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word meaning indivisible. The Greek philosopher Democritus (460-370 BCE) maintained that all matter could be divided and sub-divided into smaller and smaller units, and eventually there would be a tiny particle that could not be divided any further - an atom. This was remarkable because there was no way ancient Greeks could support this theory by observation or experiment. John Dalton
John Dalton (1766-1844) Understanding of atoms didn’t progress much beyond Democritus’ theory until the English chemist John Dalton (1766-1844) started to look at it in the 1800s. Dalton did experiments, worked out some atomic weights, and invented symbols for atoms and molecules. His most important conclusions are summarised below.
Dalton's theories about atoms took a long time to be accepted by scientists. Some of his ideas about gases were incorrect, and it was difficult for many years to do the experiments needed to support his theories, because atoms are too small to see.
C1A AQA CHEMISTRY
Atoms and elements Although the word 'atom' comes from the Greek for indivisible, we now know that atoms are not the smallest particles of matter. Instead, they have a small central nucleus surrounded by even smaller particles called electrons.
The structure of the atom All substances are made from atoms. And, as Dalton suggested, any given element is made of atoms of just one particular sort. The atoms of any element are different from the atoms of any other element. So iron contains a different sort of atoms from those of sulphur, and the atoms in carbon are different from those of oxygen. Chemical symbols the atoms of each element are represented by chemical symbols. These usually consist of one or two different letters, but sometimes three letters are used for newly-discovered elements. The first letter in a chemical symbol is always an UPPERCASE letter, and the other letters are always lowercase. So, the symbol for magnesium is Mg and not mg, MG or mG. Every element has its own chemical symbol. For example, iron is Fe, sulphur is S, sodium is Na and oxygen is O. The periodic table There are more than 100 different elements. The periodic table is a chart showing all the elements arranged in a particular way. The
Reactions and compounds New substances are formed by chemical reactions.Na . Each group contains elements that have similar properties. For example. iron and sulphur (often spelt 'sulphur') react together to form a compound called iron sulphide (often spelt 'sulphide'). there are two sodium atoms for every oxygen atom. When elements react together to form compounds their atoms join to other atoms using chemical bonds. so we show its formula as FeS.while group 7 contains very reactive non-metals such as chlorine . Chemical bonds involve electrons from the reacting atoms. or Electrons are shared between two atoms. For example. Note that you will never find a compound in the periodic table. The periodic table The periodic table has eight main groups. and sodium and oxygen react together to form sodium oxide. so that one atom gives electrons and the other takes electrons. Bonds can form when: • • electrons are transferred from one atom to another. In sodium oxide.Cl. group 1 contains very reactive metals such as sodium . so we show its formula as GazaN 3 . For example. in iron sulphide every iron atom is joined to one sulphur atom. because these consist of two or more different elements joined together by chemical bonds. Chemical formulae The chemical formula of a compound shows how many of each type of atom join together to make the units that make the compound up.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY vertical columns in the periodic table are called groups.
we will get an unbalanced equation.but at the end of it they are joined differently from the way they were at the start. three oxygen atoms and three hydrogen atoms (the brackets show that the 3 applies to O and H).C1A AQA CHEMISTRY . Carbon dioxide units contain one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms Sometimes you see more complex formulae such as Na2SO4 and Fe(OH)3: • • A unit of Na2SO4 contains two sodium atoms. one sulphur atom and four oxygen atoms joined together. For example. A unit of Fe(OH)3 contains one iron atom.the reactants . Copper and oxygen reaction . so Na2O would be wrong.the products. as shown here: Cu + O2 CuO GazaN 4 . Notice that the 2 is written as a subscript.getting a balanced equation We use balanced equations to show what happens to the different atoms in reactions.Na2O. and copper oxide is the product. Take a look at the word equation for the reaction. The diagram below shows that one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms combine to make up the units of carbon dioxide . copper and oxygen react together to make copper oxide. If we just replace the words shown above by the correct chemical formulae. Equations When elements are joined to cause a chemical reaction. here: copper + oxygen copper oxide You can see that copper and oxygen are the reactants. This means that the mass of the substances at the start .its chemical formula should therefore be written as CO2. no atoms are made or lost during the process .is the same as the mass of the substances at the end .
