Heat flow in welding

Subjects of Interest

• Heat sources • Heat source and melting efficiency • Analysis of heat flow in welding • Effects of welding parameter • Weld thermal simulator

Suranaree University of Technology

Sep-Dec 2007

Objectives

• This chapter provides information of heat flow during welding, which can strongly affect phase transformation, microstructure, and properties of the welds. • Students are required to indicate heat source and power density used in different welding methods, which affect the melting efficiency.

Suranaree University of Technology

Sep-Dec 2007

Welding heat sources
Electrical sources • Arc welding • Resistance welding • Electroslag Heat intensity ~ 106-108 Wm-2 Chemical sources • Oxyfuel gas welding • Thermit welding Heat intensity ~ 106-108 Wm-2 Other sources • Diffusion welding Mechanical sources • Friction (stir) welding Heat intensity ~ 104-106 Wm-2 • Ultrasonic welding (15-75 KHz) • Explosion welding (EXW)

High energy sources • Laser beam welding • Electron beam welding Heat intensity ~ 1010-1012 Wm-2
Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007

Welding Arc • A welding arc consists of a sustained electrical discharge through a high temperature.wikipedia. conducting plasma.org Characteristics passing through) required bell shaped arc Welding arc Suranaree University of Technology Gas metal arc welding Sep-Dec 2007 . • Gaseous conductor changes electrical energy into heat. producing (ionic gas or plasma sufficient thermal energy as to be useful for the joining of metal by with electric current fusion. • Arc produces sources of heat + radiation (careful proper protection) http://en.

3 1.7 3.8-4. (analogous to ionization potential) Material Al Cu Fe Mg W BaO.5 0.3 0.5-4 3. 2) Thermal emission At high temperature some electrons acquire enough thermal energy to overcome the work function and become free electrons.1-3.3-5. eV 3.Emission of electron at cathode Emission of electrons at cathode occurs when an amount of energy required to remove the electron from a material (liquid or solid).75 <2. 1) Cold cathode At low pressure. This amount of energy per electron is called ‘work function’. SrO Thoria CsO Al2O3 Work function.1-1.5 Emission occurs mainly by two processes. high voltage conditions.7 4. positive ions are accelerated toward the cathode and bombard the cathode with relatively high energy. Sep-Dec 2007 Suranaree University of Technology .95 2.

Sep-Dec 2007 Suranaree University of Technology . which support most of the current conduction. flow from cathode terminal (-) to anode terminal (+). • Electrons. which can react to electric or magnetic fields. (negative charges • Neutral plasma can be established and positive ions) by thermal means by collision process.com • Plasma consists of ionized state of a gas composed of nearly equal numbers of electrons and ions.Plasma formation States of matter Solid Melting Liquid Vaporization Gas Ionization Plasma (neutral atoms/molecules) www.fronius. which requires the attainment of equilibrium temperature according to ionization potential of the materials.

9 7.9 Energy Si Fe Ni Na K Cs Ionization potential. Plasma temperature = Ionization potential x 1000 K Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .8 14.3 8.1 4.6 15.6 5.1 13.Ionization potential Element/Compound He Ar H2 N2 O2 CO2 CO C Ionization Potential (Volts or eV) 24.1 11.8 15.3 3.6 12. Vi. required to strip an electron from an outer shell of and atom or M+.4 15.2 7.

•The area at cathode and anode has strong effects on arc configuration. the flow of the heat energy to the terminal affecting shape and depth of the fusion zone. cathode and plasma column. Arc area is mainly divided into three zones. Power (Parc) Cathode - Pc Heat 1) Anode Pa = IE a Pa Anode + Energy dissipation in the arc 2) Cathode Pc = IE c 3) Plasma arc column Parc = I (dE arc / dl )l Suranaree University of Technology Note: Most heat goes to the anode/cathode and most is lost radially from the arc Sep-Dec 2007 .Power in arc •The electrical power is dissipated in three regions of the arc: anode.

com Heat losses in the arc • Energy losses by heat conduction and convection. radiation loss <10%. www. • In Ar gas. Plasma temperature contour in the arc Temp Radiation loss Heat loss Note: The use of fluxing reduces radiation lost Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . radiation and diffusion.geocities.000 K depending on the nature of plasma and current. • The arc temperature is determined by measuring the spectral radiation emitted. radiation loss ~ 20% while in other welding gas.Temperature in the arc and heat loss • The arc temperature ~ 5000-30.

