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Pumps & Pumping Systems-general

Pumps & Pumping Systems-general

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Sections

  • Positive Displacement: Reciprocating
  • Positive Displacement: Reciprocating (plunger)
  • Positive Displacement: Rotary
  • Positive Displacement: Rotary
  • Centrifugal Pump Symbols
  • Comparisons: Centrifugal
  • Centrifugal Pumps
  • Moving Gases
  • Fan Impellers
  • Two-lobe Blower
  • Reciprocating Compressor
  • Pump Curves
  • Pump Curve
  • NPSH and Cavitation
  • NPSH
  • Outline
  • Piping and Pumping Learning Objectives
  • References
  • Pipe Routing
  • Pipe Routing Exercise
  • Size the Pump
  • Optimum Pipe Diameter
  • Example
  • Using Velocity Guidelines
  • Practice Problem
  • Piping Guidelines
  • Calculating the Pressure Drop through a Pipe Run
  • Loss Due to Fittings
  • Find the Pressure Drop
  • Estimating Pipe Costs
  • Regulating Flow from Centrifugal Pumps
  • Typical Installation
  • Designing Pump Installations

TOPIC :PUMPING SYSTEM (OIL TANKER

)
MODULE 1 :PUMPS & PUMPING SYSTEMS
Pumps & Pumping Systems

Presentation from the
“Energy Efficiency Guide for
Industry”

2

© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Pumps
Introduction
Type of pumps
Assessment of pumps
Energy efficiency opportunities
INTRODUCTION
• PUMPING SYSTEM ACCOUNTS FOR NEARLY 20% OF THE WORLD’S
ELECTRICAL ENERGY DEMAND
PURPOSE OF PUMPS
 Transfer of liquid from one place to another place
 Circulate liquid around a system e.g. cooling & lubrication pumps

MAIN COMPONENTS OF PUMPING SYSTEMS
 PUMPS
 PRIME MOVERS
 PIPING
 VALVES
 PUMP & PIPE FITTINGS , INTRUMENTATION & CONTROLS
 END USE EQUIPMENTS
4

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
• 20% of world’s electrical energy
demand
• 25-50% of energy usage in some
industries
• Used for
• Domestic, commercial, industrial and
agricultural services
• Municipal water and wastewater services
What are Pumping Systems
5

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
Objective of pumping system
What are Pumping Systems
(US DOE, 2001)
• Transfer liquid
from source to
destination
• Circulate liquid
around a system
6

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
• Main pump components
• Pumps
• Prime movers: electric motors, diesel engines,
air system
• Piping to carry fluid
• Valves to control flow in system
• Other fittings, control, instrumentation
• End-use equipment
• Heat exchangers, tanks, hydraulic machines
What are Pumping Systems
7

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
• Head
• Resistance of the system
• Two types: static and friction

• Static head
• Difference in height between
source and destination
• Independent of flow
Pumping System Characteristics
destination
source
Static
head
Static
head
Flow
8

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
• Static head consists of
• Static suction head (hS): lifting liquid relative to
pump center line
• Static discharge head (hD) vertical distance
between centerline and liquid surface in
destination tank
• Static head at certain pressure
Pumping System Characteristics
Head (in feet) = Pressure (psi) X 2.31
Specific gravity
9

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
• Friction head
• Resistance to flow in pipe and fittings
• Depends on size, pipes, pipe fittings, flow
rate, nature of liquid
• Proportional to square of flow rate
• Closed loop system
only has friction head
(no static head)
Pumping System Characteristics
Friction
head
Flow
10

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
In most cases:
Total head = Static head + friction head
Pumping System Characteristics
System
head
Flow
Static head
Friction
head
System
curve
System
head
Flow
Static head
Friction
head
System
curve
11

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
Pump performance curve
• Relationship between
head and flow
• Flow increase
• System resistance increases
• Head increases
• Flow decreases to zero
• Zero flow rate: risk of
pump burnout
Pumping System Characteristics
Head
Flow
Performance curve for
centrifugal pump
12

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
Pump operating point
Pumping System Characteristics
• Duty point: rate
of flow at certain
head
• Pump operating
point:
intersection of
pump curve and
system curve
Flow
Head
Static
head
Pump performance
curve
System
curve
Pump
operating
point
13

© UNEP 2006
Introduction
Pump suction performance (NPSH)
• Cavitation or vaporization: bubbles inside pump
• If vapor bubbles collapse
• Erosion of vane surfaces
• Increased noise and vibration
• Choking of impeller passages
• Net Positive Suction Head
• NPSH Available: how much pump suction
exceeds liquid vapor pressure
• NPSH Required: pump suction needed to avoid
cavitation
Pumping System Characteristics
CARGO PUMPING SYSTEM
1. WORKING PRINCIPLES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PUMPS AND THEIR USES

2. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

3. DESCRIPTION AND CHARATERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

4. DESCRIPTION OF FRAMO PUMP

5. PIPING SYSTEM FOR OIL TANKERS – DIRECT SYSTEM , RING MAIN SYSTEM , CRUCIFORM
SYSTEM , FREE FLOW SYSTEM

6. DISCUSSION/EXPLANATION OF ACTUAL PIPING SYSTEM OF AN OIL TANKER

7. LOADING & DISCHARGING PROCEDURES FOR AN OIL TANKER

8. STRIPPING SYSTEM , VAC-STRIP/CENTI-STRIP SYSTEM

9. PARALLEL/SERIES RUNNING OF PUMPS , EFFECT OF SHORE CHARACTERISTICS ON PUMPING
RATE

10. CARGO HEATING SYSTEM AND REQUIREMENT
15

© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Pumps
Introduction
Type of pumps
Assessment of pumps
Energy efficiency opportunities
TYPES OF PUMPS
PUMPS
ROTODYNAMIC
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
CENTRIFUGAL OTHER ROTARY
RECIPROCATING
GEAR
PUMP
SCREW
PUMP
VANE
PUMP
LOBE
PUMP
PISTON
PUMP
DIAPHRAGM
PUMP
PROGRESSIVE
CAVITY PUMP
PERISTALTIC
PUMP
EDUCTOR-JET
PUMP
AXIAL PISTON
PUMP
RADIAL
PISTON
PUMP
SOLENOID
PUMP
17

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Classified by operating principle
Pump Classification
Dynamic
Positive
Displacement
Centrifugal Special effect Rotary Reciprocating
Internal
gear
External
gear
Lobe
Slide
vane
Others (e.g.
Impulse, Buoyancy)
Pumps
Dynamic
Positive
Displacement
Centrifugal Special effect Rotary Reciprocating
Internal
gear
External
gear
Lobe
Slide
vane
Others (e.g.
Impulse, Buoyancy)
Pumps
18

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Positive Displacement Pumps
• For each pump revolution
• Fixed amount of liquid taken from one end
• Positively discharged at other end
• If pipe blocked
• Pressure rises
• Can damage pump
• Used for pumping fluids other than
water
19

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Positive Displacement Pumps
• Reciprocating pump
• Displacement by reciprocation of piston
plunger
• Used only for viscous fluids and oil wells
• Rotary pump
• Displacement by rotary action of gear, cam or
vanes
• Several sub-types
• Used for special services in industry
20

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Dynamic pumps
• Mode of operation
• Rotating impeller converts kinetic energy
into pressure or velocity to pump the fluid
• Two types
• Centrifugal pumps: pumping water in
industry – 75% of pumps installed
• Special effect pumps: specialized conditions
21

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
How do they work?
(Sahdev M)
• Liquid forced into
impeller
• Vanes pass kinetic
energy to liquid: liquid
rotates and leaves
impeller
• Volute casing converts
kinetic energy into
pressure energy
22

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
Rotating and stationary components
(Sahdev)
23

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
Impeller
Sahdev)
• Main rotating part that provides centrifugal
acceleration to the fluid
• Number of impellers = number of pump stages
• Impeller classification: direction of flow, suction type
and shape/mechanical construction
Shaft
• Transfers torque from motor to impeller during pump
start up and operation
24

© UNEP 2006
Type of Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
Casings
Volute Casing (Sahdev)
• Functions
• Enclose impeller as “pressure vessel”
• Support and bearing for shaft and impeller
• Volute case
• Impellers inside casings
• Balances hydraulic pressure on pump shaft
• Circular casing
• Vanes surrounds impeller
• Used for multi-stage pumps
WORKING PRINCIPLES
 Liquid is taken from one end and positively discharged at the other end for every
revolution.
 Positive displacement pumps are widely used for pumping fluids other than water,
mostly viscous fluids.
 Fixed quantity of liquid is pumped after each revolution. So if the delivery pipe is
blocked, the pressure rises to a very high value, which can damage the pump.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP
ROTO-DYNAMIC PUMP
Liquid is forced into the impeller either by atmospheric pressure or by static head
The vanes of impeller pass kinetic energy to the liquid, thereby causing the liquid to
rotate. The liquid leaves the impeller at high velocity.
The impeller is surrounded by a volute casing or in case of a turbine pump a
stationary diffuser ring. The volute or stationary diffuser ring converts the kinetic
energy into pressure energy.
Positive Displacement Pumps
To move fluids positive displacement pumps admit a fixed volume of
liquid from the inlet into a chamber and eject it into the discharge.

Positive displacement pumps are used when higher head increases are
required. Generally they do not increase velocity.

Positive Displacement:
Reciprocating
• Piston: up to 50 atm
• Plunger: up to 1,500 atm
• Diaphragm: up to 100 atm, ideal for
corrosive fluids
• Efficiency 40-50% for small pumps, 70-
90% for large pumps
Positive Displacement:
Reciprocating (plunger)
Positive Displacement:
Rotary
• Gear, lobe, screw, cam, vane
• For viscous fluids up to 200 atm
• Very close tolerances
Positive Displacement: Rotary
GEAR PUMP
INTERNAL GEAR PUMP
Two gears coming out of mesh creates vacuum causing
inflow of process liquid while on the other end two
gears coming into mesh squeeze out the liquid forcing it
out into the piping
Lubrication of gears is by the process liquid itself
Used for pumping of viscous liquids
Onboard use is for pumping of Fuel oil , Diesel Oil &
Lube Oil

LOBE PUMP
Two lobes coming out of mesh creates vacuum causing
inflow of process liquid on suction side
Two lobes coming into mesh squeeze out the liquid
forcing it out into the piping on the discharge side
Usually use timing gear for driving the driven lobe shaft
Lubrication of gears is by the process liquid itself
Used for pumping of viscous liquids
Could be bi-lobe or multi-lobe design
Onboard use is in usually in flowmeters
Working Principle of Tri-lobe pump
33
GEAR PUMP
VANE PUMP
Vanes move in and out on the machined slots inside the eccentric rotor
inside the circular casing
Vane moving outwards creates increase in volume of vane chamber
causing inflow of liquid through suction ports
Vane moving in creates decrease in volume of vane chamber causing
squeezing out of liquid through discharge ports
Sealing & lubrication between the vane tips & casing is by the process
liquid
Can be used as Variable Displacement Pumps
Lubrication of gears is by the process liquid itself
Used for pumping of viscous liquids
35
VANE PUMP
SCREW PUMP
Twin screw & tri-screw pumps are quite common
Driven screw could be direct driven or timing gear
driven
Screws coming out of mesh create vacuum causing
inflow of liquid on suction side
Screws coming into mesh cause squeezing out of the
liquid on the discharge side
Lubrication & sealing between the moving screws &
casing is caused by the process liquid
Used for pumping viscous liquid
Used as Main Lube Oil Pumps onboard
PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP
Also called eccentric screw pump , or cavity pump
Transfers fluid by means of the progress, through the pump, of a
sequence of small, fixed shape, discrete cavities, as its rotor is turned.
Volumetric flow rate is proportional to the rotation
Used in fluid metering and pumping of viscous or shear sensitive
materials.
Rotor is made of high alloy stainless steel , while stator(casing) is
made of hardened rubber
Rotor is attached to the drive shaft through universal coupling
Used as sludge and bilge pump onboard

RECIPROCATING PISTON PUMP
Reciprocating piston causes suction and discharge alternately
Pump could be single acting or double acting
Flow is pulsating , accumulator is used on the discharge side
to smoothen the pulsating pressure
Intake stroke : Suction valves are opened, and fluid is drawn
into the cylinder
Discharge stroke : Suction valves close, the discharge valves
open, and fluid is forced out of the cylinder.
Double acting pump is of crosshead type
Slow speed and low capacity pump
Used as Bilge pump and OWS pump
COMPONENTS OF RECIPROCATING PUMP
TWO STAGE
RECIPROCATING PUMP





RECIPROCATING CAM PUMP
Eccentric cam pushes the plunger up to create a
discharge .
Discharge check valve opens and suction side check
valve closes
Spring pushes the plunger down to create suction .
Suction check valve open and discharge side check
valve closes
Commonly used as cylinder lubricator pump onboard
SINGLE ACTING DIAPHRAGMPUMP
Basically a single acting plunger pump
Diaphragm is actuated by trapped liquid between the plunger and the diaphragm
Both the suction and discharge sides have check valves
Both the suction and discharge sides have diaphragm dampers (accumulators)
DOUBLE ACTING PUMP
Double acting reciprocating twin-diaphragm pump
Pneumatically operated pump commonly known as
Wilden pump
Inner side of the diaphragm chamber comes in
contact with air
Outer side of the diaphragm chamber handles
process liquid
Driving air inlet and exhaust is controlled by a
control valve
Control valve shifts with diaphragm movement
towards the end of the stroke which reverses the air
inlet and exhaust ports
Can be used for pumping a variety of fluids
Special material pump ( teflon ) comes for pumping
highly corrosive liquid


PERISTALTIC OR ROLLER PUMP
Offers contamination-free pumping and relatively low maintenance
The fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular pump casing
Rotor with a number of rollers attached to the external circumference compresses
the flexible tube
Part of tube under compression closes thus forcing the fluid to be pumped to move
through the tube
As the tube opens to its natural state after the passing of the cam fluid flow is
induced to the pump
Chemical compatibility of the tubing with the process liquid is the most important
criteria while choosing this pump
SOLENOID PUMP
Also known as electromagnetic pump
Commonly used as metering pumps for dosing
applications
Stroke length and frequency determine the flow rate
Usually diaphragm operated with diaphragm attached to
the spring loaded plunger
Solenoid energizes to push the plunger and hence the
diaphragm out to create discharge stroke
Solenoid de-energizes , the spring causes the plunger to
retract casing diaphragm to take suction
Used as Boiler & Fresh Water Generator chemical dosing
pump , Fuel oil additive dosing pump and Boiler &
incinerator Pilot burner pump onboard
VARIABLE DELIVERY PUMPS
AXIAL PISTON PUMP
Axial Piston Pump also known as Swash Plate type
of pump
Plungers attached through slipper pads to the
swash plate
Angle of tilting of swash plate determines the flow
rate
Delivery can be varied from zero to maximum in
both the directions

RADIAL PISTON PUMP
Radial piston pump also sometimes called Janey
pump
Pump stroke is varied by means of eccentric
floating ring
Delivery cane be varied from zero to maximum in
both the directions

Both these pumps are used for high pressure
hydraulic applications
Used onboard for windlass ,mooring winches ,
Hatch cover pumps , steering gear pumps &
hydraulic cranes
45
PISTON PUMP
Rotodynamic pumps



There are three different
types of rotodynamic
pumps:

Axial-flow pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Mixed flow pumps


Axial-flow Pumps
Introduction
An axial-flow pump uses a screw propeller
to axially accelerate the liquid. The outlet
passages and guide vanes are arranged
to convert the velocity increase of the
liquid into a pressure.As distinct from the
centrifugal pump, the axial flow pump
absorbs the maximum power at zero flow.


