). Laddpeeblesstadium.com. January 23, 2012. . Retrieved
February 10, 2012.
[178] "Super 6 leaving Birmingham for Bryant-Denny, Jordan-Hare stadiums | al.com" (http:// blog.al. com/ sentell/ 2009/ 04/
super_6_byebye_birmingham. html). Blog.al.com. . Retrieved February 10, 2012.
[179] [179] S. Spacek, 2011 American State Litter Scorecard: New Rankings for an Increasingly Environmentally Concerned Populace.
[180] "WATERBORNE COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES" (http:// www. iwr.usace. army.mil/ ndc/wcsc/ pdf/wcusnatl08.pdf). U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers: Waterborne Commerce Statistics. p. 90. . Retrieved March 8, 2010.
Further reading
For a detailed bibliography, see the History of Alabama.
• Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep
South State (1994)
• Flynt, Wayne. Alabama in the Twentieth Century (2004)
• Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography 4 vols. 1921.
• Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004)
• Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama
Review 2002 55(4): 243–274. ISSN 0002-4341
• Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States
(1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72.
• Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979.
• WPA. Guide to Alabama (1939)
External links
• Alabama.gov (http:// www. alabama.gov/ ) – Official State Government Website
• Alabama State Guide, from the Library of Congress (http:// www. loc.gov/ rr/program/bib/ states/ alabama/
index. html)
• Alabama Association of Regional Councils (http:/ / www. alarc.org/ )
• Energy Data & Statistics for Alabama- From the U.S. Department of Energy (http:// tonto.eia. doe. gov/ state/
state_energy_profiles. cfm?sid=AL)
• TourAlabama.org (http:// www. touralabama.org/ ) – Alabama Department of Tourism and Travel
• All About Alabama (http:/ / www. archives.state. al.us/ aaa. html), at the Alabama Department of Archives and
• AlabamaMosaic (http:/ / www. alabamamosaic. org/ ), a digital repository of materials on Alabama's history,
culture, places, and people
• Code of Alabama 1975 (http:// www. legislature.state. al. us/ CodeofAlabama/ 1975/ coatoc. htm) – at the
Alabama Legislature site
• Alabama (http:// www. dmoz.org/Regional/ North_America/United_States/ Alabama/ ) at the Open Directory
• USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Alabama (http:// www. usgs. gov/ state/ state.
• Alabama QuickFacts (http:/ / quickfacts.census. gov/ qfd/states/ 01000. html) from the U.S. Census Bureau
• Alabama State Fact Sheet (http:// www. ers. usda. gov/ statefacts/ al. htm) from the U.S. Department of
• Geographic data related to Alabama (http:// www. openstreetmap. org/browse/ relation/161950) at
Alabama Claims
The Alabama Claims were a series of claims for damages by the United States government against the government
of Great Britain for the assistance given to the Confederate cause during the American Civil War. After international
arbitration endorsed the American position in 1872, Britain settled the matter by paying the U.S. $15.5 million for
damages done by several warships built in Britain and sold to the Confederacy, thus ending the dispute and ensuring
friendly relations.
The CSS Alabama
During the American Civil War, several warships that became Confederate commerce raiders (the most famous
being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to the American merchant marine.
British political involvement
The British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston and Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell had allowed the Alabama to
put to sea from the shipyards of John Laird Sons and Company in Birkenhead, despite the explicit objections of the
American Legation in London and charges from the American Minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams that the
ship was bound for the Confederacy. Though both the Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary were thought to favor
the Confederacy at the time of Alabama's construction, this position was against British public opinion and MPs
such as Richard Cobden campaigned against it. The subsequent release of the Alabama proved to be publicly
embarrassing, and Palmerston and Russell were later forced to admit that the ship should not have been allowed to
depart, despite the opinion of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales that her release did not violate neutrality.
Alabama Claims
Even so, the next year two ironclad warships under construction in Birkenhead and destined for the Confederacy
were detained after their completion but before their launch. As a direct consequence of the flap over the Alabama,
rather than turn the ships over to Monsieur Bravay of Paris (who had ordered their construction as intermediary for
Confederate principals), Palmerston instructed the British Admiralty to tender an offer for the purchase of the ships.
The claims
The United States claimed direct and collateral damage against Britain, the so-called Alabama Claims.
In the particular case of the Alabama the United States claimed that Britain had violated neutrality by allowing the
Alabama to be constructed, knowing that it would enter into service with the Confederacy.
There were other particulars as well. In the summer of 1862, the British-built warship Oreto, later renamed the CSS
Florida, was delivered to Nassau in the Bahamas with the intention of its being transferred to the Confederate Navy.
British Admiral George Willes Watson (1827-1897) aided the transfer, and Watson's actions were considered by the
Senator Charles Sumner, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, originally wanted to ask for $2
billion, or alternatively the ceding of Canada to the United States. When American Secretary of State William H.
Seward negotiated the Alaska Purchase in 1867, he intended it as the first step in a comprehensive plan to gain
control of the entire northwest Pacific Coast. Seward was a firm believer in Manifest Destiny, primarily for its
commercial advantages to the U.S. Seward expected British Columbia to seek annexation to the U.S. and thought
Britain might accept this in exchange for the Alabama claims. Soon other elements endorsed annexation, Their goal
was to annex British Columbia, Red River Colony (Manitoba), and Nova Scotia, in exchange for the dropping the
damage claims. The idea reached a peak in the spring and summer of 1870, with American expansionists, Canadian
separatists, and British anti-imperialists seemingly combining forces. The plan was dropped for multiple reasons.
London continued to stall, American commercial and financial groups pressed Washington for a quick settlement of
the dispute on a cash basis, growing Canadian nationalist sentiment in British Columbia called for staying inside the
British Empire, Congress became preoccupied with Reconstruction, and most Americans showed little interest in
territorial expansion.
Treaty of Washington
In 1871, President Grant's appointed Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, worked out an agreement with British
representative Sir John Rose in Washington to create a commission consisting of six members from the British
Empire and six members from the United States to resolve the Alabama claims, refinancing, and other international
disputes between Canada and the United States by treaty.
On March 8, 1871 the Treaty of Washington was signed
at the State Department and the United States Senate ratified the treaty on May 24, 1871.
According to the treaty,
an international arbitration tribunal met in Geneva. The treaty included the settlement process for the Alabama
Claims, settled disputed Atlantic fisheries and the San Juan Boundary (concerning the Oregon boundary line).
Britain and the United States became perpetual allies after the treaty, with Britain having expressed regret over the
Alabama damages.
Alabama Claims
The tribunal
The tribunal was composed of representatives:
• Britain: Sir Alexander Cockburn
• U.S.: Charles Francis Adams with William Maxwell Evarts serving as counsel
• Italy: Federico Sclopis
• Switzerland: Jakob Stämpfli
• Brazil: Marcos Antônio de Araújo, 2nd Baron of Itajubá.
Negotiations had taken place in Suitland, businessman Samuel Taylor Suit's estate, and the tribunal session took
place in a reception room of the Town Hall in Geneva. This is now named salle de l'Alabama.
The final award of $15,500,000 formed part of the Treaty of Washington and was paid out in 1872.
This established the principle of international arbitration, and launched a movement to codify public international
law with hopes for finding peaceful solutions to international disputes. The arbitration of the Alabama claims was
thus a precursor to the Hague Convention, the League of Nations, the World Court, and the United Nations.
[1] Kenneth M.. Startup, "'This Small Act of Courtesy:' Admiral Sir George Willes Watson, Trouble, Trials, and Turmoil in Bahama Waters,"
Journal of the Bahamas Historical Society, Oct 2009, Vol. 31, pp 57-62
[2] Doris W. Dashew, "The Story Of An Illusion: The Plan To Trade 'Alabama' Claims For Canada," Civil War History, Dec 1969, Vol. 15 Issue
4, pp 332-348
[3] David E. Shi, "Seward'S Attempt to Annex British Columbia, 1865-1869," Pacific Historical Review, May 1978, Vol. 47 Issue 2, pp 217-238
[4] Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. Rockefeller Center New York, New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. ISBN 0-684-84927-5.pp. 510,
[5] [5] Smith (2001), 512-514
[6] [6] Smith (2001), 512-515
[7] Evarts congressional biography mentioning case (http:// bioguide.congress. gov/ scripts/ biodisplay. pl?index=E000262)
[8] [8] Cook (1975)
• Adams, E. D. (1924). Great Britain and the American Civil War. New York: Russell & Russell. (see external
• The Alabama Arbitration. Philadelphia: Allen, Lane & Scott. 1900.
• Beaman, C. C. (1871). The National and Private Alabama Claims and their Final and Amicable Settlement.
Washington: W. H. Moore., reprinted in the Michigan Historical Reprint Series, ISBN 1-4181-2980-1
• Bingham, T. (2005). "The Alabama Claims Arbitration". International and Comparative Law Quarterly 50: 1.,
reprinted in Bingham, T. (2011). Lives of the Law: Selected Essays and Speeches 2000-2010. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. pp. 13-40. ISBN 978-0-19-969730-4.
• Bowen, C. S. C. (1868). The Alabama Claims and Arbitration Considered from a Legal Point of View. London.
• Cook, A. (1975). The Alabama Claims. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press., the standard scholarly history
• deKay, T. (2003). The Rebel Raiders: The Warship "Alabama", British Treachery and the American Civil War.
London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6490-4.
Alabama Claims
Further reading
• "The United States," The Times, 23 September 1873, 8d.
External links
• Geneva Arbitration (http:/ / www. econlib.org/library/YPDBooks/ Lalor/llCy497. html), from the Cyclopaedia
of Political Science
• Cartoons from Harper's Weekly:
• "John Bull’s Neutrality" (http:/ / www. harpweek.com/ 09Cartoon/ BrowseByDateCartoon.
asp?Month=November& Date=1), 1 November, 1862
• "King Andy" (http:/ / www. harpweek.com/ 09Cartoon/ BrowseByDateCartoon. asp?Month=November&
Date=3), 3 November 1866. Note that the medallion worn by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles is engraved
with the number "290", the original dockyard numbder for the Alabama.
• "The Apple of Discord at the Geneva Convention" (http:// www.harpweek. com/ 09Cartoon/
BrowseByDateCartoon. asp?Month=October& Date=5), 5 October 1872
• "Columbia Lays Aside her Laurels" (http:// www.harpweek.com/ 09Cartoon/ BrowseByDateCartoon.
asp?Month=November& Date=30), 9 November 1872. Note that the "laurels" laid aside are those won at the
Geneva arbitration.
• Great Britain and the American Civil War (http:/ / www. gutenberg.org/catalog/ world/mirror-redirect?file=1/
3/ 7/ 8/ 13789/ 13789-h/13789-h.htm) Op. cit. at Project Gutenberg
• La salle de l'Alabama in the Hotel de Ville, Geneva (http:/ / www.geneve. ch/ chancellerie/salles/ alabama. asp)
• Edwin H. Abbott Papers, W.S. Hoole Special Collections Library, University of Alabama (http:// acumen. lib.ua.
edu/ u0003_0000001/ )
Alabama in the American Civil War
Alabama in the American Civil War
The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding
from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. It provided a significant source of troops and leaders,
military material, supplies, food, and, early on, cotton to be exchanged in England for munitions (until the port of
Mobile was closed off by the U.S. Navy).
Alabama joins the war effort
Antebellum Governor Andrew B. Moore energetically supported the Confederate war effort. Even before hostilities
began in April 1861, he seized Federal facilities, sent agents to buy rifles in the Northeast, and scoured the state for
weapons. Despite some resistance in the northern part of the state, Alabama joined the Confederate States of
America. Congressman Williamson R. W. Cobb, a Unionist, pleaded for compromise. He ran for the First
Confederate Congress, but was soundly defeated (he was subsequently elected in 1863 on a wave of anti-war
sentiment, with war weariness growing in Alabama). The new nation brushed Cobb aside and set up its temporary
capital in Montgomery and selected Jefferson Davis as president. In May the Confederate government abandoned
Montgomery before the sickly season began and relocated in Richmond once Virginia seceded.
Some idea of the severe internal logistics problems the Confederacy faced can be seen by tracing Davis's journey
from Mississippi, the next state over. From his plantation on the river, he took a steamboat down the Mississippi to
Vicksburg, boarded a train to Jackson, where he took another train north to Grand Junction, then a third train east to
Chattanooga, Tennessee, and a fourth train to Atlanta, Georgia. Yet another train took Davis to the Alabama border,
where a final train took him to Montgomery. As the war proceeded the Federals seized the Mississippi River, burned
trestles and railroad bridges, and tore up track; the frail Confederate railroad system faltered and virtually collapsed
for want of repairs and replacement parts.
Military endeavors
Alabama was not the scene of any significant military operations, yet the state contributed about 120,000 men to the
Confederate service, practically all her white population capable of bearing arms. Most were recruited locally and
served with men they knew, which built esprit and strengthened ties to home. Medical conditions were severe; about
15% died of disease, and 10% from battle. Alabama had few well-equipped hospitals, but it had many women who
volunteered to nurse the sick and wounded. Soldiers were poorly equipped, especially after 1863, and often resorted
to pillaging the dead for boots, belts, canteens, blankets, hats, shirts and pants.
Uncounted thousands of slaves worked with Confederate troops; they took care of horses and equipment, cooked and
did laundry, hauled supplies, and helped in field hospitals. Other slaves built defensive installations, especially those
around Mobile. They graded roads, repaired railroads, drove supply wagons, and labored in iron mines, iron
foundries and even in the munitions factories. The service of slaves was involuntary, their unpaid labor was
impressed from their unpaid masters. About 10,000 slaves escaped and joined the Union army, along with 2,700
white men who had remained loyal to the Federal government.
Thirty-nine Alabamians attained the rank of general or admiral, most notably Lieutenant General James Longstreet
and Admiral Raphael Semmes. Josiah Gorgas, who came to Alabama from Pennsylvania, was the Chief of Ordnance
for the Confederacy. He located new munitions plants in Selma that employed 10,000 workers until Union raiders in
1865 burned down the factories. The Selma Arsenal made most of the Confederacy's ammunition. The Selma Naval
Ordnance Works manufactured artillery, turning out a cannon every five days. The Confederate Naval Yard built
ships and was noted for launching the CSS Tennessee in 1863 to defend Mobile Bay. Selma's Confederate Nitre
Works procured niter for gunpowder from limestone caves. When supplies were low, it advertised for housewives to
save the contents of their chamber pots—urine was a rich source of organic nitrogen.
Alabama in the American Civil War
Alabama soldiers fought in hundreds of battles. The state's losses at Gettysburg were 1,750 dead plus even more
captured or wounded—the famed "Alabama Brigade" took 781 casualties. In 1863 Federal forces secured a foothold
in northern Alabama in spite of spirited opposition from Confederate cavalry under General Nathan B. Forrest.
Mobile Bay
From 1861 the Union blockade shut Mobile Bay, and in 1864 the outer defenses of Mobile were taken by a Federal
fleet during the Battle of Mobile Bay. On April 12, 1865, three days after the surrender of Robert E. Lee at
Appomattox Courthouse, the city of Mobile surrendered to the Union army to avoid destruction following the Union
victories at the Battle of Spanish Fort and the Battle of Fort Blakely. The Magee Farm, north of Mobile, was the site
of preliminary arrangements for the surrender of the last Confederate States Army east of the Mississippi River.
Confederate General Richard Taylor negotiated a ceasefire with Union General Edward Canby at the house on April
29, 1865. Taylor's forces, comprising 47,000 Confederate troops serving in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana,
were the last remaining Confederate force east of the Mississippi River.
Union occupation of northern Alabama
See also: History of the University of North Alabama#The Civil War.
After the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers were taken, Union forces temporarily occupied Northern Alabama until
the fall of Nashville allowed permanent occupation of counties north and west of the Tennessee River, while the
Union blockade applied pressure in the southern part of the state.
Unionists in northern Alabama
On the one hand, with Union troops present, Southern Unionists were finally able to come out of hiding, join the
Union Army if desired, and care for their families, who were now protected from Confederate partisans. On the other
hand, Union troops doubled the amount of regional foraging compared to the Confederates. Federal foragers in
Northern Alabama were, for the most part, an adventurous group that were aided by loyal Unionists, and they took
all they needed for their vast forces, often raiding farms and homes previously struck by the Confederates.
Before the arrival of Federal troops, local Unionist resistance networks were based on underground cells that aided
pro-Union Loyalists by means of finances, contacts, supplies, and much needed local intelligence. Recruits from
Alabama who had joined Union regiments used their familiarity with the social network and physical geography of
the homefront to locate, rescue, and recruit beleaguered Unionists still behind Confederate lines.
Loyalists were given assurance of safety and a job if they were to give the U.S. forces supplies, information,
contacts, and money. Some Loyalists were drafted, and some were volunteers. White Unionists used the army as a
tool to defeat the forces threatening to destroy the old Union, and their families and neighborhoods along with it. The
most well known unit composed entirely of Alabama Unionists was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment (Union).
Union partisans were motivated by a sense of duty and obligation to the Union cause and a need to protect their
family and Unionist friends. They were also motivated by a desire for vengeance for all the wrongs they had suffered
at Confederate hands throughout the war. Unionist guerrilla bands were typically fairly compact, numbering between
twenty and a hundred men. They were independently organized, but were loosely associated and actively supported
by occupying Union forces. Their missions included acting as spies, guides, scouts, recruiters behind enemy lines,
and anti-guerrilla fighters to protect Union forces and infrastructure.
Alabama in the American Civil War
The women of the Alabama Unionists who joined the Federal military helped with long distance communication
networks, and they were able to move freely from town to town because of their gender. When these women lost
their husbands, it was often a struggle to survive, and they were completely ostracized by the pro-Southern society.
"Regardless of the Union's ambivalence toward slaves and slavery, black men and women in Alabama" saw the
Union occupation as the surest path to freedom.
With regard to Union foraging and the practicing of hard war,
while some slaves and free blacks "viewed the loss of goods as negligible in light of the security and opportunities.
Federal occupation brought them," for many, "loss of even small property meant increased vulnerability to whatever
white people won the war."
Confederate partisans
Many of the Confederate guerrillas in northern Alabama were detached cavalry units that were used to great
advantage in protecting the home front, as opposed to serving in the main army. The primary mission of the
Confederate guerrillas was to attempt to keep intact the Confederate social and political order. They assisted the war
effort in their own backyards by hunting down and arresting Unionists, conscripts, and deserters. In addition, they
terrorized Unionists by destroying their property and threatening their families.
Confederate guerillas were made up of four types of fighters–the first half of these were under Confederate
supervision, being either detached cavalry or enlisted men fighting close to home. The other units either fought
disguised as noncombatants or were simply outlaws looking for blood-letting opportunities. These men were not
under Confederate control and were as interested in profit as helping the Southern cause.
Unionists in southern Alabama
Not all Union partisans were confined to the Union-occupied areas of Alabama. In the southeast Alabama counties
of Dale, Coffee and Henry (which included present-day Houston County and Geneva County, as well), for instance,
guerrillas led by local Unionist John Ward operated virtually at will during the last two years of the war, finding
refuge in the vast pine forests that covered this region.
These renegades sometimes worked with regular Union
forces based in Pensacola, Florida, and their depredations led several leading citizens of these counties to petition the
governor, T.H. Watts, for military assistance against them.
Local citizens, such as Methodist minister Bill Sketoe
of Newton, were even hanged by Home Guard elements for alleged acts of collaboration with these guerrillas.
Battles in Alabama
•• Battle of Athens
•• Battle of Day's Gap
•• Battle of Decatur
•• Battle of Fort Blakely
•• Battle of Mobile Bay
•• Battle of Newton
•• Battle of Selma
•• Battle of Spanish Fort
Alabama in the American Civil War
Alabama soldiers fought in hundreds of battles; the state's losses at Gettysburg were 1,750 dead plus even more
captured or wounded; the famed "Alabama Brigade" took 781 casualties. Governor Lewis E. Parsons in July 1861
made a preliminary estimate of losses. Nealy all the white men served, some 122,000 he said, of whom 35,000 died
in the war and another 30,000 were seriously disabled. The next year Governor Robert M. Patton estimated that
20,000 veterans had returned home permanently disabled, and there were 20,000 widows and 60,000 orphans. With
cotton prices low, the value of farms shrank, from $176 in 1860 million to only $64 million in 1870. The livestock
supply shrank too, as the number of horses fell from 127,000 to 80,000, and mules 111,000 to 76.000. The overall
population remained the same--the growth that might have been expected neutralized by death and emigration.
Congressional delegations
Deputies from the first seven states to secede formed the first two sessions of the 1861 Provisional Confederate
Congress. Alabama sent William Parish Chilton, Sr., Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, Thomas Fearn (resigned March
16, 1861, after first session; replaced by Nicholas Davis, Jr.), Stephen Fowler Hale, David Peter Lewis (resigned
March 16, 1861, after first session; replaced by Henry Cox Jones), Colin John McRae, John Gill Shorter (resigned
November 1861; replaced by Cornelius Robinson), Robert Hardy Smith, and Richard Wilde Walker.
The bicameral First Confederate Congress (1862–64) included two senators from Alabama—Clement Claiborne
Clay and William Lowndes Yancey (died July 23, 1863; replaced by Robert Jemison, Jr.). Representing Alabama in
the House of Representatives were Thomas Jefferson Foster, William Russell Smith, John Perkins Ralls, Jabez
Lamar Monroe Curry, Francis Strother Lyon, William Parish Chilton, Sr., David Clopton, James Lawrence Pugh,
Edmund Strother Dargan
Alabama's two senators in the Second Confederate Congress (1864–65) were Robert Jemison, Jr., and Richard Wilde
Walker. Representatives were Thomas Jefferson Foster, William Russell Smith, Marcus Henderson Cruikshank,
Francis Strother Lyon, William Parish Chilton, Sr., David Clopton, James L. Pugh, and James Shelton Dickinson.
Congress refused to seat Representative-elect W. R. W. Cobb because he was an avowed Unionist; therefore his
district was not represented.
• Fleming, Walter Lynwood. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (1905) online edition
• Storey, Margaret M., Loyalty and Loss: Alabama's Unionists in the Civil War and Reconstruction. Baton Rouge:
Louisiana State University Press, 2004.
[1] "Places in Peril" (http:/ / preserveala.org/ pdfs/ NEWSLETTER/JULY-AUG 2010 WEB.pdf). Preservation Report (Alabama Historical
Commission) 37 (5): 8. July–August 2010. . Retrieved 3 July 2010.
[2] [2] Storey, page 113.
[3] [3] Storey, pages 129-30.
[4] See Early History of S.E. AL (http:/ / www. usgennet. org/usa/ al/ county/ barbour/SEAlhistory.htm), for a description of Ward, his unit and
some of their activities. Retrieved on 2010-05-18.
[5] Letter to Alabama Governor T.H. Watts (http:// www. usgennet. org/usa/ ga/ topic/ news/ Alabama/ alabamaletters. htm), written by citizens
of Henry County, concerning "the bands of deserters, tories and outlaws" working in Henry and Dale Counties. Retrieved on 2010-05-18.
[6] Breare, Joseph R. (http:/ / www. flemingmultimedia. com/ 15thAlaCoE/ BrearJoseph. html). Retrieved on 2009-05-02. See also Deserter
Hanging in Dale County (http:/ / history-sites.com/ cgi-bin/ bbs53x/ alcwmb2/ webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=30570). Retrieved on
2009-05-05. See also The Hole That Will Not Stay Filled (http://www. exploresouthernhistory.com/ sketoe. html). Retrieved on 2009-05-05.
[7] Walter Lynwood Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (1905) pp 251-4 online edition (http:// books. google. com/
[8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=k59scrAh_LQC
Alabama in the American Civil War
External links
• National Park Service map of Civil War Sites in Alabama (http:// www.cr.nps. gov/ hps/ abpp/battles/ ALmap.