Polarity There are three different types of current used in arc welding 1) Direct-Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) 2) Direct-Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) 3) Alternating current (AC) Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

• DCEN in GMAW makes the arc unstable and causes excessive spatter. • Most commonly used in GTAW. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . • Relatively narrow and deep weld pool is produced due to high energy. This is due to a low rate of electron emission from the negative electrode. large droplet size of metal and the arcs forces the droplets away from the workpiece. • Electrons are emitted from the negative tungsten electrode and accelerated while travelling through the arc.Direct-Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) • Also called straight polarity.

• At low current in Ar. • Positive irons clean off the oxide surface. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . • At above the critical current the droplets are released at the rate of hundreds per second (spray mode). shallow weld for welding thin sheets. therefore the heating affect is now at the tungsten electrode rather than the workpiece. • The electrode is connected to the positive terminal of the power source.Direct-Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) • Also called reverse polarity. • The droplet size is inversely proportional to the current and the droplets are released at the rate of a few per second. the size of the droplet ~ the size of the electrode Globular transfer.

Surface cleaning action in GTAW with DC electrode positive. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . Ex: cleaning of Al2O3 oxide film (Tm ~2054oC) on aluminium to make melting of the metal underneath the oxide film easier.Surface cleaning action DCEP can be employed to clean the surface of the workpiece by knocking off oxide films by the positive ions of the shielding gas.

Alternating Current (AC) • Reasonably good penetration and oxide cleaning action can be both obtained. • Often used for welding aluminium alloys. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

2 Q is the rate of heat transfer Qnominal is the heat input tweld is the welding time In cases of electron beam and laser beam welding. or V V Where Qnominal or EI V Qnominal / V is the heat input is the welding speed is heat input per unit length of weld Eq. having a constant voltage E and a constant current I. heat input per unit length of weld often refers to Qno min al EI . the arc efficiency can be expressed as.Heat source efficiency In the case of arc welding. η= Where Qt weld Qt weld Q = = Qno min al t weld EIt weld EI Eq. The term. Qnominal is the power heat source of the electron beam and laser beam respectively.3 Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

and can be used to calculated the arc efficiency η.Heat source efficiency measurement • Heat source efficiency can be measured using a calorimeter (by measuring the heat transfer from the heat source to the workpiece and then to the calorimeter). Heat transfer from the workpiece to the calorimeter is given by Eq. Sep-Dec 2007 . • The temperature rise in the cooling water (Tout-Tin) can be measured using thermocouples or thermistors.4 Qt weld = ∫ WC (Tout − Tin )dt ≈ WC ∫ (Tout − Tin )dt 0 0 α α Where W C Tout Tin t is the mass flow rate of water is the specific heat of water is the outlet water temperature is the inlet water temperature is time Suranaree University of Technology Note: This integral corresponds to the shaded area.

5 Where A ∆T/L is the area for heat flow is temperature gradient Layer of temperature gradient for heat source efficiency measurement. GMAW. Qt weld = A∫ k 0 α ∆T dt L Eq. Note: this type of calorimeter is used to determine the arc efficiencies in PAW. • The heat transfer from the workpiece to the calorimeter can be determined by measuring the temperature different ∆T and hence gradient across a gradient layer of material of known thermal conductivity k and thickness L. This technique utilises thermocouple junctions for sensing temperature difference.Heat source efficiency measurement • The arc efficiency can also be measured using Seebeck envelope calorimeter. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . and SAW.