Alkanes The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula. Two atoms of copper react with two atoms of oxygen to form two units of copper oxide Fuels from crude oil Crude oil is a mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons. This matches what happens in the reaction. we need to adjust the number of units of some of the substances until we get equal numbers of each type of atom on both sides of the arrow. It can be separated into different fractions using fractional distillation. Here is the balanced symbol equation: 2Cu + O2 2CuO You can see that now we have two copper atoms and two oxygen atoms on each side. Many useful materials can be produced from crude oil. but most of the ones in crude oil are alkanes.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Notice that we have unequal numbers of each type of atom on the lefthand side compared with the right-hand side. and some of these can be used as fuels. There are different types of hydrocarbon. joined together by chemical bonds. Hydrocarbons and alkanes Hydrocarbons Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons. This means that they only contain hydrogen and carbon atoms. Unfortunately. there are environmental consequences when fossil fuels such as crude oil and its products are used. This is: CnH2n+2 GazaN 5 . To make things equal.
plus two. Large hydrocarbons with many carbon atoms have high boiling points and are solids. methane is CH4 and ethane is C2H6. and can be either solid. liquid or gas at room temperature: • • • Small hydrocarbons with only a few carbon atoms have low boiling points and are gases. Distillation GazaN 6 . For example. Alkane molecules can be represented by displayed formulae in which each atom is shown as its symbol (C or H) and the chemical bonds between them by a straight line. Boiling point and state at room temperature Hydrocarbons have different boiling points. Notice that the molecular models on the right show that the bonds are not really at 90° Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY The general formula means that the number of hydrogen atoms in an alkane is double the number of carbon atoms. which we call burning or combustion. Hydrocarbons with between five and 12 carbon atoms are usually liquids. This means that their carbon atoms are joined to each other by single bonds. apart from their reaction with oxygen in the air. This makes them relatively unreactive.
the liquids in the middle and the solids stay at the bottom. with several condensers coming off at different heights. Fractional distillation of crude oil Because they have different boiling points. the substances in crude oil can be separated using fractional distillation. The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Distillation is a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. Oil fractions The diagram below summarises the main fractions from crude oil and their uses. The mixture is heated in a flask. The thermometer shows the boiling point of the pure ethanol liquid. A tall column is fitted above the mixture. called fractions. The ethanol vapour is then cooled and condensed inside the condenser to form a pure liquid. Each fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms. This is the sequence of events in distillation: heating evaporating cooling condensing Fractional distillation Fractional distillation differs from distillation only in that it separates a mixture into a number of different parts. GazaN 7 . The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column. Distillation is commonly used to separate ethanol (the alcohol in alcoholic drinks) from water. and the trends in properties. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with low boiling points condense at the top. When all the ethanol has evaporated from the solution. Note that the gases condense at the top of the column. fractional distillation works because the different substances in the mixture have different boiling points. It works when the liquids have different boiling points. Like distillation. the temperature rises and the water evaporates. Ethanol has a lower boiling point than water so it evaporates first.
Hydrocarbons with small molecules make better fuels than hydrocarbons with large molecules because they are volatile. fuel oil. diesel oil. These fractions are mainly used as fuels. H2O. is an oxide of hydrogen). kerosene. naphtha. gasoline (petrol). The hydrogen in hydrocarbons is oxidised to water (remember that water. although they do have other uses too. we get complete combustion and the carbon in hydrocarbons is oxidised to carbon dioxide: hydrocarbon + oxygen water + carbon dioxide GazaN 8 . Combustion of fuels Complete combustion Fuels burn when they react with oxygen in the air.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY The main fractions include refinery gases. and a residue that contains bitumen. flow easily and are easily ignited. If there is plenty of air.
choking smell. Particles of carbon. including: • • • • • water vapour carbon dioxide carbon monoxide particles sulphur dioxide These products may be harmful to the environment. Effects of acid rain Acid rain reacts with metals and rocks such as limestone. The hydrogen is still oxidised to water. This is called acid rain. but instead of carbon dioxide we get carbon monoxide. we get incomplete combustion instead. When the fuel burns. They may die as a GazaN 9 . are also released. Clouds of smoke and other combustion products are emitted from chimneys Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide is produced when fuels that contain sulphur compounds burn. Summary the combustion of a fuel may release several gases into the atmosphere. Acid rain damages the waxy layer on the leaves of trees and makes it more difficult for trees to absorb the minerals they need for healthy growth. the sulphur it contains is oxidised to sulphur dioxide. it makes the rain more acidic than normal. Sulphur Most hydrocarbon fuels naturally contain some sulphur compounds. seen as soot or smoke. Buildings and statues are damaged as a result.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Incomplete combustion if there is insufficient air for complete combustion. It is a gas with a sharp. When sulphur dioxide dissolves in water droplets in clouds.