• National Park Service Civil War Soldiers and Sailors website (http:// www. itd. nps. gov/ )
Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston
photo between 1860 and 1862
Born February 2, 1803
Washington, Kentucky
Died April 6, 1862 (aged 59)
Hardin County, Tennessee
Allegiance United States of America
Republic of Texas
Confederate States of America
Years of service 1826–1834; 1846; 1849–1861
1836–1840 (Texas)
1861–1862 (CSA)
Rank Brevet Brigadier General (USA)
Brigadier General (Texas)
General (CSA)
Commands held Department of the Pacific (USA)
Army of the Mississippi (CSA)
Battles/wars Black Hawk War
Texas Revolution
Mexican-American War
•• Battle of Monterrey
•• Battle of Buena Vista
Utah War
American Civil War
• Battle of Shiloh†
Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) served as a general in three different armies: the Texas
Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army. He saw extensive combat during his military
Albert Sidney Johnston
career, fighting actions in the Texas War of Independence, the Mexican-American War, the Utah War, and the
American Civil War.
Considered by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to be the finest (and the second-highest ranking) general
officer in the Confederacy before the emergence of Robert E. Lee, he was killed early in the Civil War at the Battle
of Shiloh and was the highest-ranking officer, Union or Confederate, killed during the entire war.
Davis believed
the loss of Johnston "was the turning point of our fate".
Early life
Johnston was born in Washington, Kentucky, the youngest son of Dr. John and Abigail Harris Johnston. His father
was a native of Salisbury, Connecticut. Although Albert Johnston was born in Kentucky, he lived much of his life in
Texas, which he considered his home. He was first educated at Transylvania University in Lexington, where he met
fellow student Jefferson Davis. Both were appointed to the United States Military Academy, Davis two years behind
In 1826 Johnston graduated eighth of 41 cadets in his class from West Point with a commission as a
brevet second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Infantry.
Johnston was assigned to posts in New York and Missouri and served in the Black Hawk War in 1832 as chief of
staff to Bvt. Brig. Gen. Henry Atkinson. In 1829 he married Henrietta Preston, sister of Kentucky politician and
future civil war general William Preston. He resigned his commission in 1834 to return to Kentucky to care for his
dying wife, who succumbed two years later to tuberculosis.
They had one son, Col. William Preston Johnston,
who would also serve in the Confederate Army.
Texas Army
In April 1834, Johnston took up farming in Texas and enlisted as a private in the Texas Army during the Texas War
of Independence against the Republic of Mexico in 1836. One month later, Johnston was promoted to major and the
position of aide-de-camp to General Sam Houston. He was named Adjutant General as a colonel in the Republic of
Texas Army on August 5, 1836. On January 31, 1837, he became senior brigadier general in command of the Texas
On February 7, 1837, he fought in a duel with Texas Brig. Gen. Felix Huston, challenging each other for the
command of the Texas Army; Johnston refused to fire on Huston and lost the position after he was wounded in the
pelvis. The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, appointed him Secretary of War on
December 22, 1838. Johnston was to provide the defense of the Texas border against Mexican invasion, and in 1839
conducted a campaign against Indians in northern Texas. In February 1840, he resigned and returned to Kentucky,
where he married Eliza Griffin in 1843. They settled on a large plantation he named China Grove in Brazoria
County, Texas.
Albert Sidney Johnston
U.S. Army
Albert S. Johnston
Johnston returned to the Texas Army during the Mexican-American
War under General Zachary Taylor as a colonel of the 1st Texas Rifle
Volunteers. The enlistments of his volunteers ran out just before the
Battle of Monterrey. Johnston managed to convince a few volunteers to
stay and fight as he himself served as the inspector general of
volunteers and fought at the battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista.
Johnston remained on his plantation after the war until he was
appointed by President Taylor to the U.S. Army as a major and was
made a paymaster in December 1849. He served in that role for more
than five years, making six tours, and traveling more than 4,000 miles
(6,400 km) annually on the Indian frontier of Texas. He served on the
Texas frontier at Fort Mason and elsewhere in the West. In 1855
President Franklin Pierce appointed him colonel of the new 2nd U.S.
Cavalry (the unit that preceded the modern 5th U.S.), a new regiment,
which he organized. As a key figure in the Utah War, he led U.S.
troops who established a non-Mormon government in the formerly
Mormon territory. He received a brevet promotion to brigadier general
in 1857 for his service in Utah. He spent 1860 in Kentucky until
December 21, when he sailed for California to take command of the
Department of the Pacific.
Civil War
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Johnston was the commander of the U.S. Army Department of the Pacific in
California. Like many regular army officers from the South he was opposed to secession, but resigned his
commission soon after he heard of the secession of his adopted state Texas. It was accepted by the War Department
on May 6, 1861, effective May 3.
On April 28 he moved to Los Angeles where he had family and remained there
until May when, suspected by local Union authorities, he evaded arrest and joined the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles
as a private, leaving Warner's Ranch May 27.
He participated in their trek across the southwestern deserts to
Texas, crossing the Colorado River into the Confederate Territory of Arizona on July 4, 1861.
Early in the Civil War, Confederate President Jefferson Davis decided that the Confederacy would attempt to hold as
much of its territory as possible and he distributed its military forces around its borders and coasts.
In the summer
of 1861, Davis appointed several generals to defend Confederate lines from the Mississippi River east to the
Allegheny Mountains.
The most sensitive, and in many ways the most crucial areas, along the Mississippi River
and in western Tennessee along the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River
were placed under the command
of Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, who had been initially in command in Tennessee as
that State's top general.
Their impolitic occupation of Columbus, Kentucky on September 3, 1861, two days
before Johnston arrived in the Confederacy's capital, Richmond, Virginia, after his cross–country journey, drove
Kentucky from its stated neutrality
and the majority of Kentuckians into the Union camp.
Their action gave
Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant an excuse to take control of the even more important and strategically located
town of Paducah, Kentucky without raising the ire of most Kentuckians and the pro-Union majority in the State
Albert Sidney Johnston
Confederate command in Western Theater
On September 10, 1861, Johnston was assigned to command the huge area of the Confederacy west of the Allegheny
Mountains, except for coastal areas.
He became commander of the Confederacy's western armies in the area
often called the Western Department or Western Military Department.
After his appointment, Johnston
immediately headed for his new territory.
He was permitted to call on governors of Arkansas, Tennessee and
Mississippi for new troops, although this authority was largely stifled by politics, especially with respect to
On September 13, 1861, in view of the decision of the Kentucky legislature to side with the Union
after the occupation of Columbus by Polk, Johnston ordered Brig. Gen. Felix Zollicoffer with 4,000 men to occupy
Cumberland Gap in Kentucky in order to block Union troops from coming into eastern Tennessee.
By September
18, Johnston had Brig. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner with another 4,000 men blocking the railroad route to
Tennessee at Bowling Green, Kentucky.
Johnston had less than 40,000 men spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas and Missouri.
Of these,
10,000 were in Missouri under Missouri State Guard Maj. Gen. Sterling Price.
Johnston's initial call upon the
governors for more men did not result in many immediate recruits but Johnston had another, even bigger, problem
since his force was seriously short of arms and ammunition even for the troops he had.
As the Confederate
government concentrated efforts on the units in the East, they gave Johnston only small numbers of reinforcements
and minimal amounts of arms and material.
Johnston could only keep up his defense by raids and other measures
to make it appear he had larger forces than he did, a strategy that worked for several months.
Johnston's tactics
had so annoyed and confused Union Brig. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman that he became somewhat unnerved,
overestimated Johnston's forces, and had to be relieved by Brig. Gen. Don Carlos Buell on November 9,
Battle of Mill Springs
Eastern Tennessee was held for the Confederacy by two unimpressive brigadier generals appointed by Jefferson
Davis, Felix Zollicoffer, a brave but untrained and inexperienced officer, and soon to be Maj. Gen. George B.
Crittenden, a former U.S. Army officer with apparent alcohol problems.
While Crittenden was away in
Richmond, Zollicoffer moved his forces to the north bank of the upper Cumberland River near Mill Springs (now
Nancy, Kentucky), putting the river to his back and his forces into a trap.
Zollicoffer decided it was impossible
to obey orders to return to the other side of the river because of scarcity of transport and proximity of Union
When Union Brig. Gen. George H. Thomas moved against the Confederates, Crittenden decided to attack
one of the two parts of Thomas's command at Logan's Cross Roads near Mill Springs before the Union forces could
On January 19, 1862, the ill-prepared Confederates, after a night march in the rain, attacked the Union
force with some initial success.
As the battle progressed, Zollicoffer was killed, Crittenden was unable to lead the
Confederate force since he was probably intoxicated and the Confederates were turned back and routed by a Union
bayonet charge, suffering 533 casualties from their force of 4,000.
The Confederate troops who escaped were
assigned to other units as Crittenden faced an investigation of his conduct.
After this Confederate defeat at the Battle of Mill Springs, Davis sent Johnston a brigade and a few other scattered
reinforcements, and he sent Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, who was supposed to attract recruits because of his victories
early in the war and give Johnston a competent subordinate.
The brigade, however, came with the incompetent
Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, who was to take command at Fort Donelson as the senior general present just before Brig.
Gen. Grant attacked the fort.
Beauregard's move to the west contributed to the movement of the Union
commanders into action against the forts so they could act before, in their view, Beauregard could make a difference
in the theater.
They had heard that he was bringing 15 regiments with him, but this actually was not true.
Albert Sidney Johnston
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Nashville
Based on the assumption that Kentucky neutrality would act as a shield against a direct invasion from the north,
Tennessee initially had sent men to Virginia and concentrated defenses in the Mississippi Valley, circumstances that
no longer applied in September 1861.
Even before Johnston arrived in Tennessee, two forts had been started to
defend the Tennessee River and the Cumberland River which provided avenues into the State from the north.
Both had been sited in Tennessee, however, in order to respect Kentucky neutrality and were not in ideal
Fort Henry on the Tennessee River was in an especially unfavorable low–lying location
commanded by hills on the Kentucky side of the river.
Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, although in a
better location, also was not well–sited, had a vulnerable land side and did not have enough heavy artillery for its
defense against gunboats.
Maj. Gen. Polk ignored the problems of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson when he took command and, after Johnston
took command, at first refused to comply with Johnston's order to send an engineer, Lt. Joseph K. Dixon, to inspect
the forts.
After Johnston asserted his authority, Polk ultimately had to allow Dixon to proceed. Dixon
recommended that the forts be maintained and strengthened, even though they were not in ideal locations, because
much work had been done on them and the Confederates might not have time to build new ones. Johnston accepted
the recommendations.
Johnston wanted Major, later Lt. Gen., Alexander P. Stewart to command the forts but
President Davis appointed Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman as commander.
Then, in order to prevent Polk from
dissipating his forces by implementing his proposal to allow some men to join a partisan group, Johnston ordered
him to send Brig. Gen. Gideon Pillow and 5,000 men to Fort Donelson.
Pillow took up a position at nearby
Clarksville, Tennessee and did not move into the fort itself until February 7, 1862.
Alerted by a Union
reconnaissance on January 14, 1862, Johnston ordered Tilghman to fortify the high ground opposite Fort Henry,
which Polk had failed to do despite Johnston's orders.
Tilghman also failed to act decisively on these orders,
which in any event were now too late to be adequately carried out.
Gen. Beauregard arrived at Johnston's headquarters at Bowling Green on February 4, 1862 and was given overall
command of Polk's force at the western end of Johnston's line at Columbus, Kentucky.
On February 6, 1862,
Union Navy gunboats quickly reduced the defenses of ill-sited Fort Henry, inflicting 21 casualties on the small
remaining Confederate force.
Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman surrendered the 94 remaining officers and men of
his approximately 3,000-man force which had not been sent to Fort Donelson before U.S. Grant's force could even
take up their positions.
Johnston knew he could be trapped at Bowling Green if Fort Donelson fell, so he
moved his force to Nashville, the capital of Tennessee and an increasingly important Confederate industrial center,
beginning on February 11, 1862.
Johnston also reinforced Fort Donelson with 12,000 more men, including those under Floyd and Pillow, a curious
decision in view of his thought that the Union gunboats alone might be able to take the fort.
He did order the
commanders of the fort to evacuate the troops if the fort could not be held.
The senior generals sent to the fort to
command the enlarged garrison, Gideon J. Pillow and John B. Floyd, squandered their chance to avoid having to
surrender most of the garrison
and on February 16, 1862, Brig. Gen. Simon Buckner, having been abandoned by
and Pillow, surrendered Fort Donelson.
Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest escaped with his cavalry force
of about 700 men before the surrender.
The Confederates suffered about 1,500 casualties with an estimated
12,000 to 14,000 taken prisoner.
Union casualties were 500 killed, 2,108 wounded, 224 missing.
Johnston, who had little choice in allowing Floyd and Pillow to take charge at Fort Donelson on the basis of seniority
after he ordered them to add their forces to the garrison, took the blame and suffered calls for his removal because a
full explanation to the press and public would have exposed the weakness of the Confederate position.
passive defensive performance while positioning himself in a forward position at Bowling Green, spreading his
forces too thinly, not concentrating his forces in the face of Union advances, and appointing or relying upon
inadequate or incompetent subordinates subjected him to criticism at the time and by later historians.
fall of the forts exposed Nashville to imminent attack, and it fell without resistance to Union forces under Brig. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston
Buell on February 25, 1862, two days after Johnston had to pull his forces out in order to avoid having them captured
as well.
Concentration at Corinth
Johnston had various remaining military units scattered throughout his territory and retreating to the south to avoid
being cut off.
Johnston himself retreated with the force under his personal command, the Army of Central
Kentucky, from the vicinity of Nashville.
With Beauregard's help,
Johnston decided to concentrate forces with
those formerly under Polk and now already under Beauregard's command at the strategically located railroad
crossroads of Corinth, Mississippi, which he reached by a circuitous route.
Johnston kept the Union forces, now
under the overall command of the ponderous Maj. Gen. Henry Halleck, confused and hesitant to move, allowing
Johnston to reach his objective undetected.
This delay allowed Jefferson Davis finally to send reinforcements
from the garrisons of coastal cities and another highly rated but prickly general, Braxton Bragg, to help organize the
western forces.
Bragg at least calmed the nerves of Beauregard and Polk who had become agitated by their
apparent dire situation in the face of numerically superior forces before the arrival of Johnston on March 24,
Johnston's army of 17,000 men gave the Confederates a combined force of about 40,000 to 44,669 men at
On March 29, 1862, Johnston officially took command of this combined force, which continued
to use the Army of the Mississippi name under which it had been organized by Beauregard on March 5.
Johnston now planned to defeat the Union forces piecemeal before the various Union units in Kentucky and
Tennessee under Grant with 40,000 men at nearby Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, and the now Maj. Gen. Don Carlos
Buell on his way from Nashville with 35,000 men, could unite against him.
Johnston started his army in motion
on April 3, 1862, intent on surprising Grant's force as soon as the next day, but they moved slowly due to their
inexperience, bad roads and lack of adequate staff planning.
Johnston's army was finally in position within a
mile or two of Grant's force, and undetected, by the evening of April 5, 1862.
Battle of Shiloh and death
Monument to Johnston at Shiloh National
Military Park.
Johnston launched a massive surprise attack with his concentrated
forces against Grant at the Battle of Shiloh on April 6, 1862. As the
Confederate forces overran the Union camps, Johnston seemed to be
everywhere, personally leading and rallying troops up and down the
line on his horse. At about 2:30 p.m., while leading one of those
charges against a Union camp near the "Peach Orchard", he was
wounded, taking a bullet behind his right knee. He apparently did not
think the wound was serious at the time, and so he sent his personal
physician to attend to some wounded captured Union soldiers instead.
It is possible that Johnston's duel in 1837 had caused nerve damage or
numbness to his right leg and that he did not feel the wound to his leg
as a result. The bullet had in fact clipped a part of his popliteal artery and his boot was filling up with blood. Within
a few minutes, Johnston was observed by his staff to be nearly fainting off his horse. Among his staff was Isham G.
Harris, the Governor of Tennessee, who had ceased to make any real effort to function as governor after learning that
Abraham Lincoln had appointed Andrew Johnson as military governor of Tennessee. Seeing Johnston slumping in
his saddle and his face turning deathly pale, Harris asked: "General, are you wounded?" Johnston glanced down at
his leg wound, then faced Harris and replied with his last words: "Yes, and I fear seriously." Harris and other staff
officers removed Johnston from his horse and carried him to a small ravine near the "Hornets Nest" and desperately
Albert Sidney Johnston
tried to aid the general by trying to make a tourniquet for his leg wound, but little could be done by this point since
he had already lost so much blood. He soon lost consciousness and bled to death a few minutes later. Harris and the
other officers wrapped General Johnston's body in a blanket so as not to damage the troops' morale with the sight of
the dead general. Johnston and his wounded horse, named Fire Eater, were taken to his field headquarters on the
Corinth road, where his body remained in his tent until the Confederate Army withdrew to Corinth the next day,
April 7, 1862. From there, his body was taken to the home of Colonel William Inge, which had been his
headquarters in Corinth. It was covered in the Confederate flag and laid in state for several hours.
It is probable that a Confederate soldier fired the fatal round. No Union soldiers were observed to have ever gotten
behind Johnston during the fatal charge, while it is known that many Confederates were firing at the Union lines
while Johnston charged well in advance of his soldiers.
Johnston was the highest-ranking casualty of the war on either side,
and his death was a strong blow to the morale
of the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis considered him the best general in the country; this was two months before the
emergence of Robert E. Lee as the pre-eminent general of the Confederacy.
Johnston's tomb in the Texas State Cemetery in Austin,
Johnston was initially buried in New Orleans. In 1866, a joint
resolution of the Texas Legislature was passed to have his body
reinterred to the Texas State Cemetery in Austin The re-interment
occurred in 1867. Forty years later, the state appointed Elisabet
Ney to design a monument and sculpture of him to be erected at
his gravesite.
The Texas Historical Commission has erected a historical marker
near the entrance of what was once his plantation. An adjacent
marker was erected by the San Jacinto Chapter of the Daughters of
The Republic of Texas and the Lee, Roberts, and Davis Chapter of
the United Daughters of the Confederate States of America.
The University of Texas at Austin has also recognized Johnston
with a statue on the South Mall.
[1] [1] Eicher, p. 322.
[2] [2] Dupuy, p. 378.
[3] [3] Woodworth, p. 46.
[4] W.P. Johnston biography. (http:/ / www. csawardept. com/ history/ Cabinet/
WPJohnston/ index.html)
[5] [5] Johnston, p. 273.
[6] [6] Johnston, pp. 268, 275-91.
[7] Woodworth, pp. 18–19.
[8] Woodworth, pp. 17–33.
[9] Woodworth, pp. 20–22
[10] Woodworth, pp. 30–32.
[11] [11] Woodworth, pp. 35, 45.
[12] [12] Long, p. 114.
[13] [13] Woodworth, pp. 39, 50.
[14] [14] Woodworth, p. 39.
[15] [15] Long, p. 115.
[16] [16] Woodworth, p. 51.
[17] [17] Long, p. 116.
Albert Sidney Johnston
[18] Johnston's appointment as a full general by his friend and admirer Jefferson Davis already had been confirmed by the Confederate Senate on
August 31, 1861. The appointment had been backdated to rank from May 30, 1861, making him the second highest ranking general in the
Confederate States Army. Only Adjutant General and Inspector General Samuel Cooper ranked ahead of him. Eicher, Civil War High
Commands. p. 807. From General Command Line List. Weigley, p. 110. McPherson, p. 394.
[19] [19] Woodworth, p. 52.
[20] [20] Long, p. 119.
[21] [21] Woodworth, p. 53.
[22] [22] Woodworth, p. 55.
[23] Woodworth, pp. 55–56
[24] [24] Long, p. 138.
[25] [25] McPherson, p. 394 says Johnston had 70,000 troops to defend his territory between the Appalachians and the Ozarks by the end of 1861.
[26] [26] Woodworth, p. 61
[27] [27] Woodworth, p. 65.
[28] Long, pp. 161–162.
[29] [29] Woodworth, p. 66.
[30] Woodworth, pp. 66–67.
[31] [31] Woodworth, p. 67.
[32] [32] Long, p. 162.
[33] [33] Woodworth, p. 69.
[34] Woodworth, pp. 71–72.
[35] [35] Woodworth, pp. 80, 84.
[36] [36] Woodworth, pp. 72, 78.
[37] [37] Woodworth, p. 54.
[38] Eicher, The Longest Night. pp. 111–113.
[39] [39] Woodworth, p. 56.
[40] [40] Long, p. 142
[41] [41] Weigley, p. 108
[42] [42] McPherson, p. 393.
[43] [43] Woodworth, p. 57.
[44] [44] Woodworth, p. 58.
[45] Long, pp. 167–168.
[46] Eicher, The Longest Night, p. 171 says the garrison at Fort Donelson numbered 1,956 men before the Fort Henry garrison and the men under
Floyd and Pillow joined them in early February 1862.
[47] [47] Woodworth, p. 71.
[48] [48] McPherson, p. 396.
[49] [49] A Confederate battery and the beginning of some fortifications were sited across the river at Fort Heiman but these were of little value when
the Union flotilla appeared.
[50] [50] Woodworth, p. 78.
[51] [51] After some preliminary work with Johnston, Beauregard assumed command of this force, which he named the Army of the Mississippi, on
March 5, 1862 while at Jackson, Tennessee. Like the other Confederate commander, he had to withdraw to the south after the fall of the forts
or be surrounded by the advancing Union forces. Long, p. 178.
[52] Woodworth, pp. 78–79.
[53] [53] Long, p. 167.
[54] Long, pp. 166–167
[55] [55] Weigley, p. 109.
[56] [56] Woodworth, p. 79.
[57] Loing, pp. 169–170.
[58] [58] Woodworth, p. 80.
[59] McPherson, pp. 400–401.
[60] [60] Floyd was able to ferry his four Virginia regiments out of the fort with him but left his Mississippi regiment behind to surrender with the rest
of the garrison. Pillow escaped only with his chief of staff. Woodworth, p. 83. Long, p. 171.
[61] Woodworth, pp. 82–84.
[62] [62] Woodworth, p. 84.
[63] McPherson, pp. 401–402.
[64] [64] This included about 200 men not in Forrest's immediate command. Weigley, p. 111
[65] [65] Long, p. 172.
[66] [66] Weigley, p. 111.
[67] Woodworth, pp. 84–85.
[68] [68] Weigley, p. 112.
Albert Sidney Johnston
[69] McPherson, pp. 405–406.
[70] [70] Davis defended Johnston, saying: "If Sidney Johnston is not a general, we had better give up the war, for we have no general." McPherson,
p. 495.
[71] [71] Woodworth, p. 86.
[72] [72] Long, p. 175.
[73] [73] McPherson, p. 402.
[74] Woodworth, pp. 85–86.
[75] [75] McPherson, p. 406.
[76] Woodworth, pp. 86–88.
[77] [77] Woodworth, p. 88.
[78] [78] Woodworth, pp. 90, 94.
[79] [79] Woodworth, p. 95.
[80] [80] Long, p. 188.
[81] [81] McPherson,p. 406.
[82] Eicher, The Longest Night, p. 223.
[83] [83] Long, 190.
[84] Eicher, Civil War High Commands p. 887 and Eicher, The Longest Night p. 219 are nearly alone in referring to this army as the Army of
Mississippi. Muir, p. 85, in discussing the first "Army of Mississippi" includes this army as one of three in the article with that title but states:
"Historians have pointed out that the Army of Mississippi is frequently mentioned in the Official Records as the Army of the Mississippi."
Contemporaries, including Johnston and Beauregard, and modern historians call this Confederate army the Army of the Mississippi. 'The war
of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies.' (http:// ebooks. library.cornell.edu/ cgi/ t/text/
pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;q1=Army of the Mississippi;rgn=full text;idno=waro0010;didno=waro0010;view=image;seq=0114),
Volume X, Part 1, index, pp. 96–99; 385 (Beauregard's report on the Battle of Shiloh, April 11, 1862, from Headquarters, Army of the
Mississippi) and Part 2, p. 297 (Beauregard's announcement on taking command of Army of the Mississippi); p. 370 (Johnston General Orders
of March 29, 1862 assuming command and announcing the army would retain the name Army of the Mississippi); pp. 405-409. Beauregard, p.
579. Boritt, p. 53. Connelly, Army of the Heartland: The Army of Tennessee, 1861-1862. p. 151. ("The Army retained Beauregard's chosen
name...") Connelly, Civil War Tennessee: Battles And Leaders. p. 35. Cunningham, pp. 98, 122, 397. Engle, p. 123. Hattaway, p. 163. Hess,
pp. 47, 49, 112 ("...Braxton Bragg's renamed Army of Tennessee (formerly the Army of the Mississippi)..."). Isbell, p. 102. McDonough, pp.
