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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Mc lc
Li ni u.....2 Phn 1: Tng quan v ting ni.....3 1.1 Nhn thc chung..3 1.2 c tnh vt l ca m thanh...4 1.2.1 cao (Pitch)..4 1.2.2Cng ...5 1.2.2 Trng ........5 1.2.3 m sc.....5 1.3 c tnh m hc ca m thanh.....6 1.3.1 Nguyn m...6 1.3.2 Ph m.7 1.3.3 T sut thi gian....................................................8 1.3.4 Hm nng lng thi gian ngn...............8 1.3.5 Tn s vt qua im khng....................9 1.3.6 Pht hin im cui...................................9 1.3.7 Tn s c bn...........................................10 1.3.8 Formant....................................................12 1.4 Phn loi n gin sng ting ni....................13 Phn 2 B my pht m v c ch pht m.......................13 2.1 B my pht m............................................14 2.2 C ch pht m.............................................14 2.3 M hnh to ting ni...16 Phn 3 Xc nh tn s c bn F0 bng hm t tng quan....16 3.1 Tnh hm t tng quan R(k) ca tnh hiu ting ni x(n). ....16 3.2 Ci tin.....17 3.2.1 Hn ch bin tn hiu vo.17 3.2.2 Ni suy tm chnh xc gi tr k cc i.18

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Li ni u
Trong thi i ngy nay, cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca khoa hc k thut th vn trao i thng tin a phng tin ngy cng tr nn cn thit, t lc u ch giao tip, tng tc thng qua cc vn bn giy t, ngy nay nhu cu s dng ting ni trong truyn thng, tng tc ngi my cng tr nn cp thit hn. V vy m mt lnh vc k thut mi ra i, l x l ting ni. Mc d mi nhng x l ting ni t c nhng thnh tu ng k. Cc ng dng ca x l ting ni v ang c p dng trong rt nhiu lnh vc khc nhau trong x hi nh nhn dng, tng hp ting ni, tng tc ngi my, truyn thng, dy hc, .Nh c x l ting ni m con ngi c th to ra nhng my mc thng minh hn, c kh nng hiu c ting ni con ngi v c th giao tip vi con ngi thng qua li ni. Xc nh tn s c bn l mt trong nhng vn rt quan trng ca x l ting ni. N c s dng trong cc h thng nhn dng, tng hp, thm nh ghi m hay pht m ting ni. Do s quan trng ca n, c nhiu gii php c a ra. Bi bo co ny s trnh by mt phng php n gin v d p dng l da vo hm t tng quan. Ni dung ca bo co ny gm c 3 phn.
Phn 1: Gii thiu v ting ni, cc c tnh vt l, m hc ca

m thanh, phn loi n gin dng sng ting ni.

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Phn 2: Gii thiu b my pht m v c ch pht m ca ting ni.


Phn 3:Gii thiu phng php xc nh tn s c bn F0 bng

hm t tng quan.

Phn 1 Tng quan v ting ni


1.1 Nhn thc chung Ting ni l mt trong nhng phng tin trao i thng tin ca con ngi. Ting ni c to ra t t duy ca con ngi di s ch o ca trung khu thn kinh, mnh lnh pht sinh ting ni c pht ra v h thng pht m thc hin nhim v to m thanh. Ting ni m con ngi vn giao tip hng ngy c bn cht l sng m thanh lan truyn trong khng kh. Sng m thanh trong khng kh l sng dc sinh ra do s dn n ca khng kh. Tn hiu m thanh l tn hiu bin thin lin tc v thi gian v bin , c di tn s rt rng. Tuy nhin tai ngi ch c th nhn bit c cc sng m c tn s trong khong 20 - 20000 (Hz). Nhng sng m c tn s ln hn 20000 Hz gi l sng siu m. Nhng sng c tn s nh hn 20 Hz gi l sng h m. Thc t ngi ta c th hn ch di tn s ca tn hiu ting ni trong khong t 300 n 3500 Hz. Do , qu trnh phn tch cng nh tng hp ting ni ch cn dng mt s nht nh cc tham s cng biu din tn hiu ting ni m no ngi x l.