This can be used to make plasterboard for lining interior walls. This happens in power stations. GazaN 10 . The sulphur dioxide is treated with powdered limestone to form calcium sulphate. a process capable of changing the world’s climate significantly. so turning a harmful product into a useful one. Global warming Carbon dioxide from burning fuels causes global warming. You may have noticed ‘low sulphur’ petrol and diesel on sale at filling stations. Reducing acid rain Sulphur dioxide can be removed from waste gases after combustion of the fuel. Sulphur can be removed from fuels at the oil refinery. Acid rain also makes rivers and lakes too acidic for some aquatic life to survive. but it prevents sulphur dioxide being produced. This makes the fuel more expensive to produce.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY result.
causing increased coastal erosion and flooding of low-lying land – including land where major cities lie. and so has the average global temperature. the more heat energy is absorbed and the hotter the Earth becomes. the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased steadily over the past 150 years.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY As you can see from the graphs. Melting of polar ice caps will raise sea levels. GazaN 11 . Effects of global warming A rise of just a few degrees in world temperatures will have a dramatic impact on the climate: • • Global weather patterns will change. It absorbs heat energy and prevents it escaping from the Earth’s surface into space. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. The greater the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. causing drought in some places and flooding in others.
When it is heated. and they also cause more water droplets to form in the clouds. it breaks down to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. The amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface has decreased by about 2 per cent every ten years. There is the possibility that as the air becomes less polluted by smoke and soot. including being used to make mortar. It is likely that global dimming has hidden some of the effects of global warming. Here are the equations for the thermal decomposition of copper carbonate: copper carbonate heat copper oxide + carbon dioxide GazaN 12 . Limestone Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate. this process may change rainfall patterns around the world. concrete and glass Thermal decomposition Metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate break down when heated strongly. Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Global dimming Tiny particles that are released when fuels are burned cause global dimming. because more sunlight is being reflected back into space. Like global warming. cement. Limestone and its products have many uses. by stopping some of the Sun’s energy reaching the Earth’s surface in the first place. CaCO3. Governments around the world are introducing controls on pollution. This is called thermal decomposition. Here are the equations for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate: calcium carbonate CaCO3 heat heat calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaO + CO2 Other metal carbonates decompose in the same way. global dimming will decrease. This makes the clouds better at reflecting sunlight back into space. causing the effects of global warming to become more obvious. The particles from burning fuels reflect sunlight.
have carbonates that need a lot of energy to decompose them. This is why copper carbonate is often used at school to show these reactions. The carbon dioxide gas can be detected using limewater.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY heat CuCO3 CuO + CO2 Notice that in both examples the products are a metal oxide and carbon dioxide. Here are the equations for this reaction: calcium carbonate heat calcium oxide + carbon dioxide GazaN 13 .such as copper . Limewater turns cloudy white when carbon dioxide is bubbled through it.have carbonates that are easily decomposed. is easy to see Copper carbonate decomposes to form copper oxide and carbon dioxide when heated Quicklime and slaked lime For your exam. it breaks down to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. It is easily decomposed. Calcium oxide is also called quicklime. but white when cold. It is yellow when hot. Making quicklime If limestone is heated strongly.such as calcium . from green copper carbonate to black copper oxide. Metals high up in the reactivity series . you need to know how quicklime and slaked lime are obtained from limestone. Metals low down in the reactivity series . and its colour change.
Quicklime (calcium oxide) Making slaked lime Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide. which may even cause the water to boil.which may be caused by acid rain . quicklime and slaked lime are all used to neutralise excess acidity .in lakes and in soils. Here are the equations for this reaction: calcium oxide + water CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide A lot of heat is produced in the reaction.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY CaCO3 heat CaO + CO2 This is a thermal decomposition reaction. this is what happens: limestone heat quicklime + carbon dioxide slaked lime quicklime + water Uses of limestone Limestone. also called slaked lime. Slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) Summary Using common names instead of chemical names. GazaN 14 .
