1. Consider water a tactical weapon. Drink frequently (see page 2). 2. Eat meals. Add salt to taste. 3. Be aware that dark yellow, infrequent urination is a sign of dehydration. Increase water intake. 4. Perform heavy work in the cooler hours of the day, such as early morning or late evening, if possible. 5. Minimize heat stress by decreasing the work pace and/or increasing rest periods (see page 2). 6. Be aware that full heat acclimatization takes 1 to 2 weeks. 7. Consider that Soldiers undergoing treatment for acute or chronic medical conditions may be at greater risk for heat injury. NOTE: Leaders need to encourage Soldiers to come forward when heat symptoms appear.

Symptoms 1. Muscle cramps (arms, legs, and/or stomach) 2. Heavy sweating (wet skin) 3. Extreme thirst

First Aid 1. Move the Soldier to a shady area, and loosen his clothing.1 2. Have the Soldier drink a sports drink or at least one canteen of water mixed with a packet of salt (1/4 teaspoon). 3. Watch the Soldier. Continue to give him water if he accepts it. 4. Get medical help if cramps continue.

When in a chemical environment, do not loosen/remove clothing.

Symptoms 1. Heavy sweating with pale, moist, cool, or hot skin 2. Weakness 3. Dizziness 4. Fatigue 5. Heat cramps 6. Nausea (with or without vomiting/diarrhea) 7. Tunnel vision 8. Chills (goose bumps) 9. Rapid breathing 10. Confusion 11. Tingling of the hands and/or feet

First Aid 1. Move the Soldier to a cool, shady area, and loosen/remove his clothing.1 2. Pour water on the Soldier, and fan him to permit a cooling affect. 3. Have the Soldier slowly drink at least one full canteen of water. 4. Elevate the Soldier’s legs. 5. Get medical help if symptoms continue. 6. Watch the Soldier until symptoms are gone or until medical help arrives.

When in a chemical environment, do not loosen/remove clothing.

December 2005 Headquarters, Department of the Army
Purpose: This graphic training aid (GTA) explains preventative measures in adverse weather or conditions. See FM 5-0, FM 3-11.4, and FM 100-14 for more information. DISTRIBUTION: Installation Training Support Centers (TSCs). DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes GTA 05-08-012, December 2002.

WORK. 3. Walking on a hard surface.5 mph. Weapon maintenance 2. Start cooling the Soldier immediately. add 10°F. Patrolling Hard Work 1. and reduce his body temperature. Drill and ceremony Moderate Work 1. No sweating (red. Individual water needs will vary ±1/4 quart per hour. no load 2. Heat exhaustion (see page 1) 6. NL = No limit to work per hour.5 mph. Individual movement techniques (low/high crawl) 4. NOTES: 1.9°F 85 to 87. AND WATER CONSUMPTION Easy Work Heat Category 1 2 (Green) 3 (Yellow) 4 (Red) 5 (Black) WBGT1 Work/ Rest (Min) NL NL NL NL 50/10 Water Intake (Qt/Hr) 1/2 1/2 3/4 3/4 1 Moderate Work Work/ Rest (Min) NL 50/10 40/20 30/30 20/40 Water Intake (Qt/Hr) 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 1 Hard Work Work/ Rest (Min) 40/20 30/30 30/30 20/40 10/50 Water Intake (Qt/Hr) 3/4 1 1 1 1 78 to 81. fan to cool him. Elevate the Soldier’s legs. <40-lb load 3.5 mph. Rifle bayonet training 7. 2. Walking on a hard surface. Legend: WBGT = wet bulb globe temperature.5 mph. Road march. Walking in loose sand. Remove outer and/or protective clothing if the situation permits. Marksmanship training 5. >40lb load 3. Immerse him in water. 2. Disoriented 3. 4. Defense position construction 5. Evacuate the Soldier to a medical facility immediately. any load 2. Daily fluid intake should not exceed 12 quarts. Delirious 4. if wearing the MOPP overgarment. dry skin) 1 First Aid 1.9°F 88 to 89. qt = quart. Rest means minimal physical activity (sitting or standing) and should be accomplished in the shade if possible. Move the Soldier to a cool. Unconscious 5. 2. Hot 2. Walking in loose sand. and loosen or remove his clothing. hr = hour. do not loosen/remove clothing. add 5°F to the WBGT. and massage his extremities and skin with cool water. 5. REST. 2. 1If wearing body armor. Manual of arms 4.1 3.5 mph.9°F 82 to 84. Rest times and fluid replacement volumes will sustain performance and hydration for at least 4 hours of work in the specific heat category. Calisthenics 4. Field assaults 6.9°F >90°F CAUTION Hourly fluid intake should not exceed 1 1/2 quarts. >4 mph 2 . 3. shady area.HEATSTROKE Symptoms 1. Have the Soldier slowly drink one full canteen of cool water if he is conscious. >30-lb load 3. DANGER: Heatstroke is a medical emergency. EXAMPLES Easy Work 1. 2. When in a chemical environment. min = minute. flushed. Walking on a hard surface. hot.

