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Sumerian Lexicon

Version 3.0 by

John A. Halloran
The following lexicon contains 1,255 Sumerian logogram words and 2,511 Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around 3400 B.C. in the Uruk/Warka region of southern Iraq. The language that they spoke, Sumerian, is known to us through a large body of texts and through bilingual cuneiform dictionaries of Sumerian and Akkadian, the language of their Semitic successors, to which Sumerian is not related. These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period (1800-1600 B.C.), by which time Sumerian had ceased to be spoken, except by the scribes. The earliest and most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, whose origins were pictographic, making an initial repertoire of about a thousand signs or logograms. Beyond these words, two-thirds of this lexicon now consists of words that are transparent compounds of separate logogram words. I have greatly expanded the section containing compounds in this version, but I know that many more compound words could be added. Many cuneiform signs can be pronounced in more than one way and often two or more signs share the same pronunciation, in which case it is necessary to indicate in the transliteration which cuneiform sign is meant; Assyriologists have developed a system whereby the second homophone is marked by an acute accent (´ ), the third homophone by a grave accent (` ), and the remainder by subscript numerals. [If the small font size prevents you from seeing whether the accent is acute or grave, click on View and Zoom and scroll up to 125%.] The homophone numeration here follows the 'BCE-System' developed by Borger, Civil, and Ellermeier. The 'accents' and subscript numerals do not affect the pronunciation. The numeration system is a convention to inform Assyriologists which, for example, of the many cuneiform signs that have the reading du actually occurs on the tablet. A particular sign can often be transcribed in a long way, such as dug 4, or in a short way, such as du 11, because Sumerian was like French in omitting certain amissable final consonants except before a following vowel. Due to this lexicon's etymological orientation, you will usually find a word listed under its fullest phonetic form. Transcriptions of texts often contain the short forms, however, because Sumerologists try to accurately represent the spoken language. Short forms are listed, but you are told where to confer. The vowels may be pronounced as follows: a as in father, u as in pull, e as in peg, and i as in hip. Of the special consonants, ñ is pronounced like ng in rang, þ is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch, and š is pronounced like sh in dash. Following the definitions, the lexicon may indicate in a smaller font the constituent elements of words that in origin were compound words, if those elements were clear to me. Etymologies are a normal part of dictionarymaking, but etymologies are also the most subject to speculation. It is possible that, in some cases, I have provided a Sumerian etymology for what is actually a loanword from another language. I encourage scholars to contact me with evidence from productive roots in other proto-languages when they have reason to believe that a Sumerian word is a loan from another language family. In light of the Sumerian propensity for forming new words through compounding in the period after they invented cuneiform signs, it should not be surprising to find this same propensity in words dating from before their invention of written signs. The structure and thinking behind the Sumerian vocabulary is to me a thing of beauty. We are fortunate to be able to look back into the minds of our prehistoric ancestors and see how they thought and lived via the words that they created. The lexicon's etymological orientation explains why the vocabulary is organized according to the phonetic structure of the words, with words sharing the same structure being listed together and alphabetically according to their final consonants and vowels, as this method best groups together related words. This principle has been abandoned after words of the structure CVC(V) in this version, as words that are phonetically more complex than