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Hnh 1.1 M phng qu trnh truyn ting ni trong khng kh V bn cht vt l, sng m, sng siu m, sng h m khng khc g nhau v cng nh cc sng c hc khc. S phn bit nh trn l da vo kh nng cm th cc sng c hc ca tai con ngi, do cc c tnh sinh l ca tai ngi quyt nh. V vy sng m thanh c phn bit hai loi c tnh l c tnh vt l v c tnh m hc. 1.2 c tnh vt l ca m thanh Bn cht m thanh ting ni l sng c hc nn c cc tnh cht c bn ca sng c hc. Cc tnh cht ca sng c hc mang mt ngha khc khi xt trn gc l m thanh ting ni. Tn hiu m thanh ting ni l mt tn hiu ngu nhin khng dng, tuy nhin nhng c tnh ca n tng i n nh trong nhng khong thi gian ngn (vi chc mili giy). Trong khong thi gian nh tn hiu gn tun hon, c th coi nh tun hon.

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

1.2.1 cao (Pitch) cao hay cn gi l trm bng ca m thanh chnh l tn s ca sng c hc. m thanh no pht ra cng mt cao nht nh. trm bng ca m thanh ph thuc vo s chn ng nhanh hay chm ca cc phn t trong khng kh trong mt n v thi gian nht nh. Ni cch khc, cao ca m ph thuc vo tn s dao ng. i vi ting ni, tn s dao ng ca dy thanh quy nh cao ging ni ca con ngi v mi ngi c mt cao ging ni khc nhau. cao ca n gii thng cao hn so vi nam gii v cao ting ni ca tr em cao hn so vi n gii, iu ny cng tng t i vi tn s ca dy thanh. 1.2.2 Cng Cng chnh l to nh ca m thanh, cng cng ln th m thanh c th truyn i cng xa trong mi trng c nhiu. Nu xt trn gc sng c hc th cng chnh l bin ca dao ng sng m, n quyt nh cho nng lng ca sng m. Trong ting ni, cng ca nguyn m pht ra thng ln hn ph m. Do vy chng ta thng d pht hin ra nguyn m hn so vi ph m. Tuy nhin i vi tai ngi gi tr tuyt i ca cng m I khng quan trng bng gi tr t i ca I so vi mt gi tr I0 no chn lm chun. Ngi ta nh ngha mc cng m L l logarit thp phn ca t s I/I0: (n v mc cng l Ben - k hiu B) L ( B ) = lg I I0

