You are on page 1of 21

I. B PHT QUANG 1.1 ngun pht quang 1.1.

1 iode LED it pht quang LED l ngun pht quang rt ph hp cho cc h thng thng tin quang tc khng qu 200Mbit/s s dng si dn quang a mode. s dng tt cho h thng thng tin quang, LED phi c cng sut bc x cao, thi gian p ng nhanh v hiu sut lng t cao. S bc x ca n l cng sut quang pht x theo gc trn mt n v din tch ca b mt pht v c tnh bng Watt. Chnh cng sut bc x cao s to iu kin cho vic ghp gia cc si dn quang v LED d dng v cho cng sut pht ra t u si ln. Thi gian u, khi cng ngh thng tin quang cha c ph bin, it pht quang thng dng cho cc si quang a mode. Nhng ch sau mt thi gian ngn, khi m cc h thng thng tin quang pht trin kh rng ri, cc si dn quang n mode c a vo s dng trong cc h thng thng tin quang th LED cng c di dng sn phm l cc modul c si dn ra l si dn quang n mode. Cng sut quang u ra ca n t ph thuc vo nhit v thng chng c mch iu khin n gin. Thc nghim t c di tuyn ln ti 9,6Km vi tc 2Gbit/s v 100Km vi tc 16Mbit/s. LED c u im l gi thnh thp v tin cy cao, tuy nhin chng ph hp vi mng ni ht, cc tuyn thng tin quang ngn vi tc bit trung bnh thp 1.1.2 it Laser Ni chung, Laser c rt nhiu dng v cc kch c. Chng tn ti dng kh, cht lng, tinh th hoc bn dn. i vi cc h thng thng tin quang, cc ngun pht Laser l cc Laser bn dn v thng gi chng l LD. Cc loi Laser c th l khc nhau nhng nguyn l hot ng c bn ca chng l nh nhau. Hot ng ca Laser l kt qu ca ba qu trnh mu cht l: hp th phton, pht x t pht v pht x kch thch. Ba qu trnh ny tng t c ch pht x nh sng v c trnh by mc 1.2 S khi b pht quang

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

S khi b pht quang S khi b pht quang in hnh c biu din nh hnh trn. Theo , mt b pht quang bao gm: ngun quang, b ghp tn hiu quang, mch iu ch tn hiu v mch iu khin cng sut. Tt c cc thnh phn trn c ng gi chung thnh b pht quang nh hnh 3.35. D liu t ngun pht bn ngoi c a vo b pht quang thng qua n v bin i d liu nh tn hiu xung kch (clock). Ti y, d liu c bin i v dng ph hp cung cp cho mch kch thch iu khin dng phn cc cho Laser. Trong trng hp tng qut, b pht quang s dng LED cng bao gm cc thnh phn nh b pht hnh 3.34. Tuy nhin, nu tn hiu cn pht l tn hiu tng t th mch ch bin tn hiu s n gin hn nhiu.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

Hnh 3.35. B pht quang

Hnh 3.36. S khi n v bin i d liu 1.2.1 Mch pht iu bin cng trc tip: - Mt mch pht quang iu bin cng c biu din trn hnh 3.37. Mch pht quang ny l s kt hp ca mch iu khin (hnh 3.38) v mch iu ch tn hiu (hnh 3.39). Hot ng ca mch pht quang iu bin cng c th c phn tch da trn hot ng ca mch iu khin v mch iu ch tn hiu.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

