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Crowdsourcing for Democracy: New Era in Policy-Making

Crowdsourcing for Democracy: New Era in Policy-Making

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Published by Tanja Aitamurto
By drawing on several cases around the world, this book
illuminates the role of crowdsourcing in policy-making.
From crowdsourced constitution reform in Iceland and
participatory budgeting in Canada, to open innovation for services
and crowdsourced federal strategy process in the United States,
the book analyzes the impact of crowdsourcing on citizen agency
in the public sphere. It also serves as a handbook with practical
advice for successful crowdsourcing in a variety of public domains.


The author, Tanja Aitamurto, is a visiting researcher at the Liberation
Technology Program at Stanford University. She examines
how collective intelligence, whether harvested by crowdsourcing,
co-creation or open innovation, impacts processes in journalism,
public policy-making and design. This book is based on a report
she delivered to the Parliament of Finland about crowdsourcing
for democratic processes.
By drawing on several cases around the world, this book
illuminates the role of crowdsourcing in policy-making.
From crowdsourced constitution reform in Iceland and
participatory budgeting in Canada, to open innovation for services
and crowdsourced federal strategy process in the United States,
the book analyzes the impact of crowdsourcing on citizen agency
in the public sphere. It also serves as a handbook with practical
advice for successful crowdsourcing in a variety of public domains.


The author, Tanja Aitamurto, is a visiting researcher at the Liberation
Technology Program at Stanford University. She examines
how collective intelligence, whether harvested by crowdsourcing,
co-creation or open innovation, impacts processes in journalism,
public policy-making and design. This book is based on a report
she delivered to the Parliament of Finland about crowdsourcing
for democratic processes.

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Categories:Types, Presentations
Published by: Tanja Aitamurto on Dec 27, 2012
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08/25/2014

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CroWdsourCing Was used in

Iceland in 2010 and 2011 in the con-
stitution reform process1

. The con-
stitution needed reforming, and the Prime
Minister Johanna Sigurðardóttir, among
others, wanted to invite the citizens to join
the reform process. The citizens’ knowledge,
ideas, and expertise were crowdsourced for
the constitutional reform.
Iceland was recovering from a heavy f-
nancial crisis, which lead into a recession.
This crisis also lead to democratic recession,
since the citizens’ trust in the powerholders
deteriorated.

1 Video about the constitution reform process in English
http://youtu.be/4uJOjh5QBgA

As preceding events to crowdsourcing, there
had been national assemblies2

for citizens to
discuss the country’s values and future. In the
assembly in 2010, Icelanders shared perspec-
tives about the constitution. Input from 1,000
people was summarized into this mind map
http://thjodfundur2010.is/nidurstodur/
tre/, which was later used in the constitution
reform. Based on proceedings in the national
assemblies, crowdsourced constitution pro-
cess was set to start. First, the Icelanders chose
25 representatives to a constitution reform
council. These representatives were regular
citizens rather than professional politicians,

2 http://www.thjodfundur2010.is/
and http://www.thjodfundur2009.is/

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