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

1.2.3 Trng Trng hay di ca m ph thuc vo s chn ng lu hay nhanh ca cc phn t khng kh. Cng mt m nhng trong cc t khc nhau th di khc nhau. 1.2.4 m sc m sc l bn sc, sc thi ring ca mt m, cng mt ni dung, cng mt cao nhng khi ni mi ngi u c m sc khc nhau. 1.3 c tnh m hc ca m thanh Tn hiu ting ni l tn hiu tng t biu din cho thng tin v mt ngn ng v c m t bi cc m v khc nhau. Tu theo tng ngn ng c th m s lng cc m v nhiu hay t. Thng thng s lng cc m v vo khong 20 30 v nh hn 50 i vi mi ngn ng. i vi tng loi m v m c cc c tnh m thanh khc nhau. Cc m v c chia thnh hai loi nguyn m v ph m. T hp cc m v to nn m tit. m tit ng vai tr mt t trn vn mang ng ngha. 1.3.1 Nguyn m Nguyn m c to ra bng s cng hng ca dy thanh khi dng kh c thanh mn y ln. Khoang ming c to lp thnh nhiu hnh dng nht nh to thnh cc nguyn m khc nhau. S lng cc nguyn m ph thuc vo tng ngn ng nht nh. Mi nguyn m c c trng bi 3 formant u tin, cc formant tip theo thng th t mang thng tin hn. Ting vit c 14 nguyn m trong c 11 nguyn m n v 3 nguyn m i.
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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Trong 1 s ti liu c tch nguyn m a v nguyn m o thnh 2 nguyn m na l: a: o: a // : xanh xanh, anh ch a /a/ : la , a ha o //: co ro, xoong o //: vng lng, tc, hc Theo cc ti liu ny th ting vit c 16 m tit thay v 14 m tit 1.3.2 Ph m Ph m c to ra bi cc dng kh hn lon c pht ra gn nhng im co tht ca ng dn m thanh do cch pht m to thnh. Dng khng kh ti ch ng ca vm ming to ra ph m tc. Nhng ph m xt c pht ra t ch co tht ln nht v cc m tc xt to ra t khong gia. Ph m c c tnh hu thanh v v thanh tu thuc vic dy thanh c dao ng to thnh cng hng khng. c tnh ca ph m tu thuc vo tnh chu k ca dng sng, ph tn s, thi gian tn ti v s truyn dn m. Ting vit c 22 ph m

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Ngoi ra, trong 1 s ti liu, ting vit cn c thm 1 ph m na, l ph m tc thanh hu.Nhng m tit khng c m u (nh: m, m, oai, uyn) khi pht m c bt u bng ng tc khp kn khe thanh, sau m ra t ngt gy nn mt ting bt. ng tc khp kn y c gi tr nh mt ph m nn ngi ta gi l m tc thanh hu, k hiu: /?/.
1.3.3 T sut thi gian

Trong khi ni chuyn, khong ni chuyn v khong ngh xen k nhau. Phn trm thi gian ni trn tng s thi gian ni v ngh c gi l t xut thi gian. Gi tr ny bin i tu thuc vo tc ni v t ta c th phn loi thnh ni nhanh, ni chm hay ni bnh thng. 1.3.4 Hm nng lng thi gian ngn Hm nng lng thi gian ngn ca ting ni c tnh bng cch chia tn hiu ting ni thnh nhiu khung cha N mu v tnh din tch trung bnh tng cc
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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

mu tn hiu trong mi khung. Cc khung ny c a qua mt ca s c dng hm nh sau:


W ( n ) W( n ) = 0
Vi 0 n N Vi n N

Thng thng c ba dng ca s c s dng l ca s ch nht, ca s Hamming v ca s Hanning. Ca s ch nht:


1 W(n) = 0

Vi 0 n N Vi n N

Ca s Hamming :
1 0.54 0.46 cos( n) Vi n N W ( n) = Vi n N 0

Ca s Hanning:
0.5 0.5 cos( n) W ( n) = 0 Vi 1 n N Vi n N

Hm nng lng ngn ti mu th m c tnh theo cng thc sau :

E m = { x( n + m ) W ( n )}
n =0

N 1

Hm nng lng thi gian ngn ca m hu thanh thng ln hn so vi m v thanh. 1.3.5 Tn s vt qua im khng. Tn sut vt qua im khng l s ln bin tn hiu ting ni vt qua gi tr khng trong mt khong thi gian cho trc. Thng thng gi tr ny i

