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School of Mechanical Engineering

University of Western Australia

Thermofluids TF306

2005


Pump Application, Operation and Specification



Melinda Hodkiewicz
mhodki@mech.uwa.edu.au
Extension: 7911, Room G55
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 1 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005


1.1. Outcomes of the course
• Recognition of pump system components and their purpose
• Determination of a pump system curve
• Ability to interpret manufacturer’s pump documentation
• Competence to select and size a centrifugal pump for a particular application
• Understand the effect of changes in the system on the operating point of the pump
• Appreciate the effect of assembly, installation and operating practices on the life cycle of a
centrifugal pump

1.2. References

Books
• Centrifugal pumps 2nd ed., Karassik and McGuire
• Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics, Gerhart and Gross
• Centrifugal Pumps - Design and Application 2nd ed, Lobanoff & Ross
• Introduction to Fluid Mechanics - Fox and McDonald MPSL 620.106 1998 INT/1992 INT
• Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences – Cengal and Turner MPSL 621.402 2001 FUN
• Predictive Maintenance of Pumps using condition monitoring – R.S.Beebe.
• Slurry Systems Handbook - Abulnaga


Useful web references
• Pumps&Systems www.pump-zone.com
• API 610: http://www.api.org/tf610/index.htm.
• Links www.bhrgroup.co.uk/links
• Software www.fluidflowinfo.com
• Warman Slurry pumps- www.warmanintl.com
• Gould pumps www.gouldspumps.com
• GE www.ge.com/industrialsystems/solutions/pump.html
• Pump types: http://www.pumpschool.com

Vendor references
• Crane Technical Paper 410(metric)
• Flow of Fluids through valves, fittings and pipes
• Goulds Pump manual GPM6
• Basic Principles for the Design of Centrifugal pump installations (SIHI)
• Sulzer Centrifugal pump handbook
• Warman Slurry Pumping Handbook
• Cameron Hydraulic data



Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 2 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.1. Centrifugal Pump Generic design

There are many different styles of centrifugal pumps, but they can essentially be divided into three broad
groups
a. horizontal or vertical
b. single impeller (end suction/split case, single volute, double volute, double suction) or multi-stage
impeller designs
c. Impeller design: Radial, mixed flow, axial. Open and closed, semi open designs.


The governing principles of all centrifugal pumps are the same but the design details vary.

Examples of the different designs are given below …

1

http://www.fpdlit.com/cms/results detail.asp?ModelID=102











Figure 1: Single-stage end-suction horizontal
centrifugal pump
1




2














Figure 2: Single-stage vertical
centrifugal pump
Figure 3: Multi-stage horizontal centrifugal pump
2






1
http://www.giwindustries.com/lsa.html

2
http://www.fpdlit.com/cms/results_detail.asp?ModelID=23
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 3 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.2. Main Centrifugal Pump components

• Volute/Housing Bearing housing, bearings and seals
• Impeller Coupling
• Shaft and sleeve Motor
• Mechanical seal or packing Foundation and baseplate

3




4


Figure 5: End-suction centrifugal pump and motor
3

Figure 4: Schematic of end suction pump
4


3
Ref: C.Dean UWA Honours thesis 2001 – from Goulds Pumps
4
Ref: Goulds Pumps – this is the pump on the PUMP TEST RIG (Engine lab)

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 4 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.3. Typical Pump Installation

Centrifugal pumps are part of a “SYSTEM”. The system contains tanks, pipes, valves and fittings. The
performance of a centrifugal pump is determined by the system it works in. Key factors are the “HEAD” H
P
on
the pump and the “FLOWRATE” Q.


(
¸
(

¸

+

+ − +

= =
L
i e
i e
i e S
P
h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
2
) (
) (
) (
2 2
ρ &
&



The head on the pump is determined by the rate of work W in J/s of the shaft/impeller divided by the mass flow
and the gravitational constant g. The W is a function of
S
&
m&
S
&
1. The pressure p divided by ρg, this results in units of metres of head. The pressure is a function of the
pressure p acting on the FREE surface of the liquid in the system on the inlet (i) or suction side and the
exit (e)or discharge side. When the suction and discharge tanks are open to atmosphere, the values are p
i

= p
e
= 0. When the tanks are closed and contain elevated pressure or vacuum this must be taken into
account.

2. The height of the liquid in the tanks at the suction and discharge z
i
and z
e


3. The velocity at the free surface of the liquid V
i
and V
e
, this can usually be ignored.

4. The friction loss in the entire system h
L
(both suction and discharge). This is affected by the line
diameter, line lengths, fittings and valves and is discussed in detail later.

Any change in the value of these system terms will affect the Head on the pump, as a result the flowrate through
the pump will change. This can be demonstrated using a LabView PUMP SIMULATION program.