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


this do not group together by meaning. The phonetically more complex words and the compound words are listed alphabetically simply by their initial letters. The lexicon has been in development over a fourteen-year period. Primary sources included: A. Deimel, Šumerisches Lexikon; Rome 1947. E. Reiner et al., The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Chicago 1956ff. W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch; Wiesbaden 1958-1981. R. Borger, “Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste”, Band 33 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1978. R. Labat and F. Malbran-Labat, Manuel d'Épigraphie Akkadienne, 6º édition; Paris 1995 (this is the cuneiform sign manual used by most Sumerology students - it is available from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). M.L. Thomsen, The Sumerian Language: An Introduction to Its History and Grammatical Structure; Copenhagen 1984 (this well-done grammar is currently the standard text - if it is on back order at Eisenbraun's, ask your public library's Interlibrary Loan department to obtain it for you). J.L. Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts; Malibu 1990 (beginning students can start with this book before graduating to Thomsen- if available, order it from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). R. Jestin, Notes de Graphie et de Phonétique Sumériennes; Paris 1965. B. Landsberger, as compiled by D.A. Foxvog and A.D. Kilmer, "Benno Landsberger's Lexicographical Contributions", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol 27 (1975). H. Behrens and H. Steible, Glossar zu den altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften; Wiesbaden 1983. K. Oberhuber, Sumerisches Lexikon zu “George Reisner, Sumerisch - babylonische Hymnen nach Thontafeln griechischer Zeit (Berlin 1896)” (SBH) und verwandten Texten; Innsbruck 1990. Å.W. Sjöberg et. al., The Sumerian Dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia 1984ff. Letters B and A through Abzu have been published. M. Civil, unpublished Sumerian glossary for students. S. Tinney, editor, Index to the Secondary Literature: A collated list of indexes and glossaries to the secondary literature concerning the Sumerian Language, unpublished but now expanded and searchable at: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu:80/psd/ E.I. Gordon, Sumerian Proverbs: Glimpses of Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia; Philadelphia 1959 (with contributions by Th. Jacobsen). D.C. Snell, Ledgers and Prices: Early Mesopotamian Merchant Accounts; New Haven and London 1982. P. Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur; Winona Lake 1989. C.E. Keiser and S.T. Kang, Neo-Sumerian Account Texts from Drehem; New Haven & London 1971. J. Bauer, Altsumerische Wirtschaftstexte aus Lagasch; Dissertation for Julius-Maximilians-Universität at Würzburg 1967 [appeared under same name as vol. 9 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1972]. J. Krecher, "Die marû-Formen des sumerischen Verbums", Vom Alten Orient Zum Alten Testament, AOAT 240 (1995; Fs. vSoden II), pp. 141-200. K. Volk, A Sumerian Reader, vol. 18 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1997 (this practical, inexpensive book includes a nice, though incomplete, sign-list). B. Alster, The Instructions of Suruppak: A Sumerian Proverb Collection (Mesopotamia: Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology, Vol. 2); Copenhagen 1974. B. Alster, Proverbs of Ancient Sumer: The World's Earliest Proverb Collections, 2 vols; Bethesda, Maryland 1997.

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


Å. Sjöberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen in der sumerischen Überlieferung; Stockholm 1960. V.E. Orel and O.V. Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction (Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 1, Bd. 18); Leiden, New York, & Köln 1995. M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Zeichenliste der Archaischen Texte aus Uruk [ZATU] (Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka, 11; Archaische Texte aus Uruk, 2); Berlin 1987. P.Damerow and R. Englund, Sign List of the Archaic Texts (electronic FileMaker database collection of ZATU signs occurring in catalogued texts from Uruk IV to ED II); Berlin 1994. P. Steinkeller, review of M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Bibliotheca Orientalis 52 (1995), pp. 689-713. J. Krecher, "Das sumerische Phonem |ñ |", Festschrift Lubor Matouš, Assyriologia 5, vol. II, ed. B. Hruška & G. Komoróczy (Budapest, 1978), pp. 7-73. M. Civil, The Farmer's Instructions: A Sumerian Agricultural Manual (Aula Orientalis-Supplementa, Vol. 5); Barcelona 1994. M. Krebernik, Die Beschwörungen aus Fara und Ebla: Untersuchungen zur ältesten keilschriftlichen Beschwörungsliteratur (Texte und Studien zur Orientalistik, Bd. 2); Hildesheim, Zurich, New York 1984. M.A. Powell, "Masse und Gewichte" [Weights and Measures: article in English], Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie,.Bd. 7, ed. D.O. Edzard (Berlin & New York, 1987-90), pp. 457-517. K.R. Nemet-Nejat, Cuneiform Mathematical Texts as a Reflection of Everyday Life in Mesopotamia (American Oriental Series, Vol. 75); New Haven 1993. E.J. Wilson, “The Cylinders of Gudea: Transliteration, Translation and Index”, Band 244 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1996. D.O. Edzard, Gudea and His Dynasty (The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods, Vol. 3/1); Toronto, Buffalo, London 1997. W.W. Hallo and J.J.A. van Dijk, The Exaltation of Inanna; New Haven & London 1968. The Sumerian lexicon has benefitted from several classes at UCLA with Dr. Robert Englund. I dedicate this lexicon to the memory of Dr. Robert Hetzron, with whom I had the pleasure of studying during every week of the four years that I attended the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dr. Hetzron was a professional linguist and expert on the Afroasiatic language family. If you are a Sumerology student who wishes to add entries or make changes to this Word document, please do so in a colored font, so that your changes can be identified and incorporated into future versions of the lexicon. The home page for the Sumerian lexicon is http://www.sumerian.org/.