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

vi m v thanh ln hn m hu thanh do c tnh ngu nhin ca m v thanh. Do o tn sut vt qua im khng l tham s quan trng phn loi m hu thanh v m v thanh. 1.3.6 Pht hin im cui. Trong x l ting ni vic xc nh khi no bt u xut hin tn hiu ting ni v khi no kt thc qu trnh ni rt cn thit v quan trng. Trong mt mi trng nhiu ting n (nhiu ) hoc mi trng nhiu ngi ni th vic pht hin im kt thc rt kh khn. C rt nhiu phng php pht hin im cui ca ting ni. V d nh mt phng php n gin sau : Ly mt mu nh ca nn nhiu trong khong thi gian yn lng trc khi bt u ni. S dng hm nng lng thi gian ngn tnh nng lng cho mu. Ngng ca ting ni c chn l gi tr gia nng lng yn tnh v nng lng nh. Ban u gi thit im cui xut hin ti im nng lng tn hiu vt qu mc ngng. tnh ng c lng ny, ngi ta gi thit v so snh chng vi gi tr trong vng yn tnh. Khi nhng thay i pht hin c trong khi tnh ton tn sut trn sut hin ngoi ngng gi thit th im cui c gi thit li ti im m s thay i xy ra. 1.3.7 Tn s c bn Dng sng ca ting ni gm hai phn: Phn gn ging nhiu trong bin bin i ngu nhin v phn tun hon. Phn tn hiu c tnh chu k cha cc thnh phn tn s c dng iu ha. Tn s thp nht chnh l tn s c bn v cng chnh l tn s dao ng ca dy dy thanh. i vi nhng ngi ni khc nhau, tn s c bn cng khc nhau. Tn s c bn ca tr em thng cao hn so vi ngi ln v ca n gii cao hn so vi nam gii, Sau y l mt s gi tr tn s c bn tng ng vi gii tnh v tui:

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Ngi ni Nam gii N gii Tr em

Gi tr tn s c bn 80 200 Hz 150 450 Hz 200 600 Hz

i vi hai m c cng cng , cng cao s c phn bit bi tnh tun hon. Mt m hu thanh c tn hiu gn nh tun hon khi c phn tch ph s xut hin mt vch ti vng tn s rt thp. Vch ny c trng cho tnh tun hon c bn ca m hay chnh l tn s c bn ca m. Trong giao tip bnh thng tn s c bn thay i lin tc to nn ng iu cho ting ni. Hnh di m t tn hiu trn min thi gian v ph ca chng (trn min tn s) ca cc nguyn m a, i, u. nh u tin ca cc ph tng ng vi tn s c bn F0 .

Hnh 1.2 Tn hiu v ph ca tn hiu

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

1.3.8 Formant Trong ph tn s ca tn hiu ting ni, mi nh c bin cao nht xt trong mt khong no (cn gi l cc tr a phng) xc nh mt formant. Ngoi tn s, formant cn c xc nh bi bin v di thng ca chng. V mt vt l cc tn s formant tng ng vi cc tn s cng hng ca tuyn m. Trong x l ting ni v nht l trong tng hp ting ni m phng li tuyn m ngi ta phi xc nh c cc tham s formant i vi tng loi m v, do vic nh gi, c lng cc formant c ngha rt quan trng. Tn s formant bin i trong mt khong rng ph thuc vo gii tnh ca ngi ni v ph thuc vo cc dng m v tng ng vi formant . ng thi, formant cn ph thuc cc m v trc v sau . V cu trc t nhin, tn s formant c lin h cht ch vi hnh dnh v kch thc tuyn m. Thng thng trong ph tn s ca tn hiu c khong 6 formant nhng ch c 3 formant u tin nh hng quan trng n cc c tnh ca cc m v, cn cc formant cn li cng c nh hng song rt t. Cc formant c gi tr tn s x dch t vi trm n vi nghn Hz. Tn s formant c trng cho cc nguyn m bin i tu thuc vo ngi ni trong iu kin pht m nht nh. Mc d phm vi ca cc tn s formant tng ng vi mi nguyn m c th trng ln nhau nhng v tr gia cc formant khng i v s x dch ca cc formant l song song. Ngoi formant, cc m mi cn c cc tn s b suy gim gi l phn formant (anti-formant). Phn formant c to nn khi lung kh i qua khoang mi. Cc formant tng ng ni cc im cc ca hm truyn t v ti ln cn im cc gi tr hm truyn t l rt ln, tng t vy cc anti-formant tng ng vi cc im khng ca hm truyn t.