Hnh 3.38. Mch kch thch

Hnh 3.39. Mch iu ch tn hiu

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

Mch kch thch (hnh 3.38) c chc nng bin i ngun in p t b bin i d liu v dng dng in cung cp dng phn cc cho Laser. Chc nng ny l cn thit v ngun in cung cp cho laser di dng in p hn l dng in. Dng phn cc cho laser c to ra cn phi rt n nh vi dng in ngng c th truyn tn hiu d liu khng b li. Tuy nhin, gi tr tng i ca dng phn cc v dng in ngng thay i ph thuc vo nhit nh trnh by trong phn 3.4.6. Do vy, dng phn cc cn c iu khin bi tn hiu hi tip t cm ng nhit. Trong mch kch thch hnh 3.38, in p iu khin, Vbias+, l in p ng vo ca opamp. Dng in chy qua in tr R ch ph thuc vo in p ng vo m khng ph thuc vo in tr ti, trong trng hp ny l laser diode. Do , bng cch thay i Vbias, ngi ta c th iu khin c dng phn cc Ibias. Khi nhit thay i, vic n nh cng sut quang ng ra ca laser diode c thc hin bi tn hiu hi tip t photodiode PD. PD ny thu nh sng t laser pht ra v to ra dng quang in t l vi cng sut pht quang ca laser. V vy, khi cng sut quang ng ra thay i, do s thay i ca nhit , dng quang in s thay i lm cho dng in phn cc Ibias cng thay i theo b li nhng thay i trong trong cng sut quang quang ca laser. Qu trnh iu ch tn hiu trong mch pht iu bin cng c thc hin bng cch thay i dng in kch thch t mc phn cc n mc cao nht (xem hnh 3.21). Mch iu ch tn hiu c biu din trn hnh 3.39. Trong , qu trnh iu ch c iu khin bi dng phn cc qua Laser. Chc nng chnh ca mch l cung cp dng phn cc cc i cho Laser. Trong mch iu ch hnh 3.39, d liu pht c a vo cc B transistor Q1, cc B transistor Q2 c c nh bi ngun phn cc VBB. Khi tn hiu ng vo ln hn VBB, Q1 dn, Q2 tt, dng qua LD gim lm LD ngng pht sng. Ngc li, khi tn hiu ng vo nh hn VBB, Q1 tt, Q2 dn, dng qua LD tng lm LD pht sng. Q3 ng vai tr cung cp ngun dng n nh cho mch vi sai Q1 v Q2. Q4 kt hp vi mch hi tip dng khuch i thut ton (Op-Amp) n nh dng qua LD di tc ng ca nhit cng nh cung cp tn hiu cho vic gim st nhit lm vic ca LD phc v cng vic cnh bo v bo dng cho b pht quang Trong kiu iu ch trn, tn hiu iu ch c thc hin bng cch thay i dng in kch thch chy qua laser. Kiu iu ch ny c gi l iu ch ni (internal modulation) hay iu ch trc tip (direct modulation). u im ca kiu iu ch ny l n gin. Tuy nhin, hn ch ca k thut iu ch ny l:

