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Sigurnost na radu u laboratoriju

Zaštita za:
vas kolege pomoćno osoblje posjetioce posao

Prije rada, treba poznavati
Svojstva kemikalija i reagenasa Korištenje opreme i instrumenata Što učiniti kod prolijevanja (adsorbensi, dezinfekcija) Kuda pobjeći Gdje je aparat za gašenje požara i prva pomoć

Najčešća ozljeda: posjekotina Statistika se odnosi na istraživačke laboratorije

Opasne tvari
Fizička opasnost električna mehanička temperatura elektromagnetsko zračenje Biološka opasnost

Radioaktivnost

Komprimirani plinovi Zapaljive tvari Oksidansi Toksične tvari Korozivne tvari Reaktivne tvari

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1997 Zapaljive tvari Spremati u za to predviñene spremnike • Ne zajedno s oksidansima • • Sve boce označiti!!! 2 .Opće pravilo za opasne tvari Pročitaj etiketu tri puta Kad uzimaš iz skladišta Prije otvaranja Prije korištenja Komprimirani plinovi Označi datum otvaranja!!!! Zapaljive tvari LEDROIT 22 prosinca.

.A da nisu bile u tom spremniku…. Korozivne tvari Storage Posebni spremnici za korozivne tvari Ne kiseline i baze skupa • Ne koncentrirana kiselina ispod slivnika • • • OZNAČAVANJE!!!! Rad s korozivnim tvarima VUK – ne! Reaktivne tvari Pogledaj kako izgledaju! + + 3 .

suhi led Mala količina tekućine stvara veliku količinu plina! Opekotine Suhi led opekotine gušenje Rizici povezani sa strujom Mehanička opasnost 4 .Inkompatibilne kemikalije Kriogene tekućine Vrelište -73°C e.g.. helij ili argon. teku ći dušik.

Dispose in cardboard boxes or designated containers for recycling Eye protection Gloves Lab coats Footwear Fume hoods Emergency showers Eyewashes Fire extinguishers 5 . prolijevanje Autoklavi Glassware • • • • • • Control Measures • • • • • • • • Inspect glassware for cracks. or stress lines before use Repair or discard defective glassware Wear eye protection when working with glass apparatus Wear safety gloves when inserting glass into rubber or plastic tubing Do not wash broken glassware with other glassware Do not mix glassware or broken glass with regular garbage.Centrifuge Carleton University. 1999 Otvaranje. lom epruvete. stars.

science. nitrile. latex.uottawa.Working Alone / After Hours Never work alone in high risk area Use buddy system Phone Protection Services Have friend contact lab at regular intervals Eye Protection • • • • Use appropriate safety glasses “Avoid use of contact lenses”? Goggles for liquids Safety glasses for explosion risks Wear at all times in labs Gloves • • • Lab Coats Protects clothing Protects body Should have snaps Non-flammable fabric Do not wash with regular clothing • • Minimizes contact with hazardous agent Use appropriate gloves PVC. rubber.ca/HS/glove_main. polypropylene Check resistance chart Do not wear gloves in halls or elevators http://www.htm Footwear • • Fume Hoods • • • • • • • • • Closed-toed shoes must be worn in labs Sandals are never to be worn in labs Shoes must cover the foot Steel toed boots must be worn in mechanical areas Chemical hoods Biosafety hoods Radioisotope hoods Exhaust canopies Recirculating hoods Perchloric acid hoods Hydrofluoric acid hoods 6 .

Fume Hood Design Sash Bypass Grills Face Velocity Baffle Exhaust duct Face opening HEPA filter Carbon filter Fume Hood Safety Never put your head into a fume hood Minimize storage of chemicals or equipment in a fume hood Work with sash at indicated operating level Set up apparatus or sources of emission at least six inches behind the plane of fume hood Raise large pieces of equipment at least one inch above the floor of the fume hood Do not obstruct back slots Keep sash closed when not working in fume hood Avoid cross drafts when working in a fume hood Emergency Showers/ Eyewashes Emergency Showers/ Eyewashes Know location of emergency showers and eyewash stations Become familiar with operation Wash for minimum of 15 minutes with running water Remove all contaminated clothing Wait for medical assistance Report incident Fire Extinguishers • • • • • Emergency Procedures Fires Explosions Spills Emissions First aid Injuries Accidents Incident/accident report form Property damage 5411 Attend faculty training Extinguish fire only if feel comfortable ABC for regular fires D for metal induced fires Pull fire alarm 7 .

