Desiccant Cooling Technology

Course No: M04-022 Credit: 4 PDH

A. Bhatia

Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 info@cedengineering.com

Desiccant Cooling resource guide Technology
• Planning, Programming and Budgeting Guide • Design and Engineering Guide • Construction and O&M Guide • Case Studies

Sponsored by,

Office of The Secretary of Defense
Thomas R. Rutherford, P.E.

Developed by,

U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
Project Manager: Technical POC: Frank Holcomb (217) 352-6511 x7412 Dr. Chang Sohn (217) 373-6739

Science Applications International Corporation
Principal Authors: Mike Torrey (858) 826-9117 John Westerman (703) 676-7828

Publication Date: January, 2000

DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE GUIDE

E. PSYCHROMETRICS C. EQUIPMENT SOURCES III. FORT BENNING . D. Desiccant Construction and O&M Guide A.. D.HOSPITAL FORT CAMPBELL ... Desiccant Design and Engineering Guide A. Click on Section Above. DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE GUIDE 1 ..Desiccant Cooling Technology Resource Guide Main Outline EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. B. B. Desiccant Planning. Programming and Budgeting Guide A. D. C. C. APPLICABLE BUILDING CODES CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS SAMPLE CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS SAMPLE O&M MANUALS IV. DoD Desiccant Systems Case Studies A. F. SERVICE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS B. C.BARRACKS/MUNITIONS STORAGE KEESLER AIR FORCE BASE .MUSEUM FORT MYER .BOWLING ALLY Go to Navigation Instructions for this Resource Guide. For Detailed Section Outlines. B. OVERVIEW OF DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY MILITARY APPLICATIONS SITE SCREENING AND EVALUATION PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES LIFECYCLE COST ANALYSIS SAMPLE PAPERWORK II.

S.High building occupancy DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE GUIDE 2 .EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose of this Resource Guide This Resource Guide is an easy to use reference source for investigating. DoD and Desiccant Cooling The U.Latent/total cooling load ratio is >= 30% . quality and energy related issues. This document provides an overview of desiccant cooling technology and provides readers with reference materials for more in-depth analyses. evaluating and installing desiccant cooling technologies.High levels of outdoor air make-up required in building . The evaluation and application of desiccants is not widely understood throughout DoD. Field tests of desiccants have been conducted at: - Army Barracks Museum Hospital Operating Room Avionics Repair Laboratory Fast Food Restaurant Bowling Alley Benefits of Controlling Humidity Successful application of this technology is measured by: - Occupant Comfort Net Energy Savings Source Emissions Reduction Building Air Quality Improvement Moisture Damage Control When to Use Desiccant Cooling Desiccant technologies should be considered when: • Moisture levels are high . Department of Defense (DoD) uses desiccant cooling technology to solve a variety of building comfort.

• Potential costs savings are significant .Heat recovery options available Tight control over moisture levels is required .Avionics repair laboratories .Hospital operating rooms .Museums .Food Stores (freezer case moisture) Occupant comfort cannot be compromised • • • DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE GUIDE 3 .Munitions storage Moisture is problematic to interior spaces such as: .High electrical demand charges .Low natural gas rates .Hospitals (bacteria) .Ice Arenas (fogging) .Low cost central steam available .Hotels/Apartments (moisture damage) .

Turn off the Open Cross-Document Links in Same Window setting (no check) in the Adobe AcrobatTM File/Preferences/General menu list. Section Footers . Going Back to Section Outlines . even if you have navigated to other linked documents.At the bottom of each page. All the section outline headings have been “linked” to their corresponding pages. Desiccant Planning. To go to the desired section. Programming and Budgeting Guide Desiccant Design and Engineering Guide Desiccant Construction and O&M Guide DoD Desiccant Systems Case Studies In addition. IV. DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE GUIDE 4 .. there are several separate reference documents which are linked from within individual sections. II. Click to go to the referring entry. TM Back Tracking Your Steps .Using the Adobe Acrobat double arrow button. At the front of each section is a Section Outline that has a detailed table of contents and includes page numbers. III.Blue type generally indicates that the text is linked to a separate document or another location in the same document.clicking on the side bar on the left will take you to the Section Outline page.Clicking on the side bar on the left when you are at the Section Outline page will take you to the Main Outline page for this Resource Guide. Blue Type . you can retrace the pages that you have previously viewed. Pressing “Ctrl” and “-” keys together will also step you back. The sections include: I. A few navigating tips. simply click on the heading in the Section Outline (or use the bookmarks in the left column). the footer tells you which section you are viewing within the Resource Guide. This will keep the Resource Guide document open when linking to referenced documents. Going to Main Outline . Settings ..Navigating this Resource Guide This Resource Guide is divided into four main sections plus this Executive Summary/Main Outline.

............................................................ Alternatives to Desiccant Dehumidification............................................ 4...... Desiccant Planning............... LCCID ....... 2........................................... Analysis Using DesiCalc (Example) . 2.................................. 2............... Performance Issues ......................................... Ammunition Storage............................................................................................... 3............. 2.............................................................. Hospitals ............. 38 38 39 42 DESICCANT PLANNING.............................................. Installation Costs ............................ 27 28 29 34 34 35 D.................................................. 2.................................... Offices ............................................. 36 36 36 36 E........................................... Step 5: Select Control System ................ 5............................................................ 4.............................................. MILITARY APPLICATIONS 1................. SAMPLE PAPERWORK ....... Step 1: Define Project Purpose......................... Housing/Barracks .............................. Introduction................... Avionics Repair........................... 6... Commissaries .................................... ........... Step 3: Calculate Heat and Moisture Loads........... PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES 1................. 3................... 4......................... Operation Costs ...................................................................... 3.............. Benefits of Dehumidification with Desiccants................................. F............................. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 1 ..................... Step 2: Establish Control Levels and Tolerances ...... 3......................... Programming and Budgeting Guide A OVERVIEW OF DESICCANT COOLING TECHNOLOGY 1.................... 3................Life Cycle Cost in Design................................................................Desiccant Cooling Applications ... .......................................................... 6...................... GRI's DesiCalc Software Tool ............. 4... Types of Desiccant Systems......................................... Maintenance Costs................................................. Maintenance Issues.......... Step 6: Evaluate Costs ............................................................................................. 6. 7............................................................. Step 4: Size Equipment .......... Application Issues .. SITE SCREENING AND EVALUATION 1....................... 25 25 25 25 25 25 C................................ 2 3 5 10 16 19 21 B................Section Outline I.. Equipment Costs....... .. 5........... 5........................ LIFECYCLE COST ANALYSIS 1.........

and cost. American Gas Cooling Center. In order to be effective. the desiccant material is transferred to a reactivation process. hot air is passed over the desiccant. People have identified types of desiccants that are appropriate as a component of commercial heating. commercial desiccant systems consist of a process air path and a reactivation air path. Desiccant systems work in conjunction with conventional air conditioning systems to dehumidify the air. their ability to be reactivated. 1990 DESICCANT PLANNING.Methods of Dehumidification. May 1996 American Gas Cooling Center's Web Site. please refer to the following references: User Guide for Desiccant Dehumidification Technology. The Dehumidification Handbook. Federal Technology Alert Applications Engineering Manual for Desiccant Systems.agcc. In the reactivation process. These desiccants have been selected based on their ability to hold large quantities of water. Chapter 3 . Desiccant Planning. Second Edition. In order to accomplish this. Desiccants can be in the form of a solid or a liquid.I. The dry process air leaving the desiccant is then passed over a conventional cooling coil which addresses the sensible cooling work required to meet the air specification of the conditioned space. Most people are familiar with desiccants such as silica gel packages that are included with new electronics or textile products.Introduction. Thus. Chapter 1 . Facilities Engineering Applications Program (FEAP) Two-Wheel Desiccant Dehumidification System. Overview of Desiccant Cooling Technology 1. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 2 . the moisture in the air is transferred onto the desiccant material. The desiccant material that has had the trapped moisture removed is now prepared to attract moisture as it is transferred back into the process air path. As the desiccant vapor pressure increases due to the presence of the moisture that it has attracted. Programming and Budgeting Guide A. For more detailed information. www. The moist hot air is then exhausted from the system into the outdoor air. The desiccant that is in the process air path has been prepared to have a lower vapor pressure than the air passing over it. ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Desiccant materials are those that attract moisture due to differences in vapor pressure. Lewis Harriman. Introduction Desiccant cooling technology provides a tool for controlling humidity (moisture) levels for conditioned air spaces.org/documents/gascooling/ basicsofdesiccants. the desiccant must be capable of addressing the latent cooling load in a continuous process. The vapor pressure of the hot air is lower than the desiccant surface which forces the moisture to transfer from the desiccant surface into the hot air stream.

Benefits of Dehumidification with Desiccants Independent control of humidity and temperature • Desiccant Unit Controls Humidity • Conventional Cooling System Controls Temperature • Utilize Lower Cost Natural Gas for Regeneration • Conventional Cooling System Operates at a Higher Efficiency due to Higher Suction Temperatures Switch latent cooling to alternate energy sources • Natural Gas • Steam • Heat Recovery Heat recovery sources • Engine Driven Chillers • Cogenerators • Condenser Heat • Steam Condensate High humidity air and dust in ducting result in • Fungus Growth • Bacteria Growth Reduced indoor air quality The Standard addresses increased levels of outdoor air • Increase Total Cooling Load • Increase Latent Load Desiccant systems can directly address this problem Desiccant systems do not use CFC's for moisture removal • Appropriate Levels of Fresh Air • Reduced Levels of Air Borne Bacteria • Air Treatment Chemicals with Liquid Desiccants Reduced building maintenance activities associated with high humidity levels • Mold and mildew remediation • Corrosion • Replacement of wall coverings • Replacement of window coverings • Replacement of carpeting Increased Comfort Lower Operating Costs Lower Peak Electric Demand Heat Recovery Options Dry Duct Systems ASHRAE 62-89 CFC Free Improved Indoor Air Quality Reduced Building Maintenance DESICCANT PLANNING.2. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 3 .

PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 4 . American Gas Cooling Center. Federal Technology Alert DESICCANT PLANNING.agcc.) For more detailed information.Evaluating Applications. www.org/documents/gascooling/ basicsofdesiccants User Guide for Desiccant Dehumidification Technology.2. Facilities Engineering Applications Program (FEAP) Two-Wheel Desiccant Dehumidification System. Chapter 8 . please refer to the following references: Applications Engineering Manual for Desiccant Systems. May 1996 American Gas Cooling Center's Web Site. Benefits of Dehumidification with Desiccants (cont.

The air is then mixed or reheated to the desired supply air temperature. Latent cooling is the removal of moisture from the air or dehumidification. Cooling below the dew point causes the moisture in the air to condense and leave the air stream. State 1 to State 2: Air is cooled to the point of saturation State 2 to State 3: Further cooling causes moisture to be condensed from the air as the temperature of the air continues to drop. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 5 . The air that leaves the cooling coil under these conditions is near saturation. Latent cooling takes place when the air is cooled below the air dew point. DESICCANT PLANNING. 2 1 Dehumidification 3 4 Sensible Cooling The configuration of conventional cooling systems that remove moisture from the air are described on the following pages. State 3 to State 4: The air is then mixed or passes through reheat to supply air at the desired temperature. This process is illustrated on the psychrometric chart below. Sensible cooling is simply the reduction of the dry bulb temperature of the air.3. Alternatives to Desiccant Dehumidification A conventional cooling system lowers the temperature of the air stream as the air passes over a cooling coil. Energy is removed from the air in the form of sensible cooling and latent cooling.

3. Alternatives to Desiccant Dehumidification (cont.) Conventional Cooling Dehumidification Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Cooling Coil in supply air path Sensible and Latent Cooling Latent Cooling by condensation Air leaving cooling coil typically at or near saturation Increased moisture removal by lowering cooling coil temperatures Cooling Coil Air-Side of Cooling System 70 oF 56 gr/lb 45 oF 44 gr/lb Moisture Condensed from Air Stream DESICCANT PLANNING. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 6 .

3. Alternatives to Desiccant Dehumidification (cont. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 7 .) Vapor-Compression Direct Expansion Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Uses Refrigerant phase change characteristics for heat transfer Cooling Coil is a refrigerant to air heat exchanger Compressor: Converts low pressure refrigerant into high pressure refrigerant Condenser: Uses a cool source to change refrigerant vapor into a liquid Expansion: Reduces pressure and temperature of the refrigerant Evaporator: Absorbs heat as refrigerant changes from a liquid to a vapor Condenser Expansion Valve Compressor Evaporator High Pressure/High Temperature Refrigerant Vapor High Pressure/High Temperature Refrigerant Liquid Low Pressure/Low Temperature Refrigerant Liquid Low Pressure/Low Temperature Refrigerant Vapor DESICCANT PLANNING.

3. Alternatives to Desiccant Dehumidification (cont. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 8 .) Chilled Liquid Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Liquid/Air heat exchanger in supply air path Vapor .Compression Cycle with Refrigerant/Liquid Evaporator as intermediate heat transfer stage Sensible and Latent Cooling Latent Cooling by condensation Air leaving cooling coil typically at or near saturation Increased moisture removal by lowering temperatures Condenser Expansion Valve Compressor Evaporator Liquid Circulating Pump Hydronic Cooling Coil High Pressure/High Temperature Refrigerant Vapor High Pressure/High Temperature Refrigerant Liquid Low Pressure/Low Temperature Refrigerant Liquid Low Pressure/Low Temperature Refrigerant Vapor Low Temperture Liquid Medium Temperature Liquid DESICCANT PLANNING.