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

- Bng thng iu ch b gii hn bi tn s dao ng tt dn ca laser diode. Hin tng chirp xy ra i vi tn hiu quang tng rng ph ca xung nh sng. - Hin tng ny xy ra i vi laser DFB v v vy l yu t hn ch nghim trng i vi cc h thng truyn dn quang tc cao (ch yu s dng laser DFB lm ngun quang). - Khng p dng c trong cc h thng thng tin quang i hi cng sut pht quang ln (>30mW) nh cc mng truyn dn c ly xa hay mng truyn hnh cp v vic ch to cc mch pht quang iu ch trc tip hot ng n nh khi iu ch tc cao vi dng in kch thch ln (>100mA) tr nn phc tp v kh khn hn nhiu. Nhng hn ch trn c th c khc phc c khi s dng k thut iu ch ngai (External Modulation). 1.2.2 Nhiu trong ngun pht Laser Khi cc LD c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin quang c tc cao, th mt s hot ng ca Laser bt u xut hin v tc bin i cng cao th chng cng th hin r v c th gy ra nhiu u ra ca b thu. Cc hin tng ny c gi l nhiu mode, nhiu cnh tranh mode v nhiu phn x. V nh sng lan truyn dc theo si dn quang nn s kt hp ca cc suy hao mode ph thuc, thay i pha gia cc mode v s bt n nh v phn b nng lng trong cc mode khc nhau s lm thay i nhiu mode. Nhiu mode xut hin khi c s suy hao bt k no trong tuyn. Cc ngun pht quang bng hp c tnh kt hp cao nh cc Laser n mode s gy ra nhiu mode ln hn cc ngun pht bng rng. Ngoi ra, hin tng phn x nh tr li Laser do cc mt phn x t ngoi c th gy ra s thay i ng k nhiu mode v v th cng lm thay i c tnh ca h thng. Nhiu phn x c lin quan ti mo tuyn tnh u ra LD gy ra do mt lng nh sng phn x tr li v i vo hc cng hng Laser t cc im ni si. C th gim c nhiu phn x khi dng cc b cch ly quang gia LD v si dn quang. Kt lun: Ngun pht quang ng mt vai tr rt quan trng i vi h thng thng tin quang, phn ny ta quan tm ch yu n LD, Laser n mode. T , ta c th la chn ngun pht sao cho ph hp vi h 1.3 B iu ch ngoi S khi ca k thut iu ch ngai c biu din trn hnh 3.40. Theo , iu ch tn hiu quang khng thc hin bn trong laser m c thc hin bi mt linh kin quang bn ngai gi l b iu ch ngai (external modulator). nh sng do laser pht ra di dng sng lin tc CW (continuous wave). Vi cu trc nh vy, k thut iu ch ngai khc phc c cc nhc im ca k thut iu ch trc tip:

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

- Bng thng iu ch: do b iu ch ngai quyt nh, v vy, khng b gii hn bi tn s dao ng tt dn ca laser diode. nh sng laser trong trng hp ny ng vai tr nh sng mang. - Khng xy ra hin tng chirp i vi tn hiu quang v laser c kch thch bi dng in n nh nn nh sng pht l sng lin tc c tn s v rng ph n nh. c im ny rt quan trng i vi h thng ghp knh theo bc sng WDM v yu cu v n nh ca bc sng nh sng ti cc knh rt cn thit. - Khng b gii hn bi cng sut pht quang v c tnh iu ch do b iu ch ngoi quyt nh.

Hnh 3.40. S khi b iu ch ngai C hai loi b iu ch ngai c s dng hin nay: Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) v Electroabsorption Modulator (EA) Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) hay cn gi l Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) modulator c ch to bng vt liu Lithium niobate c cu trc Mach-Zehnder nh hnh 3.41. Chit sut ca lithium niobate ph thuc vo in p phn cc. nh sng do laser pht ra khi i vo ng dn sng c chia lm hai phn bng nhau. Khi khng c in p phn cc, c hai na sng nh sng ti khng b dch pha. V vy, ng ra ca b iu ch sng nh sng kt hp c dng ca sng nh sng ban u. Khi c in p phn cc, mt na ca sng ti b dch pha +90o v chit sut ca mt nhnh ca ng dn sng gim, lm tng vn tc truyn nh sng v lm gim tr. Mt na kia ca sng ti nhnh cn li ca ng dn sng b dch pha -90o v chit sut tng, lm vn tc truyn nh sng gim v lm tng tr. Kt qu l, hai na sng nh sng ng ra ca MZM b lch pha 180o v trit tiu ln nhau. Qua cho thy, cng tn hiu nh sng ng ra ca MZM c th c iu khin bng cch hiu chnh in p phn cc. Bng cch ny, bt k dch pha ca sng nh sng ti hai nhnh ca ng dn sng cng c th c hiu chnh.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