60, 66, 78. Kennedy, p. 48. Noe, p. 19. Williams, p. 122.
[85] Woodworth, pp. 96–97.
[86] [86] Long, p. 192
[87] [87] Woodworth, p. 97.
[88] Long, pp. 193–194.
[89] [89] Weigley, p. 113.
[90] McPherson, pp. 406–407.
[91] [91] Johnston did not achieve total surprise as some Union pickets were alerted to the Confederate presence and provided warning to some Union
units before the attack began.
[92] [92] Sword, pp. 270-73, 443-46; Cunningham, pp. 273-76; Smith, pp. 26-34. Sword offers evidence that Johnston lived as long as an hour after
receiving his fatal wound.
[93] [93] Sword, p. 444.
[94] [94] Johnston is the only four-star (full) American general ever killed in battle. Muir, p. 84.
• Beauregard, G. T. The Campaign of Shiloh. p. 579. In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol. I, edited by
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• Boritt, Gabor S. Jefferson Davis's Generals. New York : Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN
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University Press, 1967. ISBN 0-8071-2737-X.
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Tennessee Historical Commission [by] University of Tennessee Press, 1979. ISBN 978-0-87049-284-6.
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New York: Savas Beatie, 2007. ISBN 978-1-932714-27-2.
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York: HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 978-0-06-270015-5.
Albert Sidney Johnston
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ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
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United States, the republic of Texas, and the Confederate States (http:/ / books. google.com/
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Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
• Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville: This Grand Havoc of Battle. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2001. ISBN
• Smith, Derek. The Gallant Dead: Union & Confederate Generals Killed in the Civil War. Mechanicsburg, PA:
Stackpole Books, 2005. ISBN 0-8117-0132-8.
• Sword, Wiley. Shiloh: Bloody April. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992. ISBN 0-7006-0650-5. First
published 1974 by Morrow.
• Weigley, Russell F. A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865. Bloomington and
Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-253-33738-0.
• Williams, T. Harry. P.G.T. Beauregard: Napoleon in Gray. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1955.
ISBN 0-8071-1974-1.
• Woodworth, Steven E. Jefferson Davis and His Generals: The Failure of Confederate Command in the West.
Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990. ISBN 0-7006-0461-8.
Albert Sidney Johnston
Further reading
• Daniel, Larry J. Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. ISBN
• Gott, Kendall D. Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry—Fort Donelson Campaign,
February 1862. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8117-0049-6.
• Nofi, Albert A. The Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes,
Myths, and History. New York: Da Capo Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-306-81040-4. First published 1992 by
Combined Books.
• Roland, Charles Pierce. Albert Sidney Johnston: Soldier of Three Republics. Lexington: University Press of
Kentucky, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8131-9000-6. First published 1964 by University of Texas Press.
• Roland, Charles Pierce. Jefferson Davis's Greatest General: Albert Sidney Johnston. Abilene, TX: McWhiney
Foundation Press, 2000. ISBN 1-893114-20-1.
Alexander H. Stephens
Alexander H. Stephens
Alexander Stephens
Governor of Georgia
In office
November 4, 1882 – March 4, 1883
Preceded by Alfred Colquitt
Succeeded by James Boynton
Vice President of the Confederate States
In office
February 11, 1861 – May 11, 1865
Acting: February 11, 1861 – February 22, 1862
President Jefferson Davis
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 8th district
In office
December 1, 1873 – November 4, 1882
Preceded by John Jones
Succeeded by Seaborn Reese
In office
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1859
Preceded by Robert Toombs
Succeeded by John Jones
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1853
Preceded by Constituency established
Alexander H. Stephens
Succeeded by David Reese
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from 's At-large district
In office
October 2, 1843 – March 4, 1845
Preceded by Mark Cooper
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Personal details
Born February 11, 1812
Crawfordville, Georgia, U.S.
Died March 4, 1883 (aged 71)
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Political party Whig (Before 1851; 1853–1855)
Constitutional Union
Democratic (1855–1883)
Alma mater University of Georgia
Religion Presbyterianism
Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician from Georgia. He
was Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also served as a U.S.
Representative from Georgia (both before the Civil War and after Reconstruction) and as the 50th Governor of
Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.
Early life and career
Alexander H. Stephens was born on February 11, 1812.
His parents were Andrew Baskins Stephens and Margaret
Grier, who were married in 1807.
The Stephenses lived on a farm near present-day Crawfordville, Taliaferro County, Georgia. At the time of
Alexander Stephens's birth, the farm was part of Wilkes County. Taliaferro County was created in 1825 from land in
Greene, Hancock, Oglethorpe, Warren, and Wilkes counties.
His father, a native of Pennsylvania, came to Georgia at 12 years of age, in 1795. According to the Biographical
Sketch of Linton Stephens (Linton Stephens being Alexander Stephens's half-brother), Andrew B. Stephens was
"endowed with uncommon intellectual faculties; he had sound practical judgment; he was a safe counselor,
sagacious, self-reliant, candid and courageous."
His mother, a Georgia native and sister of Grier's Almanac founder Robert Grier,
died in 1812 at the age of 26;
Alexander Stephens was only three months old. In the introduction to Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens, there
is this about his mother and her family: "Margaret came of folk who had a liking for books, and a turn for law, war,
and meteorology."
The introduction continues: "In her son's character was a marked blending of parental traits. He
[Alexander Stephens] was thrifty, generous, progressive; one of the best lawyers in the land; a reader and collector of
books; a close observer of the weather, and father of the Weather Bureau of the United States."
In 1814, Andrew B. Stephens married Matilda Lindsay, daughter of Revolutionary War Colonel John Lindsay.
In 1826, when Alexander Stephens was 14 years old, his father, Andrew,
and stepmother, Matilda,
died only
days apart in May of that year. Their deaths caused him and several siblings to be scattered among relatives. He grew
Alexander H. Stephens
up poor and in difficult circumstances.
Not long after the deaths of his father and his stepmother, Alexander Stephens was sent to live with his mother's
other brother, General Aaron W. Grier, near Raytown (Taliaferro County), Georgia. General Grier had inherited his
own father's library, said to be "the largest library in all that part of the country."
Alexander Stephens, who read
voraciously even as a youth, mentions the library in his "Recollections."
Stephens as a young man
Frail but precocious, the young Stephens acquired his continued education
through the generosity of several benefactors. One of them was the Presbyterian
minister Alexander Hamilton Webster, who presided over a school in
Washington (Wilkes County), Georgia. Out of respect for his mentor, Stephens
adopted Webster's middle name, Hamilton, as his own. Stephens attended the
Franklin College (later the University of Georgia) in Athens, where he was
roommates with Crawford W. Long and a member of the Phi Kappa Literary
Society. He graduated at the top of his class in 1832.
After several unhappy years teaching school, he took up legal studies, passed the
bar in 1834, and began a successful career as a lawyer in Crawfordville. During
his 32 years of practice, he gained a reputation as a capable defender of the
wrongfully accused. None of his clients charged with capital crimes were
executed. One notable case was that of a slave woman accused of attempted murder. Stephens volunteered to defend
her. Despite the circumstantial evidence presented against her, Stephens won an acquittal for the woman.
Stephens was extremely sickly throughout his life. He often weighed less than 100 pounds.
As his wealth increased, Stephens began acquiring land and slaves. By the time of the Civil War, Stephens owned 34
slaves and several thousand acres. He entered politics in 1836, and was elected to the Georgia House of
Representatives, serving there until 1841. In 1842, he was elected to the Georgia State Senate.
Congressional career
Stephens served in the U.S. House from October 2, 1843, to March 3, 1859, from the 28th Congress through the 35th
Congress. In 1843, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Whig, in a special election to fill the
vacancy caused by the resignation of Mark A. Cooper. This seat was at-large, as Georgia did not have House
Districts until the next year. Stephens was re-elected from the 7th District as a Whig in 1844, 1846, and 1848, as a
Unionist in 1851, and again as a Whig (from the 8th District) in 1853. In 1855 and 1857, his re-elections came as a
As a national lawmaker during the crucial decades before the Civil War, Stephens was involved in all of the major
sectional battles. He began as a moderate defender of slavery but later accepted the prevailing Southern rationale
utilized to defend the institution.
Stephens quickly rose to prominence as one of the leading Southern Whigs in the House. He supported the
annexation of Texas in 1845. Along with his fellow Whigs, he vehemently opposed the Mexican-American War. He
was an equally vigorous opponent of the Wilmot Proviso, which would have barred the extension of slavery into
territories acquired by the United States during the war with Mexico. This would later nearly kill Stephens when he
argued with Judge Francis H. Cone, who stabbed him repeatedly in a fit of anger.
Stephens was physically
outmatched by his larger assailant, but he remained defiant during the attack, refusing to recant his positions even at
the cost of his life. Only the intervention of others saved him. Stephens' wounds were serious, and he returned home
to Crawfordville to recover. He and Cone reconciled before Cone's death in 1859.
Stephens and fellow Georgia Representative Robert Toombs campaigned for the election of Zachary Taylor as
President in 1848. Both were chagrined and angered when Taylor proved less than pliable on aspects of the
Compromise of 1850. Stephens and Toombs both supported the Compromise of 1850 though they opposed the
Alexander H. Stephens
exclusion of slavery from the territories on the theory that such lands belonged to all of the people. The pair returned
from the District of Columbia to Georgia to secure support for the measures at home. Both men were instrumental in
the drafting and approval of the Georgia Platform, which rallied Unionists throughout the Deep South.
Stephens and Toombs were not only political allies but also lifelong friends. Stephens was described as "a highly
sensitive young man of serious and joyless habits of consuming ambition, of poverty-fed pride, and of morbid
preoccupation within self," a contrast to the "robust, wealthy, and convivial Toombs. But this strange camaraderie
endured with singular accord throughout their lives."
Alexander Stephens
By this time, Stephens had departed the ranks of the Whig party, its
northern wing having proved obstinate to Southern interests. Back in
Georgia, Stephens, Toombs, and Democratic Representative Howell
Cobb formed the Constitutional Union Party. The party
overwhelmingly carried the state in the ensuing election and, for the
first time, Stephens returned to Congress no longer a Whig. Stephens
spent the next few years as a Constitutional Unionist, essentially an
independent. He vigorously opposed the dismantling of the
Constitutional Union Party when it began crumbling in 1851. Political
realities soon forced the Union Democrats in the party to affiliate once
more with the national party, and by mid-1852, the combination of
both Democrats and Whigs, which had formed a "party" behind the
Compromise, had ended.
The sectional issue surged to the forefront again in 1854, when Senator
Stephen A. Douglas, from Illinois, moved to organize the Nebraska
Territory, all of which lay north of the Missouri Compromise line, in
the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This legislation aroused fury in the North
because it applied the popular sovereignty principle to the Territory, in violation of the Missouri Compromise. Had it
not been for Stephens, the bill would have probably never passed in the House. He employed an obscure House rule
to bring the bill to a vote. He later called this "the greatest glory of my life."
From this point on, Stephens voted with the Democrats. Until after 1855, Stephens could not be properly called a
Democrat, and even then, he never officially declared it. In this move, Stephens broke irrevocably with many of his
former Whig colleagues. When the Whig Party disintegrated after the election of 1852, some Whigs flocked to the
short-lived Know-Nothing Party, but Stephens fiercely opposed the Know-Nothings both for their secrecy and their
anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic position.
Despite his late arrival in the Democratic Party, Stephens quickly rose through the ranks. He even served as
President James Buchanan's floor manager in the House during the fruitless battle for the Lecompton Constitution
for Kansas Territory in 1857. He was instrumental in framing the failed English Bill after it became clear that
Lecompton would not pass.
Stephens did not seek re-election to Congress in 1858. As sectional peace eroded during the next two years, Stephens
became increasingly critical of southern extremists. Although virtually the entire South had spurned Douglas as a
traitor to southern rights because he had opposed the Lecompton Constitution and broken with Buchanan, Stephens
remained on good terms with Douglas and even served as one of his presidential electors in the election of 1860.
According to Bruce Catton, he was "given one of the most haunting nicknames ever worn by an American politician:
'The Little Pale Star from Georgia.'"
Alexander H. Stephens
Vice President of the Confederacy
The original Confederate Cabinet. L-R: Judah P. Benjamin, Stephen Mallory, Christopher
Memminger, Alexander Stephens, LeRoy Pope Walker, Jefferson Davis, John H. Reagan
and Robert Toombs.
In 1861, Stephens was elected as a
delegate to the Georgia special
convention to decide on secession from
the United States. During the
convention, as well as during the 1860
presidential campaign, Stephens called
for the South to remain loyal to the
Union, likening it to a leaking but
fixable boat. During the convention he
reminded his fellow delegates that
Republicans were a minority in
Congress (especially allowing northern
states to nullify the Fugitive Slave Law
with "personal liberty laws." He was
elected to the Confederate Congress
and was chosen by the Congress as
Vice President of the provisional
government. He was then elected Vice President of the Confederacy in November 1861. He took the provisional oath
of office on February 11, 1861, then the 'full term' oath of office on February 22, 1862 and served until his arrest on
May 11, 1865. Stephens officially served in office eight days longer than President Jefferson Davis; he took his oath
seven days before Davis' inauguration and was captured the day after Davis.
Stephens in his later years
On March 21, 1861, Stephens gave his famous Cornerstone Speech in
Savannah, Georgia. In it he declared that slavery was the natural
condition of blacks and the foundation of the Confederacy. He
declared, "Our new Government is founded upon exactly the opposite
ideas; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth
that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination
to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition."
On the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War, he counseled delay in
moving militarily against the Northern-held Fort Sumter and Fort
Pickens so that the Confederacy could build up its forces and stock
In 1862, Stephens first publicly expressed his opposition to the Davis
Throughout the war he denounced many of the
president's policies, including conscription, suspension of the writ of
habeas corpus, impressment, various financial and taxation policies,
and Davis' military strategy.
In mid-1863, Davis dispatched Stephens on a fruitless mission to
Washington to discuss prisoner exchanges, but the Union victory of Gettysburg made the Lincoln Administration
refuse to receive him. As the war continued and the fortunes of the Confederacy sank lower, Stephens became more
outspoken in his opposition to the administration. On March 16, 1864, Stephens delivered a speech to the Georgia
Legislature that was widely reported in both the North and the South. In it, he excoriated the Davis Administration
for its support of conscription and suspension of habeas corpus, and supported a block of resolutions aimed at
securing peace. From then until the end of the war, as he continued to press for actions aimed at bringing about
Alexander H. Stephens
peace, his relations with Davis, never warm to begin with, turned completely sour.
On February 3, 1865, he was one of three Confederate commissioners who met with Lincoln on the steamer River
Queen at the Hampton Roads Conference, a fruitless effort to discuss measures to bring an end to the fight.
Post-bellum career
John White Alexander's portrait of Alexander
Stephens was arrested at his home in Crawfordville, on May 11, 1865.
He was imprisoned in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, for five months
until October 1865. In 1866, he was elected to the United States Senate
by the first legislature convened under the new Georgia State
Constitution, but was not allowed to take his seat because of
restrictions on former Confederates.
In 1873, Stephens was elected US Representative as a Democrat from
the 8th District to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Ambrose R.
Wright. Stephens was subsequently re-elected to the 8th District in
1874, 1876, 1878, and 1880. He served in the 43rd through 47th
Congresses, from December 1, 1873 until his resignation on November
4, 1882. On that date, he was elected and took office as Governor of
Georgia. His tenure as governor proved brief; Stephens died on March
4, 1883, four months after taking office.
Almost all of his emancipated slaves chose to remain working with
him, some for little or no money. These servants were with him upon
his death. Although old and infirm, Stephens continued to work on his house and plantation. According to a former
slave, a gate fell on Stephens while he and another black servant were repairing it, "and he was crippled and lamed
up from dat time on 'til he died."
He was interred in Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, then re-interred on his estate, Liberty Hall, near Crawfordville.
He is the author of A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States (1867–70, 2 vol.) and History of the
United States (1871 and 1883).
He is pictured on the CSA $20.00 banknote (3rd, 5th, 6th, and 7th issues).
Stephens County, Georgia, bears his name, as does A. H. Stephens Historic Park, a state park near Crawfordville.
Alexander H. Stephens
In Steven Spielberg's film Lincoln Alexander H. Stephens is portrayed by Jackie Earle Haley.
Alexander Stephens gravesite memorial at
Liberty Hall
[1] [1] Memoirs of Georgia (Atlanta: Southern Historical Association, 1895), Vol. I, p. 238.
[2] Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens (Atlanta: Dodson & Scott, 1877), p. 3.
[3] http:/ / www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/ nge/ Article.jsp?id=h-2394
[4] [4] Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens, p. 3.
[5] http:/ / www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/ nge/ Article.jsp?id=h-3137
[6] http:/ / www.findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=stephens&
GSfn=margaret& GSbyrel=all&GSdyrel=all&GSst=12& GScntry=4&GSob=n&
[7] [7] Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens: His Diary Kept When a Prisoner... (New
York: Doubleday, 1910), p. 3.
[8] [8] Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens, pp. 3-4.
[9] [9] Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens, pp. 3-4.
[10] http:// www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg. cgi?page=gr& GScid=37168&
[11] http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg. cgi?page=gr& GSln=stephens& GSfn=matilda& GSbyrel=all&GSdyrel=all&GSst=12&
GScntry=4& GSob=n&GRid=73616265& df=all&
[12] [12] Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens, p.3.
[13] James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (New York: Ballantine Books, 1989), p. 74, gives his weight as 90 pounds.
[14] http:/ / ourgeorgiahistory.com/ ogh/ Alexander_Stephens
[15] William Y. Thompson, Robert Toombs of Georgia (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966, p. 13
[16] Catton, Bruce, The Coming Fury, p 46. Pocket Books, New York. 1961
[17] Young, Cathy, Behind the Jeffersonian Veneer (http:// reason. com/ archives/ 2005/ 06/ 01/ behind-the-jeffersonian-veneer), Reason
[18] Allan Nevins, The Improvised War, 1861–1862 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1959), p. 73.
[19] Schott, Thomas E. (1988). Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia. pp. 357 ff..
[20] Hornsby, Sadie B. (August 4, 1938). Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936–1938 (http:/ / memory.loc.
gov/ cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mesn& fileName=041/mesn041. db& recNum=54&itemLink=D?mesnbib:2:./ temp/~ammem_sRsD::).
Interview with Georgia Baker. Library of Congress. p. 51. . Retrieved February 15, 2011.
• Rudolph R. von Abele, Alexander H. Stephens: A Biography (1946)
• Henry Cleveland, Alexander H. Stephens in Public and Private, with Letters and Speeches (http:/ / books. google.
com/books?id=w_gHAQAAIAAJ& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=& f=false) (1866)
• William C. Davis, The Union that Shaped the Confederacy: Robert Toombs & Alexander H. Stephens (2002)
• Richard Malcolm Johnston & William Hand Browne, Life of Alexander H. Stephens (http:/ / books.google.com/
books?id=88AEAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=& f=false) (1878).
• Louis Pendleton, Alexander H. Stephens (http:/ / books. google.com/ books?id=_sV3AAAAMAAJ&
printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=& f=false) (1908)
• Thomas E. Schott, Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia: A Biography (1988)
• W. P. Trent, Southern Statesmen of the Old Régime (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=RkBwAAAAMAAJ&
printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=& f=false) (1897)
• Jon L. Wakelyn, Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy
• Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962) ch 11, on his book
• Biographical article from Harper's Weekly, February 23, 1861.
Alexander H. Stephens
External links
• Alexander H. Stephens (http:// bioguide.congress. gov/ scripts/ biodisplay. pl?index=S000854) at the
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved on 2009-03-22
• Timeline and biography of Alexander Stephens (http:// blueandgraytrail.com/ event/ Alexander_Stephens)
• The Alexander H. Stephens papers (http:/ / www2.hsp. org/ collections/ manuscripts/ s/ Stephens0627. html),
containing correspondence while Stephens was vice president of the Confederacy, are available for research use at
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
• The Life and Work of Alexander Stephens (http:// portagepub.com/ products/ causouth/ index.html)
• "Cornerstone" Speech (http:/ / teachingamericanhistory.org/ library/index. asp?documentprint=76)
• What I Really Said in the Cornerstone Speech (http:/ / www.adena.com/ adena/ usa/ cw/ cw223. htm) Stephens
clarifies his statements
• Another explanation (http:// www. etymonline.com/ cw/ cornerstone.htm)
• A. H. Stephens State Historic Park (http:/ / www.gastateparks. org/info/ahsteph/ )
Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
Born Joseph Allan Nevins
Residence United States
Institutions Columbia University
Doctoral students Bernard Bellush, John Nevin
Spouse Mary Fleming Richardson
Joseph Allan Nevins
(May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, renowned for his
extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as President Grover Cleveland,
Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller.
Personal life
Nevins was born in Camp Point, Illinois, the son of Emma (née Stahl) and Joseph Allan Nevins.
He was raised on
a farm.
Nevins was educated at the University of Illinois, where he earned an M.A. in English in 1913. He
worked as a journalist in New York City and began writing books on history. In 1929, he joined the history faculty
of Columbia University. In 1939 he succeeded Evarts Boutell Greene, his teacher at Illinois and mentor at Columbia,
as the Dewitt Clinton Professor of History there. He was appointed Harmsworth Professor of American History at
Oxford University from 1940 to 1941 and again from 1964 to 1965. In 1948 he created the first oral history program
to operate on an institutionalized basis in the U.S., which continues as Columbia University's Oral History Research
Office. After he retired from Columbia, he relocated to California, where he worked at the Henry E. Huntington
Library. He died in Menlo Park, California, in 1971.
With his wife, Mary Fleming (Richardson), he was the grandfather of writer Jane Mayer.
Nevins wrote more than 50 books, mainly political and business history and biography focusing on the nineteenth
century, in addition to his many newspaper and academic articles. The hallmarks of his books were his extensive,
in-depth research and his vigorous, almost journalistic writing style. The subjects of his biographies include Grover
Cleveland, Abram Hewitt, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, John C. Frémont, Herbert Lehman, John D. Rockefeller, and
Henry White. The biographies provide in-depth coverage of United States political, economic and diplomatic history
of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Nevins's biography of Grover Cleveland won the 1933 Pulitzer Prize for
Biography or Autobiography. He also added significantly to the scholarship on President Cleveland by publishing a
volume of Cleveland's correspondence spanning the years 1850-1908.
Ordeal of the Union
Nevins' greatest work was Ordeal of the Union (1947–71), an 8-volume comprehensive history of the coming of the
Civil war, and the war itself. (He died before he could address Reconstruction, and thus his masterwork ends in
1865.) It remains the most detailed political, economic and military narrative of the era. Nevins's Ordeal of the
Union has a slight but perceptible pro-Union bias, just as Shelby Foote's three-volume masterwork has a slight but
perceptible bias towards the Confederacy. The last two volumes jointly won the 1972 U.S. National Book Award in
Allan Nevins
Nevins also planned and helped to edit a pioneering 13-volume series exploring American social history, "A History
of American Life".
His biographer explains
the Nevins style:
Nevins used narrative not only to tell a story but to propound moral lessons. It was not his inclination to
deal in intellectual concepts or theories, like many academic scholars. He preferred emphasizing
practical notions about the importance of national unity, principled leadership, [classical] liberal politics,
enlightened journalism, the social responsibility of business and industry, and scientific and technical
progress that added to the cultural improvement of humanity.
John D. Rockefeller
Nevins wrote several books on John D. Rockefeller and the Rockefeller family, including the three-volume
authorized biography of John D. Rockefeller. These projects later attracted the criticism of business journalist
Ferdinand Lundberg:
It was in the course of doing work for the five Rockefeller books that Nevins developed the interesting thesis
that the American corporate adventurers to whom Matthew Josephson gave the enduring name of ‘The Robber
Barons’ were in fact American heroes, builders of the American civilization and democracy. He invited other
historians to follow in his footsteps in this thesis, but so far nobody has conspicuously accepted. And if anyone
does, one will be able to see the American intellectual horizon further muddled. I have given writers like
Nevins the sobriquet of ‘counter-savants’. A savant, or man of learning, is devoted to increasing knowledge.