Axial-flow Pumps
A mechanical seal prevents leakage
where the shaft leaves the casing.
A thrust bearing of the tilting pad
type is fitted on the drive shaft. The
prime mover may be an electric
motor or a steam turbine.




Axial-flow Pumps
Applicability
with

The axial flow pump is used where large quantities of
water at a low head are required,or example in
condenser circulating. The efficiency is equivalent to a
low lift centrifugal pump, and the higher speed fs
possible enable a smaller driving motor to be used.

The axial-flow pump is also suitable for supplementary use in a
condense scoop circulating system, since the pump will offer little
resistance to flow when idling.
With scoop circulation, the normal movement of the ship will draw in
water; the pump would be in use only when the ship was moving slowly
or stopped. The pump is reversible and this, in conjunction with high
capacity flow, makes it suitable for trimming and heeling duties as well.


Axial-flow Pumps

The impeller
The pump casing is of gunmetal for
condenser cooling duties and cast iron for
heeling and trimming pumps. The impellers
are of aluminium bronze and guide vanes of
gunmetal are arranged immediately after the
impeller, the pump shaft being of
stainless steel.
Quick quiz

Which part of the pump is the screw
propeller?

Click on the screw propeller.

If you are not sure go to the previous screen
to refresh your memory.

Centrifugal pumps
In this part of the lesson we will take a closer look at Centrifugal pumps


Centrifugal Pump Symbols
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
WORKING MECHANISM OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Centrifugal Pumps
Most common type of pumping machinery. There are many types, sizes, and
designs from various manufacturers who also publish operating characteristics of
each pump in the form of performance (pump) curves. The device pictured on
the cover page is a centrifugal pump.

Pump curves describe head delivered, pump efficiency, and net positive suction
head (NPSH) for a properly operating specific model pump.

Centrifugal pumps are generally used where high flow rates and moderate head
increases are required.
Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics
Centrifugal pump duties are usually for the movement of
large volumes of liquid at low pressures, although higher
pressures can be achieved with multi-staging.

Energy input

Energy transformations inside the Dump

Velocity and pressure levels Fluid flow

Click on an item to jump to it.
Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics
A centrifugal pump can be further defined as a machine which uses
several energy transformations in order to increase the pressure of a
liquid. The energy input into the pump is typically the fuel source
energy used to power the driver.

Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics
• Energy input
• Most commonly, this is electricity used to power an electric
motor.
• Alternative forms of energy used to power the driver
include high-pressure steam used to drive a steam turbine.
• Fuel oil used to power a diesel engine.
• High-pressure hydraulic fluid used to power a hydraulic
motor.
• Compressed air used to drive an air motor.
• Regardless of the driver type for a centrifugal pump, the
input energy is converted in the driver to a rotating
mechanical energy, consisting of the driver output shaft,
operating at a certain speed, and transmitting a certain
torque, or horsepower.


Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics
The remaining energy
transformations take place inside the
pump itself.
The rotating pump shaft is attached
to the pump impeller, which rotates in
a volute housing.
The impeller imposes a centrifugal force, which imparts kinetic energy to the fluid.
Kinetic energy is a function of mass and velocity (K.E = $Sv7.Raising a liquids velocity
increases its kinetic energy.
This causes the fluid to accelerate out of the impeller with this increased velocity.
The volute casing or diffuser provides gradually widening passages i.e. an
expansion of the flow area, which reduces the fluid velocity and this energy is converted
into pressure.

Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics

Velocity and pressure
levels Fluid flow
A particular feature of centrifugal pumps is
that the power absorbed is a minimum at
zero flow, and therefore can be started up
against a closed valve.
By increasing the size of the impeller,
and/or the speed of pump rotation, we can
achieve larger pumping rates.
The diagram illustrates that velocity and pressure levels vary as the fluid
moves along the flow path in a centrifugal pump.


Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics
The fluid flow causes a vacuum to be formed in the pump suction, which will draw
fluid into the impeller suction. Thus fluid flow will occur from the suction to discharge.
The liquid enters the centre or 'eye' of the impeller axially, changes direction and
flows radially out between the vanes.
If the pipeline leading to the pump inlet contains a non-condensable gas such as
air, then the pressure reduction at the impeller inlet merely causes the gas to expand,
and suction pressure does not force liquid into the impeller inlet
Centrifugal pumps - theory and
characteristics
• Consequently, no pumping action can occur unless this non-
condensable gas is first eliminated, a process known as
priming the pump.
• Hence we need a fluid flow through the impeller in order to
achieve a vacuum. Thus when these pumps are not primed, or
loose suction during operation they will not self-prime
themselves. In order to prime or re-prime these pumps we
can use a priming system
• If vapours of the liquid being pumped are present on the
suction side of the pump, this results in Cavitation, which can
cause loss of prime or even serious damage to the pump.


CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
WORKING MECHANISM
Converts rotational energy of prime mover to kinetic energy and finally to
pressure energy of process fluid
Impeller imparts kinetic energy to the process liquid by centrifugal force
Pump is not self priming
Air ejector/vacuum pump is required to create partial vacuum inside the pump
casing to draw in the process liquid
Alternatively pump casing is to be filled with process liquid for priming
Movement of process liquid by centrifugal action causes the liquid to move to the
tip of the impeller
This causes vacuum at the eye of the impeller
Vacuum at eye of the impeller causes inflow of Process fluid
Process liquid exits the impeller tip at a high velocity tangential to the vane tip
Diffuser ring or volute casing has increasing cross section and act as a divergent
nozzle
Kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy , the velocity of flow decreases
while the pressure increases while passing through volute casing/diffuser ring
Fluid is discharged under pressure through the outlet piping
Comparisons: Centrifugal
• larger flow rates
• not self priming
• discharge dependent of downstream pressure
drop
• down stream discharge can be closed without
damage
• uniform pressure without pulsation
• direct motor drive
• less maintenance
• wide variety of fluids
Comparisons: Positive Displacement
• smaller flow rates
• higher pressures
• self priming
• discharge flow rate independent of
pressure – utilized for metering of fluids
• down stream discharge cannot be closed
without damage – bypass with relief valve
required
• pulsating flow
• gear box required (lower speeds)
• higher maintenance
Advantages of centrifugal Pump
• Very efficient
• Produce smooth and even flow
• Reliable with good service life
Disadvantages
• Loss of priming easily
• Efficiency depends upon operating design
head & speed.
Centrifugal Pumps
Advantages
• simple and cheap
• uniform pressure, without
shock or pulsation
• direct coupling to motor
• discharge line may be closed
• can handle liquid with large
amounts of solids
• no close metal-to-metal fits
• no valves involved in pump
operation
• maintenance costs are lower

Disadvantages
• cannot be operated at
high discharge
pressures
• must be primed
• maximum efficiency
holds for a narrow
range of operating
conditions
• cannot handle viscous
fluids efficiently

COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
 CASING
 IMPELLER
 SHAFT
 BEARINGS
 SHAFT SEAL OR GLAND PACKING
 COUPLING
Main components of a centrifugal pump are:
COMPONENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
VOLUTE CASING (TOP HALF)
CASING BOLTS
CASING (TOP HALF)
IMPELLER (DOUBLE SHROUD)
WEAR RING
WEAR RING
MOTOR
COUPLING
PUMP COUPLING
BEARING HOUSING (DRIVE
END)
BEARING HOUSING
(FREE END)
GLAND COVER
SHAFT SLEEVE WITH GLAND
PACKING
PUMP SHAFT
COUPLING BOLTS
NECK BUSH
VOLUTE CASING (LOWER HALF)
Centrifugal pumps-component parts


Centrifugal pumps-component parts


• This is a vertical , single stage ,single entry , centrifugal pump
for general marine use .
• The mainframe and casing, together with a motor support
bracket, house the pumping element assembly.
• The volute casing is split in two halves along a vertical plane.
• Since the suction and discharge nozzles are provided in the
rear half of the casing, the rotating element can be taken out
by removing only the front half casing without disturbing the
rest of the pump.


Centrifugal pumps - component parts


• The pumping element is made up of a top cover, a pump
shaft, an impeller, a bearing bush and a sealing
arrangement around the shaft.
• The sealing arrangement may be a packed gland or a
mechanical seal and the bearing lubrication system will vary
according to the type of seal.
• Replaceable wear rings are fitted in the casing around the
top and bottom faces of the impeller.
• The motor support bracket has two large apertures to
provide access to the pumping element, and a coupling
spacer is fitted between the motor and pump shaft to
enable the removal of the pumping element without
disturbing the motor or vice versa


VOLUTE CASING
 Volute casing converts the process liquid kinetic energy
to pressure energy
 The sectional area of the volute increases from minimum
to a maximum at the discharge
 This area is caled the cut-throat area
 The cut-throat area of the volute corresponds to the
minimum working clearence between impeller & casing
 Cut-throat area prevents internal leakage from high
pressure area to low pressure area
 Volute casing may be vertically or horizontally split
 Volute casing may be single or double entry
 Another classification is Single volute and double volute
casing
 Double volute casing if properly designed can eliminate
the radial thrust on the shaft at BEP (Best Efficiency Point)
Impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Impeller
Vanes
Direction of
rotation
Centrifugal Pumps
Typical single suction impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
Single suction impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
Impeller Types
• Open
• Semi-open
• Closed
- Single suction
- Double suction
• Non-clogging
• Axial flow
• Mixed flow
Centrifugal Pumps
Full Diameter Impeller
Rotation
Impeller
Blades
V
t

V
r

V
s

V
r
= Radial Velocity
V
t
= Tangential Velocity
V
s
= Vector Sum Velocity
Centrifugal Pumps
Impeller and volute
Suction Eye
Cutwater
Arrows represent the
direction of water flow
Discharge
Nozzle
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Construction
• Standard construction, any impeller
– Mechanical seal
– Internally flushed, seal cavity
– Variety of seal materials
• Stuffing box construction, any impeller
– External flush lines
– Compression packing rings
– Single flushed mechanical seal
Centrifugal Pumps
Standard construction
Bell & Gossett
Series 1510
Standard
Construction
CLASSIFICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Centrifugal Pumps can be classified based on various factors
SINGLE
VOLUTE
DOUBLE
VOLUTE
SINGLE
ENTRY
DOUBLE
ENTRY
OPEN
SEMI-
OPEN
CLOSED
SINGLE
STAGE
MULTI-
STAGE
RADIAL
FLOW
MIXED
FLOW
AXIAL
FLOW
VOLUTE
TYPE
DIFFUSER
TYPE
TURBINE
OR
REGENRATIVE
TYPE
HORIZONTAL
VERTICAL
SUBMERSILE
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
CASING
IMPELLER STAGES
FLOW PRINCIPLE INSTALLATION
Centrifugal Pumps
End Suction Pump
Series 1510
• 26 sizes
– To 4400 gpm
– To 520 ft TDH
– To 150 HP To 8‖x10‖
– General Purpose Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Section View
Bell & Gossett
Series 1510
Standard Construction
Gauge
Taps
Centrifugal Pumps
Large, Line Mounted Pump
Series 80
– Close coupled
– 18 sizes
– To 2600 gpm
– To 410 ft TDH
– To 60 HP
– To 8‖x8‖
– Special Purpose Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Multi-stage pumps
Bell & Gossett
Series 3550
•Multi-stage, diffuser design
•8 sizes, stainless steel
•to 600 gpm
•to 1200 ft
•to 75 hp, 3500 rpm
•many options for suction and
discharge nozzles
Centrifugal Pumps
Multi-stage pump
Bell & Gossett
Series 3550
―Diffusers‖
Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical Turbine
• Submersible
– 48 Models
– 5 - 14 bowls
– 40 - 2000 gpm
– 25 - 300 feet head
• Lineshaft
– 88 Models
– 5-20‖ bowls
– 4 Styles
– 20 - 10,000 gpm
– 7 - 200 feet head
Centrifugal Pumps
Double Suction Pump
Bell & Gossett
Series HSC

– 37 sizes
– To 12500 gpm
– To 840 ft TDH
– To 1000 HP
– To 14‖x18‖
– General Purpose Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Typical Split Case Pump- Section View
Centrifugal Pumps
Double Suction Pump
Series VSCS
Series VSC

– 17 sizes
– To 8000 gpm
– To 400 ft TDH
– To 600 HP
– To 12‖x14‖
– General Purpose Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
VSC Pump- Section View
Centrifugal Pumps - Double Entry
Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps - Double Entry
Pumps
• The incoming liquid enters the double impeller from the top
and bottom and passes into the volute casing for discharge in
the same way as before. A double entry pump has a lower
NPSH required characteristic, which will have advantages in
poor suction conditions.
• It should be noted that different impeller sizes could be fitted
into a basic pumping element. This enables various discharge
head characteristics to be provided for the same basic pump
frame.
• The larger pumps, which are double entry, can achieve flow
rates of 10,000 tonns/hour.
Centrifugal Pumps - Double Entry
Pumps
Illustration shows a cross-section through a double entry centrifugal pump.
Mixed flow pumps
In this type, the pressure is developed partly by
centrifugal action and partly by the vanes and, as
the name implies, the flow is both axial and radial
through the impeller.
Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical Turbine Pump
Driver
Discharge
Head
Column
Bowl
Assembly
• Centrifugal pump closely coupled with motor
• Does not require long drive shaft
• Motor operates at a cooler temperature.
• Noiseless operation.
• High efficiency
• Smooth and even flow
• In case of repair full pump to be removed.
Submersible Pumps
Jet Pumps
• Combination of a surface centrifugal pump,
nozzle and venturi arrangement.
• Used in small dia bore wells.
• Simple design
• Low purchase and maintenance cost.
• Easy accessibility to all moving parts.
• Low efficiency.
Vacuum Pumps

Vacuum Doesn't Suck! There is no such force as suction.