Fundamentals. Second Edition.Reheat Ø Ø Ø Integrated with above systems with heat added down stream of the cooling coil Heating the saturated air reduces the relative humidity of the supply air Controls both supply temperature and relative humidity Evaporator Reheat Coil 70 oF 56 gr/lb 36 oF 30 gr/lb 45 oF 30 gr/lb Moisture Condensed from Air Stream For more detailed information. Lewis Harriman. Alternatives to Desiccant Dehumidification (cont. please refer to the following references: American Gas Cooling Center's Web Site.agcc.org/documents/gascooling/ basicsofdesiccants The Dehumidification Handbook.3. Chapter 1 . PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 9 . www. Chapter 3 .) Cool .Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles DESICCANT PLANNING. 1990 1993 ASHRAE Handbook .Methods of Dehumidification.

agcc. • • • • • Liquid Spray Towers Solid Packed Tower Rotating Horizontal Bed Multiple Vertical Bed Rotating Desiccant Wheel For more detailed information. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 10 . Types of materials used as a basis for desiccant systems include the following materials: • • • • • • Silica Gel Lithium Chloride (Liquid or Dry) Lithium Bromide Activated Alumina Titanium Silicate Molecular Sieve Commercially available desiccant systems are based on five configurations or technologies.Fundamentals. Types of Desiccant Systems The design and operation of a desiccant system is based on the desiccant material used to accomplish the dehumidification. 1990 Energy User News. Second Edition. August 1998 Two-Wheel Desiccant Dehumidification System. www. Chapter 3 . Absorption is the process of trapping moisture through a chemical process in which the desiccant undergoes a chemical change. please refer to the following references: American Gas Cooling Center's Web Site.Methods of Dehumidification. Federal Technology Alert 1997 ASHRAE Handbook . Adsorption is the process of trapping moisture within the desiccant material similar to the way a sponge holds water through capillaries. Desiccant materials attract moisture through the process of either adsorption or absorption. Lewis Harriman. Most absorbents are liquids. Chapter 22: Desiccant Dehumidification and Pressure Drying Equipment DESICCANT PLANNING.org/documents/gascooling/basicsofdesiccants The Dehumidification Handbook.4.HVAC Systems and Equipment. Chapter 21: Sorbents and Desiccants 1992 ASHRAE Handbook . Most adsorbents are solid materials.

Provides microbiological decontamination. Conditioner • Regenerator Source: Dehumidification Handbook.) Liquid Spray Towers • • • • Based on liquid desiccant. e. c. Modular design. Process Air: Air passes through a desiccant spray in a conditioner module. Advantages: a. Energy storage capability (holding tanks can be used to provide extended capacity). d. Reduced regeneration air requirement. Disadvantages: a. Types of Desiccant Systems (cont. Large air flow capacity. May have a difficult time maintaining humidity levels below 10% RH with loads that have a small sensible component. b. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 11 . Munters/Cargocaire DESICCANT PLANNING. No possibility of cross leakage of air streams. f. Air temperature and humidity are controlled simultaneously. Regeneration Process: Outside air passes through a warm desiccant spray in a regenerator module. h.4. Desiccant quality easily monitored and adjusted. g.

Types of Desiccant Systems (cont. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 12 . Advantages: a. Able to achieve very low dew points Disadvantages: a: Output conditions vary with level of moisture trapped b: Air velocity is critical for optimal performance R eactivation A ir Inlet D esiccant H eater Process A ir O u tlet D iverting V a lve R eactivation A ir O u tlet D esiccant C o o ler Process A ir Inlet Source: Dehumidification Handbook.4. Munters/Cargocaire DESICCANT PLANNING.) Solid Packed Tower • • • • • • Based on solid desiccant Process Air: Air passes through a tower filled with solid desiccant Regeneration Process: Air passes through a tower filled with solid desiccant Towers alternate between performing in the process air path and the regeneration air path.

Modular Design b. Constant outlet moisture level c. High air flow capacity capability d. Lower first costs e. Munters/Cargocaire DESICCANT PLANNING. Desiccant settling in trays b.4. Simple design Disadvantages: a. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 13 . Types of Desiccant Systems (cont. Air leakage between process air and regeneration within the tray • Reactivation Air Desiccant Heater Process Air Source: Dehumidification Handbook.) Rotating Horizontal Bed • • • • • Based on solid desiccant Process Air: Desiccant is held by perforated trays through which the air passes Regeneration Process: Desiccant is held by perforated trays that the air passes through Trays rotate through the process air path and the regeneration air path. Advantages: a.

Increased maintenance c. Advantages: a.) Multiple Vertical Bed • • • • • Based on solid desiccant Process Air: Desiccant is held by stacked perforated trays that the air passes through Regeneration Process: Desiccant is held by perforated trays that the air passes through Combination of packed tower and rotating bed designs through the use of a rotating carrousel of many towers. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 14 . Complex mechanical system b. Higher first cost Desiccant Heater Reactivation Air • Process Air Source: Dehumidification Handbook. Munters/Cargocaire DESICCANT PLANNING. Types of Desiccant Systems (cont. High performance c. Low dew points Disadvantages: a. Constant outlet moisture level b.4.

4. Types of Desiccant Systems (cont.) Rotating Desiccant Wheel • • • • • Based on solid desiccant Process Air: Air passes through hexagonal or sinusoidal shaped passages of the wheel. Regeneration Process: Air passes through hexagonal or sinusoidal shaped passages of the wheel. Desiccant is impregnated into a semi-ceramic structure that resembles a honeycomb. Advantages: a. Light weight and porous structure b. Low pressure drop across wheel c. Low dew points d. High capacity e. Simple system Disadvantages: a. Higher first cost

Desorption Desiccant Heater Sorption Reactivation Air

Process Air Entering

Cooling

Source: Dehumidification Handbook; Munters/Cargocaire

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5. Application Issues Typical applications and benefits for desiccant dehumidification are as follows:

Application
Supermarket

Benefits of Desiccant Dehumidification
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Energy savings through reduced refrigeration display compressor loads Fewer defrost cycles in refrigerated display systems Eliminates condensation on display cases Customer comfort in frozen food aisles Energy savings through reduced latent loads Less ice resurfacing Eliminates fogging Reduced building maintenance Energy savings through reduced latent loads Eliminates temperature fluctuations Reduces workplace hazards (slick and icy floors) Eliminates perspiration of surgeons Eliminates fungal amplification in ductwork Eliminates condensation in operating room Increased customer comfort Allows increased ventilation in response to ASHRAE Standard 62 Increases useful life of seats and carpets that are damaged by the presence of high moisture levels Reduced health risks associated with airborne infectious agents Decreased levels of indoor CO2 Lower energy costs Allows increased ventilation in response to ASHRAE Standard 62 Increased customer comfort Lower energy costs Increased customer comfort Allows increased ventilation in response to ASHRAE Standard 62 Increases useful life of wallpaper, tapestries and carpets that are damaged by the presence of high moisture levels

Ice Rinks

Refrigerated Warehouse

Hospital Operating Room

Movie Theater

School • • • Fast Food Restaurant • • • • Hotel •

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5. Application Issues (cont.) All of the above applications address specific moisture control issues that provide increased usefulness of the facility. It is important to note that the benefits of dehumidification will vary significantly by climate. Application Characteristics that Favor Desiccant Dehumidification

Characteristic
Ratio of Latent Load to Total Cooling Load > 30%

Cause
§ § § § High Occupancy High Level of Outdoor Air High Internal Latent Loads from Processes Air Space Specifications for Processes

Application (Examples)
§ § § § § § § § § § § § § § § § § § § § Movie Theaters Schools Stores Restaurants Meeting Halls Ice Skating Rink Laboratories Computer Rooms Libraries Museums Munitions Storage Avionics Repair Movie Theaters Schools Stores Restaurants Meeting Halls Hospitals Offices Not Application Specific Schools Dormitories Hospitals Meeting Halls Offices

Dry Air Requirements

High Outside Air Requirements §

ASHRAE Standard 62 (15 cfm per person)

High Electric Rates

§

Indoor Air Quality Problems

§ § §

Increased Utility Demand during Hot Summer Days Outdoor Air Requirements High Levels of Airborne Infectious Agents High Levels of Indoor CO2

§ § § § §

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9. etc.Applications. Internal moisture loads. steam. 7. Presence of energy sources (electricity. The quantity of outside air to be introduced into the building.org/documents/gascooling/ basicsofdesiccants The Dehumidification Handbook. www. The general characteristics of the outdoor air during the year.) Major site-specific application issues to consider when evaluating the potential application of desiccant dehumidification are as follows: 1. Rate structure of energy sources. American Gas Cooling Center.).5. 4.Case Histories. Indoor air temperature and relative humidity requirements. Chapter 10 . Configuration of existing mechanical systems. 8. Federal Technology Alert DESICCANT PLANNING. 1990 Two-Wheel Desiccant Dehumidification System. 2. For more detailed information. Application Issues (cont.agcc. please refer to the following references: Applications Engineering Manual for Desiccant Systems. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 18 . Availability of space for locating desiccant system. Ratio of sensible cooling load to latent cooling load. natural gas. 5. 6. May 1996 American Gas Cooling Center's Web Site. Lewis Harriman. Chapter 4 . Second Edition. 3.

The boundary conditions for the inlet and outlet air for these processes as well as the characteristics of the desiccant being utilized impact the performance of the desiccant system. and 2) The Reactivation Air Path.6. Vertical Bed & Rotating Wheel § Air leakage of moist air into the process air path can be an issue (consult manufacturer) • Solid Adsorbents § High moisture on reactivation can affect ability to achieve extremely dry process air Temperature • High Reactivation Temperature § Air leaving process air stream becomes drier • Lower Reactivation Temperature § Requires more desiccant in air paths Air Velocity • Needs to be sized to match the work being done on the process air path DESICCANT PLANNING. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 19 . Performance Issues There are two major processes which take place within the desiccant system: 1) The Process Air Path. Process Air Inlet Moisture • If greater than expected § Leaving process air temperature will be greater than expected • If less than expected § Leaving process air will be drier than expected Inlet Temperature • If greater than expected § Reduced moisture removal performance • If less than expected § Increased moisture removal performance Air Velocity • High velocity § Reduced moisture removal performance • Low velocity § Increased moisture removal performance Reactivation Air Inlet Moisture • Rotary Bed.

PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 20 . Performance Issues (cont. Second Edition. 1990 DESICCANT PLANNING.Desiccant Dehumidifier Performance.6.) Desiccant Material/Configuration Sorption/Desorption Characteristics • Desiccant Capacity • Thermal Cycling Durability • Resilience to Contamination Quantity of Desiccant Material Exposed to Each Process Path • Surface Area (air to desiccant contact area) • Mass of Desiccant § § This issue is more of a system design issue for the manufacturer and not an application issue for the designer. please refer to the following references: The Dehumidification Handbook. Chapter 6 . Lewis Harriman. The resulting optimization of the desiccant system by the manufacturer will be evident in the operating specifications of the equipment in terms of: • • • • • Design rate of moisture removal Nominal energy consumption Temperature of process leaving air Air flow requirements Pressure drop of the system For more detailed information.

7. Desiccant systems are slightly different in that maintenance intervals may be more frequent and seasonal adjustments are required.3 Months) § Regeneration Fan Belt § Process Air Fan Belt § Desiccant Wheel Belt § Heat Wheel Belt • Evaporative Cooling Pads and Sumps (Every 6 months) § Flush Pads § Water Treatment § Winterize • Electrical Connections § Check Tightness of Connections • Check Control Settings (Every 2 .3 Months) § Regeneration Fan § Process Air Fan • Belts (Every 2 . desiccant systems require routine maintenance.3 Months) • Check Oil in Speed Reducers (Every 6 months) DESICCANT PLANNING. Recommended maintenance for solid desiccant and liquid desiccant systems are presented below.3 Months) § Regeneration Air Path § Process Air Path • Fan Bearings (Every 2 . Maintenance Issues Like any other mechanical equipment. Typical Maintenance Requirements for Solid Desiccant Systems Major maintenance components are as follows: • Filters (Every 2 . PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 21 .

) Generic Maintenance Diagram for Solid Desiccant Systems Bearings Drive Belts Speed Reducer Filters Bearings Drive Belts Reactivation Air Path Water Treatment Process Air Path Bearings Drive Belts Filters Source: Application Engineering Manual.7. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 22 . Maintenance Issues (cont. American Gas Cooling Center DESICCANT PLANNING.

Maintenance Issues (cont.7.) Typical Maintenance Requirements for Liquid Desiccant Systems Major maintenance components are as follows: • Desiccant (Every Month) § Supply Pressure § Spray Pattern § Desiccant Fluid Level § Desiccant Concentration § Inhibitor Level • Desiccant Filters (Every Month) • Air Pressure Drop (Every Month) § Conditioner Unit § Regenerator Unit • Eliminator Pads (Every 2 Months) • Air Filters (Every 2 Months) • Desiccant (Every 2 Months) § Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop § Pump Discharge Pressure § Provide Desiccant Sample to Factory for Analysis • Grease (Every 6 Months) § Fan Bearings § Pump Bearings • Belts (Every 6 Months) • Pumps (Every 6 Months) DESICCANT PLANNING. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 23 .

Maintenance. Chapter 7 . American Gas Cooling Center.org/documents/gascooling/ basicsofdesiccants DESICCANT PLANNING. www. please refer to the following references: Applications Engineering Manual for Desiccant Systems. May 1996 American Gas Cooling Center's Web Site. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 24 .) Generic Maintenance Diagram for Liquid Desiccant Systems Conditioned Air Pressure Drop Hot Moist Air Pressure Drop Desiccant Cooler Desiccant Heater Belt Desiccant: Spray Pattern Supply Pressure Air Pressure Drop Air Filter Desiccant: Level Concentration Inhibitor Level Grease Bearings For more detailed information. Maintenance Issues (cont.agcc.7.

Museum .B.tight humidity tolerances are required in the repair of avionics equipment such as altimeters and gauges.used to increase occupant comfort. Meeting Hall .large latent loads can be more economically handled by desiccant dehumidification systems Offices . Housing/Barracks . Hospitals . School .moisture must be controlled in the storage of ammunition to prevent damage to explosive materials or cause premature detonation. reduce humidity in the frozen food aisles as well as the whole facility.used to achieve occupant comfort as well as to remedy air quality problems. Military Applications There are a variety of potential military desiccant system applications.used to ensure comfort levels of occupants as well as to prevent damage to furniture and fixtures due to mold or mildew. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 25 . Use of desiccant dehumidification can eliminate condensing moisture in duct work to prevent post-operative fungal infections.used in operating rooms to meet specific code requirements. Avionics Repair .desiccant dehumidification can reduce the cost for refrigeration cases.primarily used to increase student comfort and indoor air quality. eliminate defrosting. Commissaries . Improper repair conditions can lead to fogging of gauges during flight. Ammunition Storage . Restaurant . A brief description of what they are used for is presented below along with a summary table.museums have special dry air requirements to prevent the deterioration of historical pieces. DESICCANT PLANNING.

PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE Mu se 26 um .) Co mm iss ary Ho spi tal Ho usi ng/ Ba rra Av cks ion ics Re pai An r mu nit ion Sto Sc ho rag ol e Re sta ura nt Me etin gH all Of fic e High Latent Loads High Outdoor Air Req.B. Dry Air Requirements High Occupancy Rates High Intern. Comfort Refrigeration DESICCANT PLANNING. Latent Loads Corrosion Prevention Reduce Bacterial Levels Reduce Mold & Mildew Increase Occup. Military Applications (cont.

C. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 27 . Site Screening and Evaluation 1. Categories of problem definitions include the following: ♦ Address Indoor Air Requirements § Increase Indoor Air Quality § Accommodate Increase in Outdoor Air Makeup ♦ Address Process Requirements § Avionics Repair § Hospital Operating Room § Munitions Storage ♦ Address Building Degradation due to Moisture § Wall Paper Replacement § Drapery Replacement § Carpet Replacement ♦ Prevent Moisture Level Fluctuations that Damage Value Items § Historical Documents § Historical Textiles § Museum Artifacts DESICCANT PLANNING. the process can be accomplished through the following steps: Step #6: Evaluate Costs Step #5: Select Control System Step #4: Size Equipment Step #3: Calculate Heat and Moisture Loads Step #2: Establish Control Levels and Tolerances Step #1: Define Purpose of Project Step#1: Define Purpose of Project Desiccants will be evaluated for the purposes of controlling humidity levels with in a conditioned space. Overview of Approach When evaluating a specific application using desiccant technologies.

PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 28 . % Relative Humidity Application Requirement Safety Factor System Design Point Time § Some applications require moisture control within a specified range and large fluctuations have an adverse impact. % Relative Humidity Application Requirement System Design Point Time DESICCANT PLANNING.Step#2: Establish Control Levels and Tolerances § Desiccant systems are capable of maintaining relative humidity within a 1% RH range § Desiccant systems allow for individual control of humidity and temperature § Some applications require moisture control below a defined set point and the air can be at a lower moisture level without adverse impact.

Step#3: Calculate Heat and Moisture Loads a.) Identify Extreme Weather Conditions Weather data can be found in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. This information provides both extreme temperature and moisture levels. Note: Previous versions of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals only identify extreme temperatures which is not adequate to estimate peak moisture level and can underestimate moisture loads by 15% to 40%. For a detailed discussion on utilizing weather information to estimate moisture loads, read: “Dehumidification and Cooling Loads from Ventilation Air”, L. Harriman, ASHRAE Journal, Nov-1997, pp 3745.

b.) Identify Sources of Moisture Loads Major areas to investigate for contributions of moisture in the conditioned area are as follows: • • • • • • • Permeation Products People Wet Surfaces Moisture from Air leaks in Cracks and Walls Door Activity Fresh Air Makeup

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Moisture from Permeation through Building Materials (Wp) Moisture passes through building materials in the form of water vapor based on the vapor permeability of the material and the difference in vapor pressure on each side of the material. In general, the differential vapor pressure can be estimated by using the following rule of thumb: Each grain/lb corresponds to 0.0067 inches Hg. This can be used when the difference across the material is known in grains.

Wp = Where: P≡

P x A x ∆VP

Material Permeance Factor grains/hour/Ft2/in. Hg.) {Reference ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals} Surface Area of Material (Ft2) Difference in Vapor Pressure across the Material (in.Hg.)

A≡ ∆VP≡

Moisture from Products and Packaging (Wpp) In applications where products are brought into the space for storage or processing, moisture from the products will contribute to the moisture levels within the space.
Examples: ♦ Tobacco ♦ Leather ♦ Wool ♦ Lumber ♦ Cotton ♦ Wheat Wpp = m x (pw2 - pw1) x 7000

Where: m≡ Rate of Mass of Material Entering the Room (lb/hourmaterial) pw1≡ Moisture Content of the Material at the Control Condition in the Space (lbH2O/lbmaterial) Moisture Content of the Material before Entering the Space (lbH2O/lbmaterial) Grains per Pound of Water

pw2≡

7000≡

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Moisture from People (Wn) People add moisture into the air space through respiration and perspiration. In applications where the occupancy is high, the moisture from people will represent a substantial portion of the moisture load. The rate of moisture given off depends on the type of activity of the people in the space.
Wn = FxP

Where: F≡ Evaporation Rate per Person (grains/hour) P≡ Number of People

Typical Values for various activities at 70 oF dry bulb temperature: Person Seated at Rest: Person Standing: Person doing Light Work: Person Doing Moderate Work: 500 grains/hour 1,800 grains/hour 2,900 grains/hour 4,900 grains/hour

Moisture from Combustion (Wg) In applications where combustion is taking place within the conditioned area (i.e., gas burners for heating or cooking), the moisture from the combustion of natural gas should be included in the estimate of moisture.

Wg =

G x 650

Where: G≡ Rate of Gas being Combusted (Ft3/hour) 650≡ Moisture Produced per each Cubic Foot of Gas Burned (grain/Ft3)

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The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals provides extensive information on air infiltration through buildings. Wi = A x d x 60 x Va x (Mo .Moisture from Wet Surfaces (We) In many applications.Vpa) x 7000 HL H≡ A≡ VPs≡ VPa≡ 7000≡ HL≡ Rate of Latent Heat Transfer (BTU/hour/Ft2/in. Hg) Total Wetted Surface Area (Ft2) Vapor Pressure of Saturated Air at the Water Temperature (in. One approach to desiccant applications is to use the desiccant system to slightly pressurize the conditioned space to eliminate this moisture contribution to the load.Mi) Where A≡ d≡ 60≡ Va≡ Mo≡ Mi≡ Area of Opening (Ft2) Density of Infiltrating Air (lb/Ft3) Minutes per hour Velocity of Air Through the Opening (Feet/minute) Moisture Outside the Space (gr/lb) Moisture Inside the Space (gr/lb) DESICCANT PLANNING. The cleaning process contributes moisture to the air through evaporation. periodic washing of equipment and floors is required. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 32 . the moisture levels in the conditioned space will increase. Hg) Water Vapor Pressure in the Air above the Surface (in. We = Where H x A x (VPs . conducting a blower door test can provide an accurate method of estimating air leakage on existing buildings. Hg) Grains per Pound of Water Latent Heat of Vaporization at the Water Temperature (BTU/lb) Moisture from Air leaks in Cracks and Walls (Wi) When outside air enters the conditioned space through cracks and the outdoor moisture levels are higher than the indoor air. In addition.

Fresh Air Makeup (Wm) Fresh air is introduced into the conditioned space to provide ventilation for people. As a rule of thumb. Chapter 5 . Typically. Chapter 24 . The number of times a door opens and closes in a typical hour needs to be estimated or measured. The analysis should assume that the local average wind velocity governs the rate of air flow through the door for the amount of time the door is open. Chapter 28 Non-Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations.Moisture Load Calculations. to provide makeup air for exhaust fans and exhaust hoods and to maintain positive pressure in the space. The Dehumidification Handbook. makeup air is introduced into the space prior to being cooled or dehumidified. Wm = Q x d x 60 x (Mo . please refer to the following references: 1997 ASHRAE Handbook .Thermal and Water Vapor Transmission Data.Fundamentals. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 33 .Ventilation and Infiltration. Chapter 25 . the minimum rate can be estimated as: 2 openings/person/hour Note that this can sometimes be much higher. Second Edition.Mi) Where Q≡ d≡ 60≡ Mo≡ Mi≡ Freash Air Makeup Air Flow (Ft3/min) Density of Air (lb/Ft3) Minutes per hour Moisture Level of Fresh Air (gr/lb) Moisture Level Inside the Space (gr/lb) For more detailed information.Door Activity One important area to evaluate is the moisture contribution associated with air entering the space as doors are opened and closed. 1990 DESICCANT PLANNING. One needs to evaluate the rate of infiltration for doors that open to weather. Lewis Harriman.

systems with hotter reactivation air design temperatures require less desiccant material. As such. Additional control may be required to control dampers that allow outdoor makeup air to by-pass the desiccant unit in times when the outdoor humidity ratio is below the desiccant supply air set point. Then design the portion of the system that will address the sensible load. the following equipment sizing guidelines are useful: • Determine the design moisture load and design the desiccant system to remove it. By sizing the desiccant system prior to sizing the sensible system. • Step#5: Select Control System Most desiccant manufacturers provide an integrated control system in their packaged products for internal control of the desiccant system. DESICCANT PLANNING. these systems only require an on/off signal that is generally provided by means of a humidistat installed in the supply air ducting. but increases the sensible load. the added sensible load produced by the desiccant system can accurately be included in the sensible heat load calculation. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 34 . Another control option is to provide variable speed drives on the desiccant fan motors (process air fan and reactivation air fan) to reduce electric consumption at part load operation.Step#4: Size Equipment Equipment manufacturers have slightly different methods of equipment sizing for their products. In general. The effect is that the desiccant system reduces the latent load on the conventional cooling system. Some suppliers provide software for engineers to use to conduct preliminary sizing and performance evaluations. Many suppliers will provide engineers with sizing support if they are provided with specific information on the application. Note that the air leaving a desiccant system is typically warmer than the air entering the desiccant system. From a conceptual design point of view.

Step#6: Evaluate Costs 1. Hardware Costs • Desiccant Unit • Equipment Pad • Ducting • Electrical Interface • Controls • Piping (as appropriate) § Natural Gas § Steam § Hot Water § Cold Water 3. System Design (Mechanical Engineer) 2. Conventional Dehumidification • Natural Gas Latent Cooling vs. Energy Savings • Desiccant vs. Energy Costs (as appropriate) • Electricity • Natural Gas • Steam • Hot Water • Cold Water 5. Electric Latent Cooling • Electric Demand Savings 7. Maintenance Costs • Labor • Filters 6. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 35 . Installation Costs • General Contractor • Mechanical Contractor • Electrical Contractor 4. Non-Energy Savings • Reduced Building Maintenance Due to Reduced Moisture Levels • Increased Productivity Due to Increased Occupant Comfort • Increased Product Quality Due to Better Environmental Control • Preservation of Valuable Materials Due to Constant Humidity Levels being Maintained DESICCANT PLANNING.

Hours of Operation per year 2. Maintenance Costs 1. Ducting 4. Desiccant Gas Consumption 6. General Contractor 2. Costs that should be taken into account are presented below: I. Operation Costs 1. Mechanical Contractor 3. Labor 3. Cost of Natural Gas 4. Desiccant Unit 2. Electrical Interface 5. Equipment Costs 1. Filters 4. Water Treatment DESICCANT PLANNING. Piping II: Installation Costs 1. Service Contract 2. Preliminary Cost Estimates The design of desiccant dehumidification systems and their costs varies widely due to a broad range of site specific requirements. Cost of Electricity 3. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 36 . Controls 6. Belts 5. Equipment Pad 3. Electrical Contractor III.D. Desiccant Electric Consumption 5. Heat Recovery IV.

000 1.000 $102. Preliminary Costs Estimates (cont.000 18.000 $365.000 $215.800 4.D.000 $25.000 $206.000 $80.000 Total Cost $286.600 Equipment Design/ Cost Instal. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 37 .000 $25.000 Two-Wheel Two-Wheel 5.000 $50.000 $155.000 $120.000 Two-Wheel 4.000 $150.) DOD DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFICATION SYSTEM COSTS SUMMARY TABLE SITE ARMY Fort Myer Fort Campbell Aberdeen Proving Grounds AIR FORCE Keesler AFB MacDill AFB NAVY NPWC Pensacola Size Technology (scfm) Two-Wheel Two-Wheel Two-Wheel 4.000 $200.000 $80.000 $50.000 $75. Cost $80.000 DESICCANT PLANNING.000 $52.

Lighting 3.Desiccant Cooling Applications The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has developed a software tool to help engineers quickly analyze desiccant applications. LCCID can be used to determine DoD based life cycle cost analyses.1E building and HVAC models. 2.Life Cycle Cost in Design LCCID is an economic analysis computer program tailored to the needs of the DoD. Occupancy 2. Retail Store 8. Ice Arena 5. Infiltration Default utility rates that can be customized Weather data for 236 cities § § § DESICCANT PLANNING. Large Hotel 3. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 38 .S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Division. Small Hotel/Motel 4. Since LCCID was created as a tool for a variety of energy conservation initiatives. Equipment 4. Supermarket 10.E. Hospital 2. Quick-Service Restaurant 7. Theater 11. Once energy parameters are calculated. School 9. It calculates life cycle costs and other economic parameters for a variety of energy conservation initiatives. It is a menu driven program developed by the U. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories in conjunction with the U. Ventilation 5.S. Refrigerated Warehouse Typical schedules for internal loads 1. Nursing Home 6. Attributes of DesiCalc are as follows: § § Compares energy and costs of desiccant systems to other conventional cooling systems Templates for 11 commercial building types 1. other programs provide more assistance with the special dynamics of desiccant dehumidification systems.) LCCID .) GRI's DesiCalc Software Tool . The software estimates energy costs and humidity levels through an hourly computer simulation based on DOE 2. Lifecycle Cost Analysis 1.

The system does not use heat recovery and natural gas is used for space heating and domestic hot water. Humidity control air treatment applies to 11. Baseline Equipment Alternative Constant volume chilled water system consisting of an electric chiller and an economizer. The default hospital template was selected and modified. The system does not have a humidifier. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 39 . GA Hospital 250. Georgia.Data reports include the following: § § § Short Report Detailed Report Charts • Annual Occupied Hours at Relative Humidity Range • Monthly Electric Energy Use • Monthly Electric Demand • Monthly Electricity Cost • Monthly Gas Energy Use • Monthly Gas Energy Cost • Monthly Electric and Gas Energy Cost • Annual Electric and Gas Energy Cost 3. Analysis Using DesiCalc (Example) An analysis was conducted for a hospital application in Atlanta. Customized inputs are as follows: Location: Application: Floor Area: Glazing: Humidification: Heat Energy Source (Baseline): Desiccant Heat Recovery: Economizer: Atlanta. Economizer operation is based on enthalpy. Software default control scheme and default energy rates utilized.000 square foot Hospital with 20% glazing. The chiller efficiency is .000 square feet of surgical suites. 250.000 sf 20% No Gas None Enthalpy The resulting analysis is based on the following criteria: Building 6-story. The reports and charts are presented at the end of this section. DESICCANT PLANNING.68 kW/ton.

