A concrete block is one of several precast concrete products used in construction. The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site.

In the 1950s, hollow-core slab were invented. The voided or hollow core system was created to reduce the weight of the concrete from the system. this concept removes and replaces concrete from center of the slab, where it is less useful with lighter material in order to decreases the dead wt of concrete floor.however,these hollow cavities significantly decrease the slab resistance to shear and fire, thus reduce its structural integrity.

After 10 years of experimenting. an estimated 1.500 companies were manufacturing concrete blocks in the United States. By 1905. and they were so heavy they had to be lifted into place with a small crane. These early blocks were usually cast by hand. The first hollow concrete block was designed in 1890 by Harmon S. Palmer patented the design in 1900.4 cm) by 30 in (76. concrete block manufacturing is a highly automated process that can produce up to 2.2 cm). Palmer's blocks were 8 in (20. and the average output was about 10 blocks per person per hour.000 blocks per hour  .3 cm) by 10 in (25. Palmer in the United States. Today.


which reduces the self weight of the structure.BUBBLE DECK TECHNOLOGY  Bubble deck slab is the slab in which some amount of the concrete is replaced by the plastic bubbles or ellipsoid which are made by the waste plastic material. .  Design of this type of the slab is based on the euro and the British codes.

 The slab is created with the same capabilities as a solid slab. He locks ellipsoids between the top and bottom reinforcement meshes. It is used in Dutch:German invented by JORGEN BREUNING. a new system was invented. acting like a solid slab.  . thereby creating a natural cell structure.In the 1990ies. eliminating the some of the problems. but with considerably less weight due to the elimination of excessive concrete.

Denmark North America uk Russia Brazil Australia New Zealand .


 Saves 30 to 50 % weight compared to a corresponding solid slab – equal stiffness.  20% concrete reduction in other components.  The reduced weight of the slab will typical result in a change in design to longer spans and/or reduced deck thickness.  It is also seismic friendly as it lowers the total weight of the building. .  The company estimates that building costs are reduced by 8 to 10 %.  Reduced concrete usage – 1 kg recycled plastic replaces 100 kg of concrete.

Filigree Elements) • • Temporary Support – Propping on parallel beams Placing Elements – Semi pre-cast elements mechanically lifted into position Joint Reinforcement – Insert loose bottom splice bars and tie top mesh across joints between elements • Perimeter shuttering – Fix shuttering to bottom pre-cast concrete layer & tie to top mesh reinforcement • Soffit shuttering – Prop plywood across joints between element bays and between elements & columns • .SITE INSTALLATION ( Type A.

vibrate and aggregate in-situ concrete Temporary works – Remove. . typically after 3 – 5 days. according to specific site advice • Finishing – no further work required.Preparation – Seal joints between elements. clean and moisten bottom pre-cast concrete layer • • Concreting – Pour.

Typical arrangement of props and propping beams Loaded trailers arriving on site Lifting element into position .

Aligning bubbles between elements Pouring. Vibrating & Floating Site Concrete .

which is why the use of these systems has never gained acceptance and they are only used in a limited number of projects   . Several methods have been introduced during the last decades. But the use will always be very limited due to reduced resistances towards shear. local punching and fire.  Most attempts have consisted of laying blocks of a less heavy material like expanded polystyrene between the bottom and top reinforcement. due to major problems with shear capacity and fire resistance as well as impractical execution. but with very limited success.

the slab is fully functional with regards to both positive and negative bending. where concrete has limited effect. . Hence.The voids are positioned in the middle of the cross section. while maintaining solid sections in top and bottom where high stresses can exist.

Netherlands and Denmark. Thorough investigations according to Euro codes are made at universities in Germany. Bubble Deck slabs acts like solid slabs. In principle. Designing is consequently like for solid slabs. just with less load corresponding to the reduced amount of concrete. concluding that a Bubble Deck slab acts like as a solid slab. .

 But technical university of Denmark also carried out test on stiffness of bubble deck slab. . Only top compressive portion and bottom reinforcing steel of a solid concrete slab contribute to flexure stiffness in bending.  Bubble deck removes concrete from the center of the flexural slab and replaces with hollow HDPE spheres. they verified the result and they found out. for same strength. It is having equal bending stiffness as solid slab. bubble deck has 87% of bending stiffness of similar solid slab but only 66% concrete volume due to HDPE spheres.

significant lower dead weight compensated for the slightly reduced stiffness and therefore bubble deck gave higher carrying capacity.  It has been concluded that adding a minimum amount of extra reinforcing steel would satisfy the criteria. . reduced permanent load positively affects long term response in the serviceability limit state design.  As.  However. which governs crack propagation. As a result. deflection was higher in bubble deck.

 For a BubbleDeck slab the shear resistance is proportional to the amount of concrete. The main difference between a solid slab and a voided.hence enabling all concrete to be effective. the shear resistance will also be reduced. Due to the reduced concrete volume.  The reduced shear resistance will not lead to problems. at columns and walls . voided slab refers to shear resistance. as the special geometry shaped by the ellipsoidal voids acts like . as balls are simply left out where the shear is high.

Areas with high shear loads need therefore a special attention.g. a reduction factor of 0.  . This guarantees a large safety margin.6 is used on the shear capacity for all bubble deck slab. around columns. In calculations. e. therefore giving full shear capacity. That is solved by omitting a few balls in the critical area around the columns.

 The simple Bubble Deck is cast over the pre-fabricated “bubble lattice” on traditional formwork.(semi pre cast) .(cast in situ)  In the filigree-element Bubble Deck the bottom side of the „bubble-lattice‟ unit is furnished with a pre-cast concrete layer which on the building site replaces the horizontal part of the formwork.

(pre cast) . The simple Bubble Deck may also be delivered to the building site as pre-cast factory-made slabs.


or maximum 3 balls between two girder.550. Two types: (a). -spacing: Max 1 m. -Rebar size depends on the thickness of the slab and span. Trussed type. Self supporting (b). .-Grade of steel: Generally Fe 500.

- - Main bar 10mm minimum – for 200 to 300 mm slab thickness. 12mm.for size ≥300 mm .

pvp.poly vinyl propylene.  Diameter:  Material always 0.polyethin.pvc. Plastic balls or ellipsoids are made up of the plastic waste.9 of the slab size. 3. of balls: 1.poly vinyl chloride. 2. .

. generally M 20. 30 grade is use.Concrete Type: self compacting concrete Grade: Any grade of concrete can be used.

LeCoieHousing: . Over £400.000 of savings were realized as a direct result of incorporating Bubble Deck into this project. 1.800 m2 of Bubble Deck floor slabs between 3 and 6 stories high supported on in-situ reinforced concrete columns. The structure comprises 7. The largest Bubble Deck structure so far erected in Great Britain. amounting to a 3% saving off the total project cost.


Sogn Arena. Oslo in Norway .

City Hall and Offices. in Denmark .

Bubble deck-advanced structure engineering by Paul harding.I.managing director bubble deck Bubble deck structure solution (UNITED KINGDOM) Structural Behavior of bubble deck slab by Massachusetts institute of Technology .

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