If gas molecules in one "section" of an enclosed volume are removed, then there
is a pressure difference between the two "section" and the remain gas molecules
will move and fill the total space but at a lower pressure.




Vacuum pumps (as a single or as a pumping system) create and maintain the
conditions appropriate to a required process

Different types of vacuum pumps have a characteristic working range in which it
will be effective

Gas Transfer Vacuum Pump

VACUUM PUMPING METHODS
Two fundamental types of pumpimg:
– Gas Transfer Vacuum Pump
– Entrainment Vacuum Pump
Pumps are based on speeding gas particle into the exit by means of :
– stream of liquid (aspirator pump) or of vapour (diffusion pump)
– stream moving surfaces (turbo-molecular pump)
– electric field (ion pump)
-gas entering the inlet is compressed and expelled out the outlet.

Positive Displacement Vacuum Pumps
Inlet
Outlet
PUMP
Gas
VACUUM PUMPING METHODS

Entrainment Pumps based on gas sorption

• Must be regenerated to empty the trapped gas
Inlet
PUMP
Gas
Scroll
pump
Sliding Vane
Rotary Pump
Molecular
Drag Pump
Turbomolecular
Pump
Fluid Entrainment
Pump
VACUUM PUMPS
Reciprocating
Displacement Pump
Gas Transfer
Vacuum Pump
Drag
Pump
Entrapment
Vacuum Pump
Positive Displacement
Vacuum Pump
Kinetic
Vacuum Pump
Rotary
Pump
Diaphragm
Pump
Piston
Pump
Rotary
Piston Pump
Roots
Pump
Dry
Pump
Adsorption
Pump
Getter
Pump
Getter Ion
Pump
Bulk Getter
Pump
Diffusion
Pump
Sublimation
Pump
The quantity of a gas removed by the pump at a steady state pressure p is a gas flow rate(
gas flax) characterized by the throughput QVolume flow rate
Expressions for gas flow rate Q




pV
V
Q p
t
A
=
A
Throughput and Pumping Speed
Q
P,V
Quantity Mass flow
rate
pV flow rate (pV
throughout)
Volume
flow rate
Molar
flow rate
n=m/M
Equation
Typical units kg s
-1
mbar L s
-1
Pa m
3
s
-1
M
3
h
-1
,
L s
-1
mols s
-1
m
m
Q
t
A
=
A V
V
Q
t
A
=
A
n
n
Q
t
A
=
A
The pumping speed S refers to the volume rate of flow of
gas . Gives the total volume evacuated per unit time (L/sec)
dt
dV
pdt
pdV
p
Q
S
pv
= = =
Pumping speed = S
Moving Gases
• Compression ratio = P
out
/P
in
• Fans: large volumes, small discharge
pressure
• Blowers: compression ratio 3-4,
usually not cooled
• Compressors: compression ratio >10,
usually cooled.
–Centrifugal (often multistage)
–Positive displacement
Fan Impellers
Two-lobe Blower
Reciprocating Compressor
Vacuum Pumps
Aspirator or Venturi Pump
• Bernoulli’s principle of operation (moving fluid
reduces pressure)
• Pump operation is based on bulk flow of fluids
• Ultimate vacuum is approximately 24 Torr (vapor
pressure of water at 25°C)
Bernoulli Equation
The Bernoulli Equation is a statement of the conservation of energy principle
appropriate for flowing fluids.
"Bernoulli effect" is the lowering of fluid pressure in regions where the flow
velocity is increased.
In the high velocity flow through the constriction, kinetic energy must increase at
the expense of pressure energy.
If the density doesn’t change – typical for liquids – this simplifies to

where the pipe is wider, the flow is slower.
A fluid can also change its height. By looking at the work done as it moves:
This is Bernoulli’s equation:
as the speed goes up, the pressure goes down.
How the Venturi Pump Works:
Bernoulli’s Principle describes fluid behavior for varying flow (and height) conditions
P + 1/2µv
2
+ µgh = Constant
P = static pressure, µ = fluid density,
v = velocity conservation of energy for fluid mechanics


Giovanni Venturi, created a pump using this effect.
A restriction in a fluid line causes a pressure drop due to the velocity increase.
How the Venturi Pump Works:
No stream
Stream
How the Venturi Pump Works:
Venturi Pump Details
Vacuum Range: 50-500 Torr

Pros: no moving parts, minimal maintenance

Cons: requires an external compressed air source,
limited vacuum range
Reciprocating pump
This is a simple reciprocating pump.
If it is to be used as a vacuum pump, the
vessel is connected to the intake;
If it is to be used as a pressure pump,
the vessel is connected to the outlet.
The heart operates as a pump.
Theory of Operation
• Mechanical vacuum pumps work by the process of positive gas displacement, that
is during operation the pump periodically creates increasing and decreasing
volumes to remove gases from the system, and exhaust them to the atmosphere.
• In most designs a motor driven rotor spins inside a cylindrical stator of larger
diameter. The ratio of the exhaust pressure (atmospheric) to the base pressure
(lowest pressure obtained at the vacuum pump inlet) is referred to as the
Compression Ratio of the pump



• For example, if a mechanical vacuum pump obtains a base pressure of 15 mTorr, its
compression ratio is:


out
in
P
K
P
=
For mechanical pumps it is possible to achieve K at a values of about 10
5
Theory of Operation
Pumping speed (S) for the mechanical pumps is fairly constant at pressures from
1atm down to about 1mbarr
Pumping speed decreases rapidly below this pressure, and approaches zero at the
pump's base pressure.

Volume pumps - based on the concept of reducing the
pressure by increasing the volume.

Old designs were in the form of a piston pump.
Modern design – a rotary pump.
In a single cycle of the pump operation the number of particles in the pumped volume
will be reduced by:
c
c 0
V
V -V
where V
c
is the volume of the pump cylinder, V
o
is the pumped
volume.
All volume pumps have a dead volume Vs which determines
the ultimate pressure (the amount of gas in the dead volume)
s
c
V
p [Tr] =760
V
·
The pumping volume is lubricated with vacuum oil, which means that in
reality:


To improve p· one should increase the pumping volume and decrease
the dead volume. The best way is to reduces the back pressure well
below 760 Tr e.g., by multistage pumping.
s
c
V
p =760 +p (oil v.p.)
V
· ·
Example
A simple piston pump has a displacement of 1L (V
p
). It is connected to a
chamber of 10L (V
0
). If pumping start at 1atm, what will be a pressure in
the chamber after 4 complete cycles?

In a single cycle of the pump operation the number of particles (n
0
) in the
pumped volume will be reduced to (n
1
)

P N ( )= P 0 ( ) 1÷
V
D
V
|
\

|
.
|
N
For four complete cyclesP(4) = 0.656 atm.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
0
0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1
0
0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0
; ; ;
1
p
p
p
p p
PV
PV P
n n n n n V V
RT RT RT
RT
P n
V
V
P P RT
P V V
PV
V V P
RT
nR
V
T
V V
= = A = ÷ = ÷
=
=
A
| |
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
|
\ .
Diaphragm pumps
A flexible metal or polymeric diaphragm seals a small volume
at one end.
At the other end are two spring-loaded valves:
one opening when the volume‘s pressure falls below the
―outside‖ pressure,
other opening when the volume‘s pressure exceeds the
―outside‖ pressure.
A cam ( ( הקיפ on a motor shaft rapidly flexes the diaphragm,
causing gas transfer in one valve and out the other.
Diaphragm pumps often have two stages in series—to
produce a lower vacuum, or in parallel, to produce a higher
pumping speed.
In general, diaphragm pumps have low pumping speeds (<10
clm) and produce a poor ultimate vacuum (1 Torr to 10 Torr).
They do exhaust into the atmosphere and their low costs
make them attractive roughing pumps.
Diaphragm pumps are also used for simple vacuum filtration,
thin film evaporation, distillation, gel drying applications, and as
sample movers for gas analyzers and sample extraction.
Dry Vacuum Pumps
Roots Blowers / Booster Pumps
Precision shaped rotors assistant to housing and to each other to within 0.05-0.25mm
• Rotors spin at 2500 to 3500 rpm.
• Gears synchronize the rotors. Must be below 10 Torr to operate.


•Roots pump is excellent for moving large quantities of
gas at higher pressure.
•The lobes in cross section are similar to the figure
eight.
•They counter-rotate to continuously transfer gas from
one side of the pump (inlet) to the other (outlet).
•Air enters from the inlet and the volume is
discharged in the (C) and (d) positions to the outlet
•The compression ratio of the pump is small and
varies with the molecular weight of the gas.
-light gases easily escape back into the vacuum
vessel around the edges of the rotors, creating a
beck stream,
- rotary or piston pumps must back roots pumps.
•Typically pump speed: N~1500-3000 rpm,
•Gap (clearance) between the rotors: 1-0.15 mm
Roots Blowers / Booster Pumps
Isaiah Davies invented the design principle of the rotary
lobe blower (Booster Pump) in 1848, but it was some
twenty years later before Francis and Philader Roots
applied it in practice in the US, first as a water wheel in
their woolen mill.“
IMPORTANT! There is no oil sealing in the gas-handling
part of this pump
Roots Blowers / Booster Pumps (cont)
• The theoretical pumping speed of a Roots pump is
S
th
=4*n*V’,
where n=rotational speed of the rotors, V’=volume of gas isolated from inlet
The theoretical gas throughout (Q
th
) is
Q
th
=S
th
*P
in
BUT! Internal leakage can occur because of the
clearances within a Root pump, reducing the amount of
gas handled
Effective gas throughout (Q
eff
)is
Q
eff
=S
th
*P
in
- Q
int leak
Q
int leak
=C
gap
(P
out
-P
in
)+S
ad
*P
out
,
C
gap
= conductance of the internal clearances
S
ad
=volume rate of flow of gas transported by
adsorbtion-desorbtion by the rotors
(P
out
-P
in
)= pressure difference across the Root pump
1) inlet, 2) Exhaust, 3) water jacket 4) screw, 5) oil, 6) gas path, 7) timing
gears, 8) bearings 9) shaft seals, 10) oil seal
This pump works by pushing gas from the inlet (1) along the gas path (6) to
the exhaust (2).
Because the screws are interleaved, the gas is trapped in pockets formed by
the outer-wall and the screws.
Dry Screw Pump
Schematic of scroll pump
L. Creux, US patent no. 801,182.

The pump consists of arcs
of circles of the
same pitch.

Cryo-condensation

Sorption Pumps
Gases are pumped by
– Cryocondensation: gases freeze onto cold solid
surfaces of zeolite (See L1 saturated vapor)
– Cryosorption: gases are trapped in a porous zeolite
Zeolite: originates from greek Zein (to cool)+ Lithos
(stone)
Zeolite ->Dehydrated aluminosilicate: e.g., Na2O Al2O3
nSiO2mH2O
Dehydration creates channels with calibrated diameter
size, 0.1 nm<D<10 nm, and the network of chambers, of
the volume of the order of 1000 A
3
, interconnected by
narrow channels.
The effective surface ~ 1000 m2/g! 50% of the zeolite
volume is constituted by chambers and channels.
Cryopump
Cooling gases to the extent that gas molecules lose sufficient
energy to form condensation layers.
A cryogenic surface will trap any molecule that contacts the
surface if it is cold enough.

Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
Equilibrium vapor pressure is the state where as many
molecules are condensing as are vaporizing. Equilibrium
occurs when the rate of gas molecules returning to the
liquid/solid (condensing) is equal to the rate of energetic
molecules becoming gaseous (vaporizing).

What determines the Pressure inside a Cryopump?
Surface Equilibrium

When the number of molecules arriving on the
chamber surface (adsorbing) equals the number
leaving the surface (desorbing), then the system is in
―Surface Equilibrium‖

Equilibrium Vapor Pressure:
- CONDENSATION
- VAPORIZATION

Surface Equilibrium:
- ADSORPTION
- DESORPTION
Equilibrium
Vapor Pressure
Cryocondensation

At T=4.2 K Helium is still boils
Cryosorption
•Cooling gas molecules to the extent that gas molecules,
upon contacting a sufficiently cooled surface, lose
enough energy to accumulate on the surface.
•A flat cryoadsorbing plate retains some molecules and
allows molecules to continue moving.


Cryosorption

• Sieve material, such as charcoal, provides greater surface
area and limited apertures.
•Increased surface area provides greater capacity.
• Released molecules remain confined.
• Irregular surface constricts motion.
• Cryosorption of hydrogen, neon, and helium accomplished.
•The sorption pumps are equivalent in function to the rotary oil pump.
They are used for rouging vacuum system to a pressure level of 10
-1
-10
-5
Torr.
Cryosorption pumps are used most often as starting devices for pumping large volumes
of gas from atmospheric pressure.
Cryosorption pumps have a simple blow-off valve this makes their regeneration
automatic.
Cryosorption pumps do not back-stream they are low cost and, almost problem-free.
Vessel is cooled by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN
2
) 77° K.
• Each sorption pump requires about 10liter of LN
2
and about 20 minutes to cool down.
• Several sorption pumps are often combined on a manifold.
• Pumps must be regenerated by heating to 250° C for 30 mins. to melt frost and degas
the molecular sieve material.
Sorption Pumps
Aluminum body
Porous zeolite
Neck flange
LN
2
Bucket
LN
2
Sorption Pump – Bank Design
• Banks of 2 or more sorption pumps are often staged together
• Faster pumping speeds are achieved by connecting the pumps in parallel
• Lower base pressures are reached by operating a bank of pumps in series
Staging of sorption pumps
Single length sorption pump
Sorption Pump
• Ranges
– Single Stage
• 10
-2
torr
– Double Stage
• 10
-4
~ 10
-5
torr
• Accessories
– Nitrogen Dewar
– Bakeout Sleeve
– Sieve Material


Image of used sorption pump with dewar
and heater sleeve
Image of used sorption pump
with sieve material port opened
Cryosorption and Cryocondensation

Air gases and water vapor still condensed -noncondensible gases captured.