Hnh 3.41. Nguyn l hot ng ca b iu ch ngai MZM: (a). Khng c in p phn cc (b). C in p phn cc iu ch ngai MZM ch yu uc s dng trong mng quang truyn hnh. MZM c mt s hn ch nh: suy hao xen cao (ln n 5dB) v in p iu ch tng i cao (ln n 10V). Ngai ra, s dng MZM cn c mt hn ch na l MZM l mt linh kin quang tch bit. Do MZM c ch to bi LiNbO3 khng phi cht bn dn nn khng th tch hp vi laser DFB trong mt chip. Nhng hn ch ny cua MZM c th c khc phc bi mt loi iu ch ngai khc: electroabsorption modulator (EA). B iu ch ngai EA c cu to l mt ng dn sng lm bng cht bn dn. Khi khng c in p phn cc, nh sng do laser DFB pht ra c truyn qua ng dn sng ny v buc sng ctC ca ng dn sng ngn hn so vi bc sng ca nh sng ti. Khi c in p iu ch, rng di cm Eg ca vt liu ng dn sng gim. Hin tng ny c gi l hiu ng Franz-Keldysh v l nguyn l hot ng ca EA. Khi rng di cm gim, bc sng ct s tng ln (do doC = 1024/Eg)) v vt liu ng dn sng s hp th sng nh sng ti. V vy, bng cch hiu chnh in p iu ch, c th thay i cc c tnh hp th ca ng dn sng. So vi MZM, EA c cc u im sau: in p iu ch, khong 2V, nh hn so vi MZM (ln n 10V) C th tch hp vi laser DFB to thnh cc b pht quang c dng chip.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

Vi nhng u im nh trn, EA c s dng trong cc h thng WDM. II. B thu quang: C vai tr chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in mang tin. N gm mt photo diode v 1 hoc nhiu tng khuch i tn hiu. 1.1 Khi nim c bn Nh ni trn, c s ca hiu ng quang in l qu trnh hp th nh sng trong cht bn dn. Khi nh sng p vo mt vt th bn dn, cc in t trong vng ho tr c chuyn di ti vng dn nhng nu khng c mt s tc ng sy ra th s khng thu c kt qu g m ch c cc in t chuyn ng ra xung quanh v ti hp tr li vi cc l trng vng ho tr. Do bin i nng lng quang thnh in ta phi tn dng trng thi khi m l trng v in t cha kp ti hp. Trong linh kin thu quang, lp chuyn tip p-n c s dng tch in t ra khi l trng. Khi nh sng p vo vng p s b hp th trong qu trnh lan truyn n vng n. Trong qu trnh , cc in t v l trng c to ra v ti vng ngho do hp th photon s chuyn ng v hai hng i ngc nhau di tc ng ca in trng nn chng tch ri nhau. V khng c in trng bn ngoi vng ngho nn cc in t v l trng c to ra do hiu ng quang in v s ti hp trong qu trnh chuyn ng ca chng. Tuy nhin, s c mt vi in t di chuyn vo in trng trong qu trnh chuyn ng v c kh nng thm nhp vo mi vng. V do c mt in th s c to ra gia cc min p v n. Nu hai u ca min c ni vi mch in ngoi th cc in t v l trng s c ti hp mch ngoi v s c dng in chy qua. Cc linh kin thu quang c nhim v n nhn bc x quang (hay nng lng photon) v chuyn i thnh tn hiu in. Chng c chia thnh hai nhm: Nhm 1: Nng lng photon u tin c bin i thnh nhit, sau mi bin i nhitthnh in. Nguyn l ny hu nh khng c ng dng trong vin thng. Nhm 2: Bin i trc tip t nng photon sang in, c gi l linh kin tch quang lng t gi tc l linh kin tch sng quang. Linh kin tch sng quang c chia lm hai loi (theo c ch): hiu ng quang ngoi (external photoelectric effect) v hiu ng quang ni (internal photoelectric effect). Hiu ng quang ngoi: ngha l cc in t c phng thch ra khi b mt kim loi bng cch hp th nng lng t lung photon ti. Photodiode chn khng v n nhn quang in (photo-multiplier tube) da vo hiu ng ny. Hiu ng quang ni: l qu trnh to ra cc ht mang in t do (in t v l trng) t cc mi ni bn dn bng vic hp th cc photon ti. C 3 linh kin s dng hin