a, e4:

n., water; watercourse, canal; seminal fluid; offspring; father; tears; flood. [A archaic frequency: 519]

interj., alas!. prep., locative suffix - where; in; when - denotes movement towards or in favor of a person. def. article, nominalizing suffix for a noun or noun clause, denoting 'the'.

á: a5: e: é: è:

(cf., áþi ). (cf., aka ). (cf., ég) . house, household; temple; plot of land [E 2 archaic frequency: 649; concatenates 4 signs] . (cf., éd) .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


the prospective modal prefix: if. waist. pron. grass. u18[GIŠGAL]: u20[ŠE]: barley. insult. panting of battle. screams. to derive a more specific meaning.8): u4: u5: n. pasture. liquid'. strong.. male bird. when.e11: (cf..0 4 .. i: ì: i7: u: ú: n. adj. to nourish. powerful (man). aba) [AB archaic frequency: 384.. ub: corner. a small room [UB archaic frequency: 124].. (cf.. to flare up in anger. (cf. often used as a polite imperative. v. 'tears. a pronominal prefix in a compound noun. raised area (sometimes written ù) [U 5 archaic frequency: 1]. i) ù: n.'middle') [AB2 archaic frequency: 288].. èd). [according to S.5: a drum.. n. pitfall. sleep (cf. thighs.. concatenates 3 signs] . food... fight. adj. ub4: cavity. to bend over. complaint' ?) [I archaic frequency: 17]. angle. vegetable. load [U 2 archaic frequency: 225. an expression of protest. ab: window. defeat. ír. ìa) . to be on top of. niche. concatenates 2 sign variants (sign also used for èš and aba . to steer.'water. u 5). cock.. nook. and u4 were pronounced /o/] v. to capture. after. to mount (in intercourse)... overcome (cf. ib: corner.. to sleep.4. áb: domestic cow (a.. Version 3.. þà ). totality. us 5). to be angry. the grunting. and. u6: u8: (cf. hole. huge. ug 6). plant. éb: n. support. ù. nook [IB archaic frequency: 252. v. especially land or ground (sometimes written ù). cries. dispute. v. (raised) high. angle.. ud ). bread. opening. cry of pain (derived from ér. (cf.. concatenates 2 sign variants] .. Lieberman. Sumerian Lexicon.for this reading and meaning in Fara period. (cf. éd. n... u. v. (kuš) ub3. to ride. conduct. see Krebernik. to curse. íb. ída) .. u(3. to board (a boat). loins. + íb. prep.. v. middle. Beschwörungen] .. (cf. è. earth pile or levee. nook (cf..