And knowledge has the function of deepening understanding. A counter-savant, however, is a man of
knowledge who uses his knowledge, for reasons known only to himself, to obfuscate understanding, to
confuse readers. The fact is that Nevins’ corrective portrait of Rockefeller is not only false with respect to the
central character, but frustrates understanding with the unsophisticated reader. (The Rockefeller Syndrome,
New York: Lyle Stuart, 1975, p. 145.)
Contrary to Lundberg's observations, historians and biographers such as Jean Strouse, Ron Chernow, David Nasaw,
and T. J. Stiles have written in the Nevins vein, chronicling the lives and careers of such figures as J. Pierpont
Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and Cornelius Vanderbilt. Though these later biographers did not
go so far as Nevins did in conferring heroic status on their subjects, they recognized the importance of such historical
and biographical investigations to establishing a clearer and more complex understanding of the American past in
general, and the history of American economic development in particular.
John F. Kennedy
An enthusiastic supporter of then-Senator John F. Kennedy, Nevins wrote the foreword to the inaugural edition of
Kennedy's Profiles in Courage. He also joined his friend, frequent co-editor, and Columbia colleague Henry Steele
Commager in organizing "Professors for Kennedy", a political advocacy group that played key roles in the 1960
presidential election. In the late 1960s, Nevins and Commager parted ways over the issue of the war in Vietnam -- a
war that Commager opposed on constitutional grounds and Nevins supported as a necessary part of the struggle in
the cold war against Communism.
Allan Nevins
On radio, Nevins was the host of the 15-minute Adventures in Science, which covered a wide variety of medical and
scientific topics. As a segment of CBS' Adult Education Series, it was broadcast from May 6, 1938 until August 18,
1957, airing on various days, usually in the late afternoon.
Major books
• The Evening post; a century of journalism (1922)
• The American states during and after the revolution, 1775-1789 (1927) online edition
• A History of American Life vol. VIII: The Emergence of Modern America 1865-1878 (1927)
• Frémont, the West's greatest adventurer; being a biography from certain hitherto unpublished sources of General
John C. Frémont, together with his wife, Jessie Benton Frémont, and some account of the period of expansion
which found a brilliant leader in the Pathfinder (1928) online edition
• Polk; the diary of a president, 1845–1849, covering the Mexican war, the acquisition of Oregon, and the
conquest of California and the Southwest, (1929)
• Henry White; thirty years of American diplomacy (1930)
• Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage (1933)
• Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908; (1933)
• Dictionary of American Biography (1934–36); Nevins wrote 40 articles on Alexander Hamilton, Rutherford B.
Hayes, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, etc.
• Abram S. Hewitt: with same account of Peter Cooper. (1935)
• Hamilton Fish; the inner history of the Grant administration, (1936) online edition vol 1
online edition vol 2
• The Gateway to History 1938. online edition
• The emergence of modern America, 1865-1878 (1941)
• Ordeal of the Union (1947–1971).
• 1. Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847–1852;
• 2. A House Dividing, 1852–1857;
• 3. Douglas, Buchanan, and Party Chaos, 1857–1859;
• 4. Prologue to Civil War, 1859–1861;
• 5. The Improvised War, 1861–1862;
• 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863;
• 7. The Organized War, 1863–1864;
• 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865
• Ford with the collaboration of Frank Ernest Hill, 3 vols. (1954–1963)
• John D. Rockefeller: The Heroic Age of American Enterprise. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. (1940)
• Study In Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Allan Nevins
[1] http:/ / www.bookrags. com/ biography/joseph-allan-nevins-dlb/
[2] http:/ / www.sunypress. edu/ pdf/60872. pdf
[3] http:/ / www.bookrags. com/ biography/allan-nevins/
[4] http:/ / dig. lib. niu. edu/ ISHS/ishs-1973summer/ ishs-1973summer-177.pdf
[5] "National Book Awards – 1972" (http:// www. nationalbook. org/ nba1972.html). National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
[6] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en& vid=ISBN079145973X& id=35i1EyDNOQoC&dq=Nevins,+ Allan. + The+Ordeal+
of+the+ Union&vq=grover&prev=http:// books. google. com/ books%3Fq%3DNevins,%2BAllan.
%2BThe%2BOrdeal%2Bof%2Bthe%2BUnion%2B%26lr%3D%26client%3Dfirefox-a&lpg=PA3& pg=PA4&
[7] http:// www.questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=82373566
[8] http:/ / www.questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=99376188
[9] http:/ / www.questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=94934148
[10] http:/ / www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=12564995
[11] http:/ / www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=97878285
• Gerald L. Fetner, Immersed in Great Affairs: Allan Nevins and the Heroic Age of American History (2004)
Allan Pinkerton
Allan Pinkerton
Allan Pinkerton
Head-and-shoulders portrait of Allan Pinkerton.
Born 25 August 1819
Glasgow, Scotland
Died 1 July 1884 (aged 64)
Chicago, Illinois
Resting place Graceland Cemetery, Chicago
Nationality Scottish American
Occupation Detective and spy
Known for Creating the Pinkerton Agency
Spouse(s) Joan Pinkerton (m. 1842-1884)
Children William Pinkerton
Robert Pinkerton
Allan Pinkerton
Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harper's Weekly,
Allan Pinkerton (25 August 1819 – 1 July 1884) was a Scottish
American detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton
National Detective Agency.
Early life, career and immigration
Pinkerton was born in the Gorbals, Glasgow, Scotland, to William
Pinkerton and his wife, Isobel McQueen, on August 25, 1819.
location of the house where he was born is now occupied by the
Glasgow Central Mosque. A cooper by trade, he was active in the
British Chartist movement as a young man. Pinkerton married Joan
Carfrae (a singer) in Glasgow on 13 March 1842
secretly before
moving to America. Disillusioned by the failure to win suffrage,
Pinkerton emigrated to the United States in 1842, at the age of 23.
In 1843, Pinkerton heard of Dundee, Illinois, fifty miles northwest of
Chicago on the Fox River.
He built a cabin and started a cooperage
there, sending for his wife in Chicago after the cabin was complete.
As early as 1844, Pinkerton worked for Chicago Abolitionist leaders, and his Dundee home was a stop on the
Underground Railroad.
In 1849 Pinkerton was appointed as the first detective in Chicago. In the 1850s, he partnered with Chicago attorney
Edward Rucker in forming the North-Western Police Agency, later known as the Pinkerton National Detective
Agency and is still in existence today as Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, a subsidiary of Securitas AB.
Pinkerton's business insignia was a wide open eye with the caption "We never sleep." As the United States expanded
in territory, rail transportation increased. Pinkerton's agency solved a series of train robberies during the 1850s, first
bringing Pinkerton into contact with George McClellan and Abraham Lincoln.
American Civil War
Pinkerton (left) with Abraham Lincoln and Major
General John A. McClernand.
Prior to his service with the Union Army, he developed several
investigative techniques that are still used today. Among them are
"shadowing" (surveillance of a suspect) and "assuming a role"
(undercover work). Following the outbreak of the Civil War, Pinkerton
served as head of the Union Intelligence Service in 1861–1862 and
foiled an alleged assassination plot in Baltimore, Maryland, while
guarding Abraham Lincoln on his way to his inauguration. His agents
often worked undercover as Confederate soldiers and sympathizers, in
an effort to gather military intelligence. Pinkerton served in several
undercover missions under the alias of Major E.J. Allen. Pinkerton was
succeeded as Intelligence Service chief by Lafayette Baker. The
Intelligence Service was the forerunner of the U.S. Secret Service.
Allan Pinkerton
After the War
Following Pinkerton's service with the Union Army, he continued his pursuit of train robbers, such as the Reno Gang
and the famous outlaw Jesse James. He was originally hired by the railroad express companies to track down James,
but after Pinkerton failed to capture him, the railroad withdrew their financial support and Pinkerton continued to
track James at his own expense. After James allegedly captured and killed one of Pinkerton's young undercover
agents, who was foolish enough to gain employment at the farm neighboring the James farmstead, he finally gave up
the chase. Some consider this failure Pinkerton's biggest defeat.
He also sought to oppose labor unions. In 1872,
the Spanish Government hired Pinkerton to help suppress a revolution in Cuba which intended to end slavery and
give citizens the right to vote.
If Pinkerton knew this, then it directly contradicts statements in his 1883 book The
Spy of the Rebellion, where he professes to be an ardent Abolitionist and hater of slavery.
Pinkerton on horseback on the Antietam
Battlefield in 1862.
Allan Pinkerton died in Chicago on July 1, 1884. It is famously
claimed that the reason was a convoluted accident in which Pinkerton
slipped on the pavement and bit his tongue, resulting in deadly
gangrene. However, reports of the time give different conflicting
causes such as Pinkerton succumbing to a stroke (he had survived
another one year earlier) or to malaria he had contracted during a trip
to the Southern United States.
At the time of his death, he was
working on a system that would centralize all criminal identification
records, a database now maintained by the Federal Bureau of
Pinkerton's Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago.
Pinkerton is buried in Graceland Cemetery, Chicago.
He is a member
of the Military Intelligence Hall of Fame.
After his death, the agency continued to operate and soon became a
major force against the labor movement developing in the United
States and Canada. This effort changed the image of the Pinkertons for
years. They were involved in numerous activities against labor during
the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including:
• The Homestead Strike (1891), the direct impetus for the federal
Anti-Pinkerton Act of 1893, prohibiting the federal government
from hiring its detectives
• The Pullman Strike (1894)
• The Wild Bunch Gang (1896)
• The Ludlow Massacre (1914)
• The La Follette Committee (1933–1937)
Many labor sympathizers accused the Pinkertons of inciting riots in order to discredit unions and justify police
crackdowns. The Pinkertons' reputation was harmed by their protection of replacement workers ("scabs") and the
business property of the major industrialists, including Andrew Carnegie.
Despite his agency's later reputation for anti-labor activities, Pinkerton himself was heavily involved in pro-labor
politics as a young man.
Though Pinkerton considered himself pro-labor, he opposed strikes
and distrusted
Allan Pinkerton
labor unions.
Pinkerton was so famous that for decades after his death, his surname was a slang term for a private eye. Due to the
Pinkerton Agency's conflicts with labor unions, the word Pinkerton remains in the vocabulary of labor organizers
and union members as a derogatory reference to authority figures who side with management.
Pinkerton's exploits were in part the inspiration of the 1961 NBC western television series, Whispering Smith,
starring Audie Murphy and Guy Mitchell.
In the HBO series Deadwood (TV series), several references are made to the "Pinkertons" and fear that agents might
be called in to investigate illegal activities in the lawless Deadwood mining camp in the Dakota territory prior to its
being annexed by the United States.
Pinkerton's role in foiling the assassination plot against Abraham Lincoln was dramatized in the 2012 film Saving
Lincoln, which tells President Lincoln's story through the eyes of Ward Hill Lamon, a former law partner of Lincoln
who also served as his primary bodyguard during the Civil War. Pinkerton is played by Marcus J. Freed in that
Pinkerton produced numerous popular detective books, ostensibly based on his own exploits and those of his agents.
Some were published after his death, and they are considered to have been more motivated by a desire to promote his
detective agency than a literary endeavour. Most historians believe that Allan Pinkerton hired ghostwriters, but the
books nonetheless bear his name and no doubt reflect his own views.
• —; William Henry Herndon, jesse William Weik (1866). Allan Pinkerton's Unpublished Story of the First
Attempt on the Life Of Abraham Lincoln. Phillips Publishing Co..
• —; William Henry Herndon, jesse William Weik (1868). History and Evidence of the Passage of Abraham
Lincoln from Harrisburg, Pa., to Washington, D.C. on the 22d and 23d of February, 1861. Phillips Publishing
• — (1874). The Expressman and the Detective
• — (1875). Claude Melnotte As A Detective, And Other Stories
. Chicago: W. B. Keen, Cooke & Co..
Retrieved 2009-07-08. Also available here
• — (1875). The Somnambulist and the Detective, The Murderer and the Fortune Teller
. New York: G. W.
Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08. Also available here
• — (1876). The Spiritualists and the Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
• — (1877). The Molly Maguires and the Detectives, 1905 ed.
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved
• — (1878). Strikers, Communists, Tramps and Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved
• — (1878). Criminal Reminiscences and Detective Sketches
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved
• — (1879). Mississippi Outlaws and the Detectives, Don Pedro and the Detectives, Poisoner and the Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
• — (1879). The Gypsies and the Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
• — (1880). Bucholz and the Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08. Also
available via Project Gutenberg
• — (1881). The Rail-Road Forger and the Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved
• — (1883). The Spy of the Rebellion: Being a True History of the Spy System of the United States Army During the
Late Rebellion
. Hartford, Conn.: M. A. Winter & Hatch. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
• — (1884). A Double Life and the Detectives
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
Allan Pinkerton
• — (1886). Professional Thieves and the Detective: Containing Numerous Detective Sketches Collected From
Private Records
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
• — (1886). A Life for a Life: Or, The Detective's Triumph. Laird & Lee.
• — (1892). Cornered at Last: A Detective Story.
• — (1900). Thirty Years a Detective: A Thorough and Comprehensive Expose of Criminal Practices of all Grades
and Classes
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co.. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
• — (1900). The Model Town and the Detectives, Byron as a Detective
. New York: G. W. Dillingham Co..
Retrieved 2009-07-08.
[1] ScotlandsPeople OPR Births & Baptisms Record 644/002 0020 0107 http:/ / www. scotlandspeople. gov.uk/
[2] ScotlandsPeople OPR Banns & Marriages Record 644/001 0420 0539 http:// www. scotlandspeople. gov.uk/
[3] Horan, James D. (1969) [First published 1967]. "Chapter 1: Glasgow 1819-1842". The Pinkertons: The Detective Dynasty That Made History.
New York, USA: Crown Publishers. p. 13.
[4] Horan, James D. (1969) [First published 1967]. "Chapter 3: The Frontier Abolitionist and the Move to Chicago". The Pinkertons: The
Detective Dynasty That Made History. New York, USA: Crown Publishers. p. 19.
[5] Stiles, T. J.. Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War.
[6] Allan Pinkerton: The First Private Eye. James Mackay Review author[s]: Stephen H. Norwood, The Journal of American History, Vol. 85,
No. 3. (December, 1998), pp. 1106-1107.
[7] Lanis, Edward Stanley. Allan Pinkerton and the private detective institution (M.S. Thesis 1949). p.170, University of Wisconsin,
[8] Allan Pinkerton (http:// www.findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/ fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=817) at Find a Grave
[9] "Allan J. Pinkerton" (http:/ / www. thrillingdetective.com/ eyes/ pinkerton.html). Thrillingdetective.com. . Retrieved 2011-12-28.
[10] Criminal justice - Joel Samaha - Google Books (http:/ / books.google.com/ books?id=o0rjRPnO7K4C& pg=PA155&lpg=PA155&
dq=allan+ pinkerton+pro-labor&source=bl&ots=Gjvexblaht& sig=1XRPPA3TnP4l7UeUblZS33lzjj8& hl=en&
ei=H0khTcjOHsH38AbbmvzFDQ&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=allan pinkerton
pro-labor& f=false). Books.google.com. 2005-06-17. . Retrieved 2011-12-28.
[11] "Detective Allan Pinkerton Was Born in Glasgow, Scotland" (http:// www.americaslibrary.gov/ jb/ nation/ jb_nation_pinkerto_4.html).
Americaslibrary.gov. . Retrieved 2011-12-28.
[12] http:/ / www. letrs. indiana. edu/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=wright2;idno=wright2-1908
[13] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=TdEEAQAAIAAJ
[14] "Wright American Fiction, 1851-1875" (http:// www. letrs. indiana.edu/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=wright2;idno=wright2-1906).
Letrs.indiana.edu. . Retrieved 2011-12-28.
[15] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=kC4DAAAAMAAJ
[16] "Wright American Fiction, 1851-1875" (http:// www. letrs. indiana.edu/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=wright2;idno=wright2-1907).
Letrs.indiana.edu. . Retrieved 2011-12-28.
[17] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=TsoRAAAAYAAJ
[18] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=2FgWAAAAYAAJ
[19] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=vYmPG_ZdDOkC
[20] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=QkOz6Ori_v8C
[21] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=8TsDAAAAMAAJ
[22] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=QXEqAAAAYAAJ
[23] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=jEcFAAAAMAAJ
[24] http:// www. gutenberg.org/ etext/ 20497
[25] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=bi4DAAAAMAAJ
[26] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=oO0LAAAAIAAJ
[27] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=eqUe8wXQuNcC
[28] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=9EkuAAAAYAAJ
[29] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=4EUuAAAAYAAJ
[30] http:// books.google. com/ books?id=vHEqAAAAYAAJ
Allan Pinkerton
External links
• University of Chicago's library database (http:// www1. lib. uchicago. edu/e/index. php3)
• University of Toronto's library database (http:// main.library.utoronto.ca/ )
• Detailed profile of Pinkerton (http:/ / www. trutv.com/ library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/ cops_others/ pinkerton/
1. html)
• Allan Pinkerton, in The Scotsman's Great Scots series (http:// heritage. scotsman. com/ greatscots.
• A Brief History of the Pinkertons (http:// americanhistory.about.com/ library/weekly/ aa062002a. htm)
Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880
United States Senator
from Rhode Island
In office
March 4, 1875 – September 13, 1881
Preceded by William Sprague IV
Succeeded by Nelson W. Aldrich
30th Governor of Rhode Island
In office
May 29, 1866 – May 25, 1869
Preceded by James Y. Smith
Succeeded by Seth Padelford
Personal details
Born May 23, 1824
Liberty, Indiana
Died September 13, 1881 (aged 57)
Bristol, Rhode Island
Resting place Swan Point Cemetery
Providence, Rhode Island
Political party Republican
Alma mater United States Military Academy
Profession Soldier, inventor, industrialist
Military service
Nickname(s) Burn
Ambrose Burnside
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch Union Army
Years of service 1847–1865
Rank Major General
Commands Army of the Potomac
Army of the Ohio
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
American Civil War
•• First Battle of Bull Run
•• Burnside's North Carolina Expedition
•• Battle of Roanoke Island
•• Battle of New Bern
•• Maryland Campaign
•• Battle of South Mountain
•• Battle of Antietam
•• Battle of Fredericksburg
•• Knoxville Campaign
•• Overland Campaign
•• Battle of the Wilderness
•• Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
•• Battle of North Anna
•• Battle of Cold Harbor
•• Siege of Petersburg
•• Battle of the Crater
Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive,
inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. As a Union Army
general in the American Civil War, he conducted successful campaigns in North Carolina and East Tennessee but
was defeated in the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg and Battle of the Crater, earning his reputation as one of the
most incompetent generals of the war. His distinctive style of facial hair is now known as sideburns, derived from his
last name.
Early life and career
Burnside was born in Liberty, Indiana and was the fourth of nine children of Edghill and Pamela (or Pamilia) Brown
Burnside, a family of Scottish origin.
His great-great-grandfather Robert Burnside (1725–1775) was born in
Scotland and settled in the Province of South Carolina.
His father, a native of South Carolina, was a slave owner
who freed his slaves when he relocated to Indiana. Ambrose attended Liberty Seminary as a young boy, but his
education was interrupted when his mother died in 1841; he was apprenticed to a local tailor, eventually becoming a
partner in the business.
His interest in military affairs and his father's political connections obtained an
appointment to the United States Military Academy in 1843. He graduated in 1847, ranking 18th in a class of 38, and
was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Artillery. He traveled to Veracruz for the
Mexican-American War but arrived after hostilities ceased and performed mostly garrison duty around Mexico
At the close of the war, Lt. Burnside served two years on the western frontier, serving under Captain Braxton Bragg
in the 3rd U.S. Artillery, a light artillery unit that had been converted to cavalry duty, protecting the Western mail
routes through Nevada to California. In 1849, he was wounded by an arrow in his neck during a skirmish against
Apaches in Las Vegas, New Mexico. In 1852, he was assigned to Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island, and, while
Ambrose Burnside
there, he married Mary Richmond Bishop of Providence, Rhode Island, on April 27. The marriage, which lasted until
Burnside's death, was childless.
In 1853, Burnside resigned his commission in the United States Army, although maintaining a position in the state
militia, and devoted his time and energy to the manufacture of the famous rifle that bears his name, the Burnside
carbine. The Secretary of War under President James Buchanan, John B. Floyd, contracted with the Burnside Arms
Company to equip a large portion of the Army with his carbine and induced him to establish extensive factories for
its manufacture. The Bristol Rifle Works were no sooner complete than another gunmaker allegedly bribed Floyd to
break his $100,000 contract with Burnside. Burnside ran as a Democrat for one of the Congressional seats in Rhode
Island in 1858 and was defeated in a landslide. The burdens of the campaign and the destruction by fire of his factory
contributed to his financial ruin, and he was forced to assign his firearm patents to others. He then went west in
search of employment and became treasurer of the Illinois Central Railroad, where he worked for, and became
friendly with, one of his future commanding officers, George B. McClellan.
Civil War
General Ambrose Burnside. Photo by Mathew
First Bull Run
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Burnside was a brigadier general in
the Rhode Island Militia. He raised a regiment, the 1st Rhode Island
Volunteer Infantry, and was appointed its colonel on May 2, 1861.
Within a month, he ascended to brigade command in the Department
of Northeast Virginia. He commanded the brigade without distinction
at the First Battle of Bull Run in July, committing his troops
piecemeal, and took over division command temporarily for wounded
Brig. Gen. David Hunter. After his 90-day regiment was mustered out
of service on August 2, he was promoted to brigadier general of
volunteers on August 6, and was assigned to train provisional brigades
in the nascent Army of the Potomac.
Burnside (seated, center) and officers of the 1st
Rhode Island at Camp Sprague, Rhode Island,
North Carolina
Burnside commanded the Coast Division, or North Carolina
Expeditionary Force—three brigades assembled in Annapolis,
Maryland, which formed the nucleus for his future IX Corps—and the
Department of North Carolina, from September 1861 until July 1862.
He conducted a successful amphibious campaign that closed over 80%
of the North Carolina sea coast to Confederate shipping for the
remainder of the war.
For his successes at the battles of Roanoke
Island and New Bern, the first significant Union victories in the
Eastern Theater, he was promoted to major general of volunteers on
March 18. In July, his forces were transported north to Newport News,
Virginia, and became the IX Corps of the Army of the Potomac.
Ambrose Burnside
Following Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's failure in the Peninsula Campaign, Burnside was offered command of
the Army of the Potomac.
Refusing this opportunity—because of his loyalty to McClellan and because he
understood his own lack of military experience—he detached part of his corps in support of Maj. Gen. John Pope's
Army of Virginia in the Northern Virginia Campaign. Telegrams extremely critical of Pope's abilities as a
commander from Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter that he received at this time and forwarded on to his superiors in
concurrence would later play a significant role in Porter's court-martial, in which Burnside would appear as a star
Burnside again declined command following Pope's debacle at Second Bull Run.
Burnside Bridge at Antietam in 2005
Burnside was given command of the "Right Wing" of the Army of the
Potomac (the I Corps and IX Corps) at the start of the Maryland
Campaign for the Battle of South Mountain, but McClellan separated
the two corps at the Battle of Antietam, placing them on opposite ends
of the Union battle line, returning Burnside to command of just the IX
Corps. Implicitly refusing to give up his higher authority, Burnside
treated first Maj. Gen. Jesse L. Reno (killed at South Mountain) and
then Brig. Gen. Jacob D. Cox as the corps commander, funneling
orders to the corps through them. This cumbersome arrangement
contributed to his slowness in attacking and crossing what is now
called "Burnside's Bridge" on the southern flank of the Union line.
Burnside did not perform an adequate reconnaissance of the area, and instead of taking advantage of several easy
fording sites out of range of the enemy, his troops were forced into repeated assaults across the narrow bridge which
was dominated by Confederate sharpshooters on high ground. By noon, McClellan was losing patience. He sent a
succession of couriers to motivate Burnside to move forward. He ordered one aide, "Tell him if it costs 10,000 men
he must go now." He increased the pressure by sending his inspector general to confront Burnside, who reacted
indignantly: "McClellan appears to think I am not trying my best to carry this bridge; you are the third or fourth one
who has been to me this morning with similar orders."
The delay allowed Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's Confederate
division to come up from Harpers Ferry and repulse the Union breakthrough. McClellan refused Burnside's requests
for reinforcements, and the battle ended in a tactical stalemate.
Union General Ambrose Burnside, 1862.