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

tng ny: photodiode mi ni PN, photodiode PIN v photodiode thc l ADP (Avalanch PhotoDiode). Ngoi ra cn c phototransistor, nhng phototransistor c thi gian p ng chm nn t c s dng. Nu c ch xut hin trong cc h thng c c ly ngn v tc chm. Cc linh kin tch sng quang hot ng theo nguyn tc: mi ni P-N phn cc ngc. Khi c nng lng photon E = hf chiu vo. Nng lng ny b hp th v mt electron s vt qua vng cm i t vng ha tr ln vng dn. Electron ny by gi l dng t do. V li vng ha tr mt l trng cng dng t do. Electron ny s di chuyn xung vng him v l trng s di chuyn ln vng him. S di chuyn ny gy nn dng chy mch ngoi

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

10

1.1.2 . nhy (Sensitivity) nhy l mc cng sut quang nh nht yu cu u thu t c mc cht lng cho trc. Thng mc cht lng c th l S/N hoc BER. nhy thng k hiu l S, c n v o l dBm. V d mt my thu quang c nhy S = -25dBm vi BER = 10-9 c ngha l mc cng sut quang cn thit n b thu phi ln hn hoc bng -25dBm (chng hn 20dBm) th my thu mi c th thu v hot ng vi mc cht lng BER = 10-9. Nu tn hiu c mc cng sut n my thu nh hn -25dBm (chng hn -30dBm) th my thu cng c th nhn c nhng khng m bo BER = 10-9, BER c th ln hn nh BER = 10-6. 1.1.3 Di ng (Dynamic Range) Di ng ca mt linh kin thu quang l khong chnh lch gia mc cng sut cao nht v mc cng sut thp nht m linh kin c th thu nhn c trong mt gii hn t s li nht nh. Di ng ca mt linh kin thu quang c minh ha hnh 4.4.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

11

Trong nhng tuyn truyn dn quang c ly gn c th dng thm b suy hao quang (optical attenuator) gii hn mc cng sut thu quang trong phm vi di ng ca linh kin thu quang 2.1. Nhiu (Noise) Trong h tng thu quang,nhiu thng c th hin di dng dng, gi l dng nhiu. Cc ngun nhiu: 2.2.1. Nhiu nhit Nhiu nhit l nhiu gy ra do in tr ti ca diode thu quang cng nh tr khng u vo ca b tin khuch i. 2.2.2 Nhiu lng t Nhiu lng t sinh ra do s bin ng ngu nhin nng lng ca cc photon p vo diode thu quang. 2.2.3 Nhiu dng ti Khi cha c cng sut quang a ti photodetector nhng vn c mt lng dng in nh chy trong mch. Dng ny c gi l dng ti. N phn phi n nhiu ton h thng v cho s dao ng ngu nhin. 2.3 S khi b thu quang B thu quang l s t hp ca b tch sng quang, b tin khuch i in, v cc phn t x l tn hiu in. S khi ca b thu quang s c minh ha hnh 4.5. B tch sng quang thc hin chc nng chuyn i tn hiu quang ng vo thnh tn hiu in. Do tn hiu quang ng vo b suy yu do truyn trn ng truyn nn tn hiu ng ra b tch sng quang cn a n b tin khuch i. Yu cu ca b tin khuch i phi c nhiu thp. Chng ta thng thy b tin khuch i nhiu thp c bng thng khng p ng tn hiu s tc cao trong thng tin quang, do cn b equalizer cn bng li bng thng nh yu cu. Ngoi ra b equalizer cn c