glance (['EYE' + 'HOUSE']). astonishing. to kill. dike. úþ.. marû. ak). prep. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun). concatenates 2 sign variants] . storm (demon) [UD archaic frequency: 419]. gaze. gaze. adda4). demonstrative pron. dug 4.in.. n. suffixed to ergative agent. froth. íd: (cf. paste.. spittle. ug6.. e: n. also di ). venom. light.6: (cf. i: to go out. malice. to sprout. concatenates 2 sign variants] . adj. to bring down (or up). uþ(3): lice. ad4: lame. ùz). plural hamtu. u6[IGI. uþ. ùña). e4. itud) . ig: door. emerge. say (e = sing.. ég. day...7.É]: n.. to rise.. to stare at.. vermin [UÞ3 archaic frequency: 14. ùñ: (cf. v. emmer (wheat). amazement.. úš ). adda). concatenates 5 sign variants] .. ug4. íg. set. e11: to exit. to fetch. èd. slaver. anger.. storm. to die (singular and plural marû stem..5.8. to be impressed. to import. Version 3. moth. to lead or bring out. laþ ). ud5: (cf. ug(2): lion. locative/terminative suffix . louse. which is sometimes reduplicated. cripple. insect. parasite. it4: ud. dead person. + ig. fury. time.. toward. 'water'. u4: úd[ÁŠ]: (cf. weather. 'door') [EG 2 archaic frequency: 12.. ék.. ád: (cf. since.. nit. id4. and plural marû. ada).. v.. áña). Sumerian Lexicon.. to remove. éd. this one.8: n. entrance [IG archaic frequency: 43. to water. áñ: (cf. when. concatenates 2 sign variants] . death. to be or become visible.ad: (cf. to appear as a witness (the final d appears in marû conjugation) [ED 2 archaic frequency: 12. ag: (cf. plural hamtu. cf. prep. v. ad3. ída). to rise.0 5 . flea. in the immediate vicinity. levee. uþ: (cf. to send forth. to look at. cf. to descend. è. to speak. bund (a.. to drain (èdè(-d) in marû). àþ. aþ: phlegm. embankment. sun..

to glitter. al: digging stick... umu ). v.. hasten. or 3) the lack of a transitive relationship. em: (gi) the Sumerian enclitic copula . gim4). invective [IN archaic frequency: 21]. flower. prep. en: n.. which. am: (cf. high priest.. lord. heaven. ara4). she. insult. íla). grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') [AN archaic frequency: 806]. high. occurs after a noun [e. a rope made of reeds (cf. ag: ñiš genitival suffix: 'of' (cf.. indicates: 1) distance. shine..3): n.. il5: (cf. until. concatenates 3 sign variants] . pickax. um: an: n. ùña).'to be'.. àm and áma). áña). dignitary.. un: (cf. úllu). in front. spade [AL archaic frequency: 95] . remote. noble.. like (in scholarly lists). the god An. en(2. (same) as. pleasure. enigmatic background [EN 2 archaic frequency: 17]. al: verbal prefix: used immediately before stative verbs. adj. v.... 2) the speaker is not involved. who... William king-is]. to rule. star. ár: (cf.. joy. offense. concatenates 3 sign variants] . v.. ára). straw. ancestor (statue). what. adj. imi). enduring. wooden mattock. íl: (cf.. adj. Sumerian Lexicon. diviner [EN archaic frequency: 1232. ùl: (cf. (cf. time. to hurry. Version 3. ili5).. bud.AN]: im. in: he.. àm[A. ím: (cf. to be high. ornament. satisfaction. aka ). harass [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. a capacity measure of 36 liters in Presargonic Girsu. also.. ul4: to be quick.. þar).ak. ancient.. sky.. ar: (cf. distant (in time). ul: n.0 6 . prep. ám: (cf. àr: (cf. forked hoe with from 2 to 4 teeth.g.

concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. interest. sweat. bring.11: v.0 7 . re7). enemy (cf. smell.. to chew. ús. complaint. as: (cf. er: ir3. to smell. téš) [UR archaic frequency: 114. it. in geometry: length. carnivorous beast. mountain pass. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . lap. his. to drag (over the ground) (often with -ni -).... (cf. to clog. ) Sumerian Lexicon.. dock. base. to belch. to curse. gur 10).. ur11: (cf. repayment. uzmušen: domestic goose or duck (cf. arad (2)). uru4). beam. reap. surplus. úz [UŠ]: n. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . trunk of a tree [UR2 archaic frequency: 78]. spleen. block. to tremble. scented. ur(2. to roar. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . foundation. perfume. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to be bowed with grief. vertical. distance. edge.ér. bibad) (loanword into Akkadian) [US archaic frequency: 18. to rent. unique.. in the same way. to let reach. áš: n. .. bulk.14) [? UR4 archaic frequency: 41. liver. height. ir(10). soul. main body.. tears. aš: one. heart. to rub something in.. n. us. young man. the referenced.3. aš(5): spider. curse (abbreviated v... to lead away (Emesal dialect for túm . v. rafter (cf. followed by a negation: not at all.. border. dog. mow (reduplication class) (cf. demonstrative. to flood. to weep..4)) [UR3 archaic frequency: 27. wipe out. perfumed. u8: mother ewe. burp. to desire. ír: ir(10): n. to moor.. perpendicular. ur4: (cf. to follow. slave-woman (cf. hers. fragrant. us5. so. loan. ur5[ÞAR]: n. wish. tàš ? ašte ? [AŠ 2 archaic frequency: 5]. þar. to shear.. to join.. gur10. humble. scent.. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . adj. these. ur: n... to imprison. to bring. mur ) [UR 5 archaic frequency: 34. inanimate pron.4): to surround.. adj. ùr: roof.. v. asa).3. to drive. warrior. servant.. to erase. interest-bearing debt. profit. alone. loins. v. úr: floor. lamentation. cf. to lean against (cf. thus. entrance. prayer.. to be next to. theirs. Version 3. to come near to. ur(2. to throw overboard. v. adult female sheep [US 5 archaic frequency: 86]. leg(s).. root. side. fragrance [IR archaic frequency: 53. ñíš ). reach. in this way. to transport. thighs. odor. obligation.

to stand upon. asa). concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'five'. [UŠ archaic frequency: 101. many. ús).0 8 .16. dead. úš: n. ùš: placental membrane..aš3. foundation (cf. bà: liver. conjugation prefix. to give. UŠ: a length measure. ba4: Emesal dialect. spittle. reading unknown. v. ús: three. lift. éše). concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. blood vessel. to pay (interchanges with bar). éš: (cf. Version 3. ñíš) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. us). v. adj.21: uš. adverbial force suffix (sometimes followed by -šè ). uš11: venom. rations.. iši).. afterbirth... to block (singular hamtu stem). possessive or demonstrative suffix (ku6) -bi plus nominative -a. wages [BA archaic frequency: 523]. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. adv. much. = 6 ropes = 60 nindan rods. + aš... death [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65.. moistening. slaver. base. eš: n.. omen. èš: shrine [AB archaic frequency: 384. Sumerian Lexicon. 'house'. 'one'). to support.. spell.4... share.8: six (ía.. portion. concatenation of 2 sign variants. ba: n. concatenates 3 signs] . to kill. apportion. ba: a shelled creature (such as a turtle or a snail). poison. úz: (cf. cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . iš: (cf. bar).6. ut5: she-goat [UD 5 archaic frequency: 109.. used when the subject is inanimate and/or non-agentive (intransitive). ba7: (cf. v. a scraping tool. to divide. eš5. ñá. distribute. ùz. uš7: spittle. blood. concatenates 2 sign variants] ... to anoint. liver model. v. n. ud5. charm. uz: (cf. uš8: foundation place.. to die. az: (cf.

poss.2. bur 12. to shape. case. ðe6: to bring. to go. and