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Hnh 1.3 ng bao ph v cc Formant Da trn hnh 1.3 ta thy c th tnh n Formant th 5 (F5) nhng quan trng nht cn ch y l cc F1 v F2. Cng mt ngi pht m nhng Formant c th khc nhau.Nu ta ch cn c vo gi tr ca Formant c trng cho m hu thanh th cha chnh xc m phi da vo phn b tng i gia cc Formant. Ngoi ra, nu xc nh Formant trc tip t ph th khng chnh xc m phi da v ng bao ph, y cng l p ng tn s ca tuyn m. 1.4 Phn loi n gin dng sng ting ni: Ting ni ca con ngi to ra bao gm c hai thnh phn l:
Phn gn tun hon m hu nh lp li cng chu k c gi l

ting ni hu thanh (voiced speech). Chu k lp li gi l chu k c bn T0 nghch o ca T0 l tn s c bn F0. m hu thanh c pht ra bi mt lung kh cc mnh t thanh mn thi qua dy thanh lm dung dy thanh, s dao ng ca dy thanh to nn ngun tun hon. Ngun tun hon kch thch tuyn m to nn m hu thanh. Vng m hu thanh chim thnh phn ch yu ca sng ting ni, cha ng lng tin nhiu nht v thi gian ln nht trong qu trnh ni.
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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Phn tn hiu c dng ging nh tp m nhiu c bin ngu nhin cn c gi l ting ni v thanh (unvoiced speech). Ting ni v thanh c to ra do s co tht theo mt dng no ca tuyn m v lung kh chy qua ch tht vi tc ln to nn nhiu lon, v d nh lc ta ni th tho (cn phn bit th thm vi th tho, theo t in ting Vit th tho l ni chuyn vi nhau rt nh ta nh gi thong qua tai cn th thm l ni chuyn vi nhau khng ngi ngoi nghe thy). Nng lng do ngun nhiu lon to ra s kch thch tuyn m to nn ting ni v thanh, nng lng ca ting ni v thanh nh hn so vi ting ni hu thanh. Ta c th pht hin ra ting ni hu thanh l khi ni dy thanh rung. Cn m v thanh khi ni dy thanh khng rung. Ni th tho th xa khng nghe c do nng lng ca m v thanh rt nh v ting th tho l do m v thanh to nn. Phn 2 B my pht m v c ch pht m 2.1 B my pht m
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Hc mi Vm ming trn rng Vm ming mm u li Thn li Li g C ming Yt hu Np ng ca thanh qun Dy thanh gi Dy thanh Thanh qun Thc qun Kh qun 14

Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Hnh 3.1 B my pht m ca con ngi


2.2 C ch pht m

Hnh 3.1 m t b my pht m ca con ngi. Ngun nng lng chnh nm thanh mn, Tuyn m s c kch thch bi ngun nng lng chnh ti thanh mn. Ting ni c to ra sng m hc do kch thch t thanh mn pht ra y khng kh c trong phi ln to thnh dng kh va chm vo hai dy thanh trong tuyn m. Hai dy thanh dao ng s to ra cng hng, dao ng m s c lan truyn theo tuyn m (tnh t tuyn m n khoang ming) v sau khi i qua khoang mi, mi s to ra ting ni. Thanh qun cha hai dy thanh c th dao ng to ra s cng hng u tin ca qu trnh to thnh m thanh. ng dn m l mt ng khng ng dng bt u t mi, kt thc bi dy thanh hoc thanh qun. ng c di khong 17cm i vi ngi bnh thng. Khoang mi cng l ng khng ng dng thuc vng c nh bt u t mi, kt thc ti vm ming, i vi ngi bnh thng khoang mi c di 12 cm. Khoang ming l cc np da chuyn ng c th iu khin s ghp m thanh gia khoang ming v khoang mi.