The calcium carbonate decomposes in the heat to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. and to purify iron in blast furnaces. About 90 per cent of glass is soda-lime glass. to reduce the melting temperature of the sand and so save energy. but this makes the glass soluble in water. Calcium carbonate (limestone) is therefore also added. Glass manufacturers add sodium carbonate to sand during the manufacturing process. The sodium carbonate decomposes in the heat to form sodium oxide and carbon dioxide. social and economic considerations GazaN 15 . It's also used in the manufacture of glass. Glass Glass is made by melting sand and then cooling it. Environmental. Flat sheets of glass for windows are made by floating molten glass on a layer of molten tin. to stop the glass dissolving in water. and of cement (one of the components of concrete).C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Limestone is used as a building material. or bottle glass. The flow chart below summarises the main uses of limestone and its products.
but toughened glass can be used for windows. It is strong when squashed. and this acid rain makes these problems worse. used to make things such as glass and concrete. However.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY The limestone industry You need to be able to evaluate some of the effects of the limestone industry. Quarrying is a heavy industry that creates noise and heavy traffic. Glass is usually brittle and easily shattered. Some people think that concrete buildings and bridges are unattractive. and it leaves gaps between bricks in buildings. Disadvantages Limestone quarries are visible from long distances and may permanently disfigure the local environment. concrete can be made much stronger by reinforcing it with steel. Limestone quarrying provides employment opportunities that support the local economy in towns around the quarry. but weak when bent or stretched. Here are the main ones: Benefits Limestone is a valuable natural resource. Advantages and disadvantages of various building materials Limestone. and wear away. This damages walls made from limestone. GazaN 16 . cement and mortar slowly react with carbon dioxide dissolved in rainwater. These gaps must be filled in or “pointed”. which damages people's quality of life. Pollution from burning fossil fuels makes the rain more acidic than it should be. buildings with lots of glass can be too hot in the summer. Concrete is easily formed into different shapes before it sets hard. While glass is transparent and so lets light into a building.
For example. To be useful. iron oxide and aluminium oxide. Most everyday metals are mixtures called alloys. The method used to extract metals from the ore in which they are found depends on their reactivity. the metals have to be extracted from whatever they are mixed with. or a metal compound. Ores are naturally occurring rocks that contain metal or metal compounds in sufficient amounts to make it worthwhile extracting them. Methods of extracting metals The Earth's crust contains metals and metal compounds such as gold. For example. but when found in the Earth these are often mixed with other substances. reactive metals such as aluminium are extracted by electrolysis. Copper is easily extracted. Aluminium and titanium are metals with useful properties. A metal ore is a rock containing a metal. iron ore is used to make iron and steel.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Metals Metals are very useful. while a less-reactive metal such as iron may be extracted by reduction with carbon or carbon monoxide. but they are expensive to extract. in a high enough concentration to make it economic to extract the metal. GazaN 17 . but ores rich in copper are becoming more difficult to find.
Making iron In the blast furnace Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Thus the method of extraction of a metal from its ore depends on the metal's position in the reactivity series: potassium sodium calcium extract by electrolysis magnesium aluminium carbon zinc iron tin lead hydrogen copper silver gold platinum extracted by various chemical reactions extract by reaction with carbon or carbon monoxide Reactivity and extraction method Note that gold. Iron ores such as haematite contain iron oxide. chemical reactions may be needed to remove other elements that might contaminate the metal. Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called reduction reactions. GazaN 18 . is found as the native metal and not as a compound. However. because it is so unreactive. The oxygen must be removed from the iron oxide to leave the iron behind. so it does not need to be chemically separated.
In the blast furnace.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Blast furnace in a modern steel works Carbon is more reactive than iron. the iron oxide is reduced to iron. and the carbon is oxidised to carbon dioxide. it is so hot that carbon monoxide can be used to reduce the iron oxide in place of carbon: iron oxide + carbon monoxide Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2 iron + carbon dioxide GazaN 19 . Here are the equations for the reaction: iron oxide + carbon 2Fe2O3 + 3C iron + carbon dioxide 4Fe + 3CO2 In this reaction. so it can push out or displace the iron from iron oxide.
