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Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A rare disorder most probably d/t alcohol-related nutritional deficiency. epilepsy. Peripheral neuropathy & malnutrition may be co-existent. ataxia & spastic limb paralysis. hallucinations. dysarthria. Korsakoff’s psychosis Also d/t severe thiamine deficiency d/t chronic alcohol use. . confusion. personality & intellectual deterioration. C/b disorientation. C/b ocular signs (nystagmus & external ophthalmoplagia) Higher mental function disturbance(disorientation. C/b amnestic syndrome with gross memory disturbances. Confabulation.Syndromes in Psychiatry (BY DNB CET REVIEW TEAM) Wernicke’s encephalopathy An acute reaction to severe thiamine deficiency mostly d/t chronic alcohol use. Insight often impaired. recent memory disturbances) Apathy & ataxia.
Kadinsky-Clerambault’s syndrome A syndrome of mental automatism Folie a deux Induced delusional disorder c/b sharing of delusions b/w 2 persons. loss of interest. Pfropf schizophrenia A syndrome of schizophrenia occurring in presence of mental retardation. Othello syndrome (conjugal paranoia) A psychosis in which the content of delusions is predominantly jealousy (infidelity) involving spouse. panic attacks. clouding of consciousness. Typical Capgras’ syndrome(illusion des sosies). after drinking a binge of alcohol in individuals showing no other evidence of heart disease. derealization & depressive features.pt sees a familiar person as a stranger who is . Clerambault’s syndrome (erotomania) A psychosis in which the content of delusions is erotic. C/b diffuse anxiety. Hemp insanity (cannabis psychosis) Asso with cannabis. anergia. folie a quatre. Oneiroid schizophrenia A subtype of schizophrenia with acute onset. Good prognosis. There are 4 types 1. reduced drive & lack of ambition d/t chronic cannabis use. dream-like states & perceptual disturbances with rapid shifting. multiple phobias. Acute schizophreniform disorder with disorientation & confusion.Holiday Heart Atrial or ventricular arrhythmias. seen with schizophrenia. size. Van Gogh syndrome Dramatic self-mutilation occurring in schizophrenia. So is folie a trios. Most often in women with erotic conviction that a person with higher status is in love with the patient. apathy. Alice in Wonderland syndrome Perceptual distortion of shape. colour& reciprocal position of objects. especially paroxysmal tachycardia. Amotivational syndrome Lethargy. disorientation. folie a famille Capgras’ syndrome (delusion of doubles) C/b delusional conviction that other persons in environment are not their real selves but are their own doubles. depersonalization. migraine PAD syndrome Phobic-Anxiety-Depersonalization syndrome. Commoner in women 20-40 years.
3. Illusion de Fregoli pt falsely identifies strangers as familiar persons.person understands nature of questions but answers wrong. Briquet’s syndrome (Somatisation disorder) A chronic or recurrent illness with either a dramatic or complicated medical history. Munchausen syndrome by proxy Pt intentionally produces physical signs & symptoms in another person who is under pt’s care.imposing as the familiar person. Seen in severe depression where pt has extreme nihilistic delusion (e. A pt with at least 25 unexplained medical symptoms for a diagnosis or with 20-25 unexplained symptoms for a probable diagnosis. La-Belle-Indifference Lack of concern towards symptoms despite apparent severity of disability produces.g.possessions. Cotard’s syndrome Delusion that one has lost everything. may think that his bowels are rotting and he will never pass stools again) Ganser’s syndrome (hysterical pseudodementia) Commonly found in prison inmates. Hospital hoboes. Charles bonnet syndrome phantom visual images Ekbom syndrome (Restless Legs syndrome) Pt experiences extremely uncomfortable feeling in leg muscles during walking.approximate answers. Intermetamorphosis pt’s misidentification is complete including both external appearance & personality. Hospital addiction) Pt repeatedly simulates or fakes diseases for sole purpose of obtaining medical attention. Munchausen syndrome (Factitious disorder. Associated with hypersomnia. Professional patients. Fregoli’s phenomenon Delusion that a persecutor is taking on a variety of faces like an actor. strength & even bodily organs such as heart. Gelineu’s syndrome Narcolepsy. 4. hyperphagia. Pickwickian syndrome Sleep apnea commoner in elderly & obese persons. hypersexuality . C/b vorbeireden. Syndrome of subjective doubles pt’s own self is perceived as being replaced by a double. Seen in patients with conversion & dissociation disorder (hysteria). 2. Polysurgis. Asso with insomnia. associated with hypersomnia. Kleine-Levin syndrome C/b hypersomnia.