289 1.691.049) $53.638.732 Nashville 74 82 130 155.831 31.311 ($6.760 ($9.558 400 31.6 6.192 $393. The chiller efficiency is .671 1.596 $364.5 7.162 $100.894 400 32.174) $26.242 1.250 22. Nashville and New York.244) $44.640 763. Economizer operation is based on enthalpy. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 40 .600 $115.066 $122.125 $637.770 Houston 77 83 141 153.289 1.289 1.335 1.647 19.894.308 23.446 $448.187 $586.960 21.9 6.8 6.491 $455.028 1.483 $460.149 $67.507.078 698.020 1.587 709.310 1.878 Chicago 72 80 121 153.870 21.253 $81.045.534. The hospital’s electric costs were reduced by $50.112 $887.394 $90.7 6.671.075 32.580 1.668 1. Miami.003.640 1.668 1.523 $41.8 7.083 $96.783 $188.020 811.5 8.706 DESICCANT PLANNING.835 $50.113 $41.335 $533.658 $73.286 15.671 1.751 $78.Desiccant Enhanced System Alternative Constant volume chilled water system consisting of an electric chiller and an economizer.587 1. The resulting annual energy savings were $43.007 18.663 31.68 kW/ton.729 664.825 400 31.069 ($36.537) $46.161 $834.993 1.417/year. Summary results are also presented for the the same application in the cities of Chicago. Houston.835 31.681 30.6 6.202 $418.707 699.943 $631.220 23. Results Data from the sample report are presented at the end of this section and are summarized in the table below under the “Atlanta” column.711 400 30.636.672 1.1 5.648 $699.095 ($20. The system does not have a humidifier.563 1.054 25.783 22.512) $37.024.954 $501.309 1.388 400 31.958 ($4.9 6.024 $322.1 5.911 675.724 Miami 77 83 141 151.028 833.753 $52.559 647.4 5.668 1.446 400 31. Hospital Desiccant Application Comparison City Summer Design o Dew Point ( F) o MCDB ( F) Humidity Ratio (gr/lb) Supply Air (CFM) Outside Air (CFM) Baseline Equipment Design Cooling (Tons) Annual Electric (kWh) Annual Gas (MMBtu) Annual Electric ($) Annual Gas ($) Total Annual ($) Desicant Enhanced Option Design Cooling (Tons) Annual Electric (kWh) Annual Gas (MMBtu) Annual Electric ($) Annual Gas ($) Total Annual ($) Operating Cost Differential Electric ($) Gas ($) Total ($) Desiccant System Specs Process Air Velocity (fpm) Dehumidifier Capacity (CFM) o o ARI (95 F DB/ 75 F WB) Water Removal (lb/hr) Energy Input (Btu/lbremoved) ARI (80 F DB/ 75 F WB) Water Removal (lb/hr) Energy Input (Btu/lbremoved) o o Atlanta 73 81 128 158.417) $43.092 $545.577 1.448 31. The system does not use heat recovery and natural gas is used for space heating and domestic hot water.806 New York 73 80 125 151.749 $464.184 $62.672 23.362 $497. A gas fired desiccant dehumidifier without any heat recovery treats outside air.242 740.993 720.574 1.709 $73.895 652.850 $534. The desiccant system does not have an evaporative cooler option.565 1.923 $438.587 1.127 $381.293.498 $443.311/year and the natural gas costs increased by $6.752 $489.917.562 ($15.918 $464.820 13.135 $85.595.023 $197.

000 $10.000.00 plus S&H) available from the Gas Research Institute.com DESICCANT PLANNING.000 $500.000 Annual Energy Cost $750.Hospital Application: Cooling Cost Analysis (Results from DesiCalcTM Software) $1.000 $250.gri.org. 1510 Hubbard Drive. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 41 . Batavia.desicalc.000 $40. http://www.000 $30. IL. (773) 399-5414. Also see: http://www.000 $50. 60510. GRI Fulfillment Center.000 $0 Atlanta Chicago Houston Miami Nashville New York For additional information refer to the following sources: DesiCalc Software ($295.000 $0 Atlanta Chicago Houston Miami Nashville New York Baseline Equipment Desicant Enhanced Option Annual Desiccant Energy Cost Savings for a Hospital Application $60.000 $20.

00 Watt/sf Infiltration: 0.00 air exchanges/hour Ventilation: 100.68 kW/ton electric chiller (water cooled) with enthalpy economizer. System does not use heat recovery./Setback Heating Temp. Humidifier not used.752 $ 489.674.1 Page 1 of 2 EQUIPMENT & ENERGY Baseline Equipment Alternative Const.242 RT Btu/hr CFM CFM 6.64 3.083 $ 96.007 kWh 18.Lat./Setback Maximum Humidity Minimum Humidity Baseline Des.394 $ 90. Enhanced 65 / 75 F 65 / 75 F 65 / 65 F 65 / 65 F 50 % 50 % 0% 0% Version 1. Default Config.557 158. 34N/84W Summer 1% Design Dry Bulb/Mean-Coincident Wet Bulb: 91/74°F (Humidity Ratio 104 gr/lb) Summer 1% Design Dew-Point/Mean-Coincident Dry Bulb: 73/81°F (Humidity Ratio 128 gr/lb).783 kWh 22. 6-story building with 20 % wall glazing.075 32.814. Default Config.557 158.Default Equipment Sizing Design Point: 1% DB & 1% DP Equipment Oversize: 20 % Internal Loads and Ventilation Occupancy: 275. Application Comfort Controls . (without heat recovery).0 sf/person Lighting: 4.498 MMBtu 443. vol.00 Watt/sf Other Electric: 3.335 $ 533. System equipped with gas source heating.00 % Comfort Controls Cooling Temp.835 $ 0 Annual Occupied Hours @ RH>60% .729 $ 0 6. Internal loads and ventilation values apply to humidity controlled areas.242 RT Btu/hr CFM CFM Design Cooling Capacity: Design Heating Capacity: Supply Fans Capacity: Outside Air: Annual Electric Energy Use: Annual Gas Energy Use: Annual Electric Energy Cost: Annual Gas Energy Cost: Total Annual Energy Cost Annual Occupied Hours @ RH>60% 740.075 32. Energy Rates .93 3.192 MMBtu 393. Dehumidifier configured without evap.Default Controls LOCATION & DESIGN WEATHER Atlanta GA .045.Input/Output Data Short Report 01/28/99 09:51:38AM JOB DESCRIPTION Project: Hospital Location: Atlanta Program User: Comments: BUILDING Hospital. Design Cooling Capacity: Design Heating Capacity: Supply Fans Capacity: Outside Air : Annual Electric Energy Use: Annual Gas Energy Use: Annual Electric Energy Cost: Annual Gas Energy Cost: Total Annual Energy Cost 664.68 kW/ton electric chiller (water cooled) with enthalpy economizer. heat exch. cooler option. System equipped with gas source heating. Humidity control air treatment applies to 11000 sf of surgical suites. Building total floor area is 250000 sf. Humidifier not used.814./Long. chilled water system with 0. Desiccant Enhanced System Alternative Constant volume chilled water system with 0. Outside air treated by gas-fired desiccant dehumidifier with 0 % eff.

776 Note.878 0.000 Btu/hr MMBtu = 1.1 Page 2 of 2 DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFIER UNIT PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (ARI Standard 940P Rating Conditions) Process Air Flow Face Velocity: Dehumidifier Capacity: DB (F) 95 80 WB (F) 75 75 Humidity (gr/lb) 100.0 124.335 1.Input/Output Data Short Report 01/28/99 09:51:38AM Version 1. Units Used RT = 12.059 RT Note. equipment.000 Btu .0 124.000.563 1. Desiccant Dehumidifier Precooling Coil Max. and HVAC equipment.375 400 fpm Specific Energy Input (Btu/lb_removed water) 1.5 400 32.242 fpm CFM Water Removed Specific Energy Input (lb/hr) (Btu/lb_removed water) 1.668 1. The annual energy consumption and costs given in this report reflect facility total energy use including lights. Details of monthly energy consumption by end use are given in Detailed Report. Capacity: Regeneration air source is outside air.5 Water Removed (lb/hr) 825 1.772 1. DESICCANT WHEEL MATRIX PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (ARI Standard 940P Rating Conditions) Process Air Flow Face Velocity: DB (F) 95 80 WB (F) 75 75 Humidity (gr/lb) 100.

060 2.123 929 301 91 57 5.290 404 200 17.666 3.198 Cooling Total MMBtu 63 177 415 1.345 .714 Alternative System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Cooling Sensible MMBtu 59 174 404 981 1.947 2.173 351 175 16.152 Cooling Latent MMBtu 3 3 11 58 162 315 561 535 424 99 13 11 2.751 1.586 1.486 3.449 2.498 2.DesiCalc Monthly Loads.984 2.094 1.561 1.170 2.073 338 164 14.039 1.756 Heating/Reheating Total MMBtu 417 337 175 157 170 174 187 181 184 159 215 357 2.144 2.141 2.593 Cooling Latent MMBtu 24 33 73 204 441 719 1.867 2.822 989 313 143 12.705 2.1 Page 1 of 5 Cooling and Heating Coil Loads Hospital Atlanta Baseline System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Cooling Sensible MMBtu 56 177 385 940 1.027 2.217 2.168 1.309 3.163 Cooling Total MMBtu 80 210 457 1. Energy Consumption and Costs Report 01/28/99 09:58:08AM Version 1.136 1.350 Heating Total MMBtu 389 297 118 49 2 0 0 0 0 32 141 318 1.

106 37.045.756 578. kWh 34.819 94.607 220.656 33.487 18.842 9.515 90.215 10.869 268.305 95.141 40.013 97.040 265. kWh 9.187 0 0 2.356 0 0 665 25.056 255.160 255.854 Misc.307 36. kWh 7.399 442.496 24.160 238.555 5.934 0 0 0 17.551 Space Heat Refrig.119 553.961 67.631 Pumps & Misc.212 60.958 382.481 19.697 0 0 1.827 35.202 0 0 9.515 90.876 0 0 0 20.497 4.555 57.187 1.669 19.541 448.316 60.111 37.085 747.910 85.856 45.056 2.507 630.392 16.108 94.160 255.725 739.959 59.558 0 0 669 16.029 94.824 0 0 0 0 Total kWh 416.756 42.559 61.932 182.734 0 0 756 8.910 91.966 Fans Vent.277 9.320 95.455 25.157 18.356 54.605 0 0 1.169 54.854 Misc.497 671.122 Pumps & Misc.495. Water kWh kWh kWh kWh 2.009 17. kWh 34.264 266.376 175.644 13.456 Alternative System Lights Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total kWh 265.832 264.016 Space Cooling kWh 4.781 1.1 Page 2 of 5 Electric Energy Consumption by End Use Baseline System Lights Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total kWh 265.715 550.012 0 0 1.815 23.730 0 0 1.288 4. Dom. Dom.801 0 0 1.430 581.214 392.056 255.805 148. Water kWh kWh kWh kWh 2.310 562.714 94.117.160 256.886 265.782 1.595 0 0 643 24.613 33.787 227.923 124.691 105. kWh 94.Hot Heating Reject.087 1.710 2.331 635.046 .351 109.782 933.819 94.814 0 0 599 9.519 6.320 95.674.897 45.815 23.093 23.921 0 0 1.114.705 467.798 3.832 264.912 2.264 266.Hot Heating Reject.DesiCalc Monthly Loads.040 265.423 142.029 94.910 85.691 0 0 623 20.155 21.334 19.590 256.802 16. Equip.673 671.238 53.259 169.162 168.160 256.804 14.226 91.583 57.715 18.226 91.254 479.893 47.443 0 0 656 20.639 18.503 Space Heat Refrig.590 256.717 0 0 68 14.402 265.142 10.007 1.756 14.256 0 0 1.957 427.108 94.053 11.047 0 0 6 17.366 425.346 418.506 521.357 220.084 11. kWh 94.910 92.654 502.910 92.133 14.081 23. Energy Consumption and Costs Report 01/28/99 09:58:08AM Version 1.372 0 0 0 21.934 0 0 Total kWh 409.114.011 47.886 265.745 0 0 1.305 95.160 238.117.334 11.998 11.472 18.888 6.165 40.643 624.678 277.023 139.910 91.016 Space Cooling kWh 8.170 54.402 265.855 2.714 94.888 35.798 3.245 22.273 0 0 1.701 5.012 Fans Vent.474 61.506 263. Equip.949 561.506 263.

180 1.656 2.326 Dom.096 1.230 1.967 1.540 1.910 1.829 1.514 1.711 2.004 6.639 1. Heating Misc. Hot Misc.054 1.DesiCalc Monthly Loads.152 1.560 1.134 959 745 448 223 208 222 214 219 373 695 1. Ext.087 22.442 Space Cooling MMBtu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dom.854 0 0 Total MMBtu 2. Energy Consumption and Costs Report 01/28/99 09:58:08AM Version 1. Water Domest.278 1. Supl.194 . Hot Misc.863 1.047 18.992 1. Ext.116 1.055 931 365 146 88 5.1 Page 3 of 5 Gas Energy Consumption by End Use Baseline System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Space Heating MMBtu 1.499 Alternative System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Space Heating MMBtu 1.811 Space Cooling MMBtu 42 53 116 254 482 698 1.222 1.676 2.204 2. Water Domest.100 910 676 319 23 2 0 0 0 221 605 956 4.327 1. Supl.854 0 0 Total MMBtu 2. MMBtu MMBtu MMBtu MMBtu 845 243 0 0 785 218 0 0 872 247 0 0 832 235 0 0 813 243 0 0 738 238 0 0 719 240 0 0 691 247 0 0 666 231 0 0 711 243 0 0 730 231 0 0 803 240 0 0 9. MMBtu MMBtu MMBtu MMBtu 845 243 0 0 785 218 0 0 872 247 0 0 832 235 0 0 813 243 0 0 738 238 0 0 719 240 0 0 691 247 0 0 666 231 0 0 711 243 0 0 730 231 0 0 803 240 0 0 9.962 1. Heating Misc.204 2.184 1.

