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BIBLIOTHECA MATHEMATICA 1A Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 1 ited withthe enoperation of HH oRNTROW He ,MATHEM ‘THE, WISKUNDIG GENOOTSCIEAP Pitre 8. 6, we Baers , vas Davee | INTRODUCTION TO METAMATHEMATICS COLE KLEENE SH-HOLLAND PUBLISHING CO. P, NOORDHO¥E NV. — GRON tatraduction to Metamathematies” by S, C, Kesens i aso ‘published by D. van Nostrand Company Ine. New York, as @ vlnme Ta the University Series in Higher Mathematics his boo any pts ret eb ep ay form ion rite, ‘Sci om eter a fe poser. PREFACE py soecenivo eras of investigations ofthe foundation of mathematics n'y hineteenthcentsy. culminating in the theory of sts and the inf Gato of analy Jed around 1500 to a new eis, and a new arated by the programs of Rasall and Whitehead of Fiber ad of Brauer. prenmrcarance in 1981 of Glel's to incompleteness theorems, in 1980 0 Tara's work onthe concapt of truth in formalized languages, ie ofthe Herbrand- Gide notion of ‘general recursive function ven 1086 of Church’ thes of eoneeming i, inaugurate a tll never ana hich mathematical tol are being apie both to evalating the ‘Sir proerans and in unforeseen directions, “The him af this book i to provide a connected introduction to the aes of mathematical loge and rcsesive functions in particular, and fb the newer foundational investigations in general, se sleton was necessary. The main eco hasbeen to concentrate atte Pre Ton the etamathematical investigation f elementary number fhooy with the requisite mathernatial lg, leaving aside the higher odieate exe, analysis, type theory and set theony. This ehoie was Jae besos in umber theory one ds theft and simplest exemple ration nf the newer methods and conecpt,altbough the extension to fother branches of nathematies ie well under way and promises to be Treseasingly important Sn he immediate future “The book is writen tobe usable ata textbook by fist year graduate stants in mathematics (and above) and others at tat level of mathe te cy, eet of th none of any athe ‘atl sbject matter. Tn wing the book a textbook, ii intended that Pst I (Chapters LIih, which provides the neee=wary background, should be eovered api (nto or three weeks by a elas meting the times a week. The fntesve stady should tgin with Pact TE (Chapter TV), where i «= ‘sential that the student conesteate upon acting « firm grasp of erathemieal snethod The stared sctions can be omitted ona fst reading o examined ia ‘scutsry manner. Sometimes i wil then benscesary latrto go backand ‘ody an ear starred section (og. § 57 ell have to be sued fr §72, ‘Gus two famous incorpletenes theorems ae reached in Chapter ‘VI Teasing ana to be proved i Chapter The author has found It fests to complete these fen chapters (and sometimes ait more ; =~) q sec eh gt tthe | Bee Cre "The cemainin five chapters canbe asd to extend such a course toa year course, oras collateral reading to arcompaay a sina. eee cece or ouer ‘A semester court on cursive fanetions for students having some pion scsuaintance with mathematieal lg, or under an tstrcter wth Sch | Cyapren 1, THE THEORY OF SETS e Settnintanes, could start with Part IIL (Chapter IX). There are other)" ¢ |Enumerabe cts 5 eatin foracleting watral;eg. nacho Part IVcanaiow diely |} 3° Cantor's diagonal method 0 Part Il or even Chapter VII for students primary intersted io mathe: |S Coal number fe ‘mate lg |=} 4. The equivalence theorem, finite wa infinite sets i “The auth i indebted to Saunders MacLane for encouraging him to | 4 §) Higher taste cardinals H write this book and for valuable eri of an easly draft of several cece he don read the etre fest pre’ sproot with ereatcae, | Gu smrpy 1, SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS : Sndependantly of the author. Among many aters who have bees of 35 ary Beth, Robert Breach, Arend Herting, Nesey Klee. Ye ie min! amc : 4 Teonerd Lisa, David Nelson, James Renn and Geoe Rose. Scentiie 1 7, Mathematea! incon 2 indebtedness is uckaowledged by eferencesto the Bibliography especially fg2 Specs of she m ‘tensive sat as been mate of Hilbert and Berayy” Grundlagen det Nee hry win zB Sno in tw volumes 134s 2959 a 6.6 Kussse | CHMPrm II, ACRITIQUE OF MATHEMATICAL REASONING 36 S11. The pardons 3% {12 Bis interes om ie pdeses ° } fio nmin “ [ie Tomton S ] He Formalin ora tery 5 Pagr Il. MATHEMATICAL LOGIC | Gianen IV. A FORMAL SYSTEM. ° Ef 16. Formal symbols 8 187 Ronnation rues 2 {18 Free and bound vides % $19. Transformation rales =