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

12

s dng lm gim bt s chng lp xung do tri rng xung. Sau , tn hiu c tip qua b khuch i lm cho tn hiu mch x l tip. B khuch i ny thng s dng b AGC (Automatic Gain Control) iu chnh li cho ph hp. B lc t sau b khuch i loi b cc thnh phn tn s khng mong mun sinh ra do qu trnh x l tn hiu. Trong cc b thu quang tc thp, ngi ta thng s dng tch sng bt ng b, s dng b so sng quyt nh xung c hin din hay khng, tc l xc nh xem bit l 1 hay 0. Loi d liu khi phc ny c gi s l cc xung c dng cnh ln v xung. i vi tuyn thng tin quang tc cao, t c cht lng ti u, xung ng h d liu c m ho vo trong tn hiu pht v c khi phc b thu thng quang mch khi phc xung ng h. Xung ng h khi phc c a ti mch quyt nh bit quyt nh xem mc in p hin ti l mc 1 hay mc 0. Da vo kt qu quyt nh, ng ra ca mch quyt nh bit chnh l lung d liu c khi phc, c th cha mt s bit li trong .

Hnh 4.5 S khi ca b thu quang s. 2.4 p ng phn t chuyn i quang-in Photodiode cn phi c tc p ng nhanh c th hot ng vi tn hiu tc cao. Nu ng ra ca photodiode khng theo kp vi s thay i ca dng tn hiu quang ng vo th dng xung ng ra s b mo.iu ny s nh hng n cht lng ca tuyn do li bit. Tc p ng ca photodiode c th o theo thi gian ln ca tn hiu ng ra, t 10% n 90% gi tr nh tn hiu ng ra khi ng vo ca photodiode chuyn sang va chuyn trng thi on. Tng t nh vy khi tn hiu ng ra chuyn xung t 90% n 10% gi tr nh, gi l thi giang xung. Thi gian ln v thi gian xung c minh ha hnh 4.6.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

13

Thi gian ln v thi gian xung ph thuc vo cc nhn t nh mc hp th nh sng mt sng no , rng vng him, s thay i gi tr in dung, s thay i gi tr in tr ca photodiode.

2.5 Thi gian p ng phn t chuyn i quang-in Tc p ng hay bng thng ca photodiode ph thuc vo ba yu t: thi gian vt ra khi vng him (gi l thi gian tri) ca cc ht mang in to ra t cc photon ti vng ny, p ng tn s c xc nh bi thi hng RC (ph thuc vo in dung ca diode), v s khuch tn cc ht mang in ra khi vng him. 2.6 Cc linh kin bin i quang in bn dn: Linh kin bin i quang in thng c gi l photodiode hay photodetector thc hin chc nng bin i cng sut quang vo thnh dng in ng ra. 2.6.1 Photodiode P-N Photodiodde P-N l mi ni P-N hot ng ch dng phn cc ngc, c minh ha nh hnh 4.6. nh sng ti phi lt vo vng him ca mi ni P-N. nh sng ny s c hp th trong vng him v phn phi nng lng cho vt liu. Nu nng lng hp th ln. mt cp in t -l trng c to ra. S phn cc ngc mi ni P-N to ra mt in trng ln trn vng him, in trng ny s lm cho cp in tl trng ny di chuyn ra khi vng him v ra mch ngoi to thnh dng in. Dng in ny say khi qua in tr ti RL chuyn thnh in pVout. Tn hiu ny s c qua cc tn tip theo x l. S lng cp in t-l trng c to ra trong mt giy ph thuc tuyn tnh vi cng sut trng nh sng ti, do cng dng in mch ngoi t l vi cng sut nh sng ti.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

14

2.6.2 Photodiode PIN Cu to ca diode PIN gm ba lp bn dn, trong lp I (Intrinsic) l lp bn dn khng pha tp cht hoc pha tp cht rt t nn khng c in t t do nn c din tr rt ln. V lp ny nm gia hai lp P v N. Lp I ng vai tr ging vng him trong mi ni P-N nhng c chiu di ln hn nhm tng hiu sut hp th photon ti.