Emergency Procedures Contact Protection Services for emergencies at extension 5411 If safe to clean spill by yourself.g. complete incident/ accident form Investigation by EHSS. e. Human Resources and Occupational Health and Safety Committee Waste Disposal Regulated by Ontario University procedures Faculty guidelines Sewer restrictions Air restrictions Chemical waste Biomedical waste Sharps waste Battery waste Oil waste Scintillation wastes Photographic waste Regular garbage Waste Disposal • • Waste Disposal . dry picric acid Contact faculty representatives for disposal • • • • Label all wastes University Hazardous Waste label Sharps containers Solvent waste containers Broken glass in boxes Batteries recycling Before Leaving the Lab Check Overnight operations Supplies are sufficient Waterlines are adequately clamped Description of the process posted Emergency contacts posted Overnight incident Thermometer melted from heat Mercury vaporized Rubber supports melted Fire burnt itself out 8 .General Guidelines Use approved containers for disposal. proceed After incident or accident. (see EHSO) Label all hazardous waste containers with University hazardous waste label Do not mix incompatible wastes Do not overfill waste containers Contact EHSS for disposal of unstable reactive chemicals..

Before Leaving the Lab Turn off Gas Water Power lines Other non necessary equipment Weekly Lab Checks Purge Eyewash station Fire extinguisher First Aid Kit Fume Hood Tubing. pressurized connection Chemical storage Cap Sinks.Laboratory Procedures and Safety Manual Clean your work area Return ALL chemicals to storage Lower fume hood sash Wash your hands Printed Resources • • • • • • Find the potentials… What’s Wrong? #1 Faculty Laboratory Procedures and Safety Manual WHMIS Manual University Hazardous Materials Handling Guide CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety Prudent Practices in the Laboratory The Chemical Institute of Canada Lab Safety Handbook Find the potentials… What’s Wrong? #2 Find the potentials… What’s Wrong? #3 9 . floor drains Page 5 .

Find the potentials… What’s Wrong? #4 Find the potentials… What’s Wrong? #5 Accident waiting to happen! Did this person take Lab Safety??? Opći rizici u laboratoriju Vatra Staklo Oštri predmeti Prolijevanja Plinske boce Kemijski rizik Biološki rizik Radijacija Glavne skupine Regencije i reagensi Pročitaj etiketu! Reagencije i reagensi Infektivne tvari Radijacija Sigurnost prostorija Zaštitna odjeća i eventualna dodatna oprema Znati što se radi u slučaju nezgode 10 .

toplinom i plamenom Ne dovesti u dodir sa zapaljivim materijalima Etikete Opasnost Upozorenje Oprez Toksičnost Korozivnost (kiseline i baze) Zapaljivost (zapaljiva otapala i neke krutine) Reaktivnost (natrij i različiti reagensi koji reagiraju s vodom) 11 .Oznake na kemikalijama Proizvoñač je dužan napisati sve na etiketu Ime Rizici i opasnosti Mjere predostrožnosti Prva pomoć Rukovanje i pohrana Zdravstveni rizici Karcinogenost Toksičnost Visoka toksičnost Reprodukcijski rizik Iritacija Hepatotoksin Nefrotoksin Neurotoksin Tipične mjere predostrožnosti Ne udisati pare Koristiti u prostoriji koja ima prozračivanje .digestor Nakon upotrebe zatvoriti spremnik Izbjeći kontakt s kožom Eksplozivne/zapaljive kemikalije Ne dovesti u dodir s iskrenjem.

Pb) Kumulativno trovanje (npr. alkohol i klorirani ugljikovodici) A.Putevi ulaska Inhalacija Ingestija Apsorpcija kroz kožu ili sluznice (Injekcija) Akutno trovanje (npr. teški metali) Sinergistički efekt (kombinacija – npr. Benedi Hitna transplantacija jetre uslijed akutnog zatajenja Kako se zaštititi? Interakcija alkohol -acetaminofen Digestor Osobna zaštita 12 . CO) Kronično trovanje (npr.

vodena kupelj.Osobna zaštita Kute Kosa Obuća Skinuti rukavice prije: rada na aparatima telefoniranja. a ne plamenik) Stakleno posuñe Treba znati šta učiniti u slučaju vatre Trening svog osoblja! Odlaganje slomljenog posuña 13 . izlaska iz laboratorija Vatra Zapaljive tvari Koristiti minimalnu količinu Pohraniti u specijalne ormare Zagrijavanja provoditi kontrolirano (npr.

s obzirom da to nosi rizik ozljede i materijalne štete X Prva pomoć Za sve kemikalije isprati s puno vode. 10 minuta Otpad Biološki Kemijski 14 .Prolijevanje Odmah očistiti Odložiti u toksični otpad ukoliko se radilo o potencijalno opasnoj kemikaliji Plinske boce Po mogućnosti smjestiti izvan laboratorija Učvrstiti za pozadinu Redovito kontrolirati regulatore Urednost Uredan laboratorij – manja šansa za nezgodu. a veća za uspješan posao Laboratory Equipment Ne koristiti opremu za koju niste uvježbani.

Ako ne znaš. naprije pitaj!!! 15 .