938 23.733 26.596 1.164 29.083 .706 467.410 31.683 22.320 1.496 671.531 1.580 0 17 0 5.689 33.450 1.253 1.445 0 17 0 5.191 1.285 1. Fixed Min.604 25.071 1.330 1.DesiCalc Monthly Loads.219 1.465 0 17 0 6.495 0 17 0 7.674.400 393.285 27.208 22.648 0 17 0 7.181 Demand Charge ($) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Energy Taxes Surch.244 321.507 521.215 392.586 1.536 0 17 0 8.1 Page 4 of 5 Total Monthly Electric Consumption and Electric Energy Cost Baseline System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Metered Energy kWh 416.748 0 17 0 8.398 442.303 1.524 1.684 26.615 0 17 0 6.430 1.357 1.104 1.757 0 17 0 6.173 23.672 42.519 6.674 671.412 25.889 6.292 18.559 1.776 1.321 29.542 448.626 0 17 0 8.262 1.045.566 0 17 0 6. Energy Consumption and Costs Report 01/28/99 09:58:08AM Version 1.166 2.958 382.098 1.059 1.291 2.652 36.467 39.738 1.997 32. Cost Adj Charge Charge ($) ($) ($) ($) ($) 6.502 34.350 34.851 0 17 0 133 1.906 0 17 0 8.584 32.513 22.467 Energy Charge ($) 22.034 0 17 0 143 1.799 36.078 15.139 999 970 13.138 1.559 1.704 30.456 0 17 0 91.251 27.044 0 17 0 1.958 427.825 0 204 0 Total Charge ($) 30.654 502.588 30.084 747.608 282.764 Demand Charge ($) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Energy Taxes Surch.715 550.423 1. Cost Adj Charge Charge ($) ($) ($) ($) ($) 6.311 1.898 38.115 24.197 25.508 630.778 21.764 0 17 0 9.433 1.424 42.408 35.660 0 17 0 9.218 32.454 25.221 1.962 24.854 25.732 33.719 0 17 0 9.689 1.117 553.642 624.408 0 17 0 6.213 24.725 739.757 578.769 1.962 34.255 479.338 29.596 0 17 0 60.009 Metered Demand kW 1.235 1.535 22.702 Energy Charge ($) 25.936 0 17 0 1.831 36. Fixed Min.549 0 17 0 7.340 28.394 Alternative System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Metered Energy kWh 409.640 40.332 635.319 1.028 1.280 23.785 Metered Demand kW 942 976 1.930 1.461 1.877 1.318 443.346 418.430 581.656 0 17 0 7.190 1.068 33.778 1.235 0 204 0 Total Charge ($) 32.367 425.

068 387 4.158 13.468 7.430 11.209 398 5.271 873 6.505 6.198 7. Energy Consumption and Costs Report 01/28/99 09:58:08AM Version 1.018 7.565 Surch.136 90.996 Metered Energy Demand Charge Therms/Day ($) 983 10.716 9.451 5.121 803 7.555 20.917 84.469 184.048 5.046 820 6. Charge Charge ($) ($) ($) 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 156 0 Total Charge ($) 10.806 8.784 11.191 387 5.516 11.920 18.220 19. Fixed Min.633 912 9.021 730 5.047 Demand Energy Taxes Charge Cost Adj ($) ($) ($) 0 0 746 0 0 659 0 0 626 0 0 509 0 0 410 0 0 380 0 0 379 0 0 370 0 0 358 0 0 447 0 0 557 0 0 688 0 0 6.618 9.952 1.581 8.182 10.541 19.148 10.630 15.597 16.DesiCalc Monthly Loads. Fixed Min.945 762 6.043 833 8.179 8.031 Demand Energy Taxes Charge Cost Adj ($) ($) ($) 0 0 743 0 0 653 0 0 624 0 0 512 0 0 433 0 0 441 0 0 507 0 0 492 0 0 458 0 0 462 0 0 553 0 0 687 0 0 6.588 801 6.037 8.400 17.500 7.103 16.742 6.865 221.129 Surch.945 9.331 1.259 6.765 20.838 11.335 Alternative System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Metered Energy Therms 22.983 442 5.112 20.227 7.583 1.020 7.269 16.796 11.583 5.203 10.1 Page 5 of 5 Total Monthly Gas Consumption and Gas Energy Cost Baseline System Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total Metered Energy Therms 22.241 1. Charge Charge ($) ($) ($) 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 13 0 0 156 0 Total Charge ($) 11.303 19.624 408 5.752 .139 9.603 5.388 15.948 749 6.561 1.142 12.003 9.285 15.666 19.240 90.000 9.945 Metered Energy Demand Charge Therms/Day ($) 1.546 6.435 7.619 18.282 6.911 559 6.131 96.391 6.754 730 6.189 1.

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F. Sample Paperwork The following are links to DoD desiccant site documents: Fort Myer Technical Specifications Fort Campbell Technical Specifications DESICCANT PLANNING. PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING GUIDE 42 .

..... Manufacturers.. Desiccant Design and Engineering Guide A SERVICE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 1............................................................. 4................................................................... B................. 6.......................Section Outline II...... Other Suppliers ......... Wet Bulb Temperature................... Relative Humidity ...................................................... 3................................. 2............. Guide Specification for Military Construction Desiccant Cooling Systems ............................................................................................. Dry Bulb Temperature .................................. Psychrometric Examples ............................................................................ C........... 5.......................... Naval Facilities Engineering Command Guide Specification Desiccant Dehumidification Equipment............................................................. EQUIPMENT SOURCES 1..................................................................... PYSCHROMETRICS 1........ 7 8 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 1 ... Enthalpy...... 2.............. ................. Specific Humidity............ 2.....

Desiccant Cooling Systems. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Guide Specification .A. DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 2 .Desiccant Dehumidification Equipment. Service Construction Requirements The following are links to Military Guide Specifications: Guide Specification for Military Construction .

other characteristics of the air can be determined. Dry Bulb Temperature The dry bulb temperature is the temperature that is measured by a dry thermometer.B. knowing the dry bulb temperature and relative humidity. By knowing any two parameters. For example. Psychrometrics The scientific principles used to describe the thermodynamic properties of moist air are known as psychrometrics. 1. one can determine the quantity of moisture in the air (specific humidity). The dry bulb temperature is represented on the psychrometric chart as the vertical lines presented below which increases in value from the left to the right: DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 3 . This section provides an overview of the psychrometric chart including definitions of moist air terminology. The relationships of moist air parameters are represented graphically on the psychrometric chart as presented below.

3. Grains is equal to pounds of moisture per pound of dry air times 7000 grains per pound. DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 4 . Constant relative humidity lines increase in value as one reads up and to the left as shown on the chart below. On the psychrometric chart. the specific humidity is represented as horizontal lines and increases in value as one moves up the chart as presented below. Relative Humidity The relative humidity indicates the percent of moisture in the air with respect to the quantity of moisture that the air is capable of holding at saturation. It is also common to present this parameter in grains. Relative humidity is the only parameter on the psychrometric chart that is not linear. This parameter can be represented as the humidity ratio in units of “pounds of moisture per pound of dry air”.2. Specific Humidity The specific humidity defines the ratio of moisture to dry air.

the wet bulb temperature is represented as lines that are nearly parallel to the enthalpy curves. On the psychrometric chart. DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 5 . the enthalpy is represented on the left side of the chart and increases in value as one moves up the chart as presented below. 5. As water evaporates from the wick. This parameter is used to determine the minimum quantity of energy required to move from one state of air conditions to another. The resulting temperature measurement is the wet bulb temperature. The wet bulb temperature provides another measure that can used to quantify the amount of moisture in the air. On the psychrometric chart. Wet Bulb Temperature The wet bulb temperature is measured with a thermometer that has a wet wick. the temperature measured decreases due to evaporative cooling. Enthalpy Enthalpy is a thermodynamic quantity that indicates the level of energy and is represented in units of BTU's per pound of dry air. The latent energy is attributed to the moisture in the air and represents the quantity of heat required to remove the moisture.4. The total energy of moist air has two components: 1) sensible energy and 2) latent energy.

Psychrometric Examples The following are two examples of determining the psychometric values given two of the variable conditions.Fundamentals. Chapter 6 . Chapter 2 Psychrometrics. 1990 1993 ASHRAE Handbook .6. Example #1: Given: Dry Bulb Temperature: Relative Humidity: o 70 F 50% Resulting psychrometric parameters Humidity Ratio: 55 grains/lb o Wet Bulb Temperature: 58 F Enthalpy: 25 BTU/lb Example #2: Given: Dry Bulb Temperature: Wet Bulb Temperature: 85 F o 76 F o Resulting psychrometric parameters Humidity Ratio: 121 grains/lb Enthalpy: 39 BTU/lb Relative Humidity: 67% For additional information refer to the following sources: The Dehumidification Handbook. Lewis Harriman. Second Edition.Psychrometrics DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 6 .

000 cfm Bry-Air Inc.000 cfm Desiccant Dehumidification Honeycomb Wheel Up to 300 lb.airflowcompany.com Custom Industrial (Large) Commercial Desiccant Dehumidification Systems Rotating Wheel. MO 65201-3508 (573) 443-1481 FAX (573) 886-5408 www. MANUFACTURER Airflow Co.O.000 cfm DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 7 . Industrial/Commercial Desiccant Dehumidification Rotating Wheel 2.000-40. (500 to 25. Suite 102 Philadelphia./ hr. P. Box 269 Sunbury. 600-84. of moisture removal. Pointe Drive Columbia. Route 37 W.000 cfm) Desiccant Dehumidification Two-wheel Desiccant 2./hr. Equipment Sources The table below presents a list of manufacturers of desiccant dehumidification systems..com Semco Inc. PA 191234008 (215) 625-0700 1-800-220-3301 FAX (215) 592-8299 www. OH 43074 (614) 965-2974 FAX (614) 965-5470 www.muntersamerica. P. 1800 E. Amesbury.bry-air. of water removal.000 cfm Air Conditioning/ Dehumidification Liquid Desiccants Up to 10. Cargocaire Division 79 Monroe St. Multiple Vertical Bed 16 to 830 lb. NJ 08903 (908) 356-6000 1-800-524-1370 FAX (908) 356-0643 www.semcoinc. 5th St. MD 217013136 (301) 695-6500 FAX (301) 695-4057 www./hr.000 lb.C. 10793 St. 295 Bailes Lane Frederick.freshairsolutions.com Fresh Air Solutions (formerly Engelhard/ICC ) 441 N.com Munters Corp.kathabar..com EQUIPMENT Industrial/Commercial TECHNOLOGY Rotary Wheel. Granular bed SIZE 25 to 24.000 to 20. MA 01913-0640 (978) 241-1100 1-800-843-5360 FAX (978) 241-1215 www.com Kathabar Inc. Box 791 New Brunswick. of moisture removal.O.

Air Flow Company Air Technology Systems.) The following manufacturer information is provided for information purposes only. Inc. Inc. Fresh Air Solutions (formerly Engelhard/ICC) Kathabar.Cargocaire Division SEMCO. . nor is any warranty implied as to the quality of the products discussed. Inc. Bry-Air.S. Inc. Munters Corp. Equipment Sources (cont. Government. Presentation of this product literature does not constitute any recommendation on the part of the U. DESICCANT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING GUIDE 8 .C.

........................... Desiccant Dehumidification Commponents Standard ................. Selected Pipe Supports and Anchors Standards ................ General Building Codes............................................... Selected Mechanical Insulation Codes. CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS 1..... 4..... 8 DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 1 .. SAMPLE CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS 1........... Sample Specification ......................... 2....................................... C..................... SAMPLE O&M MANUALS 1........ Fort Myer Construction Drawings.. 4.............................................. 2........................... Selected Pipe Joining Methods...........Fort Myer .................. Introduction ... Desiccant Construction and O&M Guide A APPLICABLE BUILDING CODES 1......... 7............................................................................................ Kathabar Systems Application Manual................... 7 7 7 7 6 6 D. Fort Benning Construction Drawings... 2................ 6................... Keesler Air Force Base Construction Drawings ....................................Section Outline III............... Fort Campbell Construction Drawings..... 5. Selected HVAC Codes ........ 3..................................................................................... 3..................................... Engelhard Desert Cool TM DC050............... 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 B.......................

2. construction. APPLICABLE BUILDING CODES 1. DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 2 . carnivals. incinerators. the NEC covers the installation of electric conductors and equipment in public and private buildings or other structures (including mobile homes. Engineers and contractors should comply with all applicable state and local building codes. This section provides an overview of the typical standards and codes that are applicable to desiccant systems. Published triennially. The NEC also covers installations of optical fiber cable. including requirements for plumbing materials and IAPMO installation standards. Specific codes and standards should be reviewed directly and can be obtained directly from the issuing organization. and parking lots). industrial substations. cooling and refrigeration systems. Electrical construction shall be performed in strict accordance with the National Electric Code (NEC) The National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) provides "practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity. and floating buildings). Work shall comply with the Uniform Mechanical Code The Uniform Mechanical Code provides a complete set of requirements for the design. and other premises (such as yards. Work shall comply with the Uniform Plumbing Code The Uniform Plumbing Code is published by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO). recreational vehicles. General Building Codes Work shall comply with all applicable state and local building codes Work shall comply with the Uniform Building Code The Uniform Building Code is the most widely adopted model building code in the world and is a proven document meeting the needs of government agencies charged with enforcement of building regulation. The requirements reflect the latest technological advances available in the building and fire and life-safety industry. It covers all aspects of plumbing. and other heat-producing appliances." More specifically. ventilating.A. Introduction The installation of desiccant systems is similar to the installation of other major HVAC mechanical equipment hardware. installation and maintenance of heating. the UBC provides complete regulations covering all major aspects of building design and construction relating to fire and life-safety and structural-safety.