Keep clothing loose so that circulation is not decreased. as appropriate. field pants. such as bleacher instruction. Wearing long underwear. 2. or overshoes. Change socks at least daily or more often if they are damp. particularly if the windchill is 40°F or below. and ceremonies. Wear sufficient clothing and equipment to keep your body warm. 5. BASIC COLD INJURY PREVENTION 1. Dress in layers. to limit sweating during activity. You should be— Fully dressed Partially dressed Fully dressed Partially dressed Fully dressed Fully dressed And extended breaks are— At the commander’s discretion Not recommended Recommended Not recommended Recommended Not recommended DEFINITIONS Windchill Fully dressed Partially dressed Extended breaks Stationary activity The cooling power of wind on exposed flesh expressed as an equivalent temperature under calm conditions. and drink hot liquids. 3 . gloves or trigger finger mittens (when available). and a pile cap. Maintaining a fixed position.PREVENTION OF COLD INJURIES DUE TO WINDCHILL When the windchill is— CAT I +32 to +1°F CAT II 0 to -5°F CAT III -6 to -10°F CAT IV Below -10°F And your training is— Stationary Physically active Stationary Physically active Stationary Physically active Discontinue outside training. Keep clothing and equipment as dry as possible. 6. Maintain food and fluid intake. 3. basic rifle marksmanship. Avoid prolonged exposure of unprotected skin to extreme cold and/or windy conditions (see page 4). Remove clothing layers. Eat hot meals. overshoes. field pants. Wearing gloves and a pile cap—no long underwear. A maximum of 20 minutes continuous training with interspersed 10-minute breaks to visit warming facilities and drink hot liquids. 4. Be aware that the risk of cold injury increases in wet weather or when wearing wet clothing. 7.