McClellan was removed after failing to pursue General Robert E. Lee's
retreat from Antietam, and Burnside was assigned to command the
Army of the Potomac on November 7, 1862. He reluctantly obeyed this
order, the third such in his brief career. President Abraham Lincoln
pressured Burnside to take aggressive action and on November 14
approved his plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond,
Virginia. This plan led to a humiliating and costly Union defeat at the
Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13. His advance upon
Fredericksburg was rapid, but planning in marshaling pontoon bridges
for crossing the Rappahannock River and his own reluctance to deploy
portions of his army across fording points later delayed the attack. This
allowed Gen. Lee to concentrate along Marye's Heights just west of
Ambrose Burnside
town and easily repulse the Union attacks. Assaults south of town, which were supposed to be the main avenue of
attack, were also mismanaged, and initial Union breakthroughs went unsupported. Upset by the failure of his plan
and by the enormous casualties of his repeated, futile frontal assaults, Burnside declared that he would lead an
assault by his old corps. His corps commanders talked him out of it, but relations between the commander and his
subordinates were strained. Accepting full blame, he offered to retire from the U.S. Army, but this was refused.
Detractors of Burnside labeled him the “Butcher of Fredericksburg”.
In January 1863, Burnside launched a second offensive against Lee, but it bogged down in winter rains before it
accomplished anything and has been derisively called the Mud March. In its wake, he asked that several officers,
who were openly insubordinate, be relieved of duty and court-martialed; he also offered to resign. Lincoln chose the
latter option on January 26 and replaced him with Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, one of the officers who had conspired
against Burnside.
East Tennessee
Lincoln was unwilling to lose Burnside from the Army and assigned him to command the Department of the Ohio
and his old IX Corps. In Ohio, Burnside issued his controversial General Order Number 38, making it a crime to
express any kind of opposition to the war. Burnside used it to arrest former Ohio congressman and candidate for
governor of Ohio Clement Vallandigham, a prominent leader in the copperhead peace movement, and try him in a
military court (despite the fact that he was a civilian).
Burnside also dealt with Confederate raiders such as John
Hunt Morgan.
In the Knoxville Campaign, Burnside advanced to Knoxville, Tennessee, first bypassing the Confederate-held
Cumberland Gap. After occupying Knoxville unopposed, he sent troops back to the Cumberland Gap. Brig. Gen.
John W. Frazer, the Confederate commander, refused to surrender in the face of two Union brigades and Burnside
arrived with a third, forcing the surrender of Frazer and 2,300 Confederates.
After Union Maj. Gen. William S.
Rosecrans was defeated at the Battle of Chickamauga, Burnside was pursued by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, against
whose troops he had battled at Marye's Heights. Burnside skillfully outmaneuvered Longstreet at the Battle of
Campbell's Station and was able to reach his entrenchments and safety in Knoxville, where he was briefly besieged
until the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Fort Sanders outside the city. Tying down Longstreet's corps at
Knoxville contributed to Gen. Braxton Bragg's defeat by Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Chattanooga. Troops under
Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman marched to Burnside's aid, but the siege had already been lifted; Longstreet
withdrew, eventually returning to Virginia.
Overland Campaign
Burnside was ordered to take the IX Corps back to the Eastern Theater, where, in Annapolis, Maryland, he built it up
to a strength of over 21,000 effectives.
The IX Corps fought in the Overland Campaign of May 1864 as an
independent command, reporting initially to Grant; his corps was not assigned to the Army of the Potomac because
Burnside outranked its commander, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, who had been a division commander under
Burnside at Fredericksburg. This cumbersome arrangement was rectified on May 24 just before the Battle of North
Anna, when Burnside agreed to waive his precedence of rank and was placed under Meade's direct command.
Burnside fought at the battles of Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House, where he did not perform in a
distinguished manner,
attacking piecemeal and appearing reluctant to commit his troops to the frontal assaults
that characterized these battles. After North Anna and Cold Harbor, he took his place in the siege lines at
Ambrose Burnside
The Crater
Petersburg Crater with Union soldier in 1865
As the two armies faced the stalemate of trench warfare at Petersburg
in July 1864, Burnside agreed to a plan suggested by a regiment of
Pennsylvania coal miners in his corps: dig a mine under a fort in the
Confederate entrenchments and ignite explosives there to achieve a
surprise breakthrough. The fort was destroyed on July 30 in what is
known as the Battle of the Crater. Because of interference from Meade,
Burnside was ordered, only hours before the infantry attack, not to use
his division of black troops, which had been specially trained for this
mission. He was forced to use untrained white troops instead. He could
not decide which division to choose as a replacement, so he had his
three subordinate commanders draw lots. The division chosen by chance was that commanded by Brig. Gen. James
H. Ledlie, who failed to brief the men on what was expected of them and was reported during the battle to be drunk
well behind the lines, providing no leadership. Ledlie's men entered the huge crater instead of going around it,
becoming trapped, and were subjected to murderous fire from Confederates around the rim, resulting in high
Burnside was relieved of command on August 14 and sent on leave by Grant; Meade never recalled him to duty. A
court of inquiry later placed the blame for the Crater fiasco on Burnside and his subordinates. In December, Burnside
met with President Lincoln and General Grant about his future. He was contemplating resignation, but Lincoln and
Grant requested that he remain in the Army. At the end of the interview, Burnside wrote, "I was not informed of any
duty upon which I am to be placed." He finally resigned his commission on April 15, 1865.
The United States Congress Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War exonerated Burnside, and placed the blame
for the Union defeat at the Crater on General Meade for requiring the black troops to be withdrawn.
Postbellum career
Burnside's grave in Swan Point Cemetery,
Providence, Rhode Island.
After his resignation, Burnside was employed in numerous railroad and
industrial directorships, including the presidencies of the Cincinnati
and Martinsville Railroad, the Indianapolis and Vincennes Railroad,
the Cairo and Vincennes Railroad, and the Rhode Island Locomotive
Works. He was elected to three one-year terms as Governor of Rhode
Island (May 1866 to May 1869). He was commander-in-chief of the
Grand Army of the Republic veterans' association from 1871 to
At its inception in 1871, the National Rifle Association chose
him as its first president.
During a visit to Europe in 1870, Burnside attempted to mediate
between the French and the Germans in the Franco-Prussian War. In
1874 he was elected as U.S. Senator from Rhode Island, was re-elected in 1880, and served until his death in 1881.
During that time, Burnside, who had been a Democrat before the war, ran as a Republican, playing a prominent role
in military affairs as well as serving as chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee in 1881.
Ambrose Burnside
Equestrian monument in Burnside Park,
Providence, Rhode Island.
Burnside died suddenly of "neuralgia of the heart" (Angina pectoris) at
Bristol, Rhode Island, and is buried in Swan Point Cemetery,
Providence, Rhode Island.
An equestrian statue in his honor was
erected in the late 19th century in Burnside Park in Providence.
Assessment and legacy
Personally, Burnside was always very popular—both in the army and
in politics. He made friends easily, smiled a lot, and remembered
everyone's name. His professional military reputation, however, was
less positive, and he was known for being obstinate, unimaginative,
and unsuited both intellectually and emotionally for high command.
Grant stated that he was "unfitted" for the command of an army, and
that no one knew this better than Burnside. Knowing his capabilities,
he twice refused command of the Army of the Potomac, only accepting
when told that the command would otherwise go to Joseph Hooker.
Jeffry D. Wert described Burnside's relief after Fredericksburg in a
passage that sums up his military career:
He had been the most unfortunate commander of the Army, a general who had been cursed by succeeding its
most popular leader and a man who believed he was unfit for the post. His tenure had been marked by bitter
animosity among his subordinates and a fearful, if not needless, sacrifice of life. A firm patriot, he lacked the
power of personality and will to direct recalcitrant generals. He had been willing to fight the enemy, but the
terrible slope before Marye's Heights stands as his legacy.
— Jeffry D. Wert, The Sword of Lincoln
Bruce Catton summarized Burnside:
... Burnside had repeatedly demonstrated that it had been a military tragedy to give him a rank higher than
colonel. One reason might have been that, with all his deficiencies, Burnside never had any angles of his own
to play; he was a simple, honest, loyal soldier, doing his best even if that best was not very good, never
scheming or conniving or backbiting. Also, he was modest; in an army many of whose generals were
insufferable prima donnas, Burnside never mistook himself for Napoleon. Physically he was impressive: tall,
just a little stout, wearing what was probably the most artistic and awe-inspiring set of whiskers in all that
bewhiskered Army. He customarily wore a high, bell-crowned felt hat with the brim turned down and a
double-breasted, knee-length frock coat, belted at the waist—a costume which, unfortunately, is apt to strike
the modern eye as being very much like that of a beefy city cop of the 1880s.
— Bruce Catton, Mr. Lincoln's Army
Ambrose Burnside
Burnside was noted for his unusual facial hair, joining strips of hair in front of his ears to his mustache but with chin
clean-shaven; the word burnsides was coined to describe this style. The syllables were later reversed to give
In memoriam
Burnside residence hall at the University of Rhode Island in Kingston and Burnside Park in downtown Providence
are named after General Burnside. Burnside, Kentucky, in south-central Kentucky, is a small town south of Somerset
named for the former site of Camp Burnside, near the former Cumberland River town of Port Isabelle.
In popular media
Burnside was portrayed by Alex Hyde-White in Ronald F. Maxwell's 2003 film Gods and Generals, which includes
the Battle of Fredericksburg.
[1] Mierka, np. The original spelling of his middle name was Everts, for Dr. Sylvanus Everts, the physician who delivered him. Ambrose Everts
was also the name of Edghill's and Pamela's first child, who died a few months before the future general was born. The name was misspelled
during his enrollment at West Point, and he did not correct the record.
[2] familysearch.org (http:// www. familysearch. org/eng/ default.asp)
[3] Mierka, np., describes the relationship with the tailor as indentured servitude.
[4] [4] Eicher, pp. 155-56; Sauers, pp. 327-28; Warner, pp. 57-58; Wilson, np.
[5] [5] Eicher, pp. 155-56; Mierka, np.; Warner, pp. 57-58.
[6] [6] Eicher, pp. 155-56; Mierka, np.; Sauers, pp. 327-28; Warner, pp. 57-58.
[7] [7] Mierka, np.
[8] [8] Marvel, pp. 99-100.
[9] [9] Marvel, pp. 209-10.
[10] [10] Sauers, pp. 327-28; Wilson, np.
[11] [11] Bailey, pp. 120-21.
[12] [12] Sears, pp. 264-65.
[13] [13] Bailey, pp. 126-39.
[14] [14] p. 56, Hopkins, William Palmer. The Seventh Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers in the Civil War 1862-1865. Providence, RI: The
Providence Press, 1903.
[15] [15] Wilson, np.; Warner, p. 58; Sauers, p. 328.
[16] [16] McPherson, pp. 596-97. McPherson remarked that Burnside's "political judgment proved no more subtle than his military judgment at
[17] [17] Korn, p. 104.
[18] [18] Grimsley, p. 245, n. 43.
[19] [19] Esposito, text for map 120.
[20] [20] Grimsley, p. 230, describes Burnside's conduct as "inept." Rhea, p. 317: "[Burnside's] failings were so flagrant that the Army talked about
them openly. He stumbled badly in the Wilderness and worse still at Spotsylvania."
[21] [21] Wilson, np.
[22] [22] Wert, pp. 385-86; Mierka, np.; Eicher, pp. 155-56.
[23] [23] Eicher, pp. 155-56.
[24] NRA History (http:/ / www. nrahq.org/ history. asp)
[25] NRA "About Us" webpage, accessed September 9, 2008 (http:// www. nra.org/ Aboutus. aspx)
[26] [26] Wilson, np.; Eicher, p. 156.
[27] [27] Goolrick, p. 29.
[28] [28] Wert, p. 217.
[29] [29] Catton, pp. 256-57.
[30] Gods and Generals - Internet Movie Database (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0279111/ fullcredits#cast).
Ambrose Burnside
• Bailey, Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books. The Bloodiest Day: The Battle of Antietam. Alexandria,
VA: Time-Life Books, 1984. ISBN 0-8094-4740-1.
• Catton, Bruce. Mr. Lincoln's Army. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1951. ISBN 0-385-04310-4.
• Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.
ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
• Esposito, Vincent J. West Point Atlas of American Wars. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. OCLC 5890637.
The collection of maps (without explanatory text) is available online at the West Point website (http://www.
dean. usma. edu/ history/ web03/ atlases/ american_civil_war/).
• Goolrick, William K., and the Editors of Time-Life Books. Rebels Resurgent: Fredericksburg to Chancellorsville.
Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985. ISBN 0-8094-4748-7.
• Grimsley, Mark. And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June 1864. Lincoln: University of
Nebraska Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8032-2162-2.
• Korn, Jerry, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. The Fight for Chattanooga: Chickamauga to Missionary Ridge.
Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985. ISBN 0-8094-4816-5.
• McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford History of the United States. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
• Marvel, William. Burnside. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8078-1983-2.
• Mierka, Gregg A. "Rhode Island's Own." (http:// webspace. webring.com/ people/ ig/ gsgreene/ burnside.html)
MOLLUS biography. Accessed July 19, 2010.
• Rhea, Gordon C. The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8071-2136-3.
• Sauers, Richard A. "Ambrose Everett Burnside." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social,
and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
2000. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
• Sears, Stephen W. Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983. ISBN
• Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University
Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
• Wert, Jeffry D. The Sword of Lincoln: The Army of the Potomac. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN
• Wilson, James Grant, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos, eds. "Ambrose Burnside." In Appleton's Cyclopedia of
American Biography (http:// www. virtualology.com/ uscivilwarhall/ AMBROSEBURNSIDE. COM/ ). New
Work: D. Appleton & Co., 1887–1889 and 1999.
External links
• Ambrose E. Burnside in Encyclopedia Virginia (http://encyclopediavirginia. org/
• Burnside's grave (http:/ / quahog.org/attractions/ index. php?id=81)
• Civil War Home biography (http:// www. civilwarhome. com/ burnbio.htm)
American Civil War Corps Badges
American Civil War Corps Badges
Corps badges in the American Civil War were originally worn by soldiers of the Union Army on the top of their
army forage cap (kepi), left side of the hat, or over their left breast. The idea is attributed to Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny,
who ordered the men in his division to sew a two-inch square of red cloth on their hats to avoid confusion on the
battlefield. This idea was adopted by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker after he assumed command of the Army of the
Potomac, so any soldier could be identified at a distance.
Maj. Gen. Daniel Butterfield, Hooker's chief of staff, was assigned the task of designing a distinctive shape for each
corps badge. Butterfield also designated that each division in the corps should have a variation of the corps badge in
a different color. Division badges were colored as follows:
1. Red — First division of corps
2. White — Second division of corps
3. Blue — Third division of corps
These were used in the United States' Army of the Potomac. For the most part, these rules were adopted by other
Union Armies, however it was not universal. For example, the XIII Corps never adopted a badge, and the XIX Corps
had the first division wear a red badge, the second division wear a blue badge, and the third division wear white.
For Army corps that had more than three divisions, the standardization was lost:
1. Green — Fourth division of VI, IX, and XX Corps
2. Yellow — Fourth division of XV Corps (reportedly Orange was also used for a 5th Division Badge)
3. Multicolor — Headquarters or artillery elements (certain corps)
The badges for enlisted men were cut from colored cloth, while officer's badges were privately made and of a higher
quality. Metallic badges were often made by jewelers and were personalized for the user. The badges eventually
became part of the Army regulations and a great source of regimental pride.
Table of contents
•• Corps Badges
•• Corps Flags
•• See also
•• External links
Corps Badges
Union Army, I Corps, 1st
Division Badge,
Union Army, II Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, III Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, IV Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
American Civil War Corps Badges
Union Army, V Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, VI Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, VII Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, VIII Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, IX Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, X Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, XI Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XII Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XIV Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, XV Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, XVI Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XVII Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XVIII Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, XIX Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XX Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XXII Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
American Civil War Corps Badges
Union Army, XXIII Corps, 3rd
Division Badge
Union Army, XXIV Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Union Army, XXV Corps, 1st
Division Badge
Corps Flags
I Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Flag, I Corps Union Army 2nd Division Flag, I Corps Union Army 3rd Division Flag, I Corps
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
II Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Flag, II Corps,
Army of the Potomac
Union Army 2nd Division Flag, II Corps,
Army of the Potomac
Union Army 3rd Division Flag, II Corps,
Army of the Potomac
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
Union Army Corps Hqr's, II Corps, Army
of the Potomac
Union Army Artillery Brigade, II Corps,
Army of the Potomac
Union Army Quartermaster Badge, II
Corps, Army of the Potomac
Corps Hqr's Artillery Brigade Quartermaster
III Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Flag, III Corps Union Army 2nd Division Flag, III Corps Union Army 3rd Division Flag, III Corps
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
IV Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Flag, IV Corps Union Army 2nd Division Flag, IV Corps Union Army 3rd Division Flag, IV Corps
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
V Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Flag, V Corps Union Army 2nd Division Flag, V Corps Union Army 3rd Division Flag, V Corps
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
VI Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Flag, VI Corps Union Army 2nd Division Flag, VI Corps Union Army 3rd Division Flag, VI Corps
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
VII Corps, Dept of Arkansas
Union Army 1st Division Badge, VII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, VII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, VII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
VIII Corps, Middle Department
Union Army 1st Division Badge, VIII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, VIII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, VIII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
IX Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Badge, IX
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, IX
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, IX
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
Union Army 4th Division Badge, IX
4th Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
X Corps, Department of South
Union Army 1st Division Badge, X Corps Union Army 2nd Division Badge, X
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, X
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XI Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XI
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XI
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XI
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XII Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
XIII Corps, Army of the Tennessee
No badge was designated for the XIII Corps.
XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XIV
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XIV
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XIV
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XV Corps, Army of the Tennessee
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XV
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XV
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XV
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
Union Army 4th Division Badge, XV
Union Army Headquarters Badge, XV
4th Division Headquarters
American Civil War Corps Badges
XVI Corps, Military Division of West Mississippi
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XVI
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XVI
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XVI
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XVII Corps, Army of the Tennessee
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XVII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XVII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XVII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XVIII Corps, Army of the James
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XVIII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XVIII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XVIII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
XIX Corps, Middle Military Division
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XIX
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XIX
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XIX
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XX Corps, Army of the Cumberland
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XX
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XX
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XX
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
{Note:XX Corps Badges same as the old XII Corps; the XX Corps was consolidated from the XI and XII Corps}
XXI Corps
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XXI
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XXI
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XXI
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
Union Army
Headquarters Badge,
XXI Corps
XXII Corps, Dept of Washington
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XXII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XXII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XXII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
XXIII Corps, Dept of Ohio & Dept of North Carolina
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XXIII
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XXIII
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XXIII
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
XXIV Corps, Dept of Virginia
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XXIV
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XXIV
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XXIV
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
American Civil War Corps Badges
XXV Corps, Army of the James, Dept of Texas
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XXV
Union Army 2nd Division Badge, XXV
Union Army 3rd Division Badge, XXV
1st Division 2nd Division 3rd Division
Brigade Badges
I Corps, Army of the Potomac
Union Army I Corps, 1st Division Badge,
1st Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 2nd Division
Badge, 1st Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 3rd Division Badge,
1st Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 1st Division Badge,
2nd Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 2nd Division
Badge, 2nd Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 3rd Division Badge,
2nd Brigade
American Civil War Corps Badges
Union Army I Corps, 1st Division Badge,
3rd Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 2nd Division
Badge, 3rd Brigade
Union Army I Corps, 3rd Division Badge,
3rd Brigade
[1] [1] John D. Billings, Hardtack and Coffee
External links
• Corps Badges "Emblems Of Pride" (http:/ / civilwar.bluegrass. net/ FlagsUniformsAndInsignia/ corpsbadges.
• Designs of Civil War Corps Badges (http:/ / www.members. tripod.com/ ~howardlanham/linkgr3/link151.
• Union Corps Badges (http:/ / civilwarclipart.com/ Clipartgallery/ clipart4.htm)
American Civil War reenactment
Confederate reenactors fire their rifles during a reenactment of the
Battle of Chancellorsville in May 2008.
American Civil War reenactment is an effort to recreate
the appearance of a particular battle or other event
associated with the American Civil War by hobbyists
known (in the United States) as Civil War reenactors,
Civil War recreationists, or living historians. Although
most common in the United States, there are also
American Civil War reenactors in Canada, the United
and Italy.
Reenacting the American Civil War began even before the
real fighting had ended. Civil War veterans recreated
battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades and to teach others what the war was all about.
The Great
Reunion of 1913, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, was attended by more than 50,000
Union and Confederate veterans, and included
American Civil War reenactment
Confederate artillery reenactors fire on Union troops during a
Battle of Chickamauga reenactment in Danville, Illinois.
reenactments of elements of the battle, including Pickett's
Modern reenacting is thought to have begun
during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial
Reenacting grew in popularity during
the 1980s and 1990s, due in large part to the success of
the 125th Anniversary reenactment near the original
Manassas battlefield, which was attended by more than
6,000 reenactors.
That year, Time magazine estimated
that there were more than 50,000 reenactors in the U.S.
In 1998, the 135th anniversary re-enactment of the Battle
of Gettysburg took place near the original battlefield. There have been several estimates on the number of
participants, but it is widely agreed that it was the largest re-enactment ever held anywhere in the world, with
between 30,000 and 41,000 re-enactors participating. This event was watched by about 50,000 spectators.
Reenactment at the American Museum in Bath, England
American Civil War reenactments have drawn a fairly
sizable following of enthusiastic participants, young and
old, willing to brave the elements and expend money and
resources in their efforts to duplicate the events down to
the smallest recorded detail. Participants may even attend
classes put on by event sponsors where they learn how to
dress, cook, eat, and even "die" just as real Civil War
soldiers would have. Most reenactments have anywhere
from 100 to 1,000 participants, portraying either Union or
Confederate infantry, artillery, or cavalry forces. Some
people, though uncommon, may portray Engineers or
Marines. The 135th anniversary Gettysburg reenactment
(1998) is generally believed to be the most-attended reenactment, with attendance estimates ranging from 15,000
to over 20,000 reenactors.
Reasons given for participating in such activities vary. Some participants are interested in getting a historical
perspective on the turbulent times that gripped the nation, particularly if they can trace their ancestry back to those
who fought in the war. In some cases, if there are not enough reenactors present on one side, reenactors from the
other side are asked to change sides, or "galvanize", for the day/event.
Although many periods are reenacted around the world, Civil War reenactment is, by far, the most popular activity in
the US.
In 2000, the number of Civil War reenactors was estimated at 50,000,
though the number of
participants declined sharply through the ensuing decade, to around 30,000 in 2011.
Possible reasons for the
decline include the cost of participating and the variety of other entertainment options.
Although women and children commonly participate in reenactments as civilians (portraying, for example, members
of a soldiers' aid society), some women also take part in military portrayals. This is controversial within the
reenactment community; while there were a small handful of women who may have fought in the conflict, almost all
of them did so disguised as men. Attitudes on this topic seem to vary widely.
American Civil War reenactment
Categories of reenactors
Reenactors are commonly divided (or self-divide) into three categories, based on the level of concern for
Some, called "Farbs" or "polyester soldiers"
are reenactors who spend relatively little of their time or money
maintaining authenticity with regard to uniforms, accessories, or even period behavior. The 'Good Enough' attitude is
pervasive among farbs, although even casual observers may be able to point out flaws. Blue jeans, tennis shoes,
polyester (and other man-made fabrics), zippers, velcro, snoods, and modern cigarettes are common issues. The
origin of the word "farb" (and the derivative adjective "farby") is unknown, though it appears to date to early
centennial reenactments in 1960 or 1961.
An alternative definition is "Far Be it for me to
or "Fast And Researchless Buying".
Some early reenactors assert the word derives from
German Farbe, color, because inauthentic reenactors were over-colorful compared with the dull blues, greys or
browns of the real Civil War uniforms that were the principal concern of American reenactors at the time the word
was coined,.
According to Mr. Burton K. Kummerow, a member of "The Black Hats, CSA" reenactment
group in the early 1960s, he first heard it used as a form of fake German to describe a fellow reenactor. The term was
picked up by George Gorman of the 2nd North Carolina at the Centennial Manassas Reenactment in 1961, and has
been used by reenactors ever since.
