New Generation Strategy Ultra-Supercritical Technology

Presented by: Tim Riordan, Manager New Generation Design & Eng. APP Site Visit October 30 – November 4, 2006

AGENDA
Power Plant Steam Cycle – (Rankin Cycle) History of Supercritical Units Ultra-supercritical (USC) Overview AEP Ultra-supercritical Design Steam Generator Design Turbine/Generator Design Efficiency and Emissions Comparison

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Typical Heat Balance 3 .

SCR NOx control added to meet NOx SIP Call. Additional NOx control greater than 85% Low NOx Burners. NOx reduction greater than 50 % FGDS to reduce SO2 by greater than 90% Bag filter to remove Particulate 4 .

The Basic Heat Cycle Critical Point – 3208psi/705°F Sub-Critical Steam Cycles : Water boiling to steam with pressures below ‘critical point’ Super-Critical Steam Cycles: Water to steam without boiling. Pressure above ‘critical point’ Ultra-Supercritical Steam Cycles: Steam temperatures above 1100 °F as defined by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 5 .

Gaining Efficiency Higher Pressure and Temperature Power Plant Cycle Improvement from Higher Steam Temperature Increase in Heat input: b'-3'-2'-2-3-b-b' Increase in Wo rk: 3'-2'-2-3 Net increase in cycle efficiency Critical Point 2 • Temperature 1' 2' 1 3' 3 a Entropy b' b 6 .

The Evolution Continues Comparison 1960 Vintage Subcritical Reheat Ultra Supercritical Supercritical Temperature Early 20th Century Vintage Subcritical Non-Reheat 1940 Vintage Subcritical Non-Reheat Entropy 7 .

History of Supercritical Units First Supercritical Unit: AEP Philo Unit 6 Initial Operation Date: 1957 (49 years ago) 125 MW Steam Conditions: 4500psi/1150F/1050F/1000F (double-reheat) World-wide – Over 200 units Typical steam pressures: 3350 to 4200 psi Typical steam temperatures: 1000 to 1050°F 8 .

Generating Technology: Ultra-Supercritical (USC) Pulverized Coal Plants What is USC Technology? Defined by EPRI as Rankin Cycle steam temperatures above 1100°F Limited to ASME code approved metallurgy for pressure part design Higher temperatures increase cycle efficiency USC technology is most efficient cycle available for selected fuels (sub-bituminous coal) Higher efficiency = Less emissions IGCC is limited for sub-bituminous coal applications 9 .

For comparison. By operating at elevated steam temperatures. steam turbine. USC technology is compatible with all types of coal.Generating Technology: Ultra-Supercritical (USC) Pulverized Coal Plants An ultra-supercritical (USC) steam generation unit operates at supercritical pressure (typically 3500 psi or higher) and at steam temperatures above 1100 oF (593 oC). 10 . and thereby reduces emissions. This reduces fuel (coal) consumption. a conventional supercritical unit operates at steam temperatures of 1000-1050 oF (538-566 oC). Modern chrome and nickel-based super alloys in the steam generator. and piping systems can withstand prolonged exposure to this high temperature steam. the turbine cycle is more efficient.

Steam Generator Cross Section 11 .

Spiral-wound Boiler PRB Coal Main Steam: 3675 psi/1115 F Reheat Steam: 1130 F 12 .AEP USC Steam Generator Design Conditions Pulverized Coal-fired Benson Cycle.

USC Impact on Steam Generator High Temperature Oxidation Internal oxidation of boiler tubing above 1050 oF Exfoliation of oxide layers leads to tube pluggage and could damage turbine blading. SA-213-T91 material not used in heat transfer zone Approaching limits of dissimilar metal weld (DMW) designs DMW Design Limit = 1150 oF 13 .

Steam Generator Materials of Construction SSH Outlet Bank: SA-213-347 HFG Stainless Steel RH Outlet Bank: SA-213-347 HFG Stainless Steel Superheater Headers : SA-335 –P92 Other alloys typical of previous supercritical designs 14 .

sliding pressure operation Improved Efficiency Minimize Component Thermal Fatigue Damage 15 .Steam Turbine/Generator Current Turbine Design for AEP USC Unit: Four-casing. 3600 RPM. Single Reheat Single-flow High-pressure (HP) turbine section Double-flow Intermediate-pressure (IP) turbine section Two (2) Double-flow Low-pressure (LP) turbine sections Designed for full arc. Tandem Compound.

Three-Phase Synchronous Machine 840 MVA Rating Direct Hydrogen cooled field and stator core Direct water cooled stator windings 16 .Steam Turbine/Generator Generator Design for AEP USC Unit: Two-Pole.

USC Impact on Turbine Higher operating temperatures call for improved materials of construction: Most important components: Forgings (rotors) Castings (casings) Piping Material Requirements to handle USC operating conditions: High creep rupture strength Resistance against embrittlement Low oxidation growth and no loosening of oxidation layer Ease in manufacturing and availability 17 .

Turbine Materials of Construction Main Steam and Reheat Steam Piping: SA-335-P92 Main Steam Valve Casing: 9Cr (CB2) HP Inner Shell: 9Cr (CB2) HP Rotor: 9Cr (FB2) HP Rotating Blading – Inlet Stages: Nimonic (Ni80TiAl) Nickel-based alloy Superior to steel alloys at temperatures above 1050 oF 18 .

05 Sub Bituminous 1.Efficiency and CO2 Emissions Comparison CO2 Emissions vary with Heat Rate & Coal Rank Lignite 1. 0.90 Figures for Supercritical and Subcritical are for existing units w /environmental control retrofits. Btu/kwh 19 . Tons/MWH 1.95 Bituminous 0.85 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 Net Unit Heat Rate (Full Load).10 CO2 Emissions.00 0.

99 T/MWh 0.64 lb/MWh 0.15 lb/MWh 1.97 lb/MWh 0.70 lb/MWh 0.65 lb/MWh 0.97 T/MWh 0.Emission Comparison Sub-Bituminous Coal Emission Ultra SC 3800psi/1100F/1100F Supercritical 3500psi/1000F/1000F IGCC 2X1 7FB GT – Dry Feed Subcritical 2400psi/1000F/1000F SO2 NOx PM-10 CO2 0.14 lb/MWh 0.99 lb/MWh 0.55 lb/MWh 0.91 lb/MWh 0.15 lb/MWh 1.03 T/MWh 0.06 T/MWh 20 .68 lb/MWh 0.09 lb/MWh 0.

Conclusion Ultra-supercritical Pulverized Coal Technology Higher Temperatures = Better Efficiency Better Efficiency = Less Emissions and Less Carbon Dioxide Metallurgy Currently Available for Temperatures above 1100°F Equipment Suppliers Can Guarantee Performance and Reliability 21 .

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