1.4. Sizing a Centrifugal Pump

In order to correctly size a pump for a particular application it is necessary to understand the system in which it
is installed. One selects a pump based on its ability to supply the required flowrate for the system. The operating
point of a pump is set by the intersection of the PUMP curve (specific to the pump) with the SYSTEM curve
(defined by the piping system, tank elevation, over-pressures etc)

1.5. Steps involved in selecting and sizing a pump

1. Determine flowrate
2. Obtain fluid property information
3. Design piping system
4. Determine the System Head Curve
5. Decide on duty point
6. Calculate Power required and Specific speed values
7. Calculate Net Positive Suction Head available
8. Develop pump specification sheet
9. Select a pump
10. Evaluate pump selection

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 5 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.5.1. Step 1: Determine flowrate/pump

• Determined by process engineers/designers
• Determine number of pumps required (function of criticality and reliability)
• Define realistic maximum and minimum flowrates

1.5.2. Step 2: Determine Fluid property information

• Density, specific gravity, Dynamic or Absolute viscosity, Kinematic viscosity.
• Water density at 20 deg C = 1000 kg/m
3

• Specific weight γ = ρg , Weight of fluid per unit volume.
• Specific gravity S= ρ/ ρ
H20
.

Why is viscosity important?
• Increase viscosity - increase losses - less head generated - lower efficiency
• Effect is greater on smaller pumps due to smaller internal passage dimensions
• Used to calculate the Reynolds Number which determines the set of pump equations to use

1.5.3. Step 3: Design piping system

Select pipe sizes
• This is a compromise between installation costs and running costs.
• Small diameter pipes lead to high line velocities and friction losses.
• Elbows and fittings also result in friction losses
• Suction piping design is critical to avoid creating swirl/uneven flow at the pump suction

Guidelines for line velocity
Suction piping (water) = 1.2-2.1 m/s, Discharge piping (water) =1.2-3.0 m/s,
Slurry piping (mining) = 1.5-2.5 m/s but there are special considerations due to particle settling velocity
Discharge piping (hydrocarbons)= 1-7 m/s

Friction losses in pipes
Resistance to flow as liquid moves through pipe results in loss of head. This friction loss h
L
is measured in m.
Resistance is due to viscous shear stresses within the liquid and friction losses at contact of moving fluid and
pipe wall

2
( , , , ) (Re)
2
L
L V
h f L d V f
d g
υ
| |
| |
= =
| |
\ .
\ .
Calculation of this will be discussed in Section 1.5.5


1.5.4. Step 4: Determine System Head Curve

For a new pump installation you will need
• P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Drawing) Symbols used may be found in AS 1101.6,
• GA (General arrangement) plan and elevation,
• Flowsheet,
• Isometric drawings

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 6 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
(
¸
(

¸

+

+ − +

= =
L
i e
i e
i e S
P
h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
2
) (
) (
) (
2 2
ρ &
&
where h
L
= h
L(D)
+ h
L(S)


This is often done by considering the suction and discharge sides separately as

Total Head (H
p
)
H
p
= h(d) - h(s)

Total Suction Head
h(s)= p(s)/ρg z(s)+V
2
s
/2g - h
L
(s) - h(i)

z(s) = static suction head, h
L
(s) = total friction loss in suction line, h(i) = entrance loss, p(s) = pressure other than
atmospheric in suction tank in m, h(s) = total suction head

Total Discharge Head
h(d)= p(d)/ρg + z(s) +V
2
d
/2g+ z(d) + h
L
(d) + h(e)

z(d) = static discharge head, h
L
(d) = friction loss in discharge line, h(e) = exit loss, h
P
(d) = overpressure in
discharge tank in m, h(d) = total discharge head

Note: the friction loss is SUBTRACTED on the suction side but ADDED on the discharge side

1.5.5. Calculation of the friction loss terms (h
L
).

There are TWO separate friction calculations, one for the pipes and one for the fittings.

1. Darcy’s Formula for friction loss in pipes
For turbulent flow


|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2
2


h
L
= pressure drop or friction loss in m, f=friction factor, L=length of pipe (m), V=line velocity (m/s), D= pipe
ID (m),

Friction loss depends on fluid velocity, pipe ID and roughness.

Darcy’s formula is valid for turbulent and laminar flow only if line pressure >> vapour pressure of the liquid ie
NO cavitation

For laminar flow

2
64
Re 2
L
L V
h
D g
| |
| || |
=
| | |
\ .\ .
\ .


Friction Factor f
The friction factor is determined experimentally. For laminar flow f=64/Re.
For turbulent flow f depends on Re also the relative roughness ε/d. ε = roughness of pipe wall, d = pipe diameter
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 7 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Need to see appropriate table
Examples for the Friction factor values for clean commercial pipe with turbulent flow, see Pump Formula sheet.

2. Darcy’s Formula for friction loss valves and fittings


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
V
K h
L
2
2


See suitable tables for values, some common values are provided on the pump formula sheet.

Summary for Friction Loss calculation

∑ ∑
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
V
K
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2 2
2 2


This can also include the entrance and exit losses if they are significant

Note on Hazen Williams
The Darcy-Weisbach method is the technically correct method however many engineers use Hazen Williams
which is convenient and produces reliable results for water with turbulent flow
See reference book for equation and C factors. Widely used for simple flowsheet calculations

Pipe Friction loss Tables
Pipe friction losses = x m/100 m pipe for a specific pipe ID, material and line velocity and temperature. Depends
on material, condition and age
For example the friction loss of 700 l/s water through 4” Sched 40 steel pipe is 0.194 bar per 100 m or 1.98
m/100 m pipe


The methods above are used for new projects where you have drawings with line sizes, tank elevations etc.
However if you have an existing pump installation the pump head can be determined with a pair of pressure
gauges and a flow meter. Place the pressure gauges in ports as close to the suction and discharge of the pump,
simultaneously read the pressure gauges and the flow rate.