The standard applies to all indoor or enclosed spaces that people may occupy. Work shall comply with the requirements as set forth by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) The NFPA provides requirements for building design. DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 3 . construction. locker rooms. as well as special conditions (emergency and stand-by power. welding operators. smoke. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 This standard specifies minimum ventilation rates and indoor air quality that will be acceptable to human occupants and are intended to minimize the potential for adverse health effects. brazers. Section IX establishes the basic criteria for welding and brazing which are observed in the preparation of welding and brazing requirements that affect procedure and performance. except where other applicable standards and requirements dictate larger amounts of ventilation than this standard. and equipment (ranging from elevators to hot tubs) are covered. operation. Section IX Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code relates to the qualification of welders. and brazing operators and the procedures employed in welding or brazing in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping. for example) and communication systems. and fumes or similar emergencies. The purpose of the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) and Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) is to determine that the weldment proposed for construction is capable of having the required properties for its intended application. Qualification of welding procedures: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.Wiring. and maintenance to protect occupants from fire. Release of moisture in residential kitchens and bathrooms. and swimming pools is included. general electrical equipment. the use of electricity in specific occupancies (from aircraft hangars to health care facilities). The NEC protects the public adoption and enforcement of the National Electrical Code and protects public safety by establishing requirements for electrical wiring and equipment in virtually all buildings. or conditions requiring more than 600 volts.

and flames to areas far beyond the initial fire location. return ducts. They can also supply air to aid combustion in the fire area. • Restrict the spread of smoke and fire • Maintain the fire-resistive integrity of building components and elements • Minimize ignition sources and combustibility of system elements NFPA 90B: Standard for Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Systems. This NFPA standard prescribes the minimum requirements for fire protection of air duct systems so as to. 4. Applies to one..000 cubic feet. 5. Selected Mechanical Insulation Codes Products shall conform to NFPA 90A and 90B with special regard to fire hazard classification requirements of NFPA 255. and other components. heat pumps. 1996 Edition NFPA 255 provides a procedure for determining the comparative flame spread rate and smoke density of building materials. Selected Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Codes Products shall conform to NFPA 90A and 90B NFPA 90A: Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. hot gases. air filters. 1996 Edition Make HVAC systems part of the fire safety solution Air ducts have the potential to transport smoke. Selected Pipe Joining Methods Comply with Mechanical Standards and with the requirements of ANSI B31 DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 4 . 1996 Edition NFPA 90B provides installation requirements for supply ducts. controls. including vapor barriers and adhesives NFPA 255: Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. clearances..3. heating panels.and two-family dwellings or spaces not exceeding volumes of 25.

contractors and users. classifications. DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 5 .This standard by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) applies to factory manufactured.6. Desiccant Dehumidification Commponents Standard ARI Standard 940-98 . Selected Pipe Support and Anchor Standards Pipe support system shall result in pipe stress conforming to the requirements of ANSI B31. Only the component containing the desiccant is subject to this standard. testing and rating requirements. dynamic desiccant components operating at atmospheric pressure.1 7. minimum data requirements for published ratings. performance requirements. thermally regenerated. Included in the standard are definitions. marking and nameplate data intended for use by manufacturers. engineers.3 Pipe support Design shall conform to ASME B31. installers.

Kathabar Systems Application Manual (Liquid Desiccant) DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 6 .Fort Myer (Engelhard Two-Wheel Desiccant .B. CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS The following are links to desiccant specifications and application manuals. 1.now Fresh Air Solutions) 2. Sample Specification .

SAMPLE CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS The following are links to desiccant system construction drawings. Fort Benning Construction Drawings 2. Fort Campbell Construction Drawings 3. 1. Fort Myer Construction Drawings 4.C. Keesler Air Force Base Construction Drawings DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 7 .

Engelhard Desert Cool TM DC050 (now Fresh Air Solutions) DESICCANT CONSTRUCTION AND O&M GUIDE 8 .D. SAMPLE O&M MANUALS The following are links to desiccant O&M manuals 1.

........................... Fort Myer Technical Summary Sheet ..... 3................................................................................................................................................... Site Description........... Lessons Learned............................................................. ........................ 4.................... Summary Information ................................................................. 5........................ System Description .................... Summary Information .... Keesler AFB Technical Summary Sheet .............................................................................................................. Keesler Air Force Base...................................... DoD Desiccant Systems Case Studies A FORT BENNING 1... 5 6 6 6 8 C......................... 9 9 10 10 11 D.............................. 3................................................. 3................................................ SYSTEM DATA PERFORMANCE REPORTS 1.. 2............................................. Lessons Learned.......................................... Summary Information ......................... 3......... 2............................. 3.. System Description .................... Site Description...................................................... 4............... FORT MYER 1..... 12 12 13 13 14 E.... 4...................................Section Outline IV....................... KEESLER AIR FORCE BASE 1.......... 15 22 28 DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 1 ...... 2............................................................................................ Fort Campbell................ ................. 5............. Site Description... Lessons Learned.......... ...................................... Summary Information ................. Fort Campbell Technical Summary Sheet .................................................................................................................................... System Description .... 2..................................... 5................................ 5........................ System Description . 2 2 3 3 4 B................ Fort Myer ... Fort Benning Technical Summary Sheet .................................................................. FORT CAMPBELL 1............ 2............................................. ......... Lessons Learned..... 4.................................................... Site Description...................................

Fort Benning is known as the "Home of the Infantry". review and testing of doctrine and material for infantry units. DoD Desiccant Case Studies . the desiccant unit was installed outdoors on the roof adjacent to the mechanical room. To accommodate the installation of the desiccant unit. the hospital employs approximately 750 civilian and 680 military staff members. 250 bed facility are 11 patient wards.A. and more than 30 ambulatory care clinics. Georgia approximately 110 miles west of Atlanta near the Georgia/Alabama state line.S. The desiccant unit is installed at the Martin Army Hospital (Building 9200). To provide heat for the desiccant regeneration. Within the 10 story. Daily.Fort Benning Martin Army Community Hospital Fort Benning. an extensive surgical suite. Army Infantry School produces the world’s finest infantry combat leaders by preparing officers and enlisted soldiers to perform infantry duties required in both peace and war with the emphasis on the art of command and leadership. techniques and procedures to implement approved doctrine for infantry units at brigade level and below is the mission of the Infantry School. System Description The desiccant unit was retrofit to one of the three air handlers located in the fourth floor mechanical room. the hospital provides inpatient care to approximately 130 patients and averages nearly 1. The air handler interfaced with the desiccant unit provides air to the operating rooms of the hospital. a labor and delivery suite. In order to provide these extensive medical services. It also participates in the development. Georgia Site Description Fort Benning is located in Columbus. The development of tactics. The U. the desiccant unit was supplied with a DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 2 .200 outpatient visits.

The contract for replacement of the air handler did not include a task for integrating the desiccant controls back with the building controller. Kirlin. The desiccant unit was originally interfaced to an existing air handler inside the mechanical room. Because steam is used for regeneration and there is not a boiler inside the desiccant unit. Due to this oversight.480 cfm Model # DA 5000 Unit is mounted on rooftop Regeneration by building steam loop Variable speed drive on fans 100% outside air into desiccant Mr. Mark Fincher Martin Army Community Hospital Fort Benning. In addition.steam to air heat exchanger in place of the standard hot water boiler. but is not a weatherproof motor. The roof required a steel mounting structure for the desiccant unit. GA John J. Lessons Learned The only viable location for the desiccant unit was outside on the roof adjacent to the air handler mechanical room. the desiccant unit was retrofit with a variable speed drive for the process air and regeneration air fans. Careful consideration was given to the roof loading capacity. the desiccant unit has not operated since the installation of the new air handler. A new air handler was later installed to replace the one interfaced to the desiccant unit. the VSD could have been installed in the boiler compartment to protect it from the ambient conditions. GA 30083 Richard Millard Site Contact: Installation Contractor: See Also . Steam is supplied from the central boiler plant in the hospital. 1997 4.Fort Benning Installation Diagrams DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 3 . SUMMARY INFORMATION: System Manufacturer: System Type: Application: Start-up Date: System Description: Engelhard Corporation (now Fresh Air Solutions) Two-Wheel Desiccant Hospital Operating Room January. of Georgia 1669 Litton Drive Stone Mountain. The variable speed drive (VSD) for the desiccant fans was mounted outside. Inc.

475 Dimensions Length Width Height cfm F o F Gr/Lb o F %RH o cfm F o F Gr/Lb o F %RH o o F Gr/Lb Lbs/Hour Tons BTU/Hr BTU/Hr 144 inches 88 inches 99.90 Humidity Ratio 125.0 Wet Bulb 78.5 185.29 feet 4 DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES .5 inches 12 feet 7.00 Dew Point 73.00 Wet Bulb 78.400 Dry Bulb 94.0 HP) Standard Motor Efficeincy Voltage: 460/3/60 Steam Regeneration Steam Provided Externally Process Air Bottom Intake Closed Process Air End Intake through Hood Regeneration Front Intake through Hood Regeneration Bottom Intake Closed Regeneration Outlet through Hood Thermostat by Others (Field Supplied) Humidity Controller through Dewpoint Sensor ExternalDisconnect: 60 Amp Non-Fused Post Cooling: None Roof Curb: None Performance Specification Process Air Inlet Flow Rate 4.6 %RH 51.4 15.33 feet 8.60 %RH 51.90 Regeneration Air Inlet Flow Rate 4.Fort Benning Technical Summary Sheet Desiccant System Description Desiccant Type Manufacturer Model Number DC050 G F S J O S D B B D B C B N O O Two-Wheel Desiccant System Engelhard/ICC DC050GFSJOSDBBDBCBNOO 2500 to 6000 cfm Process Air Motor: 7.400 Dry Bulb 94.5 HP Regeneration Motor: 5.504 Total Capacity 210.9 Process Supply Air Dry Bulb 90 Humidity Ratio 63 Latent Capacity 169.0 Dew Point 73.9 Humidity Ratio 125.

The fort opened in 1942 and is named after William B. The conditioned space of this stand-alone 2 metal building is 12. The building construction consists of metal walls with no insulation. Fort Campbell is home of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). The building appeared to have a substantial amount of air leakage. The desiccant system is located in the museum building which originally housed a movie theater. storage rooms. Kentucky Site Description Fort Campbell is located approximately 90 miles northwest of Nashville. a suspended acoustic tile ceiling with R-11 bat insulation and a concrete slab floor. workshop and the museum exhibit area. rest rooms.956 Ft . In 1972.Fort Campbell Don F.B. The museum is used to educate new recruits and for viewing by the public. Pratt Memorial Museum Fort Campbell. the facility was converted to a museum. The 101st Airborne Screaming Eagles stationed at Fort Campbell are members of the only air assault division in the world. a gift shop.000 visitors pass through the museum annually with as many as 150 visitors at any one time. a Tennessee statesman and Brigadier General of the United States Volunteers during the Civil War. Fort Campbell supports the 3rd largest military population in the Army and the 7th largest in the Department of Defense. A total of 80. The facility consists of a reception area. DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 5 . DoD Desiccant Case Studies . a classroom and an auditorium for basic training during the Vietnam war. Tennessee on the Tennessee and Kentucky border. The air space above the insulation in the ceiling is vented to the outdoor space. Campbell. a manager's office. The museum operates between the hours of 9:30 am and 4:30 pm seven days a week.

Arlin Wright Fort Campbell Fort Campbell. However. the museum temperature dropped below specification. art work and historical documents. Moisture control is achieved through desiccant dehumidification while humidification is achieved through humidifier units located throughout the museum.000 of which approximately 80% are at risk to high humidity damage. Wide swings in the humidity level cause premature degradation to many of the artifacts. KY Site Contact: DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 6 . The estimated value of the museum artifacts is $8. The problem was corrected by installing a feedback mechanism from the desiccant unit back to the mechanical system controller. which is detrimental to preserving artifacts. The desiccant unit was retrofit to the central air handling unit for the museum. when the chiller operated during periods when the desiccant unit was not operating. Outside air is dehumidified and mixed with the building return air prior to passing over the cooling coil. This resulted in wide temperature fluctuations within the museum. Artifacts which are impacted the most by humidity are textiles. Lessons Learned Once installation of the desiccant unit was complete.000. SUMMARY INFORMATION System Manufacturer: System Type: Application: Start-up Date: System Description: Engelhard Corporation (now Fresh Air Solutions) Two-Wheel Desiccant Museum August. the museum mechanical system was capable of providing both temperature and moisture control. the air in the museum must be maintained between o o 70 F to 75 F and 50% to 52% relative humidity. the chilled water leaving temperature set point was lowered.000 cfm Model # DC 050 Unit located on cement pad at rear of building Regeneration by natural gas boiler supplied with unit 100% outside air Mr. Because the desiccant unit delivers warmer air than normal.System Description To preserve the museum artifacts. The desiccant unit is installed outdoors adjacent to the mechanical room and the electric chiller at the rear of the building. 1997 5. The air handling unit contains a hydronic cooling coil interfaced to an air cooled chiller.

1514 Vista Lane Clarksville. IA 52761 Mr. Inc. 225 Iowa Avenue Muscatine. Lee Miller Jim Freeman Co.Fort Campbell Installation Diagram DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 7 . TN 37043 Mr. Jim Freeman Installation Contractor: See Also .Prime Contractor: Stanley Design-Build.

29 feet DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 8 .000 Dry Bulb 94 Wet Bulb 77.33 feet 8.Fort Campbell Technical Summary Sheet Desiccant System Description Desiccant Type Manufacturer Model Number DC 050 F F S F A D N O D B A B D B C C O O O Two-Wheel Desiccant System Engelhard/ICC DC050GFFSFADNODBABDBCCOOO System 4.7 %RH 47 Regeneration Air Inlet Flow Rate 5.000 cfm Process Air Motor: 5.1 Humidity Ratio 113 Dew Point 70.000 Dry Bulb 94 Wet Bulb 77 Humidity Ratio 113 Dew Point 71 %RH 47 Process Supply Air Dry Bulb 90 Humidity Ratio 52 Latent Capacity 189 17.001 to 5.0 HP Standard Motor Efficeincy Voltage: 208/3/60 Control Panel: Standard Regeneration Input: 350 MBTU Fuel: Natural Gas Process Heating: Not Required Process Air Bottom Intake Closed Process Air End Intake through Hood Process Outlet: Ducted through Front Regeneration Front Intake through Hood Regeneration Bottom Intake Closed Regeneration Outlet through Hood Thermostat by Others (Field Supplied) Thermostat by Others (Field Supplied) ExternalDisconnect: None Post Cooling: None Roof Curb: None Performance Specification Process Air Inlet Flow Rate 5.3 207.600 Physical Characteristics Dimensions Length 144 W idth 88 Height 99.0 HP Regeneration Motor: 5.5 5.800 Weight cfm F o F Gr/Lb o F %RH o cfm F o F Gr/Lb o F %RH o o F Gr/Lb Lbs/Hour Tons BTU/Hr inches inches inches Lbs 12 feet 7.