(b) breakdown of power inputs.Heat source efficiency measurement • In GMAW the arc. (a) Measured results. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . and the cathode heating contribute to the efficiency of the heat source. (a) Heat transfer from metal droplets (b) Total heat inputs (c) Heat inputs from arc and metal droplets. • Lu and Kou used a combination of three calorimeters to estimate the amounts of heat transfer from the arc. metal droplets. filler metal droplets and the cathode heating to the workpiece in GMAW of aluminium.

Suranaree University of Technology .Heat source efficiency in various welding processes LBW Heat source efficiency is low because of the high reflectivity. Heat source efficiency is high due to the keyhole acting like a black body trapping the energy from electron beam. Heat source efficiency is higher than GTAW or SMAW since the arc is covered with thermally insulating blanket of molten slag and granular flux. Sep-Dec 2007 PAW SAW EBW Heat source efficiencies in several welding processes. Heat source efficiency is much higher than LBW (no reflectivity).

Aweld = Afiller +Abase Cross section of weld The melting efficiency of the arc ηm can be defined as follows Where V Hbase Hfiller tweld ηm = ( AbaseVt weld ) H base + ( A filler Vt weld ) H filler ηEIt weld Eq. Note: the quantity inside the parentheses represents the volume of material melted while the denominator represents the heat transfer from the heat source to the workpiece.Melting efficiency Melting efficiency is the ability of the heat source to melt the base metal (as well as the filler metal).7 V is the welding speed ηm is the energy required to raise a unit volume of tweld base metal to the melting point and melt it. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . is the welding time. is the energy required to raise a unit volume of filler metal to the melting point and melt it.

(b) (b) deeper weld of higher melting efficiency. Low heat input Low welding speed High heat input High welding speed Aweld = Afiller +Abase Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .Melting efficiency (a) shallow welds of lower melting efficiency.

Power density distribution of heat source Power density distribution is influenced by 1) Electrode tip angle 2) Electrode tip geometry Sharp electrode • Arc diameter • Power density distribution Blunter electrode • Arc diameter • Power density distribution Effect of electrode tip angle on shape and power density distribution of gas-tungsten arc. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Effect of electrode tip angle on shape of gas tungsten arc and power density Conical angle of electrode tip Suranaree University of Technology The arc becomes more constricted Sep-Dec 2007 .

which will be confined to a narrower region. the cooling rates around the weld are very high. • A more intense heat source will give a steeper profile and the HAZ. the weld properties •The temperature-distance profile shows that the heat source travels along the weld in the direction A-A’ at a constant speed. hence.Analysis of heat flow in welding Heat or temperature distribution occurring during welding greatly affect microstructure of the weld. • As the heat source moves on. Temperature distribution round a typical weld Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Effect of temperature gradient on weld microstructure The temperature gradients in the liquid weld material are substantially higher than in most casting processes. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . This leads to high solidification rates which produce a finer dendritic structure than that observed in most castings. Microstructures occurring in a weld and its HAZ.

• Heat sink effect of workpiece. • Effect of the power density distribution of the heat source on the weld shape. • Effect of heat input on cooling rate.Effect of welding parameters • Effect of heat input Q and welding speed V on the weld pool. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Heat input Welding speed The weld pool becomes more elongated. Note: the cross indicates the position of the electrode. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .Effect of heat input and welding speed on the weld pool • The shape and size of the weld pool is significantly affected by heat input Q and the welding speed V.

Effect of heat input on cooling rate The cooling rate in ESW (high Q/V) is much smaller than that in arc welding. Heat input per unit length EI/V Cooling rate Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Effect of power density distribution on weld shape Power density Weld penetration Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Blass heat sink is clamped behind aluminium to be welded. Brass with a higher melting point than that of aluminium is used as a heat sink to increase the cooling rate in aluminium welding. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . • Thicker workpiece acts as a better heat sink to cool the weld down.Heat sink effect of the workpiece • The cooling rate increases with the thickness of the workpiece due to the heat sink effect.

References • Kou.. USA. 3rd edition. • Gourd. 2003. Edward Arnold. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . Inc.M. Principles of welding technology. L. 2nd edition. S. John Willey and Sons.. Welding metallurgy. ISBN 0 340 61399 8.. ISBN 0-471-43491-4. 1995.

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