The pressure P on a gauge located close to the flange of the suction of the pump will measure
) (
.
S L S S S
h g z g p P ρ ρ − ⋅ + =
The conversion to ‘head’ and addition of the suction velocity head will give a value for the total suction head
A pressure gauge placed on the discharge of the pump will read the following terms.

) (
.
D L D D D
h g z g p P ρ ρ + ⋅ + =

It can be seen that the Total Head H
P
on the pump.

( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

+

=
(
¸
(

¸

+

+ − +

= =
g
V V
g
P P
h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
S D S D
L
i e
i e
i e S
P
2 2
) (
) (
) (
2 2 2 2
ρ ρ &
&


The values V
D
and V
S
are the velocity in the pipe at the pump suction and discharge. This is a function of the
flow rate Q and the line diameter D. V = Q/A = 4Q/(πD
2
), V = line velocity m/s, Q = flow rate m
3
/s, A =
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 8 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
inside pipe area m
2
, D = inside diameter m. If the line size are the same for suction and discharge, this term can
be ignored.

Draw System Curve
System curve determined by Total Head (m) at different flow rates (below, design and above design)

Flow (m3/hr) Total Head (m)
0 (Static head) 18
60 25
100 48
110 56

Superimpose System Curve on a ‘suitable’ Pump Curve

5

Figure 6: Pump Curve


1.5.6. Step 5: Decide on a Duty Point

Duty Point is expressed as the calculated Head for the desired Flowrate
For example 120 l/s at 58m head
Determine high and low operating flow points

1.5.7. Step 6: Calculate Power required, Efficiency and Specific Speed

Power : Hydraulic power is work done by a pump in moving the liquid.

5
Reference: Southern Cross Pumps
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 9 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

P S
gQH W ρ =
&


Pump Efficiency:

η
P
= Hydraulic Power (W ) / Power input to the pump shaft from the motor (W )
S
&
M
&

Pump Efficiency depends on energy loss due to
• leakage (recirculation around the impeller outlet to inlet, internal to the pump)
• hydraulic losses (viscosity and non-uniform flow)
• mechanical losses (friction losses in the bearings and seals)

What is the flow rate at maximum efficiency for a 438 mm impeller using the pump curve in ???

Motor Efficiency: η
M

M
W
&
is the power from the motor to the shaft = Power supplied to the motor x motor efficiency.

Calculation of the motor power requires
1. Measurement of the power delivered to the motor from the MCC (Motor Control Centre). This is
available as a kW reading.
2. Knowledge of the efficiency of the motor. This information is often available on the motor nameplate or
from the manufacturer. The motor efficiency is dependent on the load on the motor and the speed, if it is
a variable speed drive.

1.5.8. Step 7: Calculate NPSH available

An acceptable margin of NPSHA - NPSHR must be maintained over the entire operating range to prevent
CAVITATION. Cavitation is caused by the local vaporisation of a fluid when the static pressure drops below the
vapour pressure. The small bubbles filled with vapour that form in the low pressure region (suction eye of the
pump) will collapse on moving into high pressure regions (inside the impeller). This "implosion" causes pitting
on the metal surface, vibration and a drop in efficiency.

For NPSH calculation must understand difference between absolute and gauge pressure
• Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure at elevation
• Standard barometric pressure is 1.01325 bar or 760 mm Hg and changes with elevation above sea level.
• Gauge pressure is pressure above barometric pressure
• Convert gauge pressure readings to m by (x 0.102/SG)
• Absolute pressure always refers to perfect vacuum as base


NPSH available
• Net positive suction head is the absolute suction head at suction nozzle corrected to datum less the vapour
pressure of the liquid at operating temperature. Determines at what point liquid will vaporize at the lowest
pressure point of the pump (cavitation) and is characteristic of the system. NPSHA varies with capacity and
is always positive.

( ) (
suction atm
A suction L suction VP abs
p p
NPSH z h h
g ρ
( +
= + − −
(
¸ ¸
)
OR
( )
(
¸
(

¸


+
) (abs VP
atm S
h
g
p P
ρ


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 10 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

• h
vp(abs)
= head in m corresponding to the ABSOLUTE vapour pressure of the liquid at the temperature being
pumped. This is determined from Tables of vapour pressure (usually given in bar)


NPSH required
The NPSHR is characteristic of pump design and represents the minimum margin required between suction head
and vapour pressure. NPSHR varies with capacity. It is determined by manufacturer and verified by NPSH pump
test. NPSHR depends on impeller design, flow rate, rpm, liquid and other factors. As a rule of thumb there
should be a margin of at least 1m, though depends on application between NPSHA and NPSHR)

What is the NPSHR for a flowrate of 120 l/s on the pump curve in Figure ?.