The facility is occupied 365 days per year. This elite group serves as the Army's official ceremonial unit and the security force for Washington D. The air handler uses 100% outside air. Army Drill Team. Virginia Site Description Fort Myer is located in Arlington. DoD Desiccant Case Studies .S Infantry also referred to as "The Old Guard".C. System Description The desiccant unit is installed on Building 251.Barracks and Munitions Storage Fort Myer. Units of The Old Guard include the U. Most of the buildings at Fort Myer were built between 1895 and 1908. Building 251 is used as a barracks for men who are training for The Old Guard.C.C.S. approval was required by the National Capitol Planning Committee. 251 . For the installation of the desiccant unit. The basement of the building is used for munitions and arms storage. DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 9 . The two story brick and block building is registered as a historical building. The air from the air handler is distributed to the hallways on all floors and the munitions storage area. high humidity had resulted in an uncomfortable environment as well as created problems associated with the munitions and corrosion of arms. Historically. Virginia with its roots tracing back to the Civil War.Fort Myer Building No. All rooms have individual packaged terminal air conditioning units. The air handling unit contains a hydronic cooling coil which receives chilled water from a remote chiller. The desiccant unit was retrofit into the existing central air handling unit. the Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps and the sentinels at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers in Arlington National Cemetery. Fort Myer sits above Arlington National Cemetery across the Potomac River from rd Washington D. Fort Myer is home to the 3 U.

640 cfm Model # DC 050 Unit located on cement pad at rear of building Regeneration by natural gas boiler supplied with unit 100% outside air Mr. Huey Vample Fort Myer Fort Myer. 1997 4. Inc. One problem with this location is that steam from the laundry's pressing machines gets discharged at the back of the desiccant unit where the regeneration hood inlet is located. 1408 Richie Marlboro Rd. Inc. This results in the regeneration inlet air being higher in temperature and humidity ratio than the normal ambient outdoor air. Ultimately. this leads to degradation in desiccant unit performance. IA 52761 Mr. Lee Miller Bush & Sons. SUMMARY INFORMATION: System Manufacturer: System Type: Application: Start-up Date: System Description: Engelhard Corporation (now Fresh Air Solutions) Two-Wheel Desiccant Barracks and Munitions Storage September. Fred Bock Site Contact: Prime Contractor: Installation Contractor: See Also . VA Stanley Design-Build.Lessons Learned The desiccant unit was located outside at ground level and adjacent to the air handler mechanical room.Fort Myer Installation Diagram DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 10 . 225 Iowa Avenue Muscatine. MD 20743 Mr. Capital Heights.

6 %RH 42.Fort Myer Technical Summary Sheet Desiccant System Description Desiccant Type Manufacturer Model Number DC050 G F S F D N D D A B D B C C N O O Two-Wheel Desiccant System Engelhard/ICC DC050GFSFDNDDABDBCCFOO 2500 to 6000 cfm Process Air Motor: 7.3 14.0 HP) Standard Motor Efficeincy Voltage: 208/3/60 Regeneration: 350 MBH Input Boiler Fuel: Natural Gas Process Air Bottom Intake Closed Process Air End Intake through Motorized Two Position Damper Process Outlet: Ducted through Front Regeneration Front Intake through Hood Regeneration Bottom Intake Closed Regeneration Outlet through Hood Thermostat by Others (Field Supplied) Humidity Controller by Others (Field Supplied) External Disconnect: 100 Amp Fused Post Cooling: None Roof Curb: None Performance Specification Process Air Inlet Flow Rate 4.6 %RH 42.29 feet DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 11 .640 Dry Bulb 95.507 Total Capacity 214.0 Humidity Ratio 104.3 Regeneration Air Inlet Flow Rate 4.640 Dry Bulb 95.6 175.917 Physical Characteristics Dimensions Length 144 Width 88 Height 99.3 Process Supply Air Dry Bulb 88 Humidity Ratio 49 Latent Capacity 160.0 Wet Bulb 76.33 feet 8.0 Wet Bulb 76.5 Weight 5.800 cfm F o F Gr/Lb %RH o cfm F o F Gr/Lb %RH o o F Gr/Lb Lbs/Hour Tons BTU/Hr BTU/Hr inches inches inches Lbs 12 feet 7.0 Humidity Ratio 104.5 HP Regeneration Motor: 5.

During the 1970s.Keesler Air Force Base Gaude Bowling Lanes Keesler Air Force Base. stepped in and kept the nation's airways flowing.2000 Closed DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 12 . Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico. a pro shop and a snack bar. trained at Keesler. Two additional areas of training received special attention in the 1980s-. System Description The desiccant unit is installed at Gaude Bowling Lanes (Building 1203). one of the Air Education and Training Command's largest technical training wings. Keesler began training all of the DOD's weather forecasters and observers.Thursday: Friday: Saturday: Sunday: 0900 .airborne warning and control systems and ground launched cruise missile. By presidential order. Mississippi Site Description Keesler Air Force Base is located in Biloxi. In 1992. Keesler st AFB is home to the 81 Training Wing.2300 1400 . The bowling alley's hours of operation are as follows: Monday . The single story building is constructed of block and brick. military controllers. especially during the 1981 professional air traffic controllers' strike. DoD Desiccant Case Studies .D. The bowling alley consists of 24 lanes. The air traffic control program also received its share of attention.2200 0900 . Flight training and instruction of pilots for the C-12 and C21 aircraft is conducted at Keesler. Keesler remained the largest training center in the Air Force and became the nation's main supplier of electronics technicians.

This resulted in incomplete regeneration of the desiccant material and poor performance of the desiccant unit. MS 39520 Mr.Keesler AFB Installation Diagram DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 13 . of Georgia 1669 Litton Drive Stone Mountain. the desiccant unit boiler was not producing water hot enough to achieve adequate regeneration. 1997 4. Inc. Tom Canale See Also . In order to accommodate this requirement. Collier Site Contact: Prime Contractor: Installation Contractor: MCC Mechanical 412 Highway 90. During the initial months of operation. The manufacturer resolved the problem. MS 39534 John J. Kirlin. Eugene Baker 81 CES/CECC Keesler AFB.The desiccant unit was retrofit to the central air handling unit for the bowling alley. the gas piping. The air handling unit is a multi-zone type with a hydronic cooling coil interfaced to an air cooled chiller. GA 30083 Mr. Suite 1 Bay St. The desiccant unit is installed outdoors adjacent to the mechanical room and the electric chiller. Marvin F. Louis. Lessons Learned The base building code required that the look of the desiccant installation be consistent with the general architecture of the base.400 cfm Model # DC050 Unit located on cement pad at rear of building Heated by gas boiler inside unit Mr. electrical conduit and ducting was painted brown. SUMMARY INFORMATION System Manufacturer: System Type: Application: Start-up Date: System Description: Engelhard Corporation (now Fresh Air Solutions) Two-Wheel Desiccant Bowling Alley November.

400 Dry Bulb 94 Wet Bulb 78.Keesler Air Force Base Technical Summary Sheet Desiccant System Description Desiccant Type Manufacturer Model Number DC050 G F S F D N D D B D B C B N O O Two-Wheel Desiccant System Engelhard/ICC DC050GFSFDNDDBDBCBNOO 2500 to 6000 cfm Process Air Motor: 7.5 5.475 Physical Characteristics Dimensions Length 144 Width 88 Height 99.29 feet DOD DESICCANT SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES 14 .9 Humidity Ratio 125 Dew Point 73.6 %RH 51.33 feet 8.9 Humidity Ratio 125 Dew Point 73.504 Total Capacity 210.5 HP Regeneration Motor: 5.800 Weight cfm F o F Gr/Lb o F %RH o cfm F o F Gr/Lb o F %RH o o F Gr/Lb Lbs/Hour Tons BTU/Hr BTU/Hr inches inches inches Lbs 12 feet 7.9 Regeneration Air Inlet Flow Rate 4.400 Dry Bulb 94 Wet Bulb 78.0 HP) Standard Motor Efficeincy Voltage: 208/3/60 Regeneration Input: 350 MBTU Fuel: Natural Gas Process Air Bottom Intake Closed Process Air End Intake through Motorized Two Position Damper Regeneration Front Intake through Hood Regeneration Bottom Intake Closed Regeneration Outlet through Hood Thermostat by Others (Field Supplied) Humidity Controller through Dewpoint Sensor ExternalDisconnect: 60 Amp Non-Fused Post Cooling: None Roof Curb: None Performance Specification Process Air Inlet Flow Rate 4.4 15.5 185.6 %RH 51.9 Process Supply Air Dry Bulb 90 Humidity Ratio 63 Latent Capacity 169.

1998 CERL Desiccant Monitoring Program Fort Campbell (W4) Data Provided by: Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Reporting Period: October 1. 1998 Data Acquisition System Overview Parameters Collected from Data Logger Order Description 1 Array Identifier 2 Year 3 Julian Day 4 Hour-Minute 5 Seconds 6 Record Seconds 7 T1: Oudoor Temperature 8 T2: Desiccant Leaving Temperature 9 T3: Indoor Air Temperature 10 T4: Regeneration Leaving Temperature 11 P1: Heater Wheel Pressure Drop 12 RH1: Outdoor Relative Humidity 13 RH2: Desiccant Leaving Relative Humidity 14 RH3: Indoor Air Relative Humidity 15 kW1: Desiccant Electric Demand Fuel: Desiccant Gas Consumption (Ft3/scan) 16 17 Airflow: Desiccant Air Flow 18 DesSecs: Desiccant Operating Seconds 19 ChillerSecs: Chiller Operating Seconds T4: Regeneration Temperature Desiccant Rotor Heat Exchange Rotor Regeneration Out 100% Outside Air Supply Air T1: Temperature RH1: Relative Humidity P1:Wheel Pressure Drop (Used to Calculate Air Flow) T2: Temperature RH2: Relative Humidity Energy Consumption kW1: Watt-Hour Meter G1: Gas Meter Conditioned Space T3: Temperature RH3: Relative Humidity Chiller Status S1: Current Switch Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 1 . 1998 through October 31. 1998 through October 31.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1.

1998 744.8 2.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Data Information Hours in the Reporting Period Hours of Data Collected Percent of Data Collected Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1.0 744.2 Hours Hours Hours of Operation per Day 24 20 Hours 16 12 8 4 0 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct Day of Month Desiccant Operation (continued) Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 2 .0 Hours Hours % Daily Hours of Data Collected 24 20 16 Hours 12 8 4 0 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct 29-Oct 29-Oct 31-Oct 31-Oct Day of Month Desiccant Operation Hours of Operation Hours of Off Time 741.0 100. 1998 through October 31.

3 75.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1.8 47.1 o F % grains Daily Average Temperatures 90 80 70 60 50 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct 29-Oct 27-Oct 29-Oct 31-Oct 31-Oct Temperature Day of Month Outdoor Ambient Air Desiccant Leaving Air Indoor Air Daily Average Humidity Ratios 100 75 Grains 50 25 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct Outdoor Ambient Air Day fo the Month Desiccant Leaving Air Indoor Air Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 3 .1 o F % grains 72.3 53.2 60. 1998 through October 31.7 o F % grains 63.6 57.3 65. 1998 Inlet Air Conditions Average Inlet Air Temperature Average Inlet Air Relative Humidity Average Inlet Air Humidity Ratio Supply Air Conditions Average Supply Air Temperature Average Supply Air Relative Humidity Average Supply Air Humidity Ratio Indoor Air Conditions Average Supply Air Temperature Average Supply Air Relative Humidity Average Supply Air Humidity Ratio 64.

7 158.644.0 213.334. 1998 through October 31. 1998 Desiccant Operation (continued) Average Heater Leaving Temperature Average Supply Air Flow Total Electricity Consumed Average Rate of Electricity Consumed Total Fuel Consumed Average Rate of Fuel Consumption 100.9 2.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1.0 6.4 4.969.9 o F cfm kWh kW Ft3 Ft3/Hr Daily Average Rate of Electrical Consumption 8 6 kW 4 2 0 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct 29-Oct 29-Oct 31-Oct 31-Oct Day of Month Daily Average Fuel Consumption 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct Cubic Feet per Hour Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 4 .

1 -0.00) (3.00 Day of Month 29-Oct 31-Oct Daily Average Sensible Cooling from Desiccant 3.00 Tons 0.00 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct 27-Oct 29-Oct -20. lb/Hr Ton-Hours Tons Ton-Hours Tons Ton Hours Tons Daily Average Rate of Water Removal 80.0 -304.0 -327.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1.00 1.00 20.4 lbs.6 -0.00) (2.00 Pounds of Water per Hour 40.00 0.00 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct (1.4 22.00 -60.00 -40.5 0.00 -80.00 60. 1998 through October 31.699. 1998 Desiccant Operation (continued) Total Pounds of Water Removed Average Rate of Water Removal Total Latent Cooling Provided Average Latent Cooling Rate Total Sensible Cooling Average Rate of Sensible Cooling Net Cooling Provided Average Net Cooling Provided -3.5 -5.00 2.00) Day of Month 25-Oct Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 5 .

2 % % Daily Efficiency ( Latent Work / Fuel Used) 0. 1998 Day of Month Desiccant Operation (continued) Daily Average Latent and Sensible Work 8 6 4 Tons 2 0 10/01/98 10/03/98 10/05/98 10/07/98 10/09/98 10/11/98 10/13/98 10/15/98 10/17/98 10/19/98 10/21/98 10/23/98 10/25/98 10/27/98 27-Oct -2 -4 -6 -8 Day of Month 10/29/98 29-Oct Latent Sensible Net Cooling Efficiencies Latent Work/ Fuel Latent Work / (Fuel + Electric) -2. 1998 through October 31.05 0 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct -0.4 -2.2 Efficiency (%) 0.1 -0.15 0.15 Day of Month 25-Oct Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 6 .05 -0.3 0.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1.25 0.1 0.

8 Hours Daily Hours of Operation for Chiller 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 01-Oct 03-Oct 05-Oct 07-Oct 09-Oct 11-Oct 13-Oct 15-Oct 17-Oct 19-Oct 21-Oct 23-Oct 25-Oct 27-Oct 29-Oct Hours Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 7 .Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Campbell (W4) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: October 1. 1998 through October 31. 1998 Other Cooling Equipment Chiller Hours of Operation 245.

1998 through September 30. 1998 Data Acquisition System Overview Parameters Collected from Data Logger Order Description 1 Array Identifier 2 Year 3 Julian Day 4 Hour-Minute 5 Seconds 6 Record Seconds 7 T1: Oudoor Temperature 8 T2: Desiccant Leaving Temperature 9 T3: Indoor Air Temperature 10 T4: Regeneration Leaving Temperature 11 P1: Heater Wheel Pressure Drop 12 RH1: Outdoor Relative Humidity 13 RH2: Desiccant Leaving Relative Humidity 14 RH3: Indoor Air Relative Humidity 15 kW1: Desiccant Electric Demand Fuel: Desiccant Gas Consumption (Ft3/scan) 16 17 Airflow: Desiccant Air Flow 18 DesSecs: Desiccant Operating Seconds T4: Regeneration Temperature Desiccant Rotor Heat Exchange Rotor Regeneration Out 100% Outside Air Supply Air T1: Temperature RH1: Relative Humidity P1:Wheel Pressure Drop (Used to Calculate Air Flow) T2: Temperature RH2: Relative Humidity Energy Consumption kW1: Watt-Hour Meter G1: Gas Meter Conditioned Space T3: Temperature RH3: Relative Humidity Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 1 .Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Myer (W3) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1. 1998 CERL Desiccant Monitoring Program Fort Myer (W3) Data Provided by: Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Reporting Period: September 1. 1998 through September 30.

Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Myer (W3) Data Information Hours in the Reporting Period Hours of Data Collected Percent of Data Collected Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.5 99.0 718. 1998 720.0 344.8 Hours Hours % Daily Hours of Data Collected 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 010305070911131517192123252727-Sep Day of Month 2929-Sep Desiccant Operation Hours of Operation Hours of Off Time 374.5 Hours Hours Hours Hours of Operation per Day 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Hours Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 2 . 1998 through September 30.

1 66.5 46. 1998 78.00 50.3 o F % grains Daily Average Temperatures 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep Indoor Air 27-Sep 29-Sep 29-Sep Temperature Day of Month Outdoor Ambient Air Desiccant Leaving Air Daily Average Humidity Ratios 110.00 30.9 o F % grains 103.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Myer (W3) Desiccant Operation (continued) Inlet Air Conditions Average Temperature Average Relative Humidity Average Humidity Ratio Supply Air Conditions Average Temperature Average Relative Humidity Average Humidity Ratio Indoor Air Conditions Average Temperature Average Relative Humidity Average Humidity Ratio Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.00 90.00 10.00 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Day fo the Month Outdoor Ambient Air Desiccant Leaving Air Indoor Air Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 3 .00 Grains 70.9 o F % grains 84.6 64.1 43.3 36. 1998 through September 30.0 14.

1998 through September 30.7 116.475.554.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Myer (W3) Desiccant Operation Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.7 3.0 2.4 o F cfm kWh kW Ft Ft3/Hr 3 Daily Average Rate of Electrical Consumption 10 8 kW 6 4 2 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep 27-Sep 29-Sep 29-Sep Day of Month Daily Average Fuel Consumption 350 Cubic Feet per Hour 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 4 .0 311.869. 1998 Average Heater Leaving Temperature Average Supply Air Flow Total Electricity Consumed Average Rate of Electricity Consumed Total Fuel Consumed Average Rate of Fuel Consumption 118.0 7.

962.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Myer (W3) Desiccant Operation (continued) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.00 20.00 09/01/98 09/03/98 09/05/98 09/07/98 09/09/98 09/11/98 09/13/98 09/15/98 09/17/98 09/19/98 09/21/98 09/23/98 09/25/98 09/27/98 01/00/00 01/00/00 09/29/98 01/00/00 Day of Month Daily Average Sensible Cooling from Desiccant 5 3 1 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 01/00/00 -3 -5 -7 -9 -11 Day of Month 01/00/00 Tons -1 Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 5 .771.029.6 1.7 -2.0 4.7 -3. 1998 through September 30.00 10.7 -7.7 53.00 0. 1998 Total Pounds of Water Removed Average Rate of Water Removal Total Latent Cooling Provided Average Latent Cooling Rate Total Sensible Cooling Average Rate of Sensible Cooling Net Cooling Provided Average Net Cooling Provided 20. lb/Hr Ton-Hours Tons Ton-Hours Tons Ton Hours Tons Daily Average Rate of Water Removal Pounds of Water per Hour 80.2 lbs.00 40.00 60.00 50.00 30.9 -1.00 70.191.

15 0. 1998 Daily Average Latent and Sensible Work 10 5 Tons 0 09/01/98 09/03/98 09/05/98 09/07/98 09/09/98 09/11/98 09/13/98 09/15/98 09/17/98 09/19/98 09/21/98 09/23/98 09/25/98 09/27/98 27-Sep -5 -10 Day of Month 09/29/98 29-Sep Latent Sensible Net Cooling Efficiencies Latent Work/ Fuel Latent Work / (Fuel + Electric) 17.7 16.25 Efficiency (%) 0.1 0.2 0.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Fort Myer (W3) Desiccant Operation (continued) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.4 % % Daily Efficiency ( Latent Work / Fuel Used) 0. 1998 through September 30.3 0.05 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 6 .

1998 through September 30.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1. 1998 through September 30. 1998 CERL Desiccant Monitoring Program Keesler Air Force Base (W1) Data Provided by: Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Reporting Period: September 1. 1998 Data Acquisition System Overview Parameters Collected from Data Logger Order Description 1 Array Identifier 2 Year 3 Julian Day 4 Hour-Minute 5 Seconds 6 Record Seconds 7 DesSecs: Desiccant Operating Seconds 8 ChillerSecs: Chiller Operating Seconds 9 T1: Outdoor Temperature 10 T2: Desiccant Leaving Temperature 11 T3: Return Air Temperature 12 T4: Cooling Coil Entering Temperature 13 T5: Building Supply Air Temperature 14 T6: Cooling Coil Leaving Temperature 15 T7: Reneration Air Leaving Temperature 16 RH1: Outdoor Relative Humidity 17 RH2: Desiccant Leaving Relative Humidity 18 RH3: Return Air Relative Humidity 19 RH4: Cooling Coil Entering Temperature 20 RH5: Building Supply Air Relative Humidity 21 RH6: Cooling Coil Leaving Relative Humidity 22 P1: Heater Wheel Pressure Drop 23 kW1: Desiccant Electric Demand Fuel: Desiccant Gas Consumption (Ft3/scan) 24 25 Airflow: Desiccant Air Flow Keesler Air Force Base Desiccant System Monitoring Points T3 & RH3 T2 & RH2 Return Air T7 T4 & RH4 T1 & RH1 Regeneration Air T6 & RH6 T5 & RH5 Desiccant Unit Process Air Air Handling Unit Supply Air Cooling Coil P1 Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 1 .

Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Data Information Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.3 0. 27th due to Huriccane Desiccant Operation Hours of Operation Hours of Off Time 599.0 599. 1998 Hours in the Reporting Period Hours of Data Collected Percent of Data Collected 720.3 83.0 Hours Hours Hours of Desiccant Operation per Day 24 20 16 Hours 12 8 4 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 2 . 1998 through September 30.2 Hours Hours % Hours of Data Collected per Day 24 20 16 Hours 12 8 4 0 01-Sep 02-Sep 03-Sep 04-Sep 05-Sep 06-Sep 07-Sep 08-Sep 09-Sep 10-Sep 11-Sep 12-Sep 13-Sep 14-Sep 15-Sep 16-Sep 17-Sep 18-Sep 19-Sep 20-Sep 21-Sep 22-Sep 23-Sep 24-Sep 25-Sep 26-Sep 27-Sep 28-Sep 29-Sep 29-Sep 30-Sep Day of Month Note: Communication with Datalogger Lost on Sept.

1998 through September 30.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Chiller Operation Hours of Operation Hours of Off Time Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1. 1998 524.6 74.6 74.7 Hours Hours Hours of Chiller Operation per Day 24 20 16 Hours 12 8 4 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep 27-Sep 29-Sep 29-Sep Day of Month Simultaneous Desiccant and Chiller Operation Hours of Operation Hours of Off Time 524.7 Hours Hours Hours of Simultaneous Desiccant and Chiller Operation per Day 24 20 16 Hours 12 8 4 0 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Day of Month Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 3 .

00 Grains 100.00 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep Day fo the Month Outdoor Ambient Air Indoor Air Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 4 .00 125.00 50.00 0.9 124.9 83.5 66. 1998 Outdoor Air Conditions Average Outdoor Air Temperature Average Outdoor Air Relative Humidity Average Outdoor Air Humidity Ratio Indoor Air Conditions Average Indoor Air Temperature Average Indoor Air Relative Humidity Average Indoor Air Humidity Ratio 78.5 o F % grains 71.00 75.3 77. 1998 through September 30.00 25.7 o F % grains Daily Average Temperatures 90 Temperature 80 70 60 50 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep 27-Sep Day of Month Outdoor Ambient Air Indoor Air Daily Average Humidity Ratios 150.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Average Building Conditions Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.

Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Desiccant Operation Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.0 o F % grains 68.0 76.5 66.0 o F % grains 71.7 o F % grains 76.3 77.5 83.2 67.3 77.7 o F % grains Desiccant Operation (Continued) Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 5 .9 83.7 91.9 124.7 o F % grains 61.2 109.5 o F % grains 81.5 66.9 77.6 o F % grains 71. 1998 through September 30. 1998 Desiccant Inlet Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Desiccant Leaving Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Building Return Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Cooling Coil Entering Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Cooing Coil Leaving Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Building Supply Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Conditioned Space Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio 78.4 68.5 91.

1998 Daily Average Temperatures 90 80 Temperature 70 60 50 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep 27-Sep 29-Sep 29-Sep Day of Month Desiccant Inlet Coil Entering Desiccant Outlet Coil Leaving BLDG Return Air BLDG Supply Air Daily Average Humidity Ratios 170.00 130.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.00 70.00 50.00 Grains 110.00 90.00 150.00 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Day of Month Desiccant Inlet Coil Entering Desiccant Outlet Coil Leaving BLDG Return Air BLDG Supply Air Desiccant Operation (Continued) Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 6 . 1998 through September 30.

206.2 o F cfm kWh kW Ft3 Ft3/Hr Daily Average Rate of Electrical Consumption 6 5 4 kW 3 2 1 0 09/01/98 09/03/98 09/05/98 09/07/98 09/09/98 09/11/98 09/13/98 09/15/98 09/17/98 09/19/98 09/21/98 09/23/98 09/25/98 09/27/98 09/27/98 Date Daily Average Rate of Gas Consumption 250 200 Ft3/Hour 150 100 50 0 09/01/98 09/03/98 09/05/98 09/07/98 09/09/98 09/11/98 09/13/98 09/15/98 09/17/98 09/19/98 09/21/98 09/23/98 09/25/98 09/29/98 Date Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division 09/29/98 Page 7 . 1998 Desiccant Unit Operating Parameters Average Regeneration Leaving Temperature Average Supply Air Flow Total Electricity Consumed Average Rate of Electricity Consumed Total Fuel Consumed Average Rate of Fuel Consumption 114.918. 1998 through September 30.8 2.9 115.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.2 4.4 3722.0 192.

195. lb/Hr Ton-Hours Tons Ton-Hours Tons Ton Hours Tons 22.3 2./hour 20.8 lbs. 1998 through September 30.832.00 -40.6 3.4 2.9 1.00 Date 5 4 3 2 Daily Average Cooling Rates Tons 1 0 09/01/98 09/03/98 09/05/98 09/07/98 09/09/98 09/11/98 09/13/98 09/15/98 09/17/98 09/19/98 09/21/98 09/23/98 09/25/98 -1 -2 -3 -4 Date Latent Cooling Sensible Cooling Net Cooling 09/29/98 Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division 09/29/98 Page 8 .00 09/01/98 09/03/98 09/05/98 09/07/98 09/09/98 09/11/98 09/13/98 09/15/98 09/17/98 09/19/98 09/21/98 09/23/98 09/25/98 09/27/98 09/27/98 -20.7 -527.668.3 -0.3 41.00 0.5 % % Daily Average Rate of Water Removal 60.2 20.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.00 lbs. 1998 Desiccant Operation (Continued) Total Pounds of Water Removed Average Rate of Water Removal Total Latent Cooling Provided Average Latent Cooling Rate Total Sensible Cooling Average Rate of Sensible Cooling Net Cooling Provided Average Net Cooling Provided Efficiencies Latent Work/ Fuel Latent Work / (Fuel + Electric) 24.00 40.

1998 HVAC System during Chiller Operation Chiller Hours of Operation Outdoor Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Cooling Coil Entering Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Cooing Coil Leaving Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Building Supply Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Conditioned Space Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio 524.2 o F % grains Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 9 .2 92.2 91.2 o F % grains 67.7 76.3 65. 1998 through September 30.1 o F % grains 60.1 67.6 Hours 79.9 125.0 83.0 o F % grains 76.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.9 o F % grains 71.8 73.9 78.7 80.

00 0. 1998 through September 30. 1998 HVAC System during Chiller Operation (Continued) Daily Average Temperatures 90 80 Temperature 70 60 50 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep 29-Sep Supply Air 27-Sep Supply Air 29-Sep Outdoor Ambient Air Indoor Air Coil Entering Coil Leaving Daily Average Humidity Ratios 150.00 Grains 75.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.00 125.00 25.00 100.00 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Outdoor Ambient Air Indoor Air Coil Entering Coil Leaving Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 10 .00 50.

7 76.5 68.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.8 73.3 65.3 65.3 110.7 76. 1998 HVAC System during Simultaneous Desiccant and Chiller Operation Hours of Simultaneous Operation Desiccant Inlet Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Desiccant Leaving Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Building Return Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Cooling Coil Entering Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Cooing Coil Leaving Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Building Supply Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio Conditioned Space Air Conditions Average Air Temperature Average Air Relative Humidity Average Air Humidity Ratio 524.1 o F % grains 60.0 o F % grains 81.1 o F % grains 71.7 80.0 83.6 Hours 79.2 o F % grains 67.1 67.2 o F % grains 76.9 o F % grains 71.9 125.2 91.2 o F % grains Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division Page 11 .9 78.2 92. 1998 through September 30.

1998 HVAC System during Simultaneous Desiccant and Chiller Operation (Cont.00 60.00 140.00 120.) Daily Average Temperature 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep 27-Sep 27-Sep 29-Sep 29-Sep Page 12 Outdoor Ambient Air Coil Entering Air Desiccant Leaving Air Coil Leaving Air Indoor Air Supply Air Daily Average Humidity Ratios 160.00 100.Desiccant Dehumidification Demonstration Site: Keesler AFB (W1) Report Printed on: 03/05/99 Reporting Period: September 1.00 40.00 80.00 01-Sep 03-Sep 05-Sep 07-Sep 09-Sep 11-Sep 13-Sep 15-Sep 17-Sep 19-Sep 21-Sep 23-Sep 25-Sep Outdoor Ambient Air Coil Entering Air Desiccant Leaving Air Coil Leaving Air Indoor Air Supply Air Science Applications International Corporation Advanced Energy Systems Division . 1998 through September 30.

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