Do not walk on the foot. estimate them. the temperature that would cause the same rate of cooling under calm conditions.4275T(V0. 4.75(V0. and feels cold and stiff to the touch 1.6215T . 1. Prevent further cold exposure. Rewarm the injured site gradually by direct skin-to-skin contact or a modest heat source. 1.16) Where: T = air temperature (°F) and V = wind speed (mph) COLD INJURY SYMPTOMS COLD INJURY FIRST AID Hypothermia DANGER 1. 3. Temperature (°F) Calm 5 10 15 Wind (mph) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 40 36 34 32 30 29 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 35 31 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 19 18 17 30 25 21 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 10 25 19 15 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 20 13 9 6 4 3 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -4 15 7 3 0 -2 -4 -5 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -11 10 1 -4 -7 -9 -11 -12 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 5 -5 -10 -13 -15 -17 -19 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 0 -11 -16 -19 -22 -24 -26 -27 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -5 -16 -22 -26 -29 -31 -33 -34 -36 -37 -38 -39 -40 -10 -22 -28 -32 -35 -37 -39 -41 -43 -44 -45 -46 -48 -15 -28 -35 -39 -42 -44 -46 -48 -50 -51 -52 -54 -55 -20 -34 -41 -45 -48 -51 -53 -55 -57 -58 -60 -61 -62 -25 -40 -47 -51 -55 -58 -60 -62 -64 -65 -67 -68 -69 -30 -46 -53 -58 -61 -64 -67 -69 -71 -72 -74 -75 -76 -35 -52 -59 -64 -68 -71 -73 -76 -78 -79 -81 -82 -84 -40 -57 -66 -71 -74 -78 -80 -82 -84 -86 -88 -89 -91 -45 -63 -72 -77 -81 -84 -87 -89 -91 -93 -95 -97 -98 Frostbite Times: Little Danger 30 min 10 min 5 min Windchill (°F) = 35. 3. 4. Unconsciousness with nearly undetectable breathing and pulse This is a medical emergency. Evacuate for medical treatment.16) + 0. or tingling pain 2. Bizarre behavior 3. numbing.74 + 0. if not. blue. Remove wet and constrictive clothing. 3. turns grey or waxy white. 6. Prevent further cold exposure.WINDCHILL CHART Measure the temperature and wind speed if possible. Itching. Wind velocity can be caused by equipment and individual movement. Confusion 2. Frostbite Skin that is numb. Wash and dry the foot gently. Remove wet clothing. The intersection gives the approximate equivalent chill temperature—that is. Enter the table at the closest 5°F interval along the top. Feet that are swollen and turn faintly red. Evacuate for medical treatment. 5. Withdrawal from group interaction 4. 2. Prevent further cold exposure. 2. Trenchfoot 1. Elevate the foot. 7. 4. and follow it down to the appropriate wind speed along the left side. Do not massage the foot or expose it to extreme heat. warm clothing.35. and allow it to rewarm. Covering bare skin reduces the risk of cold injury. 2. Remove wet and constrictive clothing. Cover the foot with layers of loose. or black 4 . Rewarm by covering with blankets or sleeping bags.

INJURY PREVENTION FOR MOPP TRAINING MOPP Level MOPP Ready1 02 1 2 3 4 Mask Only 1 2 Protective Overgarment Readily available Readily available Worn Worn Worn Worn Readily available Protective Foot Covers Readily available Readily available Carried Worn Worn Worn Readily available Mask With Hood Carried Carried Carried Carried Worn Worn Carried Protective Gloves Readily available Readily available Carried Carried Carried Worn Readily available Individual Protective Equipment (IPE) must be available within 2 hours. 1. Remove and carry mask. and gloves. Remove and carry mask. area police. hood. WORK-REST CYCLES FOR MOPP TRAINING1 WBGT2 >78°F 70° to 78°F 50° to 70°F <50°F 1 Low Do not train in MOPP 4 No MOPP restrictions No MOPP restrictions No MOPP restrictions Moderate Do not train in MOPP 4 30 min/25 min3 40 min/20 min3 No MOPP restrictions Heavy Do not train in MOPP 4 Do not do heavy work 20 min/25 min3 No MOPP restrictions 2CBRN protective clothing 3The work-rest period. 2. Remove and carry mask. Open protective clothing and duty uniform. hood. and gloves. resting in place. 1. IPE must be within arm’s reach. dismounted drills. 2. Remove protective clothing. and carrying equipment heavier than 45 pounds. hood. This GTA will be used as a general guide only. Remove some protective clothing. Remove and carry mask. VARIATIONS OF MOPP Work Rate Low1 <50°F WBGT Wear full protective clothing and equipment. and gloves. and driving vehicles.4. litter bearing. 5 . bridge building. hood. Moderate2 Wear full protective clothing and equipment. 3Dismounted assault or force marching. 2. 70° to 78°F WBGT 1. adds 10°F to the measured WBGT. and gloves. Heavy3 1 Motorized movement or administrative work. Remove some protective clothing. very light digging. NOTE: Soldiers should drink at least 5 quarts of water per day when the WBGT is less than 80°F and 12 quarts per day when the WBGT is more than 80°F. Open and remove some protective clothing progressively. hood. patrolling or force marching carrying field gear. 50° to 70°F WBGT Open hood and clothing progressively. and gloves. Remove and carry mask. 2. 2. Remove and carry mask. cleaning weapons. Acclimatization to MOPP training and the physical condition of personnel are primary factors used when planning MOPP training exercises. Remove some protective clothing. 1. 2. and most work in administrative areas. classroom activities. hood. Permanent party MOPP training will be conducted using the guidance shown in FM 3-11. 1. 1. and gloves. 2Improving positions or bivouac sites.