1.5.9. Step 8: Develop Pump Specification Sheet

1.5.10. Step 9. Select a short-list of suitable Pumps from different manufacturers

1.5.11. Step 10: Evaluate Pump Selection

• Match Pump and System curve
• Determine Efficiency and NPSH margin
• Compare efficiency, NPSH margin, and off design performance of different pumps
• Determine materials to be used based on fluid properties
• Consider vendor technical support and spare parts issues
• Consider preferred vendor supply contracts

1.6. Other Useful Pump terms

Specific speed: N
s
= ϖ(Q)½/(h)¾; (h=gH units of L
2
/T
2
, ϖ in rad/sec)

Many design charts are a function of Ns. As Ns increases
• Impeller shape changes from radial to axial
• Lower head per stage
• Blade loading increases
• Maximum velocity increases
• Tendancy to cavitate increases
Low Ns values: radial impellers, large diameter, narrow profile, high head per stage
Medium Ns: Francis vane impellers, low diameter to profile ratio, low head-high volume
High Ns mixed flow impellers
Very high Ns axial flow impeller

Suction specific speed: Nss = n (Q*)
1/2
/(NPSHR*)
3/4

n=rpm; Q*=Flow gpm;H*=Head ft; NPSHR* (ft) [The gpm is per impeller eye]
Nss is a function of NPSH required. Modifying the diameter of the impeller eye, increase the flow, reduces the
NPSH required but increases the value of Nss. This causes a reduction in the low flow capability of the pump.


1.7. Affinity Laws

Use of the affinity laws to select the optimum impeller diameter and/or pump rotating speed (if a variable
frequency drive or sheave drive system is appropriate)
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 11 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

Allows for performance at one speed to be predicted from known performance at known speed (or impeller
diameter)
Q = Q
1
(n/n
1
) = Q
1
(D/D
1
)
H = H
1
(n/n
1
)
2
=

H
1
(D/D
1
)
2

P = P
1
(n/n
1
)
3
=

P
1
(D/D
1
)
3
n/D = new desired speed rpm/diameter. n
1
D
1
=speed rpm/diameter for known characteristics Q
1
, H
1
and P
1

1.8. Parallel and Series Operation
In order to supply sufficient head or volumetric flow it may be necessary to place pumps in series or in parallel
respectively.
Pumps in parallel: the combined pump curve is obtained by adding the capacities of the individual pumps at the
same head
Pumps in series (the first pump discharge into the suction of the second pump): the combined pump curve is
obtained by adding the head of the individual pumps at the same capacity.

1.9. Potential source of pump problems
Design (Critical speed - lateral/torsional)
Application/ Sizing (Low NPSHA, Off-BEP)
Assembly (Bearings, Looseness, Vane pass, Unbalance)
Installation (Alignment, Looseness, Soft foot)
Operation (Pulsations, Turbulence, Cavitation, Recirculation, Piping resonance)
Each of these will result in vibration and other problems if not engineered correctly

1.9.1. Operational problems
Theoretically as long as NPSHA >> NPSHR then a centrifugal pump can operate over a wide range of capacities
however the exact capacity is determined by intersection of pump head-capacity curve with the system head
curve. Can vary pump curve by changes in speed or system curve by throttling valves however operation is only
optimum at one point called BEP

Off design conditions
Is any condition when a pump delivers flow in excess or below the capacity at best efficiency BEP

Operation at high flow
Results from oversizing the pump. Oversized pumps usually require throttling to move the operating point back
up the curve, this results in higher power consumption. If not throttled, higher flows can result in NPSH
problems. High flow situation also happen when two pumps are in parallel and one is taken out of service

Cavitation
Occurs when NPSHR>NPSHA
Causes impeller damage on visible side of vanes due to implosions (collapsing of the bubble). Identified by loud
continuous noise “pumping rocks" and high vibration
Avoid cavitation by increase NPSHA or decreasing NPSHR
Increase NPSHA by raising suction level, lower pump, reduce friction losses in suction, Subcool liquid
(injection)
Decrease NPSHr by using slower speed (or variable freq drive), installing a double suction impeller, increasing
impeller eye area, using an oversize pump or installing an inducer ahead of impeller

Operation at low flow
A Reduction in demand results in throttling at pump discharge and the operating point moves up the curve
towards shut off. This causes recirculation resulting in hydraulic unbalance, vane passing forces, effects from
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 12 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
recirculation through wear rings, suction and discharge recirculation within the impeller, rotating stall,
cavitation, surge and system instabilities. These combine to cause pressure fluctuations, surging and vibration.

1.10. Typical pump fault conditions
Misalignment
Unbalance
Mechanical Looseness
Resonance
Bearing damage/failure
Pump operating problems
Vane passing
Electrical

1.11. Positive Displacement pumps

• Used when flows are low and required pressure high
• Often used for viscous liquids and for those requiring a shear free action
• Inherently leak resistant design
• Provide a fixed displacement per revolution. Pump will develop as much pressure as required to overcome
discharge pressure up to the point where motor trips or relief valve opens.
• Often require discharge pulsation dampeners and suction stabilisers, generally pressurized vessels with a
gas-liquid interface.
• Acceleration Head H(ac) represents energy required accelerate the column of fluid (m)
• API standards 674, 675 and 676.