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Hnh 2.2. M t dy thanh m Trong qu trnh pht m, nu l m mi th vm ming h thp v dng kh ch i qua ng mi, nu l m thng th vm ming m, ng mi khp li v dng kh i theo khoang ming ra mi. 2.3 M hnh to ting ni Ting ni l mt loi m thanh, nhng ngc li, khng phi bt k m thanh no cng l ting ni. Ting ni c phn bit vi cc m thanh khc bi cc c tnh m hc c ngun gc t c ch to ting ni. Trong qu trnh to ting ni c 2 loi ngun m:
-

Ngun tun hon: l ngun tng ng vi cc m m khi pht ra lm cho dy thanh rung. Trong ting Vit ngun tun hon tng ng vi cc nguyn m v cc ph m hu thanh

Ngun khng tun hon (ngun tp m): l ngun tng ng vi cc m m khi pht ra khng lm cho dy thanh rung. Trong ting Vit cc ngun khng tun hon tng ng vi cc ph m v thanh.

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Vi ngun tun hon th v tr ngun ti chnh thanh mn, cn ngun khng tun hon th c v tr trong tuyn m tc l t thanh mn tr ln cho n di mi.

Phn 3 Xc nh tn s c bn F0 bng hm t tng quan


Xc nh tn s c bn l mt trong nhng vn rt quan trng ca x l ting ni. N c s dng trong cc h thng nhn dng, tng hp, thm nh ghi m hay pht m ting ni. Do s quan trng ca n, c nhiu gii php c a ra. Phn ny s trnh by 1 phng php n gin v d p dng l da vo hm t tng quan. Hm t tng quan R(k) s t cc gi tr cc khi tng ng ti cc im l bi ca chu k c bn ca tn hiu. Khi tn s c bn l tn s xut hin ca cc nh ca R(k). Bi ton tr thnh bi ton xc nh chu k hm t tng quan. 3.1 Tnh hm t tng quan R(k) ca tnh hiu ting ni x(n)

r( k ) =

N 1 k

x( n) x( n +k ) k

0,1,..., K =

n =1

Fs = 10kHz, N = 300, K = 150.Tm cc i trong khong (0,K) D thy rng nu tn hiu x(n) tun hon vi chu k P th hm t tng quan cng tun hon vi chu k P: r(k ) = r(k + P) Hn na hm t tng quan cn c nhng tnh cht quan trng sau: L hm chn r(k ) = r( k ) r(k) t gi tr cc i ti 0: r(k ) r(0) vi mi k Gi tr r(0) chnh bng nng lng ca tn hiu:

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Da vo cc tnh cht trn ta c nhn xt: Hm t tng quan s t gi tr cc i ti cc mu 0, P, 2P, v bng gi tr nng lng ca tn hiu, cc im cc i c gi l cc nh (peak). Nh vy vic xc nh chu k c bn ca tn hiu ting ni s a v vic xc nh chu k ca hm t tng quan.

Hnh 3.1: Tn hiu theo thi gian v hm t tng quan r(k) 3.2 Ci tin 3.2.1 Hn ch bin tn hiu vo tnh ton c d dng hn, ta hn ch mc bin i vi tn hiu u vo.

hiu:

Chn ngng ct CL Loi b(coi nh bin bng 0) i vi nhng tn

|x| <CL

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Tnh F0 bng hm t tng quan

Hnh 3.2 : Tn hiu sau khi hn ch v hm t tng quan tng ng 3.2.2 Ni suy tm chnh xc gi tr k cc i Do gi tr k vi gi tr r(k) ln nht tm c trn ch l ri rc, ta ni xy dng hm ni suy( chng trnh s dng ni suy Lagrange) tm chnh xc gi tr k cc i trong khong k-1 k+1

Hnh 3.3 : Ni suy k-r(k) vi 2 im ln cn l k-1 v k+1 tm k cc i

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