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Goldstein, Ch.5, 13 Two thin rods each of mass m and length l are connected to an ideal (no friction) hinge and a horizontal thread. The system rests on a smooth surface as shown in the gure. At time t = 0, thread is cut. Neglecting the mass of the hinge and the thread, and considering only motion in the xy plane

Figure 1: Sketch of Problem 13. (a) Find the speed at which the hinge hits the oor. Lets dene the vector r as the position of the center of mass. Then, the kinetic energy for the system is the sum of the kinetic energy of the center of mass plus the rotation over this point: T = Tcm + Trot . Therefore, the vector r and its kinetic energy is given by: r(x, y) = l l sin x + cos y 2 2 Tcm = m 2 l 2

2

ml2 2 8

(1)

l/2

I 2 2 ,

l/2

I=

l/2

m x3 mx2 dx = l l 3

=

l/2

ml2 12

(2)

Hence, using (1) and (2), the kinetic energy for one side of our system is: T =

(3)

gomez@physics.rutgers.edu

l The potential energy of one side of the system is: V = mg 2 sin . For the nal Lagrangian of our system, we must multiply it by two to take into account the other side of the problem. Thus, ml2 2 L=T V = mgl sin (4) 3 Since the Lagrangian doesnt depend explicitly on time, the total energy is conserved. At the beginning, we have only potential energy with = 30 and, at the end only kinetic energy:

mgl sin(30) = 3g 2l 3g 2l

ml2 2 3 2 = = 3gl 2

v = l = (b) Find the time it takes for the hinge to hit the oor. Using the results from (a): d dt = 3g 2l 2l 3g 6 2l 3g

/6

dt =

d

0

t =

Goldstein, Ch.5, 23 An automobile is started from rest with one of its doors initially at right angles. If the hinges of the door are toward the front of the car, the door will slam shut as the automobile picks up speed. Obtain a formula for the time needed for the door to close if the acceleration f is constant, the radius of gyration of the door about the axis of rotation is r0 , and the center of mass is at a distance a from the hinges. Show that if f is 0.3 m/s2 and the door is a uniform rectangle 1.2 m wide, the time will be approximately 3.04 s. Lets dene as the angle between the car and the open door, then the torque is equals to = dL d(I ) 2 = = I = mr0 dt dt (5)

2 where here, the moment of inertia is given by I = mr0 . But the torque is also dene as the cross product: = r F = aF sin = a(mf ) sin (6)

where the force is negative due to is against the motion of the car. Replacing (5) and (6), we found the equation of motion of our system:

2 mr0 = maf sin

af = 2 sin r0

(7)

d dt

d d d dt

d d :

/2 0 2 r0 d = 2af cos

2af 2 cos r0 dt

2 r0 2af

t = 2.622

where the last integration was solve using Mathematica. Finally, we need a relation between the 2 radius of gyration r0 and the distance a to the center of mass. Lets use the moment of inertia. From tables, we can know that the moment of inertia of a uniform rectangle about the axis that 2 bisects it, is equal to ma . Thus, 3

2 mr0 = I = Icm + Irot = ma2 +

4 ma2 = ma2 3 3

2 r0 =

4a2 3

(8)

Plugging (12) in the previous equation of time: t = 2.622 when f = 0.3 ms2 and a = 0.6 m : t = 2.622 2(0.6m) = 3.0276s 3(0.3ms2 ) 4a2 = 2.622 6af 2a 3f

Goldstein, Ch.5, 24 A wheel rolls down a at inclined surface that makes an angle with the horizontal. The wheel is constrained so that its plane is always perpendicular to the inclined plane, but it may rotate about the axis normal to the surface. Obtain the solution for two-dimensional motion of the wheel, using Lagranges equations and the method of undetermined multipliers. Dening our system of coordinates as shown in Figure 2, the kinetic energy has two components in a two dimensional motion: mx2 mr2 2 T = Ttrans + Trot = + (9) 2 2 and the potential energy: V = mgy = mgx sin (10) 3

Figure 2: Sketch of problem 24. A wheel rolls down a at inclined surface. Therefore, the Lagrangian using (9) and (10) is given by: mx2 mr2 2 + mgx sin 2 2 The Lagranges equations and the method of undened multipliers use the relation: L= d dt Applying (12) in the Lagrangian (11): f (13) x f mr2 = (14) where the constrain equation is r = x and therefore f = r x = 0. Replacing this in (13) and (14), we found: m mg sin = x x m mg sin = x mr2 = r mr = (15) (16) L q L f = q q q (11)

(12)

But, from the constrain we can found: r = x. Then, (16) is nothing but m = and the relations x become: mg sin = 2 mg sin x = (17) 2 mg sin = (18) 2r The general solution for the equation of motion (17) and (18) are: x(t) = (t) = where A, B, C, D are constants. 4 1 2 gt sin + At + B 4 1 2 gt sin + Ct + D 4r

Goldstein, Ch.5, 26 For the axially symmetric body precessing uniformly in the absence of torques, nd analytical solutions for the Euler angles as a function of time. From Goldstein (5.47), we have the Eulers equations for an axially symmetric body, with symmetry axis Lz : I1 1 = (I1 I3 )3 2 I2 2 = (I3 I1 )3 1 I 3 3 = 0

I where 1 = A cos t, 2 = A sin t and = I3I1 1 3 . But, since this angular velocities can be written using Euler angles in the body xed frame:

1 = sin sin + cos 2 = sin cos sin 3 = cos + we found the relations: sin sin + cos = A cos(t + ) sin cos sin = A sin(t + ) cos + = B where A, B are constants. Multiplying (19) by cos and (20) by sin and subtracting them: sin sin cos + cos2 sin cos sin + sin2 = A cos(t + ) cos A sin(t + ) sin = A cos(t + + ) The condition for uniform precession recalls = 0, therefore: cos(t + + ) = 0 t + + =

n 2

n 2

= 0 t

(22)

sin sin2 + cos sin + sin cos2 sin cos = A cos(t + ) sin + A sin(t + ) cos sin = A sin(t + + ) A sin(t + + ) = sin Replacing this, and (22), in (21): cos sin(t + + ) = A cot sin n A = (3 + ) tan t + + = 2 Plugging the denition for : 3 = A A= 3 + I3 I1 I3 3 tan = tan I1 I1 5 (23)

Finally, replacing (23) in the : = I3 I3 n tan sin(t + + ) = t + + = I1 sin I1 cos 2 (24) (25) that has the solution: = I3 t + 0 I1 cos

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