Cryopump Concept
Cryopumps are designed to create these
condensing and adsorbing surfaces.
• The first stage of the cold head (9)
cools the thermal radiation shield (5)
and the baffle (6) of the pump.
• The second stage of the cold head
(7) is used to cool the cryopanels (8).
•Operating temperature of 10-20K are
attained and led to cryocondensation
of N2 O2 and Ar
Cryopump : Configuration
The active pumping surfaces are made of Cu-the high thermal conductivity material ,
and they are tightly linked thermally to second stage of the cold head
H2, He, and Ne are also adsorbed on to these surfaces which are partly covered
with activated carbon
Cryogenic Pumps
• This gas capture pump is particularly useful for systems containing gases other
than helium or hydrogen.
• Their major use at present is in sputtering systems applied to semiconductors
processing, where oil-free operation and a huge capacity for pumping argon
process gas are needed.
• They are particularly suited to pumping high molecular weight gases in the 10
-6

to 10
-9
Torr range.
• The most important feature of the cryopump is the cleanliness of the vacuum.
• The pumping speed can be vary high and the ultimate vacuum excellent.
• In contrast with ion pumps, which are also oil free the cryopumps, is mach less
susceptible to failure or damage if switched on at high pressure.
There are two major classes of pumps
Liquid Pool
-Liquid helium temperature
(~4K)
Closed cycle
-Refrigerator (~12K)
Supplemented by cryosorption
Cryopumps
Use a closed-loop helium cryogenic refrigerator.
Gases are pumped by two processes:
– Cryocondensation (H
2
O, CO
2
, N
2,
O
2
, Ar,
solvent vapors)
– Cryosorption (H2, He, Ne)
• Primary parts are:
– Compressor
– Expander
– Cold Head
Typically pumping speed 100 - 1000 L/s.

•The pump has two low temperature zones, an inner surface held at approximately 20K
and a surrounding surface at approximately 80K (Helium refrigeration).
•The inner surface is coated with activated carbon that assists in pumping hydrogen by
adsorption. The low temp‘ are achieved by attaching the pump directly to a helium cryo-
compressor.
Cryopumps
Potential Problems:

– Must be regenerated to extract the trapped gases
• Allow to warm to room temperature (slow), or
• Use a built-in heater to warm to 250 C and outgas (fast).
• Regeneration takes the pump off-line for several hours.
– Regeneration process can produce considerable pressure.
• Pumps have a safety pressure relief valve on the bucket.
– Must be started from below 100 mTorr
• Use a mechanical roughing pump
Rotary Vane, Oil-Sealed Mechanical Pump
Typical housing for a ‗wet‘
rough pump that is of the
rotary mechanical pump type

inlet exhaust
discharge
outlet valve
rotor
vanes
single stage
two stage
“high vacuum”
stage
rough vacuum
stage
inlet
exhaust
discharge
outlet valve
Rotary Vane Pump
Clockwise Expanding volume of gas
Half revolution.
Expanding gas seals off the inlet port
Gas starts to be
compressed
Gas ballast is admitted.
Completion of one cycle
Gas and ballast air are
compressed, gaining enough
pressure to force open the
discharge valve.
The end of the discharge
portion of the cycle
Since both vanes operate, in one rotation of the rotor a volume of gas equal to twice that
indicated in fig. b is displaced by the pump.
The volume rate at which gas is swept round the pump, S, is
S = 2V*n
where V is the volume between vanes A and B (fig. b), and n is the number of rotations per
unit time (usually 350-700 r.p.m.).
In theory, the lowest pressure achieved by the pump is determined only by the fact that the
gas is compressed into a small but finite "dead volume". When the system pressure
becomes so low that, at maximum compression, the gas pressure is still less than that of
the atmosphere it cannot be discharged from the pump
The compression ratio of the order of 105 are required to produce pressures of the order of 10
-
2
Torr.
The lowest {ultimate) pressure achieved by a single stage rotary pump is about 5 x 10
-3
Torr.
Parallel connection of two identical rotor-stator systems will provide twice the displacement
but the same ultimate pressure. A two-stage pump may reach 10
-4
Torr
• The oil in an oil sealed pump serves three important functions:
– providing a vacuum seal at the pump exhaust,
– as a lubricant
– provides cooling for the pump.
• Oil rotary pumps can cause significant contamination of HV and UHV systems!


Rotary vane pumps
Rotary vane pump typically consists of a steel cylinder mounted on a driving shaft
Its axis is parallel to the axis of the stator, but is displaced from this axis, such that it makes contact with the top surface of the stator,
the line of contact lying between the two ports. A clearance of 2-3 microns must be at these points
The whole of the stator-rotor assembly is submerged in a suitable oil.
As vane A passes the inlet port (fig. a), the vacuum system is connected to the space limited by the stator, the top seal, the rotor and
vane A. The volume of this space increases as the vane sweeps round, thus producing a pressure decrease in the system. This
continues until vane B passes the inlet port (fig. b), when the volume of the gas evacuated is isolated between the two vanes.
Further rotation sweeps the isolated gas around the stator until vane A passes the top seal (fig. c). The gas is now held between vane
B and the top seal, and by further rotation it is compressed until the pressure is sufficient (about 850 Torr) to open the exhaust
valve, and the gas is evacuated from the pump.
Since both vanes operate, in one rotation of the rotor a volume of gas equal to twice that indicated in fig. b is displaced by the pump.
Thus, the volume rate at which gas is swept round the pump, referred to as pump displacement S, is
S = 2Vu
• where V is the volume between vanes A and B (fig. 2b), and n is the number of rotations per unit time (usually 350-700 r.p.m.).
The contacts of the vanes and rotor with the stator form three separate chambers each containing gas at different pressure.
These contacts must therefore make vacuum-tight seals, especially for the top seals which must support more than one
atmosphere pressure difference. For this reason the inner surfaces- of the stator, that of the rotor and vane, are very carefully
machined.
• In theory, the lowest pressure achieved by the pump is determined only by the fact that the gas is compressed into a small but
finite "dead volume". When the system pressure becomes so low that, at maximum compression, the gas pressure is still less
than that of the atmosphere it cannot be discharged from the pump. Subsequent pumping action reexpands and recompresses
the same gas without further decreasing the pressure in the system.
• The ratio of the exhaust pressure to the inlet pressure is termed the pump compression ratio. Thus, to produce pressures of the
order of 10
-2
Torr, pumps having compression ratios of the order of 105 are required. Oil also performs the function of filling the
dead volume, thus increasing the compression ratio. The lowest {ultimate) pressure achieved by a single stage rotary pump is
about 5 x 10
-3
Torr. Parallel connection of two identical rotor-stator systems will provide twice the displacement but the same
ultimate pressure. A two-stage pump may reach 10
-4
Torr
Rotary vane pumps
“Gas ballast” to improve
pump operation
• When condensible vapors are pumped,
they can only be compressed to their
saturation vapor pressures
Example: H
2
O at 70ºC will condense
when compressed to p
s
=312 mbar;
further compression will create no
increase in pressure,
so an overpressure of the outlet valve
will not be achieved
• Water would condense into the oil;
solvents could do worse!
• A ―gas ballast‖ (air or N
2
metered into
the pump) will reduce the partial
pressure of the condensing gas so that
it can be pumped out of the system
gas
ballast
“Gas ballast”
• The gas ballast increases the pressure in the pump chamber just before
compression starts.
• The compression ratio reduced and vapors which might otherwise have
condensed may remain in the vapor phase.
• The required amount of gas ballast is



• S
0
= inlet pumping speed [Ls
-1
]

• Q
ballas
=0.1*S
0
*p
0
= amount of ballast entering the pump
• P
o
atmospheric pressure
• P
vap,1
=pressure of vapor (1) in the gas mixture to be pumped
• P
1
= the pressure of non-condensable gas at the inlet


• P
s
= saturated vapor pressure of the vapor being pumped at the temperature of
the coolest part of the pump (about 60-70C)
• P
ex
= the pressure at the pump exhaust

.1
1
1
1
vap
ballas o ex s
s vap
p
p
Q S p p
p p
(
| |
= ÷ + ( |
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
“Gas ballast”
• Vapor tolerance is the maximum pressure of vapor that rotary- vacuum pump
can take in and transport at T=20C, p=1013mbar
• Vapor tolerance for water vapor WVT is




• P
w,a
=partial pressure of water vapor in the ballast air

,
0
0.1 *
s w a
ex s
p p
WVT p
p p
÷
=
÷
Example
Vacuum chamber was cleaned with dematerialized water and drained. A rotary-vain
pump (S
0
=25m
3
h
-1
) was connected to chamber to remove the residual water from
the chamber.
Calculate the maximum amount of water that may be handled by the pump
If the exhaust T=75C and air used as the gas ballast is of T=20C, humidity RH50% and pressure
p
0
=1013mbar.
– It is known that saturated vapor pressure for water at 75C is p
s
=385.5mbar and at 20C
p
s
=23.4mbar
– Pay attention ! RH=50%, so p
w,a
=23.4/2 mbar

,
0
385.5 23.4/ 2
0.1 * 0.1*1013 37.3
1400 385.5
s w a
ex s
p p
WVT p mbar mbar
p p
÷
÷
| |
= = =
|
÷ ÷
\ .
The maximum amount of water that can be handled is
Q=S
0
*WVT=25/3.6 Ls
-1
*37.3mbar =259mbar*Ls-1
Q=pV=mRT/M

1 1
1 1
1 1
259 18
0.16 0.58
83.14 348
mbarLs ggmol
m gs kgh
mbarLmol K K
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= = =
Accessories used with mechanical pumps
• Foreline sorption traps -- help control oil backstreaming (transport of pump oil
through the inlet line into the system being pumped
– usually filled with molecular seive materials
– may be cooled or heated
• Anti-suckback valves -- prevent oil backstreaming in the event of a power failure
A fast-acting normally closed valve is placed at the pump inlet; if power is lost,
the valve automatically closes
vacuum systems hate
power failures!!
HIGH VACUUM PUMPS
Oil Diffusion Pump (DP)
•The name diffusion pump does not describe the operation of the pump accurately.
•Diffusion pump is a vapor jet pump which transports gas by momentum transfer on
collisions with the vapor steam.

Diffusion pumps were first conceived and constructed
by W. Gaede (1915-Germany) and I. Langmuir (1916-
U.S.A).
They operate on the principle of transferring
momentum from high velocity vapor molecules to the
gas molecules that are to be moved out of the system.
The vapor molecules are formed by heating a suitable
condensable fluid.
The early pumps used mercury for this purpose.
In the late 1920s, it was found that high molecular
weight oils having high boiling points and low vapor
pressures could be used as
pumping fluids.
Today all diffusion pumps use some form of oil.

Pump Construction
Nozzles
Hot dense vapor is forced through central jets angled downward to give
a conical curtain of vapor.
Gas molecules are knocked downwards and eventually reach the fore
vacuum pump (Rotary)
The oil pool at the bottom of the
pump is heated, causing oil
vapor to be forced up the jet
stack.
The vapor strikes the
umbrellas, and is projected
downward and outward through
the nozzles of the jet stack.
In passing through the narrow
jets, the oil vapor flows at a
velocity near that of sound.
The jet streams are in series; the illustrated pump is
a "three-stage" type.
Pumping Speed
10
-10
10
--3
10
--1
P
u
m
p
i
n
g

S
p
e
e
d

(
A
i
r
)

1 2 3 4
Inlet Pressure (Torr)
Critical Point
1. Compression Ratio Limit
2. Constant Speed
3. Constant Q (Overload)
4. Mechanical Pump Effect
In normal operating range DP is a constant speed device
Oil Diffusion Pump
• Since the pump works by momentum
transfer, the compression ratio depends
on the atomic mass. The thermal velocity
of light gas is much greater, so the
molecules are pumped less efficiently.

Gas Compression Ratio
Pumping fluids

• Apiezons : A - natural hydrocarbons p(25 C) ~ 10-5
B - destileted hydrocarbons p(25 C) ~ 10-7
C - destileted hydrocarbons p(25 C) ~ 10-8
• Silicon:
• Dc703 - phenylmethyl dimethyl cycioxane [(CH3)3SiO] [(CH3)3SiO] [(CH3)3SiO]
• Dc704 - tetramethyl tetraphenyl trisiloxane 4 pieces chain
• Dc705 - pentaphenyl trimethyl trisiloxane 5 pieces chain
• Santovac (Convalex) - synthetic polyphenol ether – space
lubricant – expensive!
Liquid N
2
reservoir with baffles
How the LN2 Trap Works
– LN
2
in a container in a room doesn‘t go
―poof‖ into gas
– holds itself at 77 K and all evaporate due to
finite ―heat of vaporization‖ of LN
2
is 5.57
kJ/mole, one liter of cryogen would last for
LN
2
4.5 hours if i the thermal load on the
inner shield is 10 W
Gas Vapor Pressure (mbar)
(H
2
O)
(Ar)
(CO
2
)
(CO)
(He)
(H
2
)
(O
2
)
(Ne)
(N
2
)
10
-22

500
10
-7

>760
>760
>760
350
>760
760

Water cooled baffle
•Oil is contained and condensed by the diffusion
pump. A small amount can escape toward the
HiVac area of the system. This "backstreamed" oil
is detrimental to the system.
•To contain it, a water-cooled baffle is located
between the diffusion pump and the cold trap.
• Most back-streamed diffusion pump oil
molecules are condensed on the internal water
cooled baffle disc and returned to the diffusion
pump in the form of liquid oil.
Oil Diffusion Pump
Potential Problems:
– Backstreaming of oil vapor can occur if forepressure becomes too
large.
• Backstreaming occurs for pressures of 1 to 10 mTorr.
• Cold cap on top of multistage jet assembly helps to reduce this.
• Liquid nitrogen filled cryotrap also helps to reduce this.
• Maximum tolerable foreline pressure (critical forepressure) must not
be exceeded, or pump will “dump” or “blow-out”, sending oil up into
the chamber.

– Pump can overheat if cooling water fails
• Most pumps have a thermal cutout switch.

– Pumping requires low vapor pressure oil

• Water, dirt, or other impurities will raise vapor pressure.
• Only special oils are suitable for diffusion pump use.
• Example
Diffusion pump has a pumping speed of 1000Ls
-1
at p
in
,10
-3
mbar, falling to
400Ls
-1
at p
in
=10
-2
mbar.
The critical backing pressure p
crit
for the pump is 0.4mbar!
a) Calculate the minimum size (pumping speed) of the baking rotary pump if diffusion
pump is in at 10
-2
mbar

At 10
-2
mbar the throughput of the diffusion pump is

(Q
max
)
in
= p
in
*S
effDP
=10
-2
mbar*400Ls
-1
=4mbarLs
-1
(Q
max
)
in
=(Q
max
)
back
=S
eff
*p
crit

Approximate

value of the pumping speed of baking pump is
S
eff,back
=Q
max
/p
crit
=4mbarLs
-1
/0.4mbar=10Ls
-1

b) Calculate the minimum size (pumping speed) of the baking rotary pump if diffusion
pump is in at 10
-3
mbar.
(Q
max
)
in
= p
in
*S
effDP
=10
-2
mbar*1000Ls
-1
=1mbarLs
-1
S
eff,back
=Q
max
/p
crit
=1mbarLs
-1
/0.4mbar=2.5 Ls
-1





Turbomolecular Pump
The turbomolecular pump was invented in 1958 by Becker
Turbomolecular pump imparts a directed momentum to gas
molecules through a rapidly rotating blades.
• Turbine blades rotating at high speed transfer momentum to gas molecules to force
them out the exhaust (must be backed).
• 9,000 to 90,000 rpm motor speeds!
• - 20 to 60 blades per disk
The pump is characterized by a compression ratio and ultimate pressure.
Work only in molecular regime, use after roughing pump is spent (< 100 mTorr)
Typically 100 to 800 L/sec pumping speeds
UHV can be readily achieved (better if used in combination with a titanium
sublimation pump).
Pumping speed is proportional to the rotor speed and is constant when normal
rotation speed is achieved.

