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Static Equilibrium

Inverse Dynamics

A system is at rest and will remain at rest No translation or rotation is occurring or will occur Conditions for static equilibrium (from Newtons 1 st Law):
Net external force in x direction equals zero Net external force in y direction Fy = 0 equals zero Net torque produced by all external forces and all external T=0 torques equals zero Can use any point as the axis of rotation Can solve for at most 3 unknown quantities

Fx = 0

Objectives: Define dynamic equilibrium Introduce the technique of inverse dynamics

Dynamic Equilibrium
Applies to rigid bodies that are accelerating Conditions for dynamic equilibrium (from Newtons 2nd Law):
Net external force in x direction equals mass times x accel. Fx = m a x Net external force in y direction Fy = m a y equals mass times y accel. Net torque produced by all external forces and torques T=I equals moment of inertia times angular accel. Net torque must be computed about center of mass or a fixed axis of rotation Can solve for at most 3 unknown quantities

General Equations of Motion


From dynamic equilibrium: m ax = Fdx Fpx m ay = Fdy Fpx W Icm = Td Tp + (L c) sin Fdx + c sin Fpx (L c) cos Fdy c cos Fpy Fdy Td
Distal joint

Fpx y c

Proximal joint

Tp

Fpy x

L = segment Fdx
length

Computing Joint Forces and Torques


It is possible to measure:
joint position (using video / motion capture system; lab 3) ground reaction forces (using force plate; lab 6) center of pressure (using force plate)

Analysis by Segment
To compute joint forces and torques, body is broken down into Fkneex individual segments Analyze from distal to leg proximal
Fankley Fanklex Tankle Tankle

Fhipx

thigh
Fkneey Tknee Tknee Fkneey

Thip Fhipy

Wthigh
Fkneex

From joint position data, can compute:


absolute angle of each body segment (lab 5) location of center of mass of each segment (lab 8)

Can use central difference method to compute:


angular velocity of segment (lab 5) angular acceleration of segment x and y velocity of segment center of mass (lab 3) x and y acceleration of segment center of mass

Wleg
Fanklex Fgrfx

Finally, use general equations of motion to compute joint forces and torques

Fankley

foot
Wfoot

Fgrfy

The End