Another group of reenactors often is called "Mainstream." These reenactors are somewhere between farb and
authentic. They are more common than either farbs or authentics. Most mainstream reenactors make an effort at
appearing authentic, but may come out of character in the absence of an audience. Visible stitches are likely to be
sewn in a period-correct manner, but hidden stitches and undergarments may not be period-appropriate. Food
consumed before an audience is likely to be generally appropriate to the early 1860s, but it may not be seasonally
and locally appropriate. Modern items are sometimes used "after hours" or in a hidden fashion. The common attitude
is to put on a good show, but that accuracy need only go as far as others can see.
At the other extreme from farbs are "hard-core authentics" or "progressives", as they prefer to be called.
Sometimes derisively called "stitch counters"
many people have misconceptions about hardcore reenactors.
Hard-cores generally seek an "immersive" reenacting experience, trying to live, as much as possible, as someone of
the 1860s might have. This includes eating seasonally and regionally appropriate food, sewing inside seams and
undergarments in a period-appropriate manner, and staying in character throughout an event.
The desire for an
immersive experience often leads hard-core reenactors to smaller events, and to setting up separate camps at larger
events, which often other reenactors often perceive as elitism.
Character reenactors
Some reenactors portray a specific officer or person such as General Robert E. Lee, General Ulysses S. Grant,
President Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, or a less well known officer such as Col. Abram Fulkerson. Character
reenactors may also portray a civilian man, woman, or child of significance. These reenactors often do not
participate in the actual combat portion of the reenactment and serve as narrators to the audience during the battle.
Often, character reenactors have extensively researched the person they portray and present a first-person narrative
of his story.
American Civil War reenactment
Civilian reenactors
In addition to military reenactment, a significant part of Civil War reenactment includes the portrayal of civilians,
including men, women, and children from infants to young adults. This can include portrayals as diverse as soldiers'
aid societies, sutlers, saloon proprietors, musicians, and insurance salesmen.
Types of Civil War reenactments
Public events
A typical Civil War Reenactment takes place over a weekend with the reenactors arriving on Friday and camping on
site while spectators view the event on Saturday and Sunday. Usually each reenactment is centered around a
Saturday battle and Sunday battle (often, but not always, intended to recreate an actual battle from the Civil War) in
addition to many of the activities listed below. Essentially, a traditional public reenactment is a three day long affair
that incorporates elements from each of the following categories. A good list for 2012 Public events can be found in
professional reenactor's publications or online.
Living histories
Living histories are meant entirely for education of the public. Such events do not necessarily have a mock battle but
instead are aimed at portraying the life, and more importantly the lifestyle, of the average Civil War soldier. This
does include civilian reenacting, a growing trend. Occasionally, a spy trial is recreated,and a medic too. More
common are weapons and cooking demonstrations, song and leisure activities, and lectures. These should not,
however, be confused with Living history museums. These outlets for living history utilize museum professionals
and trained interpreters in order to convey the most accurate information available to historians.
Living history is the only reenactment permitted on National Park Service land; NPS policy "does not allow for
battle reenactments (simulated combat with opposing lines and casualties) on NPS property."
Public demonstrations
Public demonstration in a parade for the
sesquicentennial of Red Wing, Minnesota.
Public demonstrations are smaller mock battles put on by reenacting
organizations and/or private parties primarily to show the public how
people in the 1860s lived, and to show the public civil war battles. The
battles are only loosely based on actual battles, if at all, and may
consist of demonstrations of basic tactics and maneuvering techniques.
Scripted battles
Scripted battles are reenactment in the strictest sense; the battles are
planned out beforehand so that the companies and regiments make the
same actions that were taken in the original battles. They are often
fought at or near the original battle ground or at a place very similar to
the original. A common question of non-reenactors concerns the
determination of who "dies" over the course of the battle. Reenactors commonly refer to the act of being killed or
wounded as "taking a hit" and is typically left up to the individual's discretion, although greatly influenced by the
events of the battle. Because most battles are based on their historical counterparts it is generally understood when to
begin taking hits and to what extent.
American Civil War reenactment
Closed events
Total immersion events
Total immersion events are made up solely of progressive ("hard-core authentic") reenactors, who often refer to them
as "Events By Us and For Us" or "EBUFU". As the names imply, these events are held for the personal edification of
the reenactors involved, allowing them to spend an extended time marching, eating, and generally living like actual
soldiers of the Civil War.
Total immersion events generally require participants to meet a high standard of
authenticity, and in most cases little or none of the event will be open to public viewing.
Tactical battles
Tactical battles, which are not usually open to the public,
are fought like real battles with each side devising
strategies and tactics to defeat their opponent(s). They have no script, a basic set of agreed-upon rules (physical
boundaries, time limit, victory conditions, etc.), and onsite judges or referees,
and so could be considered a form
of live action role-playing game. Tactical battles might also be considered a form of experimental archaeology.
Reenactment and media
Motion picture and television producers often turn to reenactment groups for support; films like Gettysburg, Glory
and Gods and Generals benefited greatly from the input of reenactors, who arrived on set fully equipped and steeped
in knowledge of military procedures, camp life, and tactics.
In a documentary about the making of the film Gettysburg, actor Sam Elliott, who portrayed Union General John
Buford in the film, said of reenactors:

I think we're really fortunate to have those people involved. In fact, they couldn't be making this picture without them; there's no question
about that. These guys come with their wardrobe, they come with their weaponry. They come with all the accoutrements, but they also come
with the stuff in their head and the stuff in their heart.

At times, however, the relationship between reenactors and filmmakers has been contentious. Although reenactors
for Gettysburg were unpaid, money was contributed on their behalf to a trust for historic preservation; however,
some subsequent productions have offered no such compensation. Also, in some cases reenactors have clashed with
directors over one-sided portrayals and historical inaccuracies.
Some producers have been less interested in
accuracy than in the sheer number of reenactors, which can result in safety issues. Finally, large film productions,
like Gettysburg, can draw enough reenactors to cause the cancellation of other events.
In 1998, a re-enactor at a Battle of Gettysburg recreation loaded a gun with live ammunition, wounding another
re-enactor in the neck.
[1] (http:// www. soskan. co. uk/ gb_acw. htm) More than 50,000 British citizens served during the American Civil War. (http:// www.
acwphotos.com/ )
[2] (http:/ / www. wbts-forum.org/ forum/index. php)
[3] (http:/ / members.tripod.com/ ~The_62nd/)
[4] (http:// www. rievocazioni-guerra-civile.it)
[5] [5] Hadden. p 4 "Civil War reenacting was done almost from the beginning of war, as soldiers demonstrated to family and friends their actions
during the war, in camp, in drill, and in battle. Veterans organizations recreated camp life to show their children and others how they lived and
to reproduce the camaraderie of shared experience with their fellow veterans."
[6] [6] Heiser.
[7] Hadden. p 4 "Without a doubt, Civil War reenactment got its boost during the centennial, which also saw the birth of the North-South
Skirmish Association (N-SSA)."
American Civil War reenactment
[8] Hadden. p 6 "In 1986, the first of the 125th Anniversary battles was held near the original battlefield of Manassas. More than anything, this
mega-event sparked an interest in the Civil War and reenacting."
[9] [9] Skow.
[10] reenactor.net, 2010" Source 6 (http:// www. reenactor.net/ forums/index.php?page=20)", 2/21/2010
[11] [11] Hadden. p 15
[12] [12] Stanton. p 64
[13] [13] Hadden p 220
[14] [14] Strauss. "In the United States, hobby organizations participate in the public reenactment of historical events. The most popular is Civil War
reenacting, which can be viewed as a manifestation of the unresolved nature of that war...Among reenactors, the quest for historical
authenticity is considered a core value."
[15] "Massachusetts company still rolls out hardtack dough for Civil War enthusiasts" (http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20080307090245/ http:/ /
archives.cnn. com/ 2000/ FOOD/ news/ 08/ 07/ civilwar. biscuits. ap/ ). CNN. 2000-08-07. Archived from the original (http:// archives.cnn.
com/2000/ FOOD/ news/ 08/ 07/ civilwar. biscuits. ap/ ) on 2008-03-07. . Retrieved 2008-08-14. "Word spread among roughly 50,000 Civil
War buffs, and business boomed."
[16] Douban, Gigi (2011-07-04), Fewer People Participate In Civil War Reenactments (http:// www.npr.org/ 2011/ 07/ 04/ 137609367/
fewer-people-participate-in-civil-war-reenactments), National Public Radio, , retrieved 2011-07-19
[17] "Women Military Reenactor's Homepage" (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20050515205452/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ womansoldier/ ).
Archived from the original (http:// www.geocities. com/ womansoldier/ ) on 2005-05-15. . Retrieved 2009-10-29.
[18] [18] Stanton. p 34
[19] [19] Hadden p 209 and p 219
[20] Hadden p 8 Ross M. Kimmel states that it was used at the Manassas reenactment in 1961...George Gorman and his 2nd North Carolina
picked up the term at the First Manassas Reenactment in 1961 and enjoyed using it constantly with condescension and sarcasm directed
toward other units.
[21] [21] Hadden, p 8
[22] (http:// wesclark. com/ jw/ forigin.html)
[23] Hadden p 8 Juanita Leisch calls it "Fast And Researchless Buying," and other sources insist it came from the Bicentennial and
Revolutionary War groups and means "Fairly Authentic Royal British."
[24] [24] Hadden p8
[25] (http:// www. worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ ww-far1.htm)
[26] [26] Hadden, p 219-220
[27] [27] Hadden p 138
[28] [28] Hadden p 224
[29] [29] Hadden, p 138 "The hard-core movement is often misunderstood and sometimes maligned."
[30] [30] Hadden p 138 "Like soldiers of the Civil War, progressives experience the same poor conditions that the original soldiers did, camping
without tents and sleeping out exposed to the cold and rain. They spend weekends eating bad and insufficient food, and they practice a steady
regimen of work, marching, and drill. They suffer the cold, carrying insufficient clothing and blankets as well as sleeping campaign-style by
spooning with each other for warmth."
[31] [31] Hadden p 139
[32] 2012 Civil War Reenactment Calendar (http:/ / thisweekinthecivilwar.com/ ?page_id=1082/)
[33] "Wilson's Creek National Battlefield FAQ" (http:// www.nps. gov/ wicr/faqs. htm). National Park Service. 2008-07-25. .
[34] Farhi, Paul (2011-07-15), "Civil War reenactment etiquette: How — and when — to die on the battlefield" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost.
com/ lifestyle/ style/ civil-war-reenactment-etiquette-how--and-when--to-die-on-the-battlefield/2011/ 07/ 11/ gIQAgNcRGI_print.html), The
Washington Post, , retrieved 2011-07-19
[35] [35] Hadden p 224 "Sometimes they are closed events, in which the public is not invited to observe."
[36] [36] Hadden. p 23
[37] [37] Hadden. p 23 "By living like the soldiers did, even for just a short time, the reenactors gain better understanding of how to wear the uniform
and use the equipment."
[38] [38] Details may be found in the "making of" features on the DVD versions of both films.
[39] This documentary can be found on the DVD of the film Gettysburg.
[40] [40] Hadden. p 7
[41] [41] Hadden. p 8
American Civil War reenactment
• Hadden, Robert Lee. " Reliving the Civil War: A reenactor's handbook (http:// www. netlibrary.com/ summary.
asp?id=42010)". Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1999.
• Heiser, John (1998-09). "The Great Reunion of 1913" (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ archive/gett/ getttour/ sidebar/
reunion13. htm). National Park Service. Archived (http:// web.archive.org/web/ 20080918074740/http:/ /
www. nps. gov/ archive/ gett/ getttour/sidebar/ reunion13. htm) from the original on 18 September 2008.
Retrieved 2008-08-15.
•• John Skow, et al., "Bang, Bang! You're History, Buddy," Time (August 11, 1986): 58.
• Stanton, Cathy (1999-11-01). " Reenactors in the Parks: A Study of External Revolutionary War Reenactment
Activity at National Parks (http:/ / www. nps. gov/ revwar/reenactors)" (PDF) National Park Service. Retrieved
on 2008-07-28.
• Strauss, Mitchell (2001). "A Framework for Assessing Military Dress Authenticity in Civil War Reenacting"
(http:/ / ctr.sagepub. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 19/ 4/ 145). Clothing and Textiles Research Journal
(International Textile & Apparel Association, Inc.) 19 (4): 145–157. doi:10.1177/0887302X0101900401.
Retrieved 2008-12-31.
External links
• Reenactor.net (http:// www. reenactor.net/ forums/index. php?page=20)
• The Civil War Reenactor's homepage (http:/ / www. cwreenactors.com/ )
• The Authentic Campaigner (http:/ / www. authentic-campaigner.com/ )
• |Union Volunteers - Reenactors (http:/ / www.unionvolunteers. com/ )
• http:/ / www. thesewingacademy.org/ (http:// www.thesewingacademy. org/)
• The Camp Chase Gazette (http:/ / www. campchase. com/ )
• The Civil War Living History Institute (http:// www. cwlhi.org/)
• American civil war re-enactment in Italy (http:// www.rievocazioni-guerra-civile.it/ )
• Reenactors (http:/ / angelasancartier.net/ reenactors)
• 2012 Civil War Reenactment Calendar (http:/ / thisweekinthecivilwar. com/ ?page_id=1082/)
American Civil War spies
American Civil War spies
Tactical or battlefield intelligence became very vital to both armies in the field during the American Civil War. Units
of spies and scouts reported directly to the commanders of armies in the field. They provided details on troop
movements and strengths. The distinction between spies and scouts was one that had life or death consequences. If a
suspect was seized while in disguise and not in his army's uniform, the sentence was often to be hanged. A spy
named Will Talbot, a member of the 35th Battalion, Virginia Cavalry, was left behind in Gettysburg after his
battalion had passed through the borough on June 26–27, 1863. He was captured, taken to Emmitsburg, Maryland,
and executed on orders of Brig. Gen. John Buford.
Intelligence gathering for the Confederates was focused on Alexandria, Virginia, and the surrounding area. Virginia
Governor John Letcher created a network of agents that included Rose O'Neal Greenhow and Thomas Jordan.
Greenhow delivered reports to Jordan via the “Secret Line,” the name for the system used to get letters, intelligence
reports, and other documents across the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers to Confederate officials.
The Confederacy’s Signal Corps was devoted primarily to communications and intercepts, but it also included a
covert agency called the Confederate Secret Service Bureau, which ran espionage and counter-espionage operations
in the North including two networks in Washington.
Confederate Spies
•• John Yates Beall
•• Belle Boyd
•• James Dunwoody Bulloch
•• Confederate Signal Bureau
•• David Owen Dodd
•• Antonia Ford
•• Rose O'Neal Greenhow
•• Henry Thomas Harrison
• Annie Jones (imprisoned on suspicions of being a spy)
•• Thomas Jordan
•• Alexander Keith, Jr.
•• Virginia Bethel Moon
•• Richard Thomas (Zarvona)
•• William Norris
•• Jean Guzman
• Sarah Slater
• Thomas A. Jones
• Thomas Harbin
• Joseph Baden
• William Bryant
American Civil War spies
Allan Pinkerton (left) with Abraham Lincoln
The Union's intelligence gathering initiatives were decentralized. Allan
Pinkerton worked for Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan and created the
United States Secret Service.
Lafayette C. Baker conducted
intelligence and security work for Lieutenant General Winfield Scott,
commander-in-chief of the U.S. Army. President Abraham Lincoln
hired William Alvin Lloyd to spy in the South and report to Lincoln
As a brigadier general in Missouri, Ulysses S. Grant was ordered by
Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont to start an intelligence organization.
Grant came to understand the power of intelligence and later put Brig.
Gen. Grenville M. Dodge as the head of his intelligence operations that
covered an area from Mississippi to Georgia with as many as one
hundred secret agents.
Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, who became commander of the Army of the
Potomac in January 1863, ordered his deputy provost marshal, Col.
George H. Sharpe, to create a unit to gather intelligence. Sharpe set up
what he called the Bureau of Military Information and was aided by
John C. Babcock, who had worked for Allan Pinkerton and had made maps for George B. McClellan. Sharpe’s
bureau produced reports based on information collected from agents, prisoners of war, refugees, Southern
newspapers, documents retrieved from battlefield corpses, and other sources. When Grant began his siege of
Petersburg in June 1864, Sharpe had become Grant’s intelligence chief.
The most useful military intelligence of the American Civil War was probably provided to Union officers by slaves
and smugglers.
Intelligence provided by slaves and blacks were called black dispatches.
Union Spies
•• Lafayette C. Baker
•• Charles C. Carpenter
•• George Curtis
•• Pauline Cushman
•• Sarah Emma Edmonds
•• Philip Henson
•• Hattie Lawton
•• Pryce Lewis
•• Allan Pinkerton
•• Albert D. Richardson
•• John Scobell
•• Harriet Tubman
•• Elizabeth Van Lew
•• Kate Warne
•• Timothy Webster
American Civil War spies
[1] Fishel (1996). The Secret War for The Union.
[2] United States (2005) Intelligence in the Civil War.
[3] Swanson, James L., Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. New York, HarperCollins, 2006, pp.167, 256.
[4] (http:// ehistory. osu. edu/ world/PeopleView. cfm?PID=162)
[5] [5] Swanson, James L., Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. New York, HarperCollins, 2006.
[6] Swanson, James L., Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. New York, HarperCollins, 2006, p. 258f.
[7] Swanson, James L., Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. New York, HarperCollins, 2006, p. 258.
[8] Swanson, James L., Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. New York, HarperCollins, 2006, p. 259.
[9] Quarles(1953). The Negro in the Civil War.
[10] Rose (1999). Black Dispatches.
• Fishel, E. C., The Secret War for The Union: The Untold Story of Military Intelligence in the Civil War. Boston,
Houghton Mifflin Co, 1996.
• Quarles, B., The African American in the Civil War. Boston, Little, Brown, 1953.
• Rose, P. K., Dispatches: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence During the Civil War. (http:/ / purl.
access. gpo. gov/ GPO/ LPS61145.''Black) Washington, D.C., Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central
Intelligence Agency, 1999.
• United States Government, Intelligence in the Civil War (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/publications/
additional-publications/ civil-war/index. html). Washington, D.C., Central Intelligence Agency, 2005.
• Swanson, James L., Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. New York, HarperCollins, 2006.
• (http:/ / ehistory. osu. edu/ world/PeopleView. cfm?PID=162)
External links
• Espionage in the Civil War (http:// www. civilwarhome.com/ espionage. htm)
American English
American English
Region United States
Native speakers
231 million  (2011)
Language family Indo-European
•• Germanic
•• West Germanic
• Anglo–Frisian
•• Anglic
•• English
•• ''
Writing system English alphabet (Latin script)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 en
ISO 639-2 eng
ISO 639-3 eng
Linguasphere 52-ABA
English language prevalence in the United States. Darker shades of blue indicate higher
concentrations of native English speakers in the corresponding states.
American English is a set of dialects
of the English language used mostly in
the United States. Approximately
two-thirds of the world's native
speakers of English live in the United
English is the most common language
in the United States. Though the U.S.
federal government has no official
language, English is the common
language used by the federal
government and is considered the de
facto language of the United States
because of its widespread use. English
has been given official status by 28 of
the 50 state governments.
The use of English in the United States is a result of English colonization. The first wave of English-speaking settlers
arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Since then, American English has been influenced by the languages of West Africa, the Native American population,
Irish, Spanish, and immigration.
American English
Compared with English as spoken in England, North American English
is more homogeneous. Some distinctive
accents can be found on the East Coast (for example, in eastern New England and New York City) partly because
these areas were in close contact with England and imitated prestigious varieties of British English at a time when
these were undergoing changes.
In addition, many speech communities on the East Coast have existed in their
present locations for centuries, while the interior of the country was settled by people from all regions of the existing
United States and developed a far more generic linguistic pattern.
The red areas are those where non-rhotic pronunciations are found
among some Caucasians in the United States. AAVE-influenced
non-rhotic pronunciations may be AAVE speakers throughout the
Most North American speech is rhotic, as English was
in most places in the 17th century. Rhoticity was
further supported by Hiberno-English, West Country
English and Scottish English as well as the fact most
regions of England at this time also had rhotic
In most varieties of North American
English, the sound corresponding to the letter r is an
alveolar approximant [ɹ] or retroflex [ɻ] rather than a
trill or a tap. The loss of syllable-final r in North
America is confined mostly to the accents of eastern
New England, New York City and surrounding areas
and the coastal portions of the South, and African
American Vernacular English.
In rural tidewater Virginia and eastern New England, 'r'
is non-rhotic in accented (such as "bird", "work",
"first", "birthday") as well as unaccented syllables,
although this is declining among the younger
generation of speakers. Dropping of syllable-final r
sometimes happens in natively rhotic dialects if r is
located in unaccented syllables or words and the next
syllable or word begins in a consonant. In England, the
lost r was often changed into [ə] (schwa), giving rise to
a new class of falling diphthongs. Furthermore, the er sound of fur or butter, is realized in AmE as a monophthongal
r-colored vowel (stressed [ɝ] or unstressed [ɚ] as represented in the IPA). This does not happen in the non-rhotic
varieties of North American speech.
Some other English changes in which most North American dialects do not participate:
• The shift of /æ/ to /ɑ/ (the so-called "broad A") before /f/, /s/, /θ/, /ð/, /z/, /v/ alone or preceded by a homorganic
nasal. In the United States, only eastern New England speakers took up this modification, although even there it is
becoming increasingly rare. However, the Mid-Atlantic split-a system has been noted to be a related phenomenon,
creating instead a tensed, diphthongized variant before certain consonants, moving in the opposite direction in the
mouth compared to the backed British "broad A."
• The regular realization of intervocalic /t/ as a glottal stop [ʔ] (as in [ˈbɒʔəl] for bottle). The only environment in
which t-glotallization is standard in American English is before "n," as in "button" /ˈbʌʔn/.
On the other hand, North American English has undergone some sound changes not found in other varieties of
English speech:
• The merger of /ɑ/ and /ɒ/, making father and bother rhyme. This change is nearly universal in North American
English, and has given rise to alternative spellings of common English language names, for example, Byonka
(Bianca), both of which sound identical. Another example is Antwon (Antoin). Exceptions are accents in
American English
northeastern New England, such as the Boston accent, and in New York City.
• The merger of /ɑ/ and /ɔ/. This is the so-called cot–caught merger, where cot and caught are homophones. This
change has occurred in eastern New England, in Pittsburgh and surrounding areas, and from the Great Plains
• For speakers who do not merge caught and cot: The replacement of the cot vowel with the caught vowel before
voiceless fricatives (as in cloth, off [which is found in some old-fashioned varieties of RP]), as well as before /ŋ/
(as in strong, long), usually in gone, often in on, and irregularly before /ɡ/ (log, hog, dog, fog [which is not found
in British English at all]).
• The replacement of the lot vowel with the strut vowel in most utterances of the words was, of, from, what and in
many utterances of the words everybody, nobody, somebody, anybody; the word because has either /ʌ/ or /ɔ/;
want has normally /ɔ/ or /ɑ/, sometimes /ʌ/.
• Vowel merger before intervocalic /ɹ/. Which vowels are affected varies between dialects, but the
Mary-marry-merry, nearer-mirror, and hurry–furry mergers are all widespread. Another such change is the laxing
of /e/, /i/ and /u/ to /ɛ/, /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ before /ɹ/, causing pronunciations like [pɛɹ], [pɪɹ] and [pjʊɹ] for pair, peer and
pure. The resulting sound [ʊɹ] is often further reduced to [ɝ], especially after palatals, so that cure, pure, mature
and sure rhyme with fir.
• Dropping of /j/ is more extensive than in RP. In most North American accents, /j/ is dropped after all alveolar and
interdental consonant, so that new, duke, Tuesday, resume are pronounced /nu/, /duk/, /ˈtuzdeɪ/, /ɹɪˈzum/.
• æ-tensing in environments that vary widely from accent to accent; for example, for many speakers, /æ/ is
approximately realized as [eə] before nasal stops. In some accents, particularly those from Baltimore,
Philadelphia, and New York City, [æ] and [eə] contrast sometimes, as in Yes, I can [kæn] vs. tin can [keən].