Turbo pumps have advantages over diffusion pumps:
no back-stream oil into the vacuum system at any time
can be started and stopped in a few minuets
can be directly connected to the chamber without a high vacuum valve.
!!!But turbo pump can be noisy and they induce vibration, and the compression ratio
for hydrogen and helium are low


Turbomolecular Pump
The compression ratio of the turbine establishes the base pressure.
• The compression ratio is higher for higher molecular weights:
– Approximately: log10K = 1.5 (M)
1/2
, K-compression ratio

– For H
2
, M = 1, so K = 10x1.5 = 30 = very small
– For hydrocarbons, M = 100, so K = 1015 = very large
• Base pressure is usually limited by H
2
.
Turbomolecular Pump: Structure
10 to 20 stator/rotator pairs assembled
on a single shaft.
The blades rotate at 20,000-90,000 rpm.
The stators are between the rotors in
order to direct the gas molecules.
Rotor –stator distance is less than 1 mm.
The pairs near the inlet are for high
throughput whereas those near the exit
are at low pumping speed.
Mechanically rotor bearings and
magnetically suspended bearings.
No trapping gas.
No uncertainty about whether the pump is
pumping.
If the rotor is turning, it is pumping.
Traps, baffles are not required between the
vacuum chamber and the pump inlet.
Molecule
V
Moving Wall with Speed V
Schematic of the rotor and stator of a turbomolecular pump
Inlet
Outlet
R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n

b
l
a
d
e
s

N
o
n
-
R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n

b
l
a
d
e
s

Gas captured by the upper stages is pushed into
the lower stages and successively compressed
to the level of the fore-vacuum pressure.
As the gas molecules enter through the inlet, the
rotor, which has a number of angled blades, hits
the molecules. Thus the mechanical energy of
the blades is transferred to the gas molecules.
With this newly acquired momentum, the gas
molecules enter into the gas transfer holes in
the stator. This leads them to the next stage
where they again collide with the rotor surface,
and this process is continued, finally leading
them outwards through the exhaust.
The relative velocity between the rotating blades
and stator blades makes it probable that a gas
molecule will be transported from the pump inlet
to the pump outlet
Each blade is able to support a pressure
difference. Because this pressure ratio is small
for a single stage many stages are cascaded
Rotation axis is in the center of the
rotor and in the vertical direction.
The rotor moves at a high speed
such that when a molecule hits a
blade , momentum is imparted to
the molecule in a direction almost
perpendicular to the blade surface.
Turbomolecular Pumps
Potential Problems
– Very high speed rotor blades have close-mating stator blades.
• Slight imbalances can cause vibration and bearing wear problems.
• Sudden blast of atmospheric pressure can bend the blades down, causing
catastrophic failure, “crashing the pump.”
– Lubrication of the high speed rotor is an engineering problem.
• Circulating oil is most reliable, but pump must be right-side-up.
• Grease-lubricated bearings are less reliable, but allow pump to be placed at
any orientation.
– Too high of a pressure will cause aerodynamic lift and drag.
• A mechanical foreline pump must be used
• Aerodynamic lift can bend blades, causing catastrophic failure.
• A high voltage combined with a magnetic field causes electrons to travel in a
helical path with an energy sufficient to ionize gas atoms.
• The ions are accelerated so they strike a Ti cathode and become buried in the
plate.
• Sputtered Ti coats everything: tubes, plates, and pump casing.
• Several pumping mechanisms are possible, including chemical reaction (getter
action(, ion burial, and neutral burial (the last two accounting for the pump‘s
ability to pump inert gases).
• Can be started below 10
-6
mbar!!!!.
• Pumping speed is gas dependent and drops off below 10
-9
mbar.
• A little less expensive than turbo pumps.
Ion pump for UHV (and high HV)
Single cell from ion pump
Cathode Anode
Ion pump for UHV (and high HV)
Diode Pump: High pumping speed for getterable gases – low speed for noble gases (no getter action).
Argon instabilities when “buried” Ar is released from cathodes at high gas loads.

Noble (or Differential) Diode Pump: The two cathodes are made of different materials, Ti and Ta
Ta is also a getter (slightly less active). When ions impinge on Ta, the higher mass of Ta results in
more energetic neutrals, which penetrate deeper (less Coulomb interaction), both in anode and pump wall.

Triode Pump: Glancing incidence collisions with Ti grid cathode increase Ti sputter yield and yield
of neutrals, both leading to increased burial.
Ion pump for UHV (and high HV)
A – anode B- magnetic flix line produced by a
permanent magnet attached to the outside of the
pump,K1,K2- cathode plates made of Ti , in
contact with pump walls
1- electron ( ) in a spiral track,
2- gas molecules ( ), ionized gas particles( )
3-sputtered Ti ( ), 4- implanted buried, gas
particles, 5- gas particles incorporated into
sputtered Ti

Ion pump for UHV (and high HV)
Diode-type sputtering ion pump-pumping mechanism
A sputtering ion pump consist of a large number of such cells
Ions generated in cell impinge on the cathode plates and sputter Ti. The amount
sputtered is roughly proportional to the pressure in the pump. This material
adheres to the surface of anode, opposite cathode and getters reactive gases.
Some ionized particles penetrate well into the cathode.
This mechanism of pumping is effective for all types of ion
As cathode sputtering proceeds such particles are released giving rise to gas
pressure
Ion pump for UHV (and high HV)
Triode-type sputtering ion pump-pumping mechanism
A – anode, B- magnetic flux line produced by a
permanent magnet attached to the outside of pump,
K- Ti cathode in the form of grid, behind K is a
collector target plate F at anode potential
1- electron ( ) in a spiral track,
2- gas molecules ( ), ionized gas particles( )
3-sputtered Ti ( ), 4- implanted buried, gas particles,
Triode-type sputtering ion pump has a grater
efficiency for pumping noble gases
It is due to geometry of the system favors grazing incidence of the ions from the
discharge on the cathode grid. This increases the sputtering yield and the number of
ions that are neutralized and reflected. These ions travel to the target plate with high
energy and implant themselves but! With negligible sputtering.
Ions which are not neutralised cannot move against the electrical field between
K and F and return towards K
The enhanced pumping speed for noble gases is because the sputtering is less at F
and the reemergance of implanted particles is reduced
Ion Pumps
Pump life depends on quantity of gas pumped> 20 years at 10
-9
mbar

The nominal pumping speed of ion pump is given by the max
in the pumping speed curve for air
Gas H
2
H
2
O CH
4
O
2
Ar He
Relative
pum..speed
%
145 80 100 80 25 30
Example
A chamber is fitted with a triode ion pump with pumping speed S
air
=100Ls
-1
A gas mixture containing
5%CH
4
+10%O
2
in N2 is admitted. A required total pressure in the chamber is 10
-6
mbar
-Calculate the flow –rate of the gas mixture .
Ptot=P
CH4
+P
O2
+P
N2
=1*10
-6
mbar= Q
CH4
/S
CH4
+Q
O2
/S
O2
+Q
N2
/S
N2
=
=5*10
-2
*Q
tot
/S
CH4
+0.1*Q
tot
/S
O2
+0.85*Q
tot
/S
N2
S
N2
=S
air
=100Ls
-1
, S
O2
=0.8S
air
, S
CH4
=S
air
, (see the table above)

1*10
-6
mbar=5*10
-4
Q
tot
+1.25*10
-3
Q
tot
+8.5*10
-3
Q
tot
=10.25*10
-3
Ls
-1
Q
tot
mbar
Q
tot
=9.76*10
-5
mbarLs
-1
Getters and Gettering
Gettering is the process of removing impurities from the
active track regions
Physical getters are in cryostats where a zeolite material is used to physically absorb and hold water vapor.
If a zeolite material is placed at liquid nitrogen temperature it will absorb and hold gases.

Chemical getters provides a pumping action by a chemical reaction where a chemically active gas combines with a
chemically active metal to form a low vapor pressure solid compound.
The chemically active metal can be an element or an alloy that can be called a getter metal (GM)
These reactions with active gases are fairly straightforward.
They all form a low vapor pressure ceramic compound
The active gas is permanently removed from the vacuum chamber.
The inert gases are not pumped at all due to they are inert and will not react with GM
Hydrogen (H
2
) does not react to form a chemical compound but merely dissolves in
GM to form a solid solution.
How To Use Getters
• There are two separate categories of chemical getters:
i- evaporable, ii-non-evaporable.
• Evaporable getters are used in electron tubes:
when the tube is pumped down a slug of getter metal is
heated to a high temperature to evaporate it so that it
can subsequently condense on the tube’s inner surfaces
to forms a high surface area reactive coating that will
remain as an in situ pump after the tube is pinched off.
• Titanium sublimation pump (TSP) : heating
titanium/molybdenum alloy filament to 1450
o
C Ti
sublimes and then condenses into a thin film on the
inner surface of the chamber
• The lifetime of Ti film is dependent upon the gas load it is required to pump

• The pumping speed of is directly proportional to the total surface area of the film.

• The pumping speed will decline as it reacts the gas in the chamber

• The Ti source will become saturated with H
2
when it cooled after sublimation
temperature, and re-heating releases the hydrogen.
How To Use Getters
Non-evaporable getters (NEG) remain in the solid state.
Usually it is zirconium alloys in any solid form: chunks or pellets or thin films
bonded to metallic substrates.
Getter Activation process is required for NEGs:
- NEG exposed to air has ―skin of oxides, nitrides, etc‖ over its surface.
-NEG bulk will be saturated with dissolved H2.
NEG will be essentially inert and will not provide getter-pumping surface.
Getter Activation the process to prepare the getter surface for pumping.
It is done in situ by heating under vacuum after being installed.
During heating ―skin‖ layer will diffuse into the NEGs bulk and the H
2
will be
driven out of solid solution
The time and temperature required for activation will vary with the specific
getter alloy,
The vacuum level required is at least 10
-4
torr
H
2
remaining in the chamber will be re-pumped by the getter,

Gases will be removed from the vessel by reaction on the NEG’s surface until enough gas
is reacted to once again “skin over” the surface and reacted “skin” begins to act as a
barrier for further dissolution of H
2
.
The higher temperature will result in pumping and diffusion into the bulk taking place at
the same time as sort of a continuous activation cycle.
Depending upon the actual NEG alloy in use, a compromise temperature must be chosen
that trades-off diffusion rate for H2 retention.
Re-activation is required each time the NEG material sees air or any other active gas .
When an active gas encounters a hot NEG material, an exothermic reaction occurs that
can run away in terms of temperature and present a very real safety problem.
In a cycled system, the chamber can be released to argon instead of an active gas, or the
getter can be contained within a separate housing that can be isolated from the
chamber by an appropriate valve.
How To Use Getters
Getter Pumps
• An important class of getter pumps are the Non Evaporable Getters (NEGs)
• These are alloys of elements like Ti, Zr, V, Fe, Al which after heating in vacuum
present an active surface where active gases may be gettered
• Traditionally, the getters take the form of a sintered powder either pressed into the
surface of a metal ribbon or formed into a pellet
Getter pumps
• In recent times, thin films of getter material have been formed on the inside of
vacuum vessels by magnetron sputtering
• These have the advantage of
– pumping gas from the vacuum chamber by gettering
– and of stopping gases from diffusing out of the walls of the vessels
Titanium Sublimation Pumps (TSP)
a type of “getter pump”

When a gas molecule impinges on a clean metal film, the sticking probability can
be quite high.
For an active gas with the film at room temperature, values can be between 0.1
and 0.8.
For noble gases and hydrocarbons sticking coefficients are very low (essentially
zero)
Evaporated films, most commonly of titanium or barium, are efficient getters and
act as vacuum pumps for active gases.
Example
UHV chamber evacuated by turbomolecular pump (TMP) backed with oil-rotary pump and Titanium
Sublimation Pump (TSP). A total pressure of 4*10
-9
mbar is achieved and this consists of 50%Ar+50%H
2.
. On reaching this pressure the valve to the TSP is closed and pressure in chamber rise up to 8*10
-
9
mbar.
- Calculate the new partial pressure of H
2
in the system, taking in account that Noble gases will not be
pumped by TSP
P
tot
=P
Ar
+P
H2
=2*10
-9
mbar(P
Ar
)+2*10
-9
mbar(P
H2
)
AP=8*10
-9
mbar -4*10
-9
mbar=4*10
-9
mbar
new P
H2
=2*10
-9
mbar+4*10
-9
mbar=6*10
-9
mbar

- Calculate the pumping speed of TSP for H
2
, if the effective pumping speed of TMP is 100Ls
-1



Initially P
tot
=4*10
-9
mbar=P
Ar
+P
H2
or

For Ar P
Ar
=Q
pv,Ar
/100Ls
-1
Q

With TSP closed off



With TSP open



2
, , 9
, , ,
4 10
pv H pv Ar
eff TMP eff TMP eff TSP
Q Q
mbar
S S S
÷
= +
+
2 2
2
7 1
, , , 9
1 1 1
7 1
,
2 10
;8 10
100 100 100
6 10
pV Ar pV H pV H
tot
pV H
Q Q Q
mbarLs
P mbar
Ls Ls Ls
Q mbarLs
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+
= = +
=
7 1 7 1
9
1 1
,
7 1
9 1
,
1
,
2 10 6 10
4 10
100 100
6 10
2 10 ; 200
100
eff TSP
eff TSP
eff TSP
mbarLs mbarLs
mbar
Ls Ls S
mbarLs
mbar S Ls
Ls S
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
= +
+
= =
+
Starting the system ( “all off”):
1.start BP
2.open V1
3.open DP water
4.wait until G1 reads below 10
-1
Tr
5.turn on DP heater
6.fill lq. Nitrogen trap
7.wait until the DP warms up (20-40 min.)