Seek low-lying areas (valleys. Strong command and high degrees of discipline during training or war lessen the risks associated with OPTEMPO operations. weapons. it must be elevated to the next level in the chain of command. A matrix is one way of gauging the hazard. foxholes). or reduced ability to accomplish the mission. as is shown in the following pages of this GTA. internal hallway. it must be tailored to the unit and the mission. Step 4. 3. Keeping the standard and enforcing the standard will support boldness. 6. That means loss of combat power and valuable resources. protect the force from accidental losses. Control measures MUST be a part of the OPORD or FRAGO. Regardless of the method used. 3. Step 5. 5. shovels. and contribute to the decisive victory. Identify hazards. Avoid items of good conductivity (wire. Tornado 1. If there is not enough time to escape. Develop controls and make decisions. If you are in a building. ditches. Take cover inside grounded buildings if available. 2 Assess hazards Develop controls and make decisions 3 1 Identify hazards Implement controls 4 Supervise and evaluate 5 Step 1. Operations in war and in training will NEVER be risk free. covers. Leaders must know what all the hazards are and ensure that their Soldiers know the corrective measures to be taken. Avoid bare ridges on hilltops. Look for conditions that can lead to injury of Soldiers. equipment. and disperse personnel. 6 . antennas. Look for things that can keep you from reaching your objective with ALL of your combat power. move away from its path at a right angle. 2. The leader must eliminate unnecessary risks and reduce all other risks to an acceptable level. Once the potential problem areas have been identified. It is easily integrated into the decision-making process. lost materiel. Avoid tents and vehicles with cloth tops. If a risk cannot be reduced to an acceptable level. go to the basement or the lowest-level. If a tornado is sighted while on a range or in a training area. 7. Assess hazards. Controls are not add-on features. but are integrated throughout the order during the planning phase of the operation. RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS Risk management is a simple five-step problem-solving process based on standard Army decisionmaking techniques. determine to what extent they can affect the mission. Hazards are conditions that can lead to accidents. water. lie flat in the nearest depression. and radios). Implement controls. 2. The focus of risk management is on identifying hazards and developing and implementing controls. Stack weapons. 4. Step 2. Avoid standing under a single. tall tree or in water.PREVENTIVE ACTIONS IN ADVERSE WEATHER Lightning Storm 1. Step 3. damaged equipment. Supervise and evaluate.