Bi v lp I rt rng nn xc sut tip nhn photon lp ny cao hn v do s hp th photon lp ny nhiu hn so vi hai lp P v N. Nh vy khi lp I cng dy th hiu sut lng t cng cao. Tuy nhin khi thi gian tri ca in t ln nn lm gim kh nng hot ng tc cao ca PIN.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

15

Kh nng thm nhp nh sng ph thuc vo b dy lp P. nh sng c bc sng cng di cng d thm nhp vo bn dn. 2.6.3 Photodiode APD APD l b tch sng mi ni bn dn, c li ni (internal gain) v li ni ny lm tng p ng so vi PN photodiode hay PIN photodiode.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

16

2.7 c tnh k thut ca photodiode 2.7.1 Nhy nhy c nh ngha mc trn. Theo nguyn l hot ng ca PIN v APD th ADP nhy hn PIN. nhy ca ADP ln hn PIN t 5 n 15 dB. Tuy nhin nu dng PIN-FET th nhy ca PIN-FET v ADP l xp x nhau. Bng di y trnh by nhy ca mt s linh kin cc bc sng hot ng:

2.7.2 Hiu Sut Lng T Theo nh ngha hiu sut lng t th i lng ny thng c gi tr nh hn 1. Tuy nhin, trong APD c c ch thc l, v vy hiu sut lng t ca APD c nhn ln M ln. 2.7.3 p ng V c c ch thc l trong APD nn p ng R ca APD rt cao, v cao hn p ng ca PIN hng trm ln. 2.7.4 Di ng Di ng ca ADP rng hn PIN. C th: on tuyn tnh ca ADP c mc cng sut quang thay i t vi phn nW n vi W (tc di ng thay i vi h s >1000), cn PIN c di ng vi h s H 100.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

17

2.7.5 Dng Ti. Dng ti l nhiu do linh kin kin tch sng quang to ra. Do APD c c ch nhn thc l nn dng ti ca APD cng c nhn ln. V vy dng nhiu ca APD ln hn so vi PIN rt nhiu. 2.7.6 n nh. V h s nhn thc l ca APD ph thuc vo nhit v in p phn cc ngc nn n nh ca APD kn hn PIN rt nhiu. 2.7.7 in p Phn Cc. APD c th hot ng c th pphn cc ngc cho APD rt cao. 2.7.8 Tm Tt Bng cc c tnh c bn ca cc photodiode

2.8 Cc b tin khuch i Ng vo ca b thu bao gm b tin khuch i v photodiode. Tn hiu quang c ghp vo photodiode v photodiode s bin i chui bit quang thnh tn hiu in. Vai tr ca b tin khuch i l khuch i tn hiu in trc khi x l. Vic thit k tng ny yu cu s tr gi gia tc hot ng v nhy. Trong s cc b tin khuch i nh b tin khuch i tr khng thp, b tin khuch i tr khng cao, b tin khuch i hi tip,v b tin khuch i tc cao th b tin khuch i tr khng cao thng c s dng. 2.8.1 B tin khuch i tr khng thp i vi b tin khuch i tr khng thp, in tr in hnh l 50 Ohm , cn i vi b tin khuch i tr khng cao th gi tr ny phi ln hn 50 Ohm. Xt b tin khuch i tr khng thp, in tr 50 Ohm: bin i dng in photon ng ra ca photodiode IP thnh p V0 theo nh lut Ohm: V0 = RIp = 50Ohm Ip. Lu rng mch th ng n gin ny lm tr khng ng vo ca b khuch i. Nhc im d thy ca mch tin khuch i tr khng thp l cp gi r tr khng ng vo cho b

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

18

khuch i thp, do in p c ra s nh. Mt nhc im na l dng nhiu s nh hng ng k trn in tr R nh, v nhiu nhit t l nghch vi in tr.