Organic drivenness. C/b complaint of passage of ‘dhat’ in urine. depression or sexual dysfunction associated. C/b rapid downhill course leading to deterioration & development of neurological deficits. Motor skills disorder. Heller’s syndrome (Disintegrative psychosis) A type of childhood psychosis with age of onset 3-5 years. Developmental coordination disorder) C/b poor coordination in daily activities of life. Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome C/b multiple motor tics Multiple vocal tics Duration of >1 year Kanner syndrome Failure to develop attachment with a parenteral figure & pre-occupation with inanimate objects. After an apparently normal early development & normal head circumference at birth. Strauss syndrome Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder. Minimal brain dysfunction. Less severe form of pervasive developmental disorder Autism without significant delay in language & cognitive development. Asperger’s syndrome Predominantly in boys. Idiot Savant syndrome Pervasive impairment of functions but certain islets of precocity or splinter functions may remain. Koro Prevalent in Asia including India. believing that their breasts & vulva are shrinking.Clumsy Child syndrome (Motor dyspraxia. Females affected infrequently. there is deceleration of head growth b/w age of 5-30 months. . schizoid personality pedantic speech preoccupation with obscure facts Rett’s syndrome Occurs in girls. Culture-Bound Syndromes are as follows Dhat syndrome A culture-bound syndrome prevalent in Indian subcontinent. Affected male pt believes that his penis is shrinking & may disappear into his abdominal wall & he may die. Multiple somatic symptoms. Loss of purposive hand movements & acquired fine motor manipulative skills with subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements. Asthenia May be anxiety.
echolalia & echopraxia. in older patients who are over sedated & in old patients with Dementia who react adversly to even small dose of psychoactive drug. Pt believes that his body is entered by a magical substance & that he is altered. confusion. Shinkeishitsu A defense syndrome. She may imitate the cry of a bird or an animal. the prospective father develops symptoms similar to pregnancy & symptoms r relieved by delivery.Amok Prevalent in South-East Asia. COUVADE's Syndrome: Seen in husbands of pregnant women. c/b automatic obedience. The episode lasting for 1-2 hours. lost & unloved. More in women. JACTATIO CAPITIS NOCTURNA: Nocturnal head banging DEJA VU: Recognition of events that are in fact new JAMAIS VU: Opposite of Deja vu where patient fails to recognise events that have occured before SYNDROMES ASSOCIATED WITH TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC CONDITIONS SUNDOWNER SYNDROME: Drowziness. It takes on a delusional quality. They feel inadequate. Windigo (Wihtigo) Prevalent in native American Indians. It also occurs in demented patients when external stimuli such as light & interpersonal . Latah (Startle reaction) Prevalent in South-East Asia & Japan. a cannibal monster. C/b sudden. Often female. STOLKHOLM Syndrome: Identification with the aggressor usually seen in kidnap victims who try to protect their kidnappers. unprovoked episode of rage in which affected person runs about & indiscriminately injures or kills any person who in encountered on the way. mainly of anxiety but with obsessive features occurring in young Japanese thrown into a modern industrial society for which they are not equipped. throw herself on ice in extremely cold conditions. accidental falls. f/b amnesia of events. who screams & tears off her clothes. occurring especially during times of starvation. Piblokto (Arctic Hysteria) Occurs in Askimos. Susto Occurs in Latin America. ataxia. Pt believes that he has been transformed into a wihtigo.
DA COSTA's SYNDROME: Irritable heart syndrome. anxiety. hypertension. irritability. myoclonus. SSRI or TCAD. Chief complaints are all related to cardiac Pathology in which the subject has fear of a heart ailment which may progress to hypochondriasis & sometimes to circulatory neurasthenia Syndromes associated with dementia Alzheimer’s disease Pick’s disease Parkinson’s disease Shy-Drager syndrome (Multisystem degeneration) Huntington’s chorea Steel-Richardson syndrome (progressive Supranuclear palsy) Binswanger’s disease (subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy) Wilson’s disease Leigh’s disease Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease ALS-Parkinson’s-Dementia complex of Gaum Syndromes associated with mental retardation Down’s syndrome Turner’s syndrome Kleinfelter’s syndrome Cri du chat syndrome . myoglobinuria ANTI-CHOLINERGIC SYNDROME: Phenothiazines. Rapid & regular perioral tremors like chewing movements. Most commonly occurs as result of Rx with BZD's RABBIT SYNDROME: Extra pyramidal side effect of chronic anti-psychotic treatment. liver transaminase. disorientation. Diarrhoea. fever. increased motor activity. impaired short term memory. mood changes Severe cases may show hyperpyrexia. more noticable at night. autonomic instability. Hyperthermia. dry SKIN due to inhibition of sweating. It is due to overactivity of serotoninergic receptors by excess of serotonin due to combination of MAO.orienting cues are diminishd. has as many as 20 different names. SSRI DISCONTINUATION SYNDROME: Abrupt discontinuation of SSRI causes dizziness. Anti-Parkinson drugs all have anticholinergic properties. leucocyte function. nausea. TCAD's. SSRI's with short half life like Paroxetine & Sertraline more likely causes SEROTONIN SYNDROME: Abdominal pain. sensory & sleep disturbances. Was seen first in soldiers of civil war. tachycardia. changes in mental status. NEUROLEPT MALIGNANT SYNDROME: EPS. increased CPK. severe muscular rigidity. flu-like symptoms. crying spells. lethargy. alteration of mental status including delirium. shock & death. vomiting. excessive sweating. tongue & other body parts not involved. when these r administered in combination patient shows evidence of organic brain syndrome including difficulty in concentration.
Fragile X syndrome Hartnup’s disease Tay-Sachs disease Gaucher’s disease Niemann-Pick disease Lesch Nyhan syndrome Hurler’s disease Hunter’s disease Sanfillipo’s disease Renpenning’s syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome Crouzon’s syndrome Apert’s syndrome De Lange syndrome (Amsterdam dwarfism) .
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