( ) (
suction atm
A suction L suction VP abs
p p
NPSH z h h
g ρ
( +
= + − −
(
¸ ¸
)
minus H(ac)
• H(ac) = L
s
v
s
C/Kg, where L
s
and v
s
are the length of and velocity in the suction line.
• C=constant dependant on type of pump, 0.4 for simplex single acting, 0.2 for simplex double acting, 0.2 for
duplex single acting. See appropriate reference for full list
• K=factor for the relative compressibility of liquid (eg.K=1.4 for hot water, 2.5 for hot oil)

Examples: Main types: Rotary, Reciprocating, Gear














Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 13 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005



Figure 7
References for figures:
http://www.turfmaker.com/Positive_Displacement_Pump/positi
ve_displacement_pump.html
http://www.learromec.com/Products/PR_Spur.htm
http://www.eng.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-
Environ/PUMPS/reciprocating.html









1.12. Review theoretical fluids concepts

Four main theoretical concepts introduced in the pump course are
• The conservation of mass
• The conservation of linear momentum
• The conservation of angular momentum
• The conservation of energy (including Bernoulli’s equation)

An understanding of these concepts is important for an understanding of pump systems, which are a major
component of industrial plants.


1.12.1. The conservation of mass

Rate at which the mass
accumulates in the control
volume
= Rate at which mass enters
the control volume
- Rate at which mass leaves
the control volume

Mathematically this is written as ….

sys
in out
in out
dm
m m
dt
= −
∑ ∑
& & CONSERVATION OF MASS EQUATION

where = mass flow rate (kg/s) m&
For an incompressible fluid passing through a fixed control volume
Rate at which mass enters region = rate at which mass leaves control volume Q=v
1
A
1
= v
2
A
2

where v is the velocity of the fluid
A is the cross sectional area of the control volume through which the fluid flows.
1 is the entry to the control volume
2 is the exit of the control volume

1.12.2. Conversion between head and pressure

From first principles (Conservation of mass) gz p P ρ + =

Where z = height of the fluid and P = pressure measured at the base of the fluid. For example, a column of cold
water (15 deg C) 10.2m high produces 1 bar pressure at its base.

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 14 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.12.3. Velocity profiles

According to laminar flow theory, the velocity of fluid in a pipe has a parabolic profile as shown below:


Figure 8: Laminar flow profile

In piping systems the flow is usually turbulent. Turbulent flow also has a rounded velocity profile, but rather
than a parabolic shape, the curve is flatter as shown below:


Figure 9: Turbulent flow profile

1.12.4. Laminar and Turbulent Flow

• Laminar Flow occurs at very low velocity or with high viscosity fluids. This is often visualised as
streaks of colored fluid flow in straight lines.
• Turbulent Flow flow occurs above critical velocity and involves the irregular, random motion of the
fluid particles
• Reynolds Number (Re) determines laminar or turbulent flow and depends on pipe diameter, flow
velocity, density and viscosity of the fluid.

Re = Vdρ/µ d=pipe ID (mm), v=flow velocity (m/s), ρ=density kg/m
3
, µ=viscosity (cP).

Flow is considered if laminar if Re < 2000, turbulent if Re > 4000, critical zone 2000<Re<4000. Reynolds
number is used in the calculation of friction factor for friction loss of fluids flowing in pipes

1.12.5. Conservation of linear momentum

Mathematically this is written as

,
sys
ext j i i e e
j in out
dP
F mV m
dt
(
= + −
(
¸ ¸
∑ ∑ ∑
& & V

External forces are those applied without mass flow across the control boundary. Surface forces due to pressure
and body forces ) , , ( V g f ρ . For steady state conditions



∑ ∑
− = +
in
i i
exit
e e surface body
V m V m F F & &
This has applications in piping systems for calculations such as the force exerted on the pipe flange by fluid
moving through an elbow. It can also be used to derive Bernoulli’s equation from 1
st
. principles (see any Fluids
text).


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 15 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
1.12.6. The conservation of energy

In pipe flow, as with any situation, energy is conserved from one point in fluid flow to another. The energy can
be in the form of kinetic energy (KE), potential energy (PE) or internal energy (IE).
[Rate of heat transfer in]+[Rate of work done on sys]=[Rate of increase of IE +KE + PE]

Mathematically this is written as for steady, uniform, incompressible flow as (where u is specific internal
energy)

)
2
(
2
z
g
V
u m W Q
net
+ + = −

&
& &


This is the steady state general energy equation as presented earlier in Thermodynamics lectures.

W
&
is the rate of work done by (+) or on (-) the control volume W
stress shear stress normal shaft
W W W
. .
& & & &
+ + =

Shaft work rate is transmitted by the rotating shaft W (shaft torque x rotational speed) ω T
shaft
=
&
Shear work rate is the product of shear stress, area and fluid velocity component parallel to the control surface.
With pumps the control surfaces lie adjacent to solid boundaries where the fluid velocity is zero. In this case
there is no shear work although there may be shear stress.
Normal stress work can be written in most situations as a function of the pressure acting on the control surface

=
net
pressure
p
m
W
ρ
&
&

In pump/piping problems it is conventional to assume to that g m Q h
L
&
&
− = where h
L
is the heat dissipated as
friction by fluid contacting the pipe wall in units of metres.