2.8.2 B tin khuch i hi tip S ci tin ca khuch i tr khng cao l khuch i hi tip hnh 4.21. B tin khuch i hi tip c c im l nhy cao v bng thng ln.

in tr R ng vai tr chuyn i dng thnh p, n c ni t ng ra n ng vo ca b khuch i. B khuch i nh th ny thc hin m v to p ng ra t l vi dng photon. S ci tin quang trng nht ca b khuch i phi hp tr khng l loi b nh hng in dung k sinh ca dy dn v ca diode. 2.9 Mch quyt nh Phn khi phc d liu ca b thu quang bao gm mch quyt nh v mch khi phc xung ng h. Mc tiu sau cng l cch ly thnh phn ph f = B ca tn hiu thu c. Thnh phn ny cung cp thng tin trong khe thi gian bit (TB = 1/B) mch quyt nh v ng b vi qu trnh quyt nh. i vi m RZ, thnh phn ph f = B hin din trong tn hiu thu; b lc thng di hp c th cch ly thnh phn ny mt

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

19

cch d dng. Khi phc xung ng h kh thc hin hn i vi m NRZ v tn hiu thu c khng hin din thnh phn ph f = B. K thut thng s dng to thnh phn ny l cu phng v chnh lu thnh phn ph f = B/2, sau cho qua b lc thng thp.Mch quyt nh thc hin so snh ng ra ca knh tuyn tnh (d liu) vi mc ngng nhng thi im ly mu do mch khi phc xung ng h xc nh, v quyt nh xem tn hiu khi phc l bit 1 hay bit 0. thi im ly mu tt nht l ti v tr mc tn hiu gia bit 1 v 0 l chnh lch nhau ln nht. N c xc nh thng qua biu mt (eye diagram). Hnh 4.28 biu din biu mt l tng v biu mt i vi tn hiu c nhiu v suy hao. Thi im ly mu tt nht l ti im mt m to nht.

2.10 Tm tt v my thu quang Hai linh kin thng s dng b thu quang l PIN v APD. Mi linh kin u c u nhc im ca mnh. u im ca PIN l n nh cao, dng ti nh (gy nhiu thp). u im ca APD l di ng rng, nhy cao, p ng ln. Ty theo mc ch s dng ca h thng m chng ta s la chn linh kin s dng ph hp. Cc thng s ca b thu cn xem xt l nhy, dng ti, di ng, in p phn cc, p ng v n nh. i lng nhy l mt trong cc thng s c nh hng n c ly truyn dn. B thu c nhy cng cao th c ly truyn dn cng di. Mt thng s nh gi cht lng h thng truyn dn s l t s li bit BER. H thng c cht lng tt nu BER thp. i vi h thng truyn dn quang, t s BER thng l 10-9 v c th t c gi tr BER thp hn, c th t n mc 10-12. T s SNR ca tn hiu n b thu s quyt nh BER theo quan h:

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

20

H thng quang m chng ta kho st trong mn hc ny l h thng quang IM/DD. y l h thng iu ch cng v tch sng trc tip. Th hin ca iu ch cng l tn hiu quang s l tn hiu nh phn c hai trng thi l sng (1) v ti (0) v phn bit hai trng thi ny, bit 1 c iu ch c cng sut quang ln cn bit 0 c ch vi mc cng sut ti thiu. Tn hiu c cng sut cng ln th c ly truyn dn cng xa. duy tr h thng quang hot ng mc t s li bit BER khng i mc no th tn hiu ti b thu cn c mc cng sut quang ti thiu, c bit vi tn l nhy. Mi h thng quang s hot ng tc bit xc nh, duy tr BER cho trc th nhy ca b thu s c xc nh theo quan h:

Trong zm l s photon trung bnh cn thit phn bit bit 1 u thu. Hay ni cch khc, nhy ca b thu quang s phi gn lin vi tc hot ng v cht lng ca h thng.

SV : Chu Vn Hong - Nguyn Ngc Mnh

21