It is hard. Layers of atoms slide over each other when metals are bent or stretched Iron from the blast furnace is an alloy of about 96 per cent iron with carbon and some other impurities. Pure iron is too soft for many uses.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Raw materials for the reaction The table shows the raw materials for extracting iron and their function in the process. This is because its atoms are arranged in a regular way that lets layers of atoms slide over each other. and reacts to form carbon monoxide (needed to reduce the iron oxide) helps to remove acidic impurities from the iron by reacting with them to form molten slag allows the coke to burn. Raw material Contains iron ore (haematite) coke iron oxide carbon calcium carbonate oxygen Function a compound that contains iron burns in air to produce heat. and so produces heat and carbon monoxide limestone air Steel Iron Pure iron is soft and easily shaped. but too brittle for most GazaN 20 .
A mixture of two or more elements. Enough oxygen is used to achieve steel with the desired carbon content. depending on the other elements mixed with the iron. There are many different types of steel. The table summarises the properties of some different steels. most iron from the blast furnace is converted into steel by removing some of the carbon.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY uses.25 per cent carbon up to 2. Alloys contain atoms of different sizes. This makes it more difficult for the layers to slide over each other. So. Type of steel low carbon steel high carbon steel Iron alloyed with: about 0. Other metals are often added. Steel Carbon is removed by blowing oxygen into the molten metal. such as carbon. These escape from the molten metal. is called an alloy. GazaN 21 . It reacts with the carbon producing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.5 per cent carbon Properties easily shaped hard resistant to corrosion Typical use car body panels cutting tools cutlery and sinks stainless steel chromium and nickel Alloys The properties of a metal are changed by including other elements. which distort the regular arrangements of atoms. where at least one element is a metal. so alloys are harder than the pure metal. such as vanadium and chromium.
The transition metals are found in the large block between Groups 2 and 3 in the periodic table. 18 carat gold. GazaN 22 . they have higher melting points (but mercury is a liquid at room temperature) and they are hard and tough. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are less reactive than alkali metals such as sodium. including iron. copper and nickel. They can be hammered or bent into shape easily. is 75 per cent gold and 25 per cent copper and other metals. used in aircraft manufacture. gold and aluminium are too soft for many uses. For example: • • • Brass. used in jewellery. They form coloured compounds. The transition metals (in blue) Common properties The transition metals have these properties in common: • • • • • They are metals. Duralumin. Most metals are placed here. is 96 per cent aluminium and 4 per cent copper and other metals The transition metals You need to know where to find the transition metals in the periodic table. is 70 per cent copper and 30 per cent zinc. used in electrical fittings. titanium. They are mixed with other metals to make them harder for everyday use.C1A AQA CHEMISTRY It is more difficult for layers of atoms to slide over each other in alloys Copper.
C1A AQA CHEMISTRY • They have high densities. such as copper sulphate (sometimes spelt sulphate). Copper does not react with water. It is soft. Research is being carried out to find new ways to extract copper from the remaining ores. Copper Copper is a transition metal. They are useful for spectacle frames and dental braces. which means that they contain relatively little copper and produce a lot of waste rock. saucepans and cooking foil. Pure copper forms on the negative electrode. so aluminium and titanium resist corrosion. as traditional mining produces huge open-cast mines. Copper is purified by electrolysis. A cross section of aluminium that shows the outer layer of oxide Aluminium is used for aircraft. This means that they are lightweight for their size. overhead power cables. trains. They also have a very thin layer of their oxides on the surface. Electricity is passed through solutions containing copper compounds. without harming the environment too much. Smart alloys can return to their original shape after being bent. and the remaining ores are low-grade. which makes it useful for plumbing. GazaN 23 . Problems we are running out of ores rich in copper. This research is very important. Titanium is used for fighter aircraft. These properties make the two metals very useful. which stops air and water getting to the metal. Aluminium and titanium Aluminium and titanium are two metals with a low density. easily bent and it is a good conductor of electricity. This makes copper useful for electrical wiring. artificial hip joints and pipes in nuclear power stations.
Recycling preserves limited resources and requires less energy. so the reaction does not work. Titanium forms titanium carbide with carbon. so it causes less damage to the environment. which makes the metal brittle. GazaN 24 .C1A AQA CHEMISTRY Extraction Unlike iron. aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon: • • Aluminium is more reactive than carbon. Aluminium extraction is expensive because the process needs a lot of electrical energy. Recycling Aluminium is extensively recycled because less energy is needed to produce recycled aluminium than to extract aluminium from its ore. Titanium extraction is expensive because the process involves several stages and a lot of energy. This especially limits the uses of titanium.