DP – diffusion pump
BP – primary (backing) pump
V1 – backing valve
V2 – bypass valve
V3 - vent (air inlet) valve
V4 – high vacuum valve
G1 – fore-vacuum gauge
G2 – high vacuum gauge
OPERATING A DIFFUSION PUMP VACUUM SYSTEM
Pumping down (initial pressure in the chamber
760 Tr, all in the pump start-up positions):
close V3
close V1
open V2
wait until G2 reading goes below ~ 10-2 Tr
close V2
open V1
slowly open V4
wait until G2 reads the desired pressure
DP – diffusion pump
BP – primary (backing) pump
V1 – backing valve
V2 – bypass valve
V3 - vent (air inlet) valve
V4 – high vacuum valve
G1 – fore-vacuum gauge
G2 – high vacuum gauge
Venting the chamber:
close V4,
open V3



Stopping the system.
pump down the chamber.close V4
turn off DP heater
stop lq. Nitrogen refill
wait 20-40 min for the DP to cool down
close V1
stop BP
close DP water
OPERATING A DIFFUSION PUMP VACUUM SYSTEM
189

© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Pumps
Introduction
Type of pumps
Assessment of pumps
Energy efficiency opportunities
190

Assessment of pumps
• Pump shaft power (Ps) is actual horsepower
delivered to the pump shaft



• Pump output/Hydraulic/Water horsepower (Hp) is
the liquid horsepower delivered by the pump
How to Calculate Pump Performance
Hydraulic power (Hp):
Hp = Q (m3/s) x Total head, hd - hs (m( x ρ (kg/m3( x g (m/s2( / 1000

Pump shaft power (Ps):
Ps = Hydraulic power Hp / pump efficiency ηPump

Pump Efficiency (ηPump):
ηPump = Hydraulic Power / Pump Shaft Power
© UNEP 2006
hd - discharge head hs – suction head,
ρ - density of the fluid g – acceleration due to gravity
191

© UNEP 2006
Assessment of pumps
• Absence of pump specification data
to assess pump performance
• Difficulties in flow measurement and
flows are often estimated
• Improper calibration of pressure
gauges & measuring instruments
• Calibration not always carried out
• Correction factors used
Difficulties in Pump Assessment
PUMPING SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
STATIC HEAD
Resistance of the system which is to be overcome to initiate the flow is called head.
"Head" may be simply defined as any resistance to the flow of a pump.
Static head is the difference in height between the source and destination of the pumped liquid
Static Head can be divided into two parts :
 Static Suction Head (Hs) : Also called the suction lift .It is the vertical distance from surface
of liquid at source (can be positive or negative)
 Static Discharge Head (Hd) : Vertical distance between pump centreline to destination
STATIC HEAD
STATIC HEAD
VERSUS FLOW
PUMPING SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
FRICTION HEAD
 The pressure drop due to resistance of flow in the pipe and fittings is called the
friction head
 Friction head is effected by the flow and increases with increase in flow

FRICTIONAL HEAD
VS FLOW
SYSTEM HEAD
VS FLOW
TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD (TDH) OR SYSTEM HEAD

TDH = STATIC DISCHARGE HEAD – STATIC SUCTION HEAD+FRICTION HEAD
PUMPING SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES
 Head and flow determine the performance of a pump
PUMP OPERATING POINT
 The pump operating point is determined by the intersection of the system curve
and the pump curve
PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE PUMP OPERATING POINT
Pump Curves
For a given pump
1. The pressure produced at a given flow
rate increases with increasing impeller
diameter.
2. Low flow rates at high head, high flow
rates at high head.
3. Head is sensitive to flow rate at high flow
rates.
4. Head insensitive to flow rate at lower
flow rates.

Pump Curve

- used to determine
which pump to
purchase.

- provided by the
manufacturer.
Pump Curve
Pressure
increases
with
diameter
Low flow at
high head
Head
sensitiv
e to flow
at high
flow
rates
CHARACTERISTICS CURVES
T
O
T
A
L

H
E
A
D


(
M
)

FLOW RATE(LPM)
%
A
G
E

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

S
H
A
F
T

P
O
W
E
R

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES
 Total head reduces with increase in flow rate
 Power required increases with increase in flow rate
 Efficiency increases with increase in flow rate and reaches peak before falling
down
DSM measures to reduce
consumption in pumps
Demand side management measures
• Use of friction less foot valve.
• Use of HDPE pipes
• Use of appropriate capacitor.
• Use of higher size suction pipe compared to
delivery pipe.
• Overall Efficiency = Hydraulic power ( P2) X
100/ Power input ( P1)
• Pump efficiency. = Hydraulic power ( P2) X
100/ Power input to pump shaft ( P3)
• Hydraulic Power ( P2) = Q X Total Head ( hd -
hs ) X p X g / 1000
• Q = discharge in m³/s
Pump Performance calculation
• p = density of fluid in kg/ m³
• g = acceleration due to gravity ( m/s²)
• P1 = 1.732 X V X I X pf
• P3 = P1 X eff.of motor.
Key Parameter for determining
efficiency
• Flow
• Head
• Power
Flow Measurement Techniques
• Tracer Method
• Ultrasonic flow measurement
• Tank filling method
• Installation of online flow meter
Determination of total head
• Suction head
– measured from pump inlet pressure gauge reading
• Discharge head
– This is taken from the pump discharge side Pr.
gauge
• Pumps: (Monoblock Pumps used for Drinking
water)
– Sl.No ITEM Pump1 Pump2
– 1 Make Beacon Beacon
– 2 Capa hp/kW 5 (3.7) 5 (3.7)
– 3 Pipe sizes S/D 65/50 mm 65/50 mm
– 4 Head 25 m 25 m
Typical name plate details of pump
– 5 Discharge 8 L/s 8 L/s
– 6 Amps 8 8
– 7 Overall Efficiency 47% 47 %

Typical name plate details of
pump
• PUMP EFFICIENCY CALCULATION
SHEET
• SL.NO. ITEM Pump1 Pump2 Units
• 1 Voltage 406 407 volts
• 2 Current 6.0 6.6 amps

• 3 P.F 0.83 0.82
• 4 Power input 3.5 3.48 KW
Typical performance calculations
• 5 Dis. Head 22.2 22.2 m
• 6 Suc.Head 2.2 2.2 m
• 7 discharge 8 8 L/s
• 8 Hyd.Power 1.57 1.57 KW
• 9 Pump Effi. 44.85 45.10
Typical performance
calculations

• 1. Replace the existing discharge line with
the 50 mm dia pipes to reduce the friction
losses.
• 2. Provide water level switch to switch off
the pump sets as soon as the Tank is filled.
• 3. Replace the existing pump sets with high
efficiency pump sets.

Typical observations/
Recommendations
• Size pump correctly
• Operate close to the best efficiency point.
• Size all piping and valves correctly
• Avoid all leakages.
Factors to be considered from user
side
Flow control Strategies
• Varying speed
• Pumps in parallel
• stop/start control
• Flow control valve
• By pass control valve
• Trimming impeller
• Use of VFDS
Energy conservation opportunities
in pumping
• Operate pump near best efficiency point.
• Replace old pumps by energy efficient pumps
• Reduce system resistance by pressure drop
assessment and pipe size optimization.
• Provide booster pump for few areas of higher
head.

Energy conservation
opportunities in pumping
• Conduct water balance to minimize water
consumption.
• Ensure availability of instruments like
pressure gauges, flow meters.
• Repair seals and packing to minimize water
loss.
• Avoid valves in discharge side as far as
possible.
• Operate pumpset during non-peak hours.
CHARACTERISTICS CURVES
SYSTEM CURVE : System curve is the change in flow
with respect to head of the system.

 PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE : is the change in flow
with the total head developed by the pump

BEST EFFICIENCY POINT (BEP)
When system curve is superimposed on pump curve it
crosses at the pump BEP
BEP is the pumping capacity at maximum impeller
diameter ,or the point at which the efficiency of the
pump is highest
Obtaining exact flow rate as per BEP is not practically
possible
Flow rate deviation from BEP results in loss of
performance and pump instability
Flow rate can be matched corresponding to the BEP by
following methods :
a) Adjusting the pump speed
b)Adjusting the pump impeller diameter
c) Changing the impeller design
d)Adjusting the system resistance
e)Modifying static head
f) Providing a system bypass flow route
Pump Specification
Recall Mechanical Energy Balance
( )
2
4
2
ˆ
2 2
V
K
D
L
f
p
z g
V
W
i
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
A
+ A +
A
=
¿
µ
o
kg
m N -
( )
c
i
c c
g
V
K
D
L
f
p
g
z g
g
V
W
2
4
2
ˆ
2 2
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
A
+
A
+
A
=
¿
µ
o
m
f
lb
lb f t -
Both equations describe work that must be supplied to system
Pump Head
What happens if the MEB is multiplied through by g (g
c
/g)?
( )
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+ +
A
+ A +
A
=
¿
2
4
2
1
ˆ
2 2
V
K
D
L
f
p
z g
V
g g
W
i
µ
o
What are the units (SI)?
2
2
m
s
kg
m N -
2
2
2
3
m
s
s kg
m kg
-
-
= m =
W/g has units of length and is known as the pump head
^
Example
Tank A

2
Tank B

1
3
Why do we choose point 2 rather than 3 for MEB?
What kind of valve to uses to control flow rate?
Example
Tank A

2
Tank B

1
3
g
V
K
D
L
f
g
p
z H
i
2
4 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
A
+ A =
¿
µ
Mechanical Energy Balance (in terms of head)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
g
V
H
2
2
min
|
Head vs. Flow Rate
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
g
V
H H
2
2
min
|
g
p g
z H
c
µ
A
+ A =
min
g
V
K
D
L
f
i
2
4 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
¿
Quadratic
In V or q
System Response
What happens when flow control valve is closed?
• Resistance (f) increases
• Flow rate decreases
• Need more head to recover flow rate

Tank A

2
Tank B

1
3
System Response
Valve Open
Constant
Head Response
Constant
Flow Response
Valve Closed
Pump Curves
Pump manufacturers supply performance curves
for each of their pumps. These are normally
referred to as ‗pump curves‘. These curve are
generally developed using water as the
reference fluid.
The following can be read directly from a pump
curve:
• Head vs. flow rate information for any fluid
• Pump efficiency for any fluid
• Pump horsepower for system operating with water
Pump Performance Curves
Developed
Head
Impeller
Diameter
Efficiency
Flow Rate
NPSH
Horsepower
http://capsicum.me.utexas.edu/ChE354/resources.html
Power Input
For fluids other than water:
q
W
m P
ˆ

=
|
.
|

\
|
-
-
-
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
|
.
|

\
|
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
=
min
s
hp s
lb f t
f t
lb
gal
f t
min
gal
q
lb
lb f t
g
g
H
hp P
f
m
m
f
c
60 550
48 . 7
1
) (
3
3
q
µ
  
W
ˆ
      

m
Power Input
Easier Way
fluid
water
fluid
water
fluid
Gr Sp
P
P
. . = =
µ
µ
Note: A less dense fluid requires less horsepower
Example
Q = 300 gpm
D
i
= 10‖
D
i
= 10‖
D
i
= 10‖
Head(ft) =
η(%) =
P(hp) =
Head(ft) =
η(%) =
P(hp) =
Head(ft) =
η(%) =
P(hp) =
Pump Selection
Goal is to find a pump whose curve matches the piping system head vs. flow
rate curve. We can superimpose the previous head-flow rate curve on the
manufacturers pump curves.

To select a specific pump from a product line, find the pump with the highest
efficiency that does not require the use of the largest impeller diameter. This will
allow for future production expansions.
Suppose that we have a process that requires a flow rate of 300 gpm and has a
head requirement of 60 ft. at that flow rate. Can a 3x4-10 model 3196 Goulds
pumps be used?
Example
Impeller Diameter =
For Desired Q
Head =
How do can you force
the system to operate
on the pump curve?
NPSH and Cavitation
• NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head
• Frictional losses at the entrance to the
pump cause the liquid pressure to drop
upon entering the pump.
• If the the feed is saturated, a reduction in
pressure will result in vaporization of the
liquid.
• Vaporization = bubbles, large volume
changes, damage to the pump (noise and
corrosion).
Pressure
Profile in
the
Pump
NPSH
• To install a pump, the actual NPSH must be equal
to or greater than the required NPSH, which is
supplied by the manufacturer.
• Typically, NPSH required for small pumps is 2-4
psi, and for large pumps is 22 psi.
• To calculate actual NPSH…
NPSH
actual
= P
inlet
-P*
(vapor pressure)

P
inlet
= P
(top of tank, atmospheric)
+ µgh - 2µfL
eq
V
2
/D
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)


NPSH is the difference between suction head and the vapour pressure of the
liquid at that point

NPSHa – NPSH available is the difference between the suction head available
and the saturated vapour pressure of liquid at the pump suction

NPSHr – NPSH required is the Net Suction Head as required by the pump in
order to prevent cavitation for safe and reliable operation of the pump.
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
Associated with each H-Q location on the pump curve is a quantity that can be
read called NPSH.
An energy balance on the suction side of the fluid system (point 1 to pump inlet)
with p
inlet
set to the vapor pressure of the fluid being pumped gives a quantity
called NPSHA (net positive suction head available).
( )
inlet
inlet
i
v c
z z
V
K
D
L
f
p p
g
g
NPSHA ÷ +
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
÷
=
¿ 1
2
1
2
4
µ
Net Positive Suction Head
The requirement is that:
NPSH NPSHA>
Otherwise (if NPSHA < NPSH
pump
), the pressure at the pump inlet will drop to
that of the vapor pressure of the fluid being moved and the fluid will boil.
The resulting gas bubbles will collapse inside the pump as the pressure rises
again. These implosions occur at the impeller and can lead to pump damage
and decreased efficiency.
Cavitation
What if NPSH
actual
< NPSH
required
?
INCREASE NPSH
actual
• cool liquid at pump inlet (T decreases, P*
decreases)
• increase static head (height of liquid in
feed tank)
• increase feed diameter (reduces velocity,
reduces frictional losses) (standard
practice)
Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation

When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the liquid at a
given temperature, boiling occurs and small bubbles of vapour are formed.
These bubbles will grow in the low-pressure area and implode when they
are transported to an area of pressure above vapour pressure. The term
given to this local vaporisation of the fluid is Cavitation.


Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
• The collapsing of the bubbles is the area of Cavitation we
are concerned with, as extremely high pressures are
produced, which causes noise and erosion of the metal
surface.

• The area of pipeline ...

• This cavitation effect...

• To reduce cavitation ...

• Click on an item to jump to it.
Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the liquid at a
given temperature, boiling occurs and small bubbles of vapour are
formed. These bubbles will grow in the low-pressure area and implode when they are
transported to an area of pressure above vapour pressure.
The term given to this local vaporisation of the fluid is Cavitation.
Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
• The collapsing of the bubbles is the area of Cavitation we
are concerned with, as extremely high pressures are
produced, which causes noise and erosion of the metal
surface.
• The area of pipeline where Cavitation mainly occurs is the
pump suction, where the liquid is subjected to a rapid rise
in velocity, and hence a fall in static pressure.


Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of
the liquid at a given temperature, boiling occurs and
small bubbles of vapour are formed. These bubbles will grow in the
low-pressure area and implode when they are transported to an area
of pressure above vapour pressure. The term given to this local
vaporisation of the fluid is Cavitation.
 The collapsing of the bubbles is the area of Cavitation we are concerned with, as
extremely high pressures are produced, which causes noise and erosion of the metal
surface.
Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
• This Cavitation effect on the pump can cause damage on
the casing and impeller.
• During Cavitation, a liquid/vapour mixture of varying
density is produced.
• This results in fluctuations in pressure (caused by the liquid
column being drawn in), and causes fluctuations in the
discharge pressure, pump power absorbed (shown on the
ammeter), and hence pump revolutions.



Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
When the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the
liquid at a given temperature, boiling occurs and small bubbles
of vapour are formed. These bubbles will grow in the low-
pressure area and implode when they are transported to an
area of pressure above vapour pressure. The term given to
this local vaporisation of the fluid is Cavitation.
Centrifugal Pumps - Cavitation
• The collapsing of the bubbles is the area of Cavitation we are
concerned with, as extremely high pressures are produced,
which causes noise and erosion of the metal surface.
• To reduce Cavitation we must reduce the 'losses' on the
suction side, hence reduce the pipeline friction and NPSH.
This means reducing the pump flow rates. To reduce 'losses'
on starting, the pump should be started against a closed
discharge valve
NPSH
Do not use NPSH to size or select a pump unless all else fails. Pump selection
is governed by H vs. Q requirements of system. When NPSHA is too small, it
might be increased by:
• Increasing source pressure (not usually feasible)
• Cooling liquid to reduce vapor pressure (not usually feasible)
• Raise elevation of source reservoir
• Lower elevation of pump inlet
• Raise level of fluid in reservoir

If NPSHA Can’t Be Increased
If the pump must be modified to achieve proper NPSH:
• Larger slower-speed pump
• Double suction impeller
• Larger impeller eye
• Oversized pump with an inducer
Example
1
5 ft
150 ft
2
5 ft
L = 5 ft, 6 inch Sch40
L = 300 ft, 5 inch Sch40
globe valve (open)
P
1
= 16 psia
P
2
= 16.1 psia
P
3
= 16 psia
Use Goulds 3x4-10
@3560 RPM
Flow = 600 gpm of benzene 60°F
Data for benzene:
P
Vap
= 7.74 psia
µ = 50.1 lb
m
/ft
3

µ = 0.70 cP
3
Centrifugal pumps - Priming
Centrifugal pumps although suitable for most general marine duties,
suffer in one very important respect; they are not self priming and require
some means of removing air from the suction pipeline and filling it with
the liquid.
Centrifugal pumps - Priming
• Where the liquid to be pumped is at a higher level than the
pump, opening an air release cock near the pump suction
will enable the air to be forced out as the pipeline fills up
under the action of gravity. This is often referred to as
"flooding the pump".
• Alternatively, an air-pumping unit can be provided to
individual pumps or as a central priming system connected
to several pumps.
• The water ring or liquid ring primer can be arranged as an
individual unit mounted on the pump and driven by it, or as
a motor driven unit mounted separately and serving several
pumps, known as a central priming system.
Centrifugal Pumps - Central Priming
System
Centrifugal Pumps - Central Priming
System
• Where several pumps require a priming aid, for example a
cargo pumping system or a number of engine room pumps,
a central priming system is often used
• This reduces the number of priming pumps, saving spares,
maintenance and cost.
• With this system a central priming unit consisting of two or
more liquid ring primer pumps is arranged to pull a vacuum
on a central tank.The tank has connections to float
chambers in each of the suction lines for the system pumps
isolated by either manually operated or solenoid operated
valves.
• The priming pumps are controlled by the vacuum of central
tank, cutting in and out as required according to demand.
As a system pump is required the priming connection is
opened manually or automatically until good suction is
achieved.
• The illustration shows a typical central priming system,
including tank, valves, gauges and switches.


Pump Selection from Many Choices of
Characteristic Curves
1. Examine pump curves to see which pumps operate near peak
efficiency at desired flow rate. This suggests some possible pipe
diameters.
2. Compute system head requirement for a few diameters.
3. Compute V for some diameters. For water V in the range of 1 – 10
ft/s is reasonable (see ahead).
4. Re-examine pump curves with computed head and pipe diameters.
This may give a couple of choices.
5. Pick pump with highest efficiency.
Centrifugal Pumps
What’s “suitable”…?
• Impeller
– Single suction or double suction.
• Volutes
– Base mounted or in-line.
• Internally flushed or stuffing box.
• Single stage or multi stage.
• Packing, seal or wet rotor.
Centrifugal pumps - selection
The selection of Centrifugal pumps depends mainly upon duty and the
space available.
The duty points are:
Flow and total head requirements. This will govern the
speed of rotation, impeller dimensions, number of
impellers and type e.g. single or, double inlet,
Range of temperature of fluid to be pumped. If suction
capability is insufficient to accommodate supply conditions
due for example to high inlet temperature Cavitation can
occur
Centrifugal pumps - selection
• Viscosity of the medium to be pumped,
• Type of medium, e.g. corrosive or non-corrosive, this would
affect the choice of material (although for salt and fresh water
the difference is often just the casing).
• Materials for salt water could be, casing-gunmetal (cast iron
for fresh water), impeller-aluminium bronze, shaft-stainless
steel, casing bearing ring seals-leaded bronze.
Centrifugal pumps - selection
The selection of Centrifugal pumps depends mainly upon duty and the space
available.

The space points are:
With vertically arranged pumps less floor space is required, this usually means
that no hydraulic balance is necessary, impeller access is simple and no pipe joints
have to be broken.
Centrifugal pumps - selection
• A typical engine room pump could be a vertical, in-line,
overhung (i.e. suction and discharge pipes are in a straight
line and the impeller is supported, or hung, from above),
either base or frame mounted. From which the impeller can
be removed without splitting the casing, breaking pipe
joints or removing the electric motor.
Selection of Pipe Size
Optimum pipe size depends mainly on the cost of the pipe and fittings and
the cost of energy needed for pumping the fluids.
Cost of materials increase at a rate proportional to about D
1.5
, while power
costs for turbulent flow varies as D
–4.8
. One can find correlations giving
optimum pipe diameter as a function of flow rate and fluid density, however
the optimum velocity is a better indicator as it is nearly independent of flow
rate.
Optimum Pipe Size
For turbulent flow of liquids in steel pipes larger than 1 in.
36 . 0
1 . 0
12
µ
m
V
opt

=
3
] [
] [
] [
ft lb
s lb m
s ft V
m
m
opt
=
=
=
µ

Remember
• Maximize pump efficiency
• Power input (hp) should be minimized if possible
• Selected impeller diameter should not be largest or smallest
for given pump. If your needs change switching impellers is
an economical solution
• NPSH required by the pump must be less than NPSHA
Outline
• Pipe routing
• Optimum pipe diameter
• Pressure drop through piping
• Piping costs
• Pump types and characteristics
• Pump curves
• NPSH and cavitation
• Regulation of flow
• Pump installation design
Piping and Pumping
Learning Objectives
At the end of this section, you should be able to…
• Draw a three dimensional pipe routing with
layout and plan views.
• Calculate the optimum pipe diameter for an
application.
• Calculate the pressure drop through a length of
pipe with associated valves.
• Estimate the cost of a piping run including
installation, insulation, and hangars.
• List the types of pumps, their characteristics, and
select an appropriate type for a specified application.
• Draw the typical flow control loop for a centrifugal
pump on a P&ID.
• Describe the features of a pump curve.
• Use a pump curve to select an appropriate pump and
impellor size for an application.
• Predict the outcome from a pump impellor change.
• Define cavitation and the pressure profile within a
centrifugal pump.
• Calculate the required NPSH for a given pump
installation.
• Identify the appropriate steps to design a pump
installation.
References
• Appendix III.3 (pg 642-46) in Seider et al.,
Process Design Principals (our text for this
class).
• Chapter 12 in Turton et al., Analysis, Synthesis,
and Design of Chemical Processes.
• Chapter 13 in Peters and Timmerhaus, Plant
Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers.
• Chapter 8 in McCabe, Smith and Harriott, Unit
Operations of Chemical Engineering.

Pipe Routing
• The following figures show a layout
(looking from the top) and plan
(looking from the side) view of
vessels.
• We want to rout pipe from
the feed tank to the reactor.
Plan View
50 ft
feed
tank
reacto
r
40 ft
steam
head
er
35 ft
piping
chase
60 ft
reactor
feed
tank
piping
chase
50 ft
35 ft
steam
heade
r
30 ft
45 ft
40 ft
10 ft
Layout View: Looking
Down
reactor
50 ft
feed
tank
reacto
r
40 ft
steam
header
35 ft
piping
chase
60 ft
Plan View
= out
= in
reactor
feed
tank
steam
heade
r
30 ft
85 ft
20 ft
60 ft
35 ft
10 ft
10 ft
Layout
View
Pipe Routing Exercise
• Form groups of two.
• Draw a three dimensional routing for
pipe from the steam header to the
feed tank on both the plan view and
the layout view.
Size the Pump
globe
valve
check
valve
200 ft
150
ft
1. Determine optimum pipe size.
2. Determine pressure drop through pipe
run.
100 gpm
Optimum Pipe Diameter
The optimum pipe diameter gives
the least total cost for annual
pumping power and fixed costs. As
D , fixed costs , but pumping
power costs .


Optimum Pipe Diameter
C
o
s
t
/
(
y
e
a
r

f
t
)

Pipe Diameter
Total Cost
Annualized
Capital Cost
Pumping
Power Cost
Optimum
Example
• Two methods to determine the
optimum diameter:
Velocity guidelines and Nomograph.

• Example: What is the optimum
pipe diameter for 100 gpm water.


Using Velocity Guidelines
• Velocity = 3-10 ft/s = flow rate/area
• Given a flow rate (100 gpm), solve for
area.
• Area = (t/4)D
2
, solve for optimum D.

• Optimum pipe diameter = 2.6-3.6 in.
Select standard size, nominal 3 in. pipe.
Nomograph
-Convert gpm to
cfm  13.4 cfm.
-Find cfm on left
axis.
-Find density (62
lb/ft
3
) on right axis.
-Draw a line
between points.
-Read optimum
diameter from
middle axis.
3.3 in
optimum
diameter
Practice Problem
• Find the optimum pipe diameter for 100
ft
3
of air at 40 psig/min.
• A = (s/50ft)(min/60 s)(100 ft
3
/min) = 0.033
ft
2
• 0.033 ft
2
= 3.14d
2
/4
• d = 2.47 in

Piping Guidelines
• Slope to drains.
• Add cleanouts (Ts at elbows)
frequently.
• Add flanges around valves for
maintenance.
• Use screwed fitting only for 1.5 in
or less piping.
• Schedule 40 most common.
Calculating the Pressure
Drop through a Pipe Run
• Use the article Estimating pipeline
head loss from Chemical Processing
(pg 9-12).
• AP = (t/144)(AZ+[v
2
2
-v
1
2
]/2g+h
L
)
• Typically neglect velocity differences
for subsonic velocities.
• h
L
= head loss due to 1) friction in
pipe, and 2) valves and fittings.
• h
L
(friction) = c
1
fLq
2
/d
5
• c
1
= conversion constant from Table 1
= 0.0311.
• f = friction factor from Table 6 =
0.018.
• L = length of pipe = 200 ft + 150 ft =
350 ft.
• q = flow rate = 100 gpm.
• d = actual pipe diameter of 3”
nominal from Table 8 = 3.068 in .
• h
L
due to friction = 7.2 ft of liquid
head

Loss Due to Fittings
• K= 0.5 entrance
• K = 1.0 exit
• K=f(L/d)=(0.018)(20) flow through tee
• K=3[(0.018)(14)] elbows
• K=0.018(340) globe
• K=0.018(600) check valve

Sum K = 19.5
• h
L
due to fittings = c
3
K
sum
q
2
/d
4
= 5.7 ft
of liquid head loss due to fittings.
• h
Lsum
=7.2 + 5.7 ft of liquid head loss
• Using Bernoulli Equation
AP = (t/144)(AZ+[v
2
2
-v
1
2
]/2g+h
Lsum
)



AP = (t /144)(150+0+12.9)= 70.1 psi due
mostly to elevation. Use AP to size
pump.
elevation velocity friction and
fittings
Find the Pressure Drop
check
valve
400 ft
50 ft
400 gpm
water
4 in pipe
Estimating Pipe Costs
Use charts from Peters and Timmerhaus.
Pipe
Fittings (T, elbow, etc.)
Valves
Insulation
Hangars
Installation

$
/
l
i
n
e
a
r

f
t

Note:
not
2003 $
EFFECT OF SPEED
 Q α N , Flow rate is proportional to rotational speed
 H α N
2
, Head is proportional to square of rotational speed
 P α N
3
, Power is proportional to cube of rotational speed

Variable Speed Pumps
Advantage: Lower operating cost
Disadvantage: Higher capital cost
System head requirement
(no valve)
Pump curve
for D
i

H (ft)
q (gpm)
q* (desired)
q produced by pump
with no flow control
RPM
1

RPM
2

Affinity Laws
In some instances complete sets of pump curves
are not available. In this instance the pump
affinity laws allow the performance of a new
pump to be determined from that of a similar
model. This can be useful when modifying the
operating parameters of an existing pump.
Affinity Laws
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
1 2
D
D
q q
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
1 2
RPM
RPM
q q
2
1
2
1 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
D
D
H H
2
1
2
1 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
RPM
RPM
H H
3
1
2
1 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
D
D
hp hp
3
1
2
1 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
RPM
RPM
hp hp
5 1
2
1
1
2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
÷
D
D
q
q
PARALLEL & SERIES OPERATION
Regulating Flow from
Centrifugal Pumps
• Usually speed controlled motors are
not provided on centrifugal pumps,
the flow rate is changed by adjusting
the downstream pressure drop (see
pump curve).
• Typical installation includes a flow
meter, flow control valve (pneumatic),
and a control loop.
Typical Installation
FT
FC
FV
operator
set-point
Designing Pump Installations
• use existing pump vendor, note spare
parts the plant already stocks.
• select desired operating flow rate,
maximum flow rate.
• calculate pressure drop through
discharge piping, fittings, instrumentation
(note if flow control is desired need to
use pressure drop with control valve 50%
open).
• add safety factor to calculated head – 10
psig spec pump for 20 psig, 150 psig
spec pump for 200 psig.
• using head and flow rate, select impeller
that gives efficient operation in region
of operating flow rate.
• vertical location of pump compared to
level of influent tank (NPSH).
• if want to control flow rate – spec and
order flow meter and flow control valve
also.