• The flapping of intervocalic /t/ and /d/ to alveolar tap [ɾ] before unstressed vowels (as in butter, party) and
syllabic /l/ (bottle), as well as at the end of a word or morpheme before any vowel (what else, whatever). Thus,
for most speakers, pairs such as ladder/latter, metal/medal, and coating/coding are pronounced the same. For
many speakers, this merger is incomplete and does not occur after /aɪ/; these speakers tend to pronounce writer
with [ʌɪ] and rider with [aɪ]. This is a form of Canadian raising but, unlike more extreme forms of that process,
does not affect /aʊ/. In some areas and idiolects, a phonemic distinction between what elsewhere become
homophones through this process is maintained by vowel lengthening in the vowel preceding the formerly voiced
consonant, e.g., [ˈlæːɾɚ] for "ladder" as opposed to [ˈlæɾɚ] for "latter".
• T glottalization is common when /t/ is in the final position of a syllable or word (get, fretful: [ɡɛʔ], [ˈfɹɛʔfəl]),
though this is always superseded by the aforementioned rules of flapping
• Both intervocalic /nt/ and /n/ may be realized as [n] or [ɾ̃], making winter and winner homophones. In most areas
where /nt/ is reduced to /n/, it is accompanied further by nasalization of simple post-vocalic /n/, so that /Vnt/ and
/Vn/ remain phonemically distinct. In such cases, the preceding vowel becomes nasalized, and is followed in
cases where the former /nt/ was present, by a distinct /n/. This stop-absorption by the preceding nasal /n/ does not
occur when the second syllable is stressed, as in entail.
• The pin–pen merger, by which [ɛ] is raised to [ɪ] before nasal stops, making pairs like pen/pin homophonous.
This merger originated in Southern American English but is now also sometimes found in parts of the Midwest
and West as well, especially in people with roots in the mountainous areas of the Southeastern United States.
Some mergers found in most varieties of both American and British English include:
• The merger of the vowels /ɔ/ and /o/ before 'r', making pairs like horse/hoarse, corps/core, for/four,
morning/mourning, etc. homophones.
• The wine–whine merger making pairs like wine/whine, wet/whet, Wales/whales, wear/where, etc. homophones, in
most cases eliminating /ʍ/, the voiceless labiovelar fricative. Many older varieties of southern and western
American English still keep these distinct, but the merger appears to be spreading.
American English
North America has given the English lexicon many thousands of words, meanings, and phrases. Several thousand are
now used in English as spoken internationally.
Creation of an American lexicon
The process of coining new lexical items started as soon as the colonists began borrowing names for unfamiliar flora,
fauna, and topography from the Native American languages.
Examples of such names are opossum, raccoon,
squash and moose (from Algonquian).
Other Native American loanwords, such as wigwam or moccasin, describe
articles in common use among Native Americans. The languages of the other colonising nations also added to the
American vocabulary; for instance, cookie, cruller, stoop, and pit (of a fruit) from Dutch; levee, portage ("carrying
of boats or goods") and (probably) gopher from French; barbecue, stevedore, and rodeo from Spanish.
Among the earliest and most notable regular "English" additions to the American vocabulary, dating from the early
days of colonization through the early 19th century, are terms describing the features of the North American
landscape; for instance, run, branch, fork, snag, bluff, gulch, neck (of the woods), barrens, bottomland, notch, knob,
riffle, rapids, watergap, cutoff, trail, timberline and divide. Already existing words such as creek, slough, sleet and
(in later use) watershed received new meanings that were unknown in England.
Other noteworthy American toponyms are found among loanwords; for example, prairie, butte (French); bayou
(Choctaw via Louisiana French); coulee (Canadian French, but used also in Louisiana with a different meaning);
canyon, mesa, arroyo (Spanish); vlei, skate, kill (Dutch, Hudson Valley).
The word corn, used in England to refer to wheat (or any cereal), came to denote the plant Zea mays, the most
important crop in the U.S., originally named Indian corn by the earliest settlers; wheat, rye, barley, oats, etc. came to
be collectively referred to as grain. Other notable farm related vocabulary additions were the new meanings assumed
by barn (not only a building for hay and grain storage, but also for housing livestock) and team (not just the horses,
but also the vehicle along with them), as well as, in various periods, the terms range, (corn) crib, truck, elevator,
sharecropping and feedlot.
Ranch, later applied to a house style, derives from Mexican Spanish; most Spanish contributions came after the War
of 1812, with the opening of the West. Among these are, other than toponyms, chaps (from chaparreras), plaza,
lasso, bronco, buckaroo, rodeo; examples of "English" additions from the cowboy era are bad man, maverick, chuck
("food") and Boot Hill; from the California Gold Rush came such idioms as hit pay dirt or strike it rich. The word
blizzard probably originated in the West. A couple of notable late 18th century additions are the verb belittle and the
noun bid, both first used in writing by Thomas Jefferson.
With the new continent developed new forms of dwelling, and hence a large inventory of words designating real
estate concepts (land office, lot, outlands, waterfront, the verbs locate and relocate, betterment, addition,
subdivision), types of property (log cabin, adobe in the 18th century; frame house, apartment, tenement house,
shack, shanty in the 19th century; project, condominium, townhouse, split-level, mobile home, multi-family in the
20th century), and parts thereof (driveway, breezeway, backyard, dooryard; clapboard, siding, trim, baseboard;
stoop (from Dutch), family room, den; and, in recent years, HVAC, central air, walkout basement).
Ever since the American Revolution, a great number of terms connected with the U.S. political institutions have
entered the language; examples are run, gubernatorial, primary election, carpetbagger (after the Civil War),
repeater, lame duck (a British term used originally in Banking)
and pork barrel. Some of these are internationally
used (for example, caucus, gerrymander, filibuster, exit poll).
American English
19th century onwards
The development of industry and material innovations throughout the 19th and 20th centuries were the source of a
massive stock of distinctive new words, phrases and idioms. Typical examples are the vocabulary of railroading (see
further at rail terminology) and transportation terminology, ranging from names of roads (from dirt roads and back
roads to freeways and parkways) to road infrastructure (parking lot, overpass, rest area), and from automotive
terminology to public transit (for example, in the sentence "riding the subway downtown"); such American
introductions as commuter (from commutation ticket), concourse, to board (a vehicle), to park, double-park and
parallel park (a car), double decker or the noun terminal have long been used in all dialects of English.
Trades of various kinds have endowed (American) English with household words describing jobs and occupations
(bartender, longshoreman, patrolman, hobo, bouncer, bellhop, roustabout, white collar, blue collar, employee, boss
[from Dutch], intern, busboy, mortician, senior citizen), businesses and workplaces (department store, supermarket,
thrift store, gift shop, drugstore, motel, main street, gas station, hardware store, savings and loan, hock [also from
Dutch]), as well as general concepts and innovations (automated teller machine, smart card, cash register,
dishwasher, reservation [as at hotels], pay envelope, movie, mileage, shortage, outage, blood bank).
Already existing English words—such as store, shop, dry goods, haberdashery, lumber—underwent shifts in
meaning; some—such as mason, student, clerk, the verbs can (as in "canned goods"), ship, fix, carry, enroll (as in
school), run (as in "run a business"), release and haul—were given new significations, while others (such as
tradesman) have retained meanings that disappeared in England. From the world of business and finance came
breakeven, merger, delisting, downsize, disintermediation, bottom line; from sports terminology came, jargon aside,
Monday-morning quarterback, cheap shot, game plan (football); in the ballpark, out of left field, off base, hit and
run, and many other idioms from baseball; gamblers coined bluff, blue chip, ante, bottom dollar, raw deal, pass the
buck, ace in the hole, freeze-out, showdown; miners coined bedrock, bonanza, peter out, pan out and the verb
prospect from the noun; and railroadmen are to be credited with make the grade, sidetrack, head-on, and the verb
railroad. A number of Americanisms describing material innovations remained largely confined to North America:
elevator, ground, gasoline; many automotive terms fall in this category, although many do not (hatchback, SUV,
station wagon, tailgate, motorhome, truck, pickup truck, to exhaust).
In addition to the above-mentioned loans from French, Spanish, Mexican Spanish, Dutch, and Native American
languages, other accretions from foreign languages came with 19th and early 20th century immigration; notably,
from Yiddish (chutzpah, schmooze, tush) and German—hamburger and culinary terms like frankfurter/franks,
liverwurst, sauerkraut, wiener, deli(catessen); scram, kindergarten, gesundheit;
musical terminology (whole
note, half note, etc.); and apparently cookbook, fresh ("impudent") and what gives? Such constructions as Are you
coming with? and I like to dance (for "I like dancing") may also be the result of German or Yiddish influence.
Finally, a large number of English colloquialisms from various periods are American in origin; some have lost their
American flavor (from OK and cool to nerd and 24/7), while others have not (have a nice day, sure);
many are
now distinctly old-fashioned (swell, groovy). Some English words now in general use, such as hijacking, disc jockey,
boost, bulldoze and jazz, originated as American slang. Among the many English idioms of U.S. origin are get the
hang of, take for a ride, bark up the wrong tree, keep tabs, run scared, take a backseat, have an edge over, stake a
claim, take a shine to, in on the ground floor, bite off more than one can chew, off/on the wagon, stay put, inside
track, stiff upper lip, bad hair day, throw a monkey wrench, under the weather, jump bail, come clean, come again?,
it ain't over till it's over, what goes around comes around, and will the real x please stand up?
American English
American English has always shown a marked tendency to use nouns as verbs.
Examples of verbed nouns are
interview, advocate, vacuum, lobby, pressure, rear-end, transition, feature, profile, spearhead, skyrocket, showcase,
service (as a car), corner, torch, exit (as in "exit the lobby"), factor (in mathematics), gun ("shoot"), author (which
disappeared in English around 1630 and was revived in the U.S. three centuries later) and, out of American material,
proposition, graft (bribery), bad-mouth, vacation, major, backpack, backtrack, intern, ticket (traffic violations),
hassle, blacktop, peer-review, dope and OD, and, of course verbed as used at the start of this sentence.
Compounds coined in the U.S. are for instance foothill, flatlands, badlands, landslide (in all senses), overview (the
noun), backdrop, teenager, brainstorm, bandwagon, hitchhike, smalltime, deadbeat, frontman, lowbrow and
highbrow, hell-bent, foolproof, nitpick, about-face (later verbed), upfront (in all senses), fixer-upper, no-show; many
of these are phrases used as adverbs or (often) hyphenated attributive adjectives: non-profit, for-profit, free-for-all,
ready-to-wear, catchall, low-down, down-and-out, down and dirty, in-your-face, nip and tuck; many compound
nouns and adjectives are open: happy hour, fall guy, capital gain, road trip, wheat pit, head start, plea bargain;
some of these are colorful (empty nester, loan shark, ambulance chaser, buzz saw, ghetto blaster, dust bunny), others
are euphemistic (differently abled (physically challenged), human resources, affirmative action, correctional
Many compound nouns have the form verb plus preposition: add-on, stopover, lineup, shakedown, tryout, spin-off,
rundown ("summary"), shootout, holdup, hideout, comeback, cookout, kickback, makeover, takeover, rollback
("decrease"), rip-off, come-on, shoo-in, fix-up, tie-in, tie-up ("stoppage"), stand-in. These essentially are nouned
phrasal verbs; some prepositional and phrasal verbs are in fact of American origin (spell out, figure out, hold up,
brace up, size up, rope in, back up/off/down/out, step down, miss out, kick around, cash in, rain out, check in and
check out (in all senses), fill in ("inform"), kick in or throw in ("contribute"), square off, sock in, sock away, factor
in/out, come down with, give up on, lay off (from employment), run into and across ("meet"), stop by, pass up, put up
(money), set up ("frame"), trade in, pick up on, pick up after, lose out.
Noun endings such as -ee (retiree), -ery (bakery), -ster (gangster) and -cian (beautician) are also particularly
Some verbs ending in -ize are of U.S. origin; for example, fetishize, prioritize, burglarize,
accessorize, itemize, editorialize, customize, notarize, weatherize, winterize, Mirandize; and so are some
back-formations (locate, fine-tune, evolute, curate, donate, emote, upholster, peeve and enthuse). Among syntactical
constructions that arose in the U.S. are as of (with dates and times), outside of, headed for, meet up with, back of,
convince someone to..., not to be about to and lack for.
Americanisms formed by alteration of some existing words include notably pesky, phony, rambunctious, pry (as in
"pry open," from prize), putter (verb), buddy, sundae, skeeter, sashay and kitty-corner. Adjectives that arose in the
U.S. are for example, lengthy, bossy, cute and cutesy, grounded (of a child), punk (in all senses), sticky (of the
weather), through (as in "through train," or meaning "finished"), and many colloquial forms such as peppy or wacky.
American blends include motel, guesstimate, infomercial and televangelist.
English words that survived in the United States and not Britain
A number of words and meanings that originated in Middle English or Early Modern English and that always have
been in everyday use in the United States dropped out in most varieties of British English; some of these have
cognates in Lowland Scots. Terms such as fall ("autumn"), faucet, diaper, candy, skillet, eyeglasses, and obligate,
are often regarded as Americanisms. Fall for example came to denote the season in 16th century England, a
contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year".
During the 17th century, English immigration to the British colonies in North America was at its peak and the new
settlers took the English language with them. While the term fall gradually became obsolete in Britain, it became the
more common term in North America. Gotten (past participle of get) is often considered to be an Americanism,
although there are some areas of Britain, such as Lancashire and North-eastern England, that still continue to use it
American English
and sometimes also use putten as the past participle for put (which is not done by most speakers of American
Other words and meanings, to various extents, were brought back to Britain, especially in the second half of the 20th
century; these include hire ("to employ"), quit ("to stop," which spawned quitter in the U.S.), I guess (famously
criticized by H. W. Fowler), baggage, hit (a place), and the adverbs overly and presently ("currently"). Some of
these, for example monkey wrench and wastebasket, originated in 19th-century Britain.
The mandative subjunctive (as in "the City Attorney suggested that the case not be closed") is livelier in American
English than it is in British English. It appears in some areas as a spoken usage and is considered obligatory in
contexts that are more formal. The adjectives mad meaning "angry", smart meaning "intelligent", and sick meaning
"ill" are also more frequent in American (these meanings are also frequent in Hiberno-English) than British
Regional differences
While written AmE is standardized across the country, there are several recognizable variations in the spoken
language, both in pronunciation and in vernacular vocabulary. General American is the name given to any American
accent that is relatively free of noticeable regional influences.
Eastern seaboard
After the Civil War, the settlement of the western territories by migrants from the Eastern U.S. led to dialect mixing
and leveling, so that regional dialects are most strongly differentiated along the Eastern seaboard. The Connecticut
River and Long Island Sound is usually regarded as the southern/western extent of New England speech, which has
its roots in the speech of the Puritans from East Anglia who settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
The Potomac River generally divides a group of Northern coastal dialects from the beginning of the Coastal
Southern dialect area; in between these two rivers several local variations exist, chief among them the one that
prevails in and around New York City and northern New Jersey, which developed on a Dutch substratum after the
English conquered New Amsterdam. The main features of Coastal Southern speech can be traced to the speech of the
English from the West Country who settled in Virginia after leaving England at the time of the English Civil War.
A distinctive speech pattern also appears near the border between Canada and the United States, centered on the
Great Lakes region (but only on the American side). This is the Inland North Dialect—the "standard Midwestern"
speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th century (although it has been recently modified by
the northern cities vowel shift). Those not from this area frequently confuse it with the North Midland dialect treated
below, referring to both collectively as "Midwestern" in the mid-Atlantic region or "Northern" in the Southern US.
The so-called '"Minnesotan" dialect is also prevalent in the cultural Upper Midwest, and is characterized by
influences from the German and Scandinavian settlers of the region (yah for yes/ja in German, pronounced the same
way). In parts of Pennsylvania and Ohio, another dialect known as Pennsylvania Dutch English is also spoken.
In the interior, the situation is very different. West of the Appalachian Mountains begins the broad zone of what is
generally called "Midland" speech. This is divided into two discrete subdivisions, the North Midland that begins
north of the Ohio River valley area, and the South Midland speech; sometimes the former is designated simply
"Midland" and the latter is reckoned as "Highland Southern". The North Midland speech continues to expand
westward until it becomes the closely related Western dialect which contains Pacific Northwest English as well as
the well-known California English, although in the immediate San Francisco area some older speakers do not
American English
possess the cot–caught merger and thus retain the distinction between words such as cot and caught which reflects a
historical Mid-Atlantic heritage.
The South Midland or Highland Southern dialect follows the Ohio River in a generally southwesterly direction,
moves across Arkansas and Oklahoma west of the Mississippi, and peters out in West Texas. It is a version of the
Midland speech that has assimilated some coastal Southern forms (outsiders often mistakenly believe South Midland
speech and coastal South speech to be the same).
Although no longer region-specific,
African American Vernacular English, which remains prevalent among
African Americans, has a close relationship to Southern varieties of AmE and has greatly influenced everyday
speech of many Americans.
The island state of Hawaii has a distinctive Hawaiian Pidgin.
Finally, dialect development in the United States has been notably influenced by the distinctive speech of such
important cultural centers as Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Charleston, Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, New Orleans,
New York City, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, which imposed their marks on the surrounding areas.
Differences between British and American English
American English and British English (BrE) differ at the levels of phonology, phonetics, vocabulary, and, to a lesser
extent, grammar and orthography. The first large American dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English
Language, was written by Noah Webster in 1828; Webster intended to show that the United States, which was a
relatively new country at the time, spoke a different dialect from that of Britain.
Differences in grammar are relatively minor, and normally do not affect mutual intelligibility; these include:
different use of some verbal auxiliaries; formal (rather than notional) agreement with collective nouns; different
preferences for the past forms of a few verbs (for example, AmE/BrE: learned/learnt, burned/burnt, snuck/sneaked,
dove/dived); different prepositions and adverbs in certain contexts (for example, AmE in school, BrE at school); and
whether or not a definite article is used, in very few cases (AmE to the hospital, BrE to hospital; contrast, however,
AmE actress Elizabeth Taylor, BrE the actress Elizabeth Taylor). Often, these differences are a matter of relative
preferences rather than absolute rules; and most are not stable, since the two varieties are constantly influencing each
Differences in orthography are also trivial. Some of the forms that now serve to distinguish American from British
spelling (color for colour, center for centre, traveler for traveller, etc.) were introduced by Noah Webster himself;
others are due to spelling tendencies in Britain from the 17th century until the present day (for example, -ise for -ize,
although the Oxford English Dictionary still prefers the -ize ending) and cases favored by the francophile tastes of
19th century Victorian England, which had little effect on AmE (for example, programme for program, manoeuvre
for maneuver, skilful for skillful, cheque for check, etc.).
One of the most common spelling differences is that
words ending in "-re" in BrE are rendered as "-er" in AmE (such as "centre" and "center", "theatre" and "theater",
and "metre" and "meter").
AmE sometimes favors words that are morphologically more complex, whereas BrE uses clipped forms, such as
AmE transportation and BrE transport or where the British form is a back-formation, such as AmE burglarize and
BrE burgle (from burglar). It should, however, be noted that while individuals usually use one or the other, both
forms will be widely understood and mostly used alongside each other within the two systems.
American English
[1] English Adjective (http:// www. oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/ dictionary/ english_2) – Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary –
Oxford University Press ©2010.
[2] "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES" (http:// factfinder2.census. gov/ faces/ tableservices/ jsf/ pages/
productview. xhtml?pid=ACS_11_1YR_DP02& prodType=table). US Census Bureau. . Retrieved 2012-11-23.
[3] Crystal, David (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6.
[4] Crawford, James. "Language Legislation in the U.S.A." (http:/ / www. languagepolicy.net/ archives/ langleg.htm). languagepolicy.net.
2008-06-24. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
[5] "States with Official English Laws" (http:/ / www. us-english. org/view/ 13). us-english.org. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
[6] North American English (Trudgill, p. 2) is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States
and Canada.
[7] Trudgill, pp. 46–47.
[8] [8] Labov, p. 48.
[9] [9] . JSTOR 25484343.
[10] Merriam Webster Pronunciation Guide (http:/ / www. merriamwebster.com/ help/ pronguide.htm)
[11] Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22919-7 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-521-24224-X
(vol. 2), ISBN 0-521-24225-8 (vol. 3)., pp. 136–37, 203–6, 234, 245–47, 339–40, 400, 419, 443, 576
[12] [12] Labov et al. (2006), p. 171
[13] According to Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. For speakers who merge caught and cot, /ɔ/ is to be understood as
the vowel they have in both caught and cot.
[14] (http:/ / www. infoplease. com/ ipd/ A0731165. html), (http:// www. bartleby.com/ 61/ 55/ W0025500.html), (http:// www. m-w. com/
dictionary/ want)
[15] Principles of English etymology: The ... - Google Books (http://books.google.com/ books?hl=en& lr=&id=ltoDXfkzZGsC& oi=fnd&
pg=PA1& dq=moose+ etymology& ots=sSxd8GVMPH& sig=8iFiF5oNiF2E0U5LHoZUUF1dHHU#v=onepage&q& f=falseM)
[16] Principles of English etymology: The ... - Google Books (http:/ /books.google.com/ books?hl=en& lr=&id=ltoDXfkzZGsC& oi=fnd&
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[17] "The history of Mexican folk foodways of South Texas: Street vendors, o" by Mario Montano (http:/ / repository.upenn.edu/ dissertations/
[18] What's in a word?: etymological ... - Google Books (http:// books. google.com/ books?hl=en& lr=&id=ROmDu-bYMRYC& oi=fnd&
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[19] GOPHER (http:// books. google. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=p1krAAAAYAAJ& oi=fnd&pg=PA9&dq=gaufre+gopher&
ots=00ds4J1VBe& sig=DF3qa0vDjd2mxhMb0IW1Nmu_OB0#v=onepage& q=gaufre &f=false)
[20] The American Language: A Preliminary ... - Google Books (http:/ / books. google.com/ books?hl=en& lr=&id=osQAtpUtDvkC& oi=fnd&
pg=PR7& dq=dutch+words+ american+english& ots=sMZL8QrNdq&sig=SM1AA9RcONfDv1AwJ1DXDqkmf8U#v=onepage& q=stoop&
[21] [21] "Lame Duck". Word Detective.com. Retrieved 2008-12-15
[22] A few of these are now chiefly found, or have been more productive, outside of the U.S.; for example, jump, "to drive past a traffic signal;"
block meaning "building," and center, "central point in a town" or "main area for a particular activity" (cf. Oxford English Dictionary).
[23] The Maven's Word of the Day (http:/ / www. randomhouse. com/ wotd/ index.pperl?date=19970923), Random House. Retrieved February
8, 2007.
[24] Trudgill, Peter (2004). New-Dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes.