Making these substitutions

L
net
S
gh m zg
V p
u m W & &
&
+ + + + =

)
2
(
2
ρ
GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION

This is commonly written as in terms of Power required at the shaft to drive a centrifugal pump. For pumps it is
assumed that 0 = −
i e
u u
(
¸
(

¸

+ − +

+

=
L
i e i e
S
h z z
g
V V
g
p p
g m W ) (
2
) ( ) (
1 2
2 2
ρ
&
&
PUMP SYSTEM SIZING EQUATION
This is the foundation equation for sizing pumps used in unit and we will spend time discussing how to
determine the values in this equation.

If one is dealing with a compressor substitute for the internal energy with ) (
i e v i e
T T c u u − = − and use the ideal
gas law RT p = ρ
For systems with no friction we have the MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION

(
¸
(

¸

− +

+

= ) (
2
) ( ) (
1 2
2 2
z z
g
V V
g
p p
g m W
i e i e
S
ρ
&
&
where Mechanical Energy is that which can be converted to
mechanical work completely by a mechanical device such as a turbine or pump.
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 16 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.12.7. Bernoulli’s equation

Bernoulli’s equation is a special case of the conservation of energy equation.
Special conditions for use: inviscid and incompressible fluids, steady flow, constant density, no mechanical
work and no friction

It is derived from the previous equation for the special case when W and h 0 =
S
&
L
= 0.
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2 2
z
g
V
g
p
z
g
V
g
p
+ + = + +
ρ ρ


The terms in this equation are referred to as, pressure head, velocity head and static head respectively.
Dimensional analysis will show that all three terms are in meters.

1.12.8. How to measure the velocity in a pipe?

Due to layers of fluid shearing across each other, the velocity of a liquid is maximum in the centre of the flow,
and zero at the pipe wall. This means that the pressure due to velocity at the pipe wall is zero. Thus, head due to
velocity can be measured as the difference between the head at the centre of the pipe and the edge (See Figure).
Physically this can be done using a pitot tube for the centre reading and a piezometer for the pipe wall reading.
This can be seen in the test facility in the CWR Fluids laboratory.

The term ‘head’ relates fluid pressure in a pipe to the meters of water that would push up an open topped tube.
Head depends on the density of the fluid and the density of air and is the sum of the static head, velocity head
and pressure head.

The velocity can be estimated from the pressure difference between the fluid at the side wall and the stagnation
pressure at the centre of the pipe. From Bernoulli’s equation

2
2
2
1 1
2 g
p
g
V
g
p
ρ ρ
= + ; where p
2
is pressure at the stagnation point and p
1
and V
1
are the pressure upsteam.

h
g
p p
g
V
=
|
|
.
|

\
| −
=
ρ
1 2
2
1
2

Thus the velocity at a point in the pipe is equal to the square root of the height difference between the tubes
multiplied by 2g. gh 2 = v

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 17 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005
Pitot tube
piezometer
Fluid flow
Height (h) due to
velocity

Figure 10: Measuring the head due to velocity

1.12.9. Conservation of Angular Momentum

The conservation of angular momentum principle when applied to the shaft of a pump can be used to show that
torque is transformed to a change in velocity of fluid through the impeller. This is done from first principles
using the equation below:

( ) ( )
0
0,
sys
j i i i e e
j in out
dL
e
M m r V m r V
dt
(
= + × − ×
(
¸ ¸
∑ ∑ ∑
& &
This equation can be written in scalar form to illustrate its application to pumps. The fixed coordinate system is
chosen with the z axis aligned with the axis of rotation of the machine. The fluid enters the rotor at a radial
location r
i
with uniform velocity V
θi
and exits at r
e
with absolute velocity V
θe
. Thus the equation above becomes:

) (
i e
V r V r m T W
i e SHAFT S θ θ
ω ω − = = &
&


where T
shaft
is the shaft torque
is the mass flow rate
.
m
r is the radius
V
θ
is the tangential component of the absolute fluid velocity
e is the exit of the impeller
i is the inlet of the impeller

This is Euler’s turbomachinery equation, which is used to calculate the hydraulic power a pump is supplying,
which in turn can allow the calculation of pump efficiency

It is sometimes presented in terms of theoretical head
) (
1
1 2
1 2 θ θ
V U V U
g
H
Theo
− =

This figure shows the inlet and exit radii, and the tangential components of the fluid velocity V
θ
at the inlet and
exit. It should be noted that the fluid velocity V is not the same as U = ωr the velocity of the impeller.
It is conventional is pump design to describe flow passing through the impeller in velocity terms relative to the
rotating coordinate system of the rotating impeller. This is best done using “velocity triangles”.


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 18 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.12.10. Velocity triangles


Using velocity vectors V U = + W

V is the absolute velocity of the fluid
relative to a fixed coordinate system

W is velocity of the fluid relative to a
coordinate system fixed to the impeller

U is velocity of the impeller relative to a
fixed coordinate system
The subscript (1) relates the impeller inlet and
Figure 11: Velocity triangle
r
θ
β
1
α
1
Leading edge of impeller blade
W
1
V
1
U
1
V
θ1
(2) the impeller discharge.