When the risk is too great (potential resource losses exceed the benefits) for a decision at your level. Complete commander's estimate—analyze COAs and make a decision. KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A RISK AND A GAMBLE. compare. 4. Complete staff estimates— develop. published. Accept risk if benefits outweigh the potential losses. 2. Complete a risk assessment for each COA. Perform Risk Management Make a risk decision for the selected COA— accept the risk level or elevate the decision. Communicate and implement controls— integrate into paragraphs and graphics of the OPORD. restate the mission. A risk is a calculated action taken once all the known hazards are identified. Issue Plans/ orders Supervise—monitor and enforce controls. Audacity is bold action in concert with calculation of risk. 4. and issue planning guidance. 2. Boldness and force protection are both necessary for decisive victory. Integrate risk management into planning. and recommend a COA. Receive the mission. and executed. Prepare 7.RISK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION INTO DECISION MAKING Mission Risk Management Perform Risk Assessment Gather and analyze METT-TC factors to identify hazards. 6. Complete mission analysis. A gamble is an action taken without consideration to the possible outcome. 7 . Make risk decisions at the proper level. Identify hazards and controls early in the planning process. 5. Supervise RISK MANAGEMENT RULES 1. Accept no unnecessary risks. Concept of operations (make risk decision and select controls). Continue to look for hazards and controls as the plan is developed. 9. Identify and select controls for hazards. analyze. Gather and consider information. take it up the chain of command. 3. Use the risk level of each COA as a decision criterion. 5. Approve 8. 3. Decision Making 1.

8 .

Animal. Supervision (direct and indirect). HAZARD PROBABILITY Frequent S E V E R I T Y A Catastrophic Critical Moderate Negligible I II III IV Likely B Occasional C Seldom D Unlikely E Extremely high High Medium Low 9 . Physical fitness of personnel (potential heat. Convoy route (sufficient room for rest/halt areas). cold-weather. and so forth). Day versus night operations. quantity. Maintenance operational hazards. Long hours (inadequate sleep) and probability of fatigue (length of operations). hills. Terrain (rough. counterfratricide measures). Transportation to and from the operational site. Building conditions (fire hazards. and reptile hazards.FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN IDENTIFYING HAZARDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Time for mission preparation and execution. water temperature. such as instruction and safety briefings). with joint services. Water operational hazards (weak swimmers. insect. plant. Enemy. Intensity of operation (probability of taking shortcuts). Critical problem areas for accidents. Skill level of personnel (training. Personal attitudes (macho. congested. Weather (existing and forecast). and so forth). swamps). or lifting injuries). maintenance status. experience. structural integrity. poor/bad motivation. Competition for time (some activities may be considered unimportant. Hazardous material (fuel points. Equipment condition (age. Range operational hazards. degradation overtime. and so forth). between units. and so forth). and so forth). Road conditions (narrow. Speed limits. hilly. curvy. Cargo (type. Communication/coordination requirements (within units. Logistical support. security). ammunition supply. proficiency). slippery).

system loss. Continuously experiences exposure. 10 . Significantly degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standards. Possible to occur in career/equipment service life. Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission resources. Occurs sporadically or several times in inventory service life. lost workday accident. Can assume will not occur in career/ equipment service life. Minor injury. Remote chance of occurence. First aid or minor supportive medical treatment. expected to occur sometime in inventory service life.Risk Levels Extremely high High Medium Low Level of Risk Loss of ability to accomplish the mission. Little or no impact on mission accomplishment Authority to Accept Risk First GO in chain of command 05/06 level commanders As delegated by 05/06 commanders RISK MANAGEMENT HAZARD SEVERITY DEFINITIONS SEVERITY Catastrophic Critcal Moderate Negligible Death or permanent disability. Possible. temporary total disability in excess of 3 months. but not probable. Occurs sometimes in career/equipment service life. major system damage. significant property damage. compensable injury or illness. occurs only very rarely. minor system impairment PROBABILITY Individual Soldier/item FREQUENT All Soldiers exposed or item inventory Individual Soldier/item LIKELY All Soldiers exposed or item inventory Individual Soldier/item OCCASIONAL All Soldiers exposed or item inventory Individual Soldier/item SELDOM All Soldiers exposed or item inventory Individual Soldier/item UNLIKELY All Soldiers exposed or item inventory Occurs often in career/equipment service life. minor property damage. major property damage. Permanent partial disability. Occurs frequently. Occurs several times in career/equipment service life. minor system damage.

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