[25] (http:/ / www. oup. com/ oald-bin/ web_getald7index1a. pl?nav=on&which_entry=009421#x1#x1#day&selected_word=day&
search_word=day), (http:// www. oup. com/ oald-bin/web_getald7index1a.pl?nav=on& which_entry=036903#x1#x1#sure&
selected_word=sure& search_word=sure#sure_adv) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
[26] (http:// dictionary. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/50102309?query_type=word&queryword=hang&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
result_place=3&search_id=o02i-Uyeh46-1957&hilite=50102309), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/ 50206483?query_type=word&
queryword=ride&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=1&search_id=o02i-yPlCdm-1960&hilite=50206483), (http:/
/ dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50017673?query_type=word&queryword=bark&first=1& max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
result_place=4&search_id=o02i-zhGGt9-1966&hilite=50017673), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/ 50245760?query_type=word&
queryword=tab&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&result_place=3& search_id=o02i-YKl3za-1974&hilite=50245760), (http://
dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50210607?query_type=word&queryword=run&first=1& max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
result_place=5&search_id=o02i-k5JnNq-1988& hilite=50210607), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/cgi/ entry/ 50016373?single=1&
query_type=word&queryword=backseat& first=1&max_to_show=10), (http:// dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/
50072115?query_type=word&queryword=edge&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=1&
search_id=o02i-iPYfon-2005&hilite=50072115), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/50235835?query_type=word&queryword=stake&
first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=3& search_id=o02i-0PqFFv-2008&hilite=50235835), (http:// dictionary.oed.
com/ cgi/ entry/50222908?query_type=word&queryword=shine&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
search_id=o02i-u3OA8w-2013&result_place=4), (http:// dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/entry/50099344?single=1& query_type=word&
American English
queryword=ground+floor&first=1&max_to_show=10), (http:// dictionary. oed.com/ cgi/ entry/50022741?query_type=word&
queryword=bite&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&result_place=2& search_id=o02i-rkSSYK-2035&hilite=50022741), (http:/
/dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50279834?query_type=word&queryword=wagon&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
result_place=3&search_id=o02i-VrbCfO-2045&hilite=50279834), (http:// dictionary.oed. com/cgi/entry/ 50236567?query_type=word&
queryword=stay&first=1&max_to_show=10& single=1& sort_type=alpha), (http:// dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/50117998/
50117998se12?single=1& query_type=word&queryword=inside+track&first=1&max_to_show=10& hilite=50117998se12), (http://
dictionary. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 00314169?query_type=word&queryword=monkey+wrench& first=1&max_to_show=10&
sort_type=alpha&result_place=1& search_id=o02i-u1UEzC-2083&hilite=00314169), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/
50282078?query_type=word&queryword=weather&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=1&
search_id=o02i-wfJU2N-2089&hilite=50282078), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/ 50124674?query_type=advsearch&
queryword=jump+ bail& first=1&max_to_show=10& search_spec=simple:fulltext& order=ab&return_set=entries&sort_type=alpha&
result_place=1& control_no=50124674& search_id=o02i-mkFxVs-2094&side=M), (http:// dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/
50041138?query_type=word&queryword=come&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=5), (http:// dictionary.oed.
com/ cgi/ entry/50044630?query_type=word&queryword=come&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=5&
search_id=o02i-XJNfzM-2111& hilite=50044630), (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/00336363/ 00336363se15?single=1&
query_type=word&queryword=it+ain't+over+till+ it's+over& first=1&max_to_show=10& hilite=00336363se15), (http:// dictionary.oed.
com/ cgi/ entry/50096254/ 50096254se291?single=1& query_type=word&queryword=what+goes+ around+comes+ around& first=1&
max_to_show=10& hilite=50096254se291), (http:// dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/50236064?query_type=advsearch&queryword=will+
the+real+ please+ stand+ up& first=1&max_to_show=10& search_spec=simple:fulltext& order=ab&return_set=entries&sort_type=alpha&
result_place=1&control_no=50236064& search_id=o02i-j2suW3-1930&side=M)
[27] [27] Trudgill, p. 69.
[28] (http:/ / dictionary. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/50232893?) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/ 50084582/ 50084582se12?single=1&
query_type=word& queryword=figure+out& first=1&max_to_show=10& hilite=50084582se12) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/
50107109/ 50107109se53?query_type=word&queryword=hold+up& first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&result_place=1&
search_id=f2Cb-qlNYMH-4067& hilite=50107109se53) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/ 50225951/ 50225951se1?single=1&
query_type=word&queryword=size+up& first=1&max_to_show=10& hilite=50225951se1) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/
50208750?) (http:/ / dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50016263/ 50016263se19?query_type=word&queryword=back+up& first=1&
max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=1&search_id=f2Cb-8eN1ib-4115&hilite=50016263se19) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/
cgi/ entry/50237099/ 50237099se24?query_type=word&queryword=step+down& first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
result_place=2& search_id=f2Cb-GnUl9A-4127&hilite=50237099se24) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/
00311905?query_type=word& queryword=miss& first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=6&
search_id=f2Cb-GT1q2L-4137&hilite=00311905) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/ 50126465?) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/
entry/50196574?query_type=word&queryword=rain+out&first=1& max_to_show=10& single=1& sort_type=alpha) (http:// dictionary.
oed.com/ cgi/ entry/50034059/ 50034059se1?query_type=word&queryword=cash+in& first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha&
result_place=1&search_id=f2Cb-smXBXz-4166& hilite=50034059se1) (http:// dictionary.oed.com/ cgi/ entry/
50081535?query_type=word& queryword=factor&first=1&max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=3&
search_id=f2Cb-KGfO1T-4176&hilite=50081535) (http:// dictionary.oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50084734/ 50084734se18?query_type=word&
queryword=fill+in& first=1& max_to_show=10& sort_type=alpha& result_place=2& search_id=f2Cb-USt2E6-4186&hilite=50084734se18)
[29] British author George Orwell (in English People, 1947, cited in OED s.v. lose) criticized an alleged "American tendency" to "burden every
verb with a preposition that adds nothing to its meaning (win out, lose out, face up to, etc.)".
[30] Harper, Douglas. "fall" (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index.php?term=fall). Online Etymology Dictionary. .
[31] A Handbook of Varieties of English,Bernd Kortmann & Edgar W. Schneider, Walter de Gruyter, 2004, page 115
[32] Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. (http:/ / fds.oup.com/ www.oup. com/ images/ elt/ oald7/ synald7_angry.gif) (http:// fds. oup.
com/ www. oup. com/ images/ elt/ oald7/ synald7_intelligent. gif) (http:// www. oup.com/ oald-bin/ web_getald7index1a.pl?nav=on&
which_entry=018564#x1#x1#ill& selected_word=ill&search_word=ill). Retrieved March 23, 2007.
[33] [33] Cf. Trudgill, p.42.
[34] Algeo, John (2006). British or American English?. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37993-8.
[35] Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X, pp. 34 and
American English
Further reading
• Bartlett, John R. (1848). Dick of Americanisms: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Usually Regarded As Peculiar
to the United States. New York: Bartlett and Welford.
• Garner, Bryan A. (2003). Garner's Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press.
• Labov, William; Sharon Ash; Charles Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de
Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8.
• Mencken, H. L. (1936, repr. 1977). The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the
United States (4th edition). New York: Knopf. (1921 edition online: www.bartleby.com/185/ (http:// www.
bartleby. com/ 185/ )).
History of American English
• Bailey, Richard W. (2004). American English: Its origins and history. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.),
Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 3–17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Finegan, Edward. (2006). English in North America. In R. Hogg & D. Denison (Eds.), A history of the English
language (pp. 384–419). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
External links
• T(h)om*s Lexicon (http:// www. thomslexicon. co. uk/ ) : The American-British dictionary
• Do You Speak American (http:/ / www. pbs. org/speak/ ): PBS special
• Dialect Survey (http:// cfprod01.imt. uwm. edu/ Dept/ FLL/linguistics/ dialect/ ) of the United States, by Bert
Vaux et al., Harvard University.
• Linguistic Atlas Projects (http:/ / us. english. uga. edu/ cgi-bin/ lapsite. fcgi/)
• Phonological Atlas of North America (http:// www. ling.upenn. edu/ phono_atlas/ home. html) at the University
of Pennsylvania
• Speech Accent Archive (http:/ / classweb. gmu. edu/ accent/ )
• Dictionary of American Regional English (http:// www. webcitation. org/1xF)
American Indian Wars
American Indian Wars
American Indian Wars is the name used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between American
settlers or the federal government and the native peoples of North America before and after the American
Revolutionary War. The wars resulted from the arrival of European colonizers who continuously sought to expand
their territory, pushing the indigenous populations westwards. The wars were spurred by ideologies such as Manifest
Destiny, which held that the United States was destined to expand from coast to coast on the American continent,
and which resulted in the policy of Indian removal, by which indigenous peoples were removed from the areas where
Europeans were settling, either forcefully or by means of voluntary exchange of territory through treaties.
Effects on indigenous populations
On the 2010 census 0.9 percent of the U.S. population identified themselves as being Native American (or Alaskan
No conclusive evidence exists to determine how many native people lived in North America before the
arrival of Columbus.
As the direct result of disease, wars between tribes, wars with Europeans, migration to Canada and Mexico,
declining birth rates, and of assimilation, the numbers of Indians dropped to below one million in the 19th century.
Scholars believe that the main causes of were new infectious diseases carried by Europeans explorers and traders.
Native Americans had no acquired immunity to such diseases, which had been chronic in Eurasian populations for
For instance, some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations
during smallpox epidemics.
According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), "The Indian wars under the government of the United States
have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children,
including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians."
Colonial period
From 1600 or so the process of English settlement was contested by some tribes. The wars, which ranged from the
17th-century Jamestown Massacre of 1622, Pequot War of 1637, Anglo-Powhatan Wars (1610–14, 1622–32,
1644–46), King Philip's War, King William's War, as well as Queen Anne's War, Tuscarora War, Yamasee War and
Dummer's War at the opening of the 18th century, French and Indian War, Pontiac's War and Lord Dunmore's War.
In the American Revolution and the War of 1812, most Indians fought against the United States and lost their lands;
many resettled in Canada.
East of the Mississippi (1775–1842)
In the period after the American Revolution, 1783-1812, British merchants and government agents supplied weapons
to Indians living in the United States, in the hope that if a war broke out the Indians would fight with them. The
British planned to set up an Indian nation in what is now the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American
The U.S. protested and finally went to war in the War of 1812. Most Indians, especially those under the
leadership of Tecumseh, did ally with the British and were defeated bu General William Henry Harrison. The
Indians in the South who fought the U.S. were likewise defeated in the Creek War by General Andrew Jackson.
Many refugees in the north went to Canada, or in the South to Florida (which was under Spanish control). National
policy did not allow for the continued existence of Indian nations inside of yet independent of state government. The
Indians had the choice of assimilation, forced relocation to a controlled Indian reservation, or movement west. Some
resisted, most notably the Seminoles in a series of wars in Florida. Others were moved to reservations west of the
Mississippi River, most famously the Cherokees whose movement is called the "Trail of Tears."
American Indian Wars
Indian Wars
East of the Mississippi
• American Revolution (1775–1783)
• Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794)
• Northwest Indian War (1785–1795)
• Nickajack Expedition (1794)
• Sabine Expedition (1806)
• War of 1812 (1811–1815)
• Tecumseh's War (1811–1813)
• Creek War (1813–1814)
• Peoria War (1813)
• First Seminole War (1817–1818)
• Winnebago War (1827)
• Black Hawk War (1832)
• Creek War of 1836 (1836)
• Florida–Georgia Border War (1836)
• Second Seminole War (1835–1842)
American Revolutionary War 1775–1783
For the Americans the American Revolutionary War was essentially two parallel wars: while the war in the east was
a struggle against British rule, the war in the west was an "Indian War". The newly proclaimed United States
competed with the British for control of the territory of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. The
colonial interest in westward colonisation, as opposed to the British policy of maintaining peace by designating areas
reserved to Native Americans west of the Appalachians following the end of the Seven Years' War, was one cause of
the revolution. Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the war to
reduce settlement and expansion onto their land. The Revolutionary War was "the most extensive and destructive"
Indian war in United States history.
Some native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. For the Iroquois Confederacy, based
in New York and Pennsylvania, the American Revolution resulted in civil war; the Six Nations split, with the
Oneidas and Tuscaroras siding with the rebels, and Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, and Onondagas, fighting for the
British. While the Iroquois tried to avoid fighting directly against one another, the Revolution eventually forced
intra-Iroquois combat. Both sides lost territory under the new political dispensation. The Crown aided the landless
Iroquois by rewarding them with a reservation at Grand River in Ontario. In the Southeast, the Cherokee split into a
neutral (or pro-rebel) faction and a pro-British faction, which the Americans referred to as the Chickamaugas, led by
Dragging Canoe. Many other tribes were similarly divided.
Both immigrant and native noncombatants suffered greatly during the war, and villages and food supplies were
frequently destroyed during military expeditions. The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of
1779, which razed more than 40 Iroquois villages.
When the British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), they ceded a vast amount of Native
American territory (without the consent of the indigenous peoples) to the United States. The United States treated the
Native Americans who had fought with the British as enemy allies, a conquered people who had lost their land. The
federal government of the United States was eager to expand, and the national government did so by purchasing
Native American land in treaties and through warfare.
American Indian Wars
Chickamauga Wars
These frontier conflicts were almost nonstop, beginning with Cherokee involvement in the American Revolutionary
War and continuing through late 1794. The so-called "Chickamauga Cherokee", later called "Lower Cherokee," were
those, at first from the Overhill Towns and later from the Lower Towns, Valley Towns, and Middle Towns, who
followed the war leader Dragging Canoe southwest, first to the Chickamauga (Chattanooga, Tennessee) area, then to
the Five Lower Towns. There they were joined by groups of Muskogee, white Tories, runaway slaves, and renegade
Chickasaw, as well as by more than a hundred Shawnee, in exchange for whom a hundred Chickamauga-Cherokee
warriors migrated north, along with another seventy a few years later. The primary objects of attack were the
colonies along the Watauga, Holston, and Nolichucky rivers, and in Carter's Valley in upper East Tennessee, as well
as the settlements along the Cumberland River beginning with Fort Nashborough in 1780, even into Kentucky, plus
against the colonies, later states, of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The scope of attacks by
the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee and their allies ranged from quick raids by small war parties of a handful of
warriors to large campaigns by four or five hundred, and once over a thousand, warriors. The Upper Muskogee under
Dragging Canoe's close ally Alexander McGillivray frequently joined their campaigns as well as operated separately,
and the settlements on the Cumberland came under attack from the Chickasaw, Shawnee from the north, and
Delaware. Campaigns by Dragging Canoe and his successor, John Watts, were frequently conducted in conjunction
with campaigns in the Northwest. The response by the colonists were usually attacks in which Cherokee towns in
peaceful areas were completely destroyed, though usually without great loss of life on either side. The wars
continued until the Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse in November 1794.
The Chickamauga Wars were in reality a continuation of what some historians call the Second Cherokee War, fought
between the whole Cherokee nation and the colonies as allies of the British in the years 1776 and 1777, waged by
those who did not wish to stop resisting frontier encroachments.
Northwest Indian War
The Battle of Fallen Timbers
In 1787, the Northwest Ordinance officially organized the Northwest
Territory for white settlement. American settlers began pouring into
the region. Violence erupted as indigenous tribes resisted this
encroachment, and so the administration of President George
Washington sent armed expeditions into the area to suppress native
resistance. However, in the Northwest Indian War, a pan-tribal
confederacy led by Blue Jacket (Shawnee), Little Turtle (Miami),
Buckongahelas (Lenape), and Egushawa (Ottawa) crushed armies led
by Generals Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair. General St. Clair's
defeat was the most severe loss ever inflicted upon an American army
by Native Americans. The Americans attempted to negotiate a settlement, but Blue Jacket and the Shawnee-led
confederacy insisted on a boundary line that the Americans found unacceptable, and so a new expedition led by
General Anthony Wayne was dispatched. Wayne's army defeated the Indian confederacy at the Battle of Fallen
Timbers in 1794. The Indians had hoped for British assistance; when that was not forthcoming, the indigenous
people were compelled to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, which ceded modern-day Ohio and part of Indiana
to the United States.
American Indian Wars
Tecumseh, the Creek War, and the War of 1812
Treaty with the Creeks, Fort Jackson, 1814
The United States continued to gain title to Native American land after
the Treaty of Greenville, at a rate that created alarm in Indian
communities. In 1800, William Henry Harrison became governor of
the Indiana Territory and, under the direction of President Thomas
Jefferson, pursued an aggressive policy of obtaining titles to Indian
lands. Two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, organized
Tecumseh's War, another pan-tribal resistance to American expansion.
While Tecumseh was in the South attempting to recruit allies among
the Creeks, Cherokees, and Choctaws, Harrison marched against the
Indian confederacy, defeating Tenskwatawa and his followers at the
Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. The Americans hoped that the victory
would end the militant resistance, but Tecumseh instead chose to ally
openly with the British, who were soon at war with the Americans in the War of 1812.
Like the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 was also a massive war on the western front. Encouraged by
Tecumseh, the Creek War (1813–1814), which began as a civil war within the Creek (Muscogee) nation, became
part of the larger struggle against American expansion. Although the war with the British was ultimately a stalemate,
the United States was more successful on the western front. Tecumseh was killed by Harrison's army at the Battle of
the Thames, ending the resistance in the Old Northwest. The Creeks who fought against the United States were
defeated. The First Seminole War in 1818 was in some ways a continuation of the Creek War and resulted in the
transfer of Florida to the United States in 1819 from Spain.
As in the Revolution and the Northwest Indian War, the British abandoned their Indian allies to the Americans after
the War of 1812. This proved to be a major turning point in the Indian Wars, marking the last time that Native
Americans would turn to a foreign power for assistance against the United States.
Removal era wars
A dead Sauk and her surviving child with a U.S.
officer at the Bad Axe Massacre, 1832.
Numerous Indian removal treaties were signed. Most American Indians
reluctantly but peacefully complied with the terms of the removal
treaties, often with bitter resignation. Some groups, however, went to
war to resist the implementation of these treaties, e.g., two short wars
(the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Creek War of 1836), as well as
the long and costly Second Seminole War (1835–1842).
Second Seminole War
American settlers began to push into Florida, which was now an
American territory and had some of the most fertile lands in the nation.
Some scholars have noted that covetousness, racism, and claims of
"self-defense" against Indian raids (real or imagined) became the order
of the day in the 1820s, and played a major part in the settlers' determination to "rid Florida of Indians once and for
To compound the tension, runaway black slaves sometimes found refuge in Seminole camps. The inevitable
result was clashes between white settlers and the Native Americans already residing there. Andrew Jackson sought to
alleviate this problem by signing the Indian Removal Act, which stipulated forced relocation of Native Americans (if
necessary) out of Florida. The Seminoles, led by such powerful leaders as Aripeka (Sam Jones), Micanopy, and
American Indian Wars
Osceola, had little or no intention of leaving their ancestral homelands and quickly retaliated against settler theft,
encroachment and attacks on their camps. This led to what is known as the Second Seminole War, the longest and
most costly war ever waged against Indians.
The Seminoles' continued resistance to relocation led Florida to prepare for war. The St. Augustine Militia asked the
U.S. War Department for the loan of 500 muskets. Five hundred volunteers were mobilized under Brig. Gen.
Richard K. Call. Indian war parties raided farms and settlements, and families fled to forts, large towns, or out of the
territory altogether. A war party led by Osceola captured a Florida militia supply train, killing eight of its guards and
wounding six others. Most of the goods taken were recovered by the militia in another fight a few days later. Sugar
plantations along the Atlantic coast south of St. Augustine were destroyed, with many of the slaves on the
plantations joining the Seminoles.
Attack of the Seminoles on the blockhouse in
December 1835
The U.S. Army had 11 companies (about 550 soldiers) stationed in
Florida. Fort King (Ocala) had only one company of soldiers, and it
was feared that they might be overrun by the Seminoles. Three
companies were stationed at Fort Brooke (Tampa), with another two
expected imminently, so the army decided to send two companies to
Fort King. On December 23, 1835, the two companies, totaling 110
men, left Fort Brooke under the command of Major Francis L. Dade.
Seminoles shadowed the marching soldiers for five days. On
December 28, the Seminoles ambushed the soldiers, and wiped out the
command. Only three men survived, and one, Edwin De Courcey, was
hunted down and killed by a Seminole the next day. Two survivors,
Ransome Clarke and Joseph Sprague, returned to Fort Brooke. Only Clarke, who died of his wounds later, left any
account of the battle from the army's perspective. Joseph Sprague was unharmed and lived quite a while longer, but
was not able to give an account of the battle because he had sought immediate refuge in a nearby pond. The
Seminoles lost just three men, with five wounded. On the same day as the Dade Massacre, Osceola and his followers
shot and killed from ambush Wiley Thompson and six others outside of Fort King.
Major Ethan Allen Hitchcock was subsequently among those who found the remains of the Dade party in February.
In his journal he accounted for the discovery, then vented his bitter discontent with the conflict: "The government is
in the wrong, and this is the chief cause of the persevering opposition of the Indians, who have nobly defended their
country against our attempt to enforce a fraudulent treaty. The natives used every means to avoid a war, but were
forced into it by the tyranny of our government."
On December 29, General Clinch left Fort Drane (recently established on Clinch's plantation, about twenty miles
(32 km) northwest of Fort King) with 750 soldiers, including 500 volunteers on an enlistment due to end January 1,
1836. The group was traveling to a Seminole stronghold called the Cove of the Withlacoochee, an area of many
lakes on the southwest side of the Withlacoochee River. When they reached the river, the soldiers could not find the
ford, so Clinch ferried his regular troops across the river in a single canoe they had found. Once they were across and
had relaxed, the Seminoles attacked. The troops only saved themselves by fixing bayonets and charging the
Seminoles, at the cost of four dead and 59 wounded. The militia provided cover as the army troops then withdrew
across the river.
American Indian Wars
The Dade Massacre was the U.S. Army's worst
defeat at the hands of Seminoles.
In another key skirmish known as the Battle of Lake Okeechobee,
Colonel Zachary Taylor saw the first major action of the campaign.
Leaving Fort Gardiner on the upper Kissimmee with 1,000 men on
December 19, Taylor headed towards Lake Okeechobee. In the first
two days ninety Seminoles surrendered. On the third day Taylor
stopped to build Fort Basinger, where he left his sick and enough men
to guard the Seminoles that had surrendered. Three days later, on
Christmas Day, 1837, Taylor's column caught up with the main body
of the Seminoles on the north shore of Lake Okeechobee.
The Seminoles, led by Alligator, Sam Jones, and the recently escaped
Coacoochee, were well positioned in a hammock surrounded by sawgrass. The ground was thick mud, and sawgrass
easily cuts and burns the skin. Taylor had about 800 men, while the Seminoles numbered fewer than 400. Taylor sent
in the Missouri volunteers first, moving his troops squarely into the center of the swamp. His plan was to make a
direct attack rather than encircle the Indians. All his men were on foot. Missouri volunteers formed the first line. As
soon as they came within range, the Indians opened with heavy fire. The volunteers broke, and their commander,
Colonel Gentry, fatally wounded, was unable to rally them. They fled back across the swamp. The fighting in the
sawgrass was deadliest for five companies of the Sixth Infantry; every officer but one, and most of their
non-commissioned officers, were either killed or wounded. When that part of the regiment retired a short distance to
re-form, they found only four men of these companies unharmed. Only about a dozen Seminoles had been killed in
the battle. Nevertheless, the Battle of Lake Okeechobee was hailed as a great victory for Taylor and the army.
Twenty-six U.S. soldiers, including the majority of Taylor's officers and NCOs, were killed, with 112 wounded,
compared to only 11 Seminoles killed and 14 wounded. No Seminoles were captured, although Taylor did capture
100 ponies and 600 head of cattle.
By 1842, the war was winding down, and most Seminoles, save a few hundred diehards, had left Florida for
Oklahoma. Estimates of the true cost of the Seminole War range from $30,000,000 to $40,000,000. But no analysis
of the actual cost has been made. Congress appropriated funds for the "suppression of Indian hostilities", but the
costs of the Creek War of 1836 are included in that. An inquiry into extravagance in naval operations found that the
navy had spent about $511,000 on the war. The investigation did find questionable expenditures. Among other
things, while the army had bought dugout canoes for $10 to $15 apiece, the navy spent an average of $226 per canoe.
The number of army, navy and marine regulars who served in Florida is given as 10,169. About 30,000 militiamen
and volunteers also served in the war.
Sources agree that the U.S. Army officially recorded 1,466 deaths in the Second Seminole War, mostly from disease.
The number killed in action is less clear. Mahon reports 328 regular army killed in action, while Missall reports that
Seminoles killed 269 officers and men. Almost half of those deaths occurred in the Dade Massacre, Battle of Lake
Okeechobee and Harney Massacre. Similarly, Mahon reports 69 deaths for the navy, while Missal reports 41 for the
U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, but adds others may have died after being sent out of Florida as incurable. Mahon and
the Florida Board of State Institutions agree that 55 volunteer officers and men were killed by the Seminoles, while
Missall says the number is unknown. There is no figure for how many militiamen and volunteers died of disease or
accident, however. The number of white civilians and Seminoles killed is also uncertain. A northern newspaper
carried a report that more than eighty civilians were killed by Indians in Florida in 1839. Nobody kept a cumulative
account of the number of Indians killed, or who died of starvation or other privations caused by the war. The Indians
who were shipped west did not fare well either. By the end of 1843, 3,824 Indians had been shipped from Florida to
what became the Indian Territory, but in 1844 only 3,136 remained. As of 1962 there were only 2,343 Seminoles in
Oklahoma and perhaps some 1,500 in Florida.
American Indian Wars
West of the Mississippi (1811–1923)
Indian Wars
West of the Mississippi
• Battle of Woody Point (1811)
• Arikara War (1823)
• Osage Indian War (1837)
• Texas–Indian Wars (1836–1877)
• Comanche Wars (1836–1877)
• Antelope Hills Expeditio