295

© UNEP 2006
Training Agenda: Pumps
Introduction
Type of pumps
Assessment of pumps
Energy efficiency opportunities
296

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
1. Selecting the right pump
2. Controlling the flow rate by speed
variation
3. Pumps in parallel to meet varying
demand
4. Eliminating flow control valve
5. Eliminating by-pass control
6. Start/stop control of pump
7. Impeller trimming
297

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
1. Selecting the Right Pump
Pump performance curve for centrifugal
pump
BEE India,
2004
298

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
1. Selecting the Right Pump
• Oversized pump
• Requires flow control (throttle valve or by-
pass line)
• Provides additional head
• System curve shifts to left
• Pump efficiency is reduced
• Solutions if pump already purchased
• VSDs or two-speed drives
• Lower RPM
• Smaller or trimmed impeller
299

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
2. Controlling Flow: speed
variation
Explaining the effect of speed
• Affinity laws: relation speed N and
• Flow rate Q o N
• Head H o N
2
• Power P o N
3
• Small speed reduction (e.g. ½) = large
power reduction (e.g. 1/8)
300

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
Variable Speed Drives (VSD)
• Speed adjustment over continuous
range
• Power consumption also reduced!
• Two types
• Mechanical: hydraulic clutches, fluid couplings,
adjustable belts and pulleys
• Electrical: eddy current clutches, wound-rotor
motor controllers, Variable Frequency Drives
(VFDs)
2. Controlling Flow: speed variation
301

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
Benefits of VSDs
• Energy savings (not just reduced flow!)
• Improved process control
• Improved system reliability
• Reduced capital and maintenance
costs
• Soft starter capability
2. Controlling Flow: speed
variation
302

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
3. Parallel Pumps for Varying Demand
• Multiple pumps: some turned off during low
demand
• Used when static head is >50% of total head
• System curve
does not change
• Flow rate lower
than sum of
individual
flow rates
(BPMA)
303

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
4. Eliminating Flow Control Valve
• Closing/opening discharge valve (“throttling”)
to reduce flow
• Head increases:
does not reduce
power use
• Vibration and
corrosion: high
maintenance
costs and reduced
pump lifetime
(BPMA)
304

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
5. Eliminating By-pass Control
• Pump discharge divided into two
flows
• One pipeline delivers fluid to destination
• Second pipeline returns fluid to the source
• Energy wastage because part of fluid
pumped around for no reason
305

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
6. Start / Stop Control of Pump
• Stop the pump when not needed
• Example:
• Filling of storage tank
• Controllers in tank to start/stop
• Suitable if not done too frequently
• Method to lower the maximum
demand (pumping at non-peak hours)
306

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
7. Impeller Trimming
• Changing diameter: change in
velocity
• Considerations
• Cannot be used with varying flows
• No trimming >25% of impeller size
• Impeller trimming same on all sides
• Changing impeller is better option but more
expensive and not always possible

307

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
7. Impeller Trimming
Impeller trimming and centrifugal pump performance
(BEE India,
2004)
308

© UNEP 2006
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
Comparing Energy Efficiency
Options
Parameter Change
control valve
Trim impeller VFD
Impeller
diameter
430 mm 375 mm 430 mm
Pump head 71.7 m 42 m 34.5 m
Pump efficiency 75.1% 72.1% 77%
Rate of flow 80 m
3
/hr 80 m
3
/hr 80 m
3
/hr
Power
consumed
23.1 kW 14 kW 11.6 kW
Centrifugal pumps - losses
When assessing the amount of power needed to operate a centrifugal
pump you must always take into account the various losses.
Centrifugal pumps - losses
• - Friction loss in bearings and glands, surfaces of impeller
and casing. Some impellers are highly polished to minimize
friction loss.
• - Head loss in pumps due to shock at entry and exit to
impeller vanes and eddies formed by vane edges.
• - Leakage loss in thrust balance devices, gland sealing and
clearances between cut water and casing and bearing seals.


Centrifugal pumps - losses
A characteristic curve for a centrifugal
pump is obtained by operating the pump at
rated speed with the suction open and the
discharge valve shut.
The discharge valve is then opened in
stages to obtain differentdischarge rates and
total head corresponding to them. The data
can then be represented graphically as a
curve.
The illustration shows the characteristic
curves for three different types of pumps.


Centrifugal pumps - losses
Losses can be caused by:

• Failure to deliver

• Capacity reduction

• Excessive vibration

Failure to deliver caused by loss of suction may be due to
• Insufficient supply head
• Air leakage at suction pipe (e.g. valve open to empty
bilge, etc)
• Loss of priming facility or leaking shaft gland



Centrifugal pumps – losses
Capacity reduction could be the result of
• A damaged sealing ring
• Leaking gland
• Obstruction (valve partly closed/foreign body)
• Incorrect rotational speed
Excessive vibration may be caused by
• Loose coupling
• Loose impeller
• Bearing damaged
• Impeller imbalance
Centrifugal pumps - hydraulic balance
To control the axial movement of the rotating assembly, a balance piston is arranged
to counteract the effect of the thrust of the impellers,especially in the multistage
pumps.


Centrifugal pumps - hydraulic balance


• The arrangement keeps the rotating assembly in its correct position
under all conditions of loading .Water at the approximate pressure of
the pump discharge passes from the last stage of the pump between
the impeller hub and the balance restriction bush C into the annular
space B dropping in pressure as it does so .The pressure of water in
the chamber B tends to push the balance piston towards the drive
end.When the thust on the balance piston overcomes the drive and
the impeller thrust the gap A between the piston and balance ring
widens and allows water to escape .This in turn has the effect of
lowering the pressure in chamber B allowing the rotating assembly to
move back towards the pump end .
• Theoretically this cycle will be repeated with a smaller movement
each time until the thrust on the balance piston exactly balances the
other axial forces acting on the assembly. In practice the balancing of
the forces is almost instananeous and any axial movement of the
shaft is negligible.
Centrifugal pumps - maintenance


When the pump is due for overhaul, it will
be necessary to dismantle it to its
component parts to examine them for
wear. The following procedures are
intended as a general guide only, and your
attention should be drawn to the
manufacturer's operational instructions
regarding specific pump requirements
before commencing to dismantle the pump.
Centrifugal pumps - shaft sealing
Centrifugal Pumps
Seals
Shaft
Process
Fluid
Leakage
Environment
Vessel
Wall
Centrifugal pumps - shaft sealing
• To connect the motor to the impeller, the shaft has to pass
through an aperture in the casing.
• To allow the shaft to rotate freely in the casing aperture
there needs to be a gap, but this gap needs to be closed off
to stop air from being drawn in from atmosphere or liquid
from leaking out during operation.
• There are two common methods.
• Packing
• Mechanical seal
• The role of the pump, its speed and the type of liquid being
pumped all play a part in deciding which application works
best.
PUMP SEALS
MECHANICAL
SEAL
GLAND PACKING
 Stationary type seal
 Lantern ring supplies process liquid for sealing ,
cooling and lubrication
 Gland packing runs normally on shaft sleeve
 Small leakage is allowed and is actually
required to prevent damage to packing &
sleeve
 Slight imbalance/eccentricity doesn’t effect the
seal function
 Can withstand slightly abrasive process liquids
 Used for low pressure systems or on suction
sides
 Insensitive to installation errors
 Wear of shaft or shaft sleeve takes place
 Consists of rotating & fixed element
 Rotating Seal element is made of Carbon
 Fixed seal element is made of Ceramic
 Rotating seal is mounted on rotating shaft
and is pushed onto the stationary seal by a
spring
 Process liquid is led to the sealing faces for
sealing ,cooling & lubrication
 No leakage is allowed through the seal
 Slightest imbalance effects the seal function
 Abrasives are enemy of mechanical seals
 Can withstand high system pressures
 Highly sensitive to installation errors
Packing
Packing
• A stuffing box with a soft packing material is the traditional
seal for pumps. Normally made from soft impregnated
cotton, which takes the form of a length of square cross-
section wound spirally onto a tube. This enables the correct
length, to suit the external diameter of the shaft, to be
manually cut to the correct size.
• The stuffing box is then repeatedly filled with sections until
almost full, the gland can then be tightened down to
provide the axial compressive force. This in turn provides
the necessary radial compressive force required to seal the
gap due to the sloping bottom face of the aperture.
• If the force is insufficient the stuffing box will leak, if the
force is too great, the additional friction, and consequently
heat generated by the rotating shaft can damage the soft
packing and/or shaft.
Centrifugal Pumps
Packing
Shaft
Process
Fluid
Leakage
Environment
Vessel
Wall
Centrifugal Pumps
Stuffing box with packing
Centrifugal Pumps
Packing Installation
Centrifugal Pumps
Bypass Flush Line
Bell & Gossett
Series HSC-S
Centrifugal Pumps
Liquid-Abrasives Separator
Centrifugal Pumps
B&G Pump Construction
• Standard construction, any impeller
– Mechanical seal
– Internally flushed, seal cavity
– Variety of seal materials
Centrifugal Pumps
Ceramic Seal Insert
Graphite Seal Ring
Compression Ring
Impeller
Retainer (Sec Seal)
Gasket
Mechanical Seal
Rotary Assy
Stationary Assembly
Secondary Seal (Seal Bellows)
Centrifugal Pumps
Seal Cavity
Centrifugal Pumps
Standard construction
Bell & Gossett
Series 1510
Standard
Construction
Centrifugal Pumps
Limits On Seal Performance
• Temperature of the flushing water.
– 225ºF to 250ºF
• System pH.
– 7 to 9 for ceramic seals
– up to 11 for tungsten carbide seals
• Concentration of dissolved solids.
– TDS less than 1000 ppm
• Concentration of suspended solids.
– Less than 20 ppm
– Silica, less than 10 ppm
Centrifugal Pumps
Internally Flushed Mechanical Seals

Bell & Gossett
Series HSC
3

Standard
Construction
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Construction
• Stuffing box construction, any impeller
– External flush lines
• Internal or External Fluid
– Compression packing rings
– Single flushed mechanical seal
Mechanical seals
• Mechanical seals
The provision of rotary shaft seals instead
of the usual stuffing box and gland, where
conditions are suitable, possesses many
advantages. The power absorbed is lower
and is constant, whereas a gland
excessively tightened causes a
considerable increase in power absorbed.
Mechanical seals
• In small pumps this may result in overloading the motor. In
addition maintenance costs are reduced, the rotary seal
operating for long periods without wear or attention.
• A standard seal consists of a stationary carbon ring insert in
the casing, or seal cover where such is provided, and
against this a metal ring of easy clearance on the shaft
sleeve rotates, contact between the faces being ensured by
a lightly loaded coil spring.
• The rubbing faces of both carbon and metal rings are
independently lapped to give a dead flat surface.
• A synthetic rubber ring, of circular cross-section, contained
between shaft sleeve and metal ring, in a groove in the
latter, effectively prevents leakage between them.
• The diameter of the groove is such that a squeeze is exerted
on the rubber ring, thus a sufficient frictional force is
provided to rotate the metal ring, with certain exceptions.


Mechanical seals


• The width of the groove is, however, made considerably
greater so that the metal ring is capable of free axial float with
accompanying rolling action of the rubber ring.
• Materials used for the various seal parts are as follows
• Carbon stationary ring.
• Synthetic rubber ring.
• Bronze rotating ring with bronze spring for standard and all
gunmetal pumps.
• Stainless steel rotating ring for all iron pumps.
Mechanical seals
• For non-lubricating liquids, such as ammonia,
• section, contained between shaft sleeve and metal ring, in a
groove in the latter, effectively prevents leakage between
them.
• The diameter of the groove is such that a squeeze is exerted
on the rubber ring, thus a sufficient frictional force is provided
to rotate the metal ring, with certain exceptions.
• The width of the groove is, however, made considerably
greater so that the metal ring is capable of free axial float with
accompanying rolling action of the rubber ring.
Centrifugal Pumps
Installation
Typical installation
Elbow Support
(Anchor to Base)
Solid Base Foundation
Flow
Pump Motor Hoist Beam
Trolley with Manual
Hook-Type Hoist
Triple Duty Valve
Suction Diffuser
Centrifugal Pumps
Angular Misalignment
Centrifugal Pumps
Parallel or Offset Misalignment
Centrifugal Pumps
Suction Piping Detail
5 dia.
1. Pipe supported
2. Length of suction piping
allows even impeller
loading
RIGHT WRONG
1. Pipe weight hangs on
pump flange.
2. Short suction pipe results
in uneven impeller
loading.
Centrifugal Pumps
Why 5 diameters?
Single Suction
Impeller
Quick quiz
where is the packing material located?
Click on the packing material.
If you are not sure go to the previous
screen to refresh your memory.


Question 1

1: Cavitation of the fluid in a centrifugal pump is caused by?

A) Too high a speed of impeller rotation creating adverse
heat
.
B) The vapour pressure in the suction pipe falls below the
vapour pressure of the liquid at a given temperature.

C) The viscosity of the fluid is too high, the extra power
absorbed being converted into heat.

D) Do not kown.

Question 2
Why is the axial flow pump ideal for trimming and heeling
duties?
A) It is reversible and has a high capacity flow.

B) It has excellent suction lift.

C) Its discharge pressure is increased by the speed of the
ship.

D) I do not know.
Question 3
What is the advantage of a double entry centrifugal pump?

A) It has a lower NPSH required characteristic, giving
advantages in poor suction conditions.

B) It gives double the flow rate.

C) It uses only half the input power for the same flow rate.

D) Don't know


Question 4
Which one of these options is NOT a cause of excessive vibration
in centrifuga pumps?

A) Bearing damaged.

B) Impeller imbaianced.

C) Discharge valve partly closed

D) Don't know
Question 5
Centrifugal pumps need priming because?
A) An excellent suction lift causes the surface of the liquid to
vaporise
B) They must be started with the discharge valve open to
reduce the starting load, but this causes the pump to run
backwards.
C) It is the movement of the liquid from the eye of the
impeller to the discharge that causes a low-pressure region at
the suction, if the pump is started full of air this movement of
liquid does not occur therefore no suction pressure is created.
D) Don't know
Question 6
The energy transformation within a centrifugal pump is as
follows?
A) Pressure is converted into kinetic energy by the impeller;
this kinetic energy is converted to an increase in velocity by
the volute casing.
B) The impeller creates centrifugal force, which increases
the liquid velocity, an increase in velocity means an increase
in kinetic energy, the increased kinetic energy is converted
into pressure by reducing the velocity in the volute casing.
C) Decreasing the velocity in the impeller decreases the
kinetic energy, decreasing the kinetic energy whilst
increasing the velocity of the fluid in the volute casing
increases it's pressure.
• D) Don't know
353
Training Session on Energy
Equipment

Pumps & Pumping
Systems

THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

© UNEP 2006

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