Each of the velocity vectors can be
resolved into r and θ components.

Using vector summation:
At the impeller entry (1)
1 1 1 1
cos β
θ
W U V − =
U
1
= r
1
ω where ω is the speed of the
impeller in radians/sec.
And
1 1 1
sin β W
r
= V

There are similar equations at the exit.

For an impeller of entrance width b
1
with volumetric flow rate Q then Q = 2π.r
1
.b
1
.V
r1

If Q and the impeller dimensions are known, V
r1
can be calculated and from this W
1
. If the speed in rps of the
impeller is known then U
1
can be calculated and from this V
θ1
.

The values of V
θ1
and V
θ2
are used to determine the torque T
shaft
or power draw W on the impeller using Euler’s
equation (from Section 1.12.9).
&

) (
1 1 2 2 θ θ
ω ω V r V r m T W
SHAFT S
− = = &
&


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 19 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.13. Worked Examples

1.13.1.
Consider the system in the schematic diagram below


Centrifugal pump
Suction side Discharge side

On the suction side, the level of the fluid is 10 m above the centreline of the pump and the overpressure in the
closed tank is 100 kPa. There is a gate valve between the suction side tank and the pump. Line length is 5 m.
On the discharge side, the level of the fluid is 30 m above the centreline of the pump and the overpressure in the
closed tank is 200 kPa. There is a butterfly valve on the discharge line and three 90 degree elbows. Line length is
50 m.
All line sizes are diameter 150 mm.

The desired flow rate is 100 l/s, the fluid is water at 15 deg C.


1. What is the head on the pump at the desired flow rate?
2. What is the hydraulic power?
3. Draw a system curve for this installation.

Solution:

Start with the Pump sizing equation (see Section 1.3). Note that D (discharge) and S (Suction) have been
substituted for e (exit) and i (inlet).

(
¸
(

¸

− +

+ − +

= = ) (
2
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
S L D L
S D
S D
S D S
P
h h
g
V V
z z
g
p p
g m
W
H
ρ &
&


Suction side

Static head z
S
= 10m
Pressure head p
S
/ρg = 100 x 10
3
/(10
3
x 9.8) = 10.2 m
Velocity head at entrance = very small.
Friction head
∑ ∑
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
V
K
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2 2
2 2


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 20 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

From tables, f for clean steel pipe of diameter 150 mm is 0.015
The line velocity in a pipe of 150 mm diameter at 100 l/s is
2
4
D
Q
V
π
= = (4 x 0.1)/(3.14 x 0.15
2
) = 5.66 m/s
Suction side Line friction loss = 0.015 x (5/0.150) x (5.66
2
/2x9.81) = 0.8 m

From tables, K value for a gate valve is 8f
Suction side Valve/fitting friction loss = 8 x 0.15 x (5.7
2
/2x9.81) = 0.2 m

Suction side friction head = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1 m.

Discharge side

Static head z
D
= 30m
Pressure head p
D
/ρg = 200 x 10
3
/(10
3
x 9.8) = 20.4 m
Velocity head at entrance = very small.
Friction head
∑ ∑
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
V
K
D
L
g
V
f h
L
2 2
2 2



From tables, f for clean steel pipe of diameter 150 mm is 0.015
The line velocity in a pipe of 150 mm diameter at 100 l/s is
2
4
D
Q
V
π
= = (4 x 0.1)/(3.14 x 0.15
2
) = 5.66 m/s
Discharge side Line friction loss = 0.015 x (50/0.150) x (5.66
2
/2x9.81) = 8.2 m

From tables, K value for a butterfly valve is 45f and for each elbow is 30f. Total K value = (45+90)f.
Discharge side Valve/fitting friction loss = 135 x 0.015 x (5.66
2
/2x9.81) = 3.3 m

Discharge side friction head = 8.2 + 3.3 = 10.8 m.

Summary

Suction (m) Discharge (m)
Static head 10.0 30.0
Pressure head 10.2 20.4
Velocity head ~ ~
Friction head 1.0 11.5
Total 21.2 61.9

Total head on the pump at 100 l/s = 61.9 – 21.2 = 40.7 m

The hydraulic power = ρgQH = 1000 x 9.8 x 0.1 x 40.7 = 39.9 kW

To determine the System curve the calculation must be repeated at different flow rates, for example Q=0, 70 and
130 l/s. A curve can be drawn based on the four points. You can see from the table above that the total head at 0
l/s = 50.4 – 20.2 = 30.2 m as the friction head is zero at the no-flow point. The remaining flow points have to be
worked through in the same method as above taking into account the change in Friction head contribution as the
flow rate (and hence line velocity V) changes.


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 21 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.13.2.
A water distribution pump has a 150 kW electric motor with a motor efficiency of 94%. The flow rate through
the pump is 350 l/s. The diameters of inlet and outlet pipes are the same and there is no significant elevation
difference across the pump.

If the inlet and outlet pressures are measured at 100 kPa and 400 kPa (absolute) respectively, determine,
a. The mechanical efficiency of the pump [74.5%]
b. The temperature rise of the water as it flows through the pump due to mechanical inefficiency. [0.024
deg C]

Let specific heat of water be 4.18 kJ/kg. Deg C.

Solution:
Calculate mass flow rate through pump kg/s = ρ x m
3
/s = 1 kg/l x 350 l/s= 350 kg/s
Power to shaft = motor efficiency x motor power = 0.94 x 150 = 141 kW.

Change in energy of fluid (or Hydraulic Power) =
|
|
.
|

\
| −
=
(
¸
(

¸

− +

+

ρ ρ
i e i e i e
P P
m z z
g
V V
g
p p
g m & & ) (
2
) ( ) (
1 2
2 2


=350 x (400-100)/1000 = 105 kW

Mechanical efficiency of the pump = Hydraulic power/Power to shaft = 105/141 = 74.5%

Only 105 kW of power supplied to the pump is imparted to the fluid as mechanical energy. The remaining 36
kW is converted to thermal energy and lost.
Rate of Energy loss = 141 – 105 = 36 kW.
(
1 2 1 2
) ( T T c m u u m E
v
− = − = & &
&
) Delta T = 36/ 350 x 4.18 (jk/kg. C) =0.024 deg C.

This is very small.
In an actual application the temp rise of the water is less as the heat is transferred to the casing and surroundings.

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 22 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.13.3.
Examine the pump curve for the Southern Cross ISO-PRO 200x150-400 pump, fixed speed 1475 rpm above

a) If the total head on the pump is 60m and you are using a full size impeller, what is the expected flowrate
in l/s and efficiency (%) ?
b) What standard size motor is required for the head-flow combination in (a)?
c) If you wanted to deliver 107 l/s at 50 m of total head, what is the optimum impeller diameter?

d) Calculate the hydraulic power and the motor power draw at 107 l/s and 50 m head for the impeller
diameter selected in c)?
e) If the pump was running as in c) and you slowly closed a discharge butterfly valve to achieve 60 l/s,
what would happen to the total head and the pump efficiency?
f) For c) what would be the calculated power draw on the pump?

Solution:
a) Full size impeller is 438 mm, flowrate at 60 m total head is 107 l/s, efficiency = 82.5%.
b) Motor size 90 kW.
c) 410 mm
d) Hydraulic power = 107 * 3.6 * 50 * 1/368 = 52 kW, efficiency from graph = 0.83, Power draw on motor
= 52/0.83 = 63 kW
e) The head value would increase to 57 m as the system curve would steppen due to greater friction head
component. The intersection of the pump and system curve would move to the left along the line of the
impeller diameter. The efficiency would decrease to 71%. Resulting power draw on motor = 60 * 3.6 *
57 / (368 *0.71) = 47 kW

Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 23 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

1.13.4.
Impeller design

Given the following details about the design of a closed centrifugal impeller, determine

a) The flow rate through the impeller
b) Torque on the impeller shaft
c) Hydraulic power


Rotating speed ω 148 rad/s
Inlet radius r
1
0.0375 m
Discharge radius r
2
0.0875 m
Inlet width b
1
0.025 m
Discharge width b
2
0.015 m
Inlet blade angle β
1
25°
Discharge blade angle β
2
30°
Discharge velocity relative to the
impeller W
2
4 m/s at 30°


Step 1: Sketch the impeller


U
2
β
2
W
2
U
1
r
1
W
1
β
1
r
2









U = impeller velocity relative to inertial
Reference
V = fluid velocity relative to inertial
Reference
W = fluid velocity relative to impeller
Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 24 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005


Step 2: Draw the inlet and exit velocity triangles
Exit triangle
W
θ2

V
θ2


U
2

β
2

W
2

W
r2

V
2


Calculate U
2
= ωr
2
= 12.95 m/s

Calculate Q (flowrate in m
3
/s) from Q = 2πr
2
b
2
W
r2


Where from velocity triangle sin β
2
= W
r2
/W
2
, W
r2
= 4 sin 30 = 2 m/s

Hence Q = 2 x 3.14 x 0.0875 x 0.015 x 2 = 16.5 x 10
-3
m
3
/s.

Calculate V
2
: V
2
2
= W
2
2
+ U
2
2
– 2W
2
U
2
cosβ
2
= 94; V
2
= 9.7 m/s

Calculate V
θ2
: From triangle V
θ2
2
= V
2
2
– W
r2
2
= 94 – 4 = 90; V
θ2
= 9.5 m/s.

Repeat calculation for inlet values noting that Q
inlet
= Q
discharge
= 16.5 x 10
-3
m
3
/s.

Results: U
1
= 5.55 m/s; W
r1
= 2.8 m/s; W
1
= 6.6 m/s; V
1
= 2.8 m/s.

As W
r1
= V
1
= 2.8 m/s there is no V
θ1
component

Torque calculation W T
( )
e i
M SHAFT e i
m rV rV
θ θ
ω ω = = −
&
&

2 2 ϑ
V r m T & = where m kg/s 5 . 16 10 5 . 16 1000
3
= = =

x x Q ρ &
T = 16.5 x 0.0875 x 905 = 13.7 Nm

And Power = ωT = 147 x 13.7 = 2 kW


Pump Application, Operation and Specification Melinda Hodkiewicz
Page 25 of 25 UWA Mechanical 3
rd
yr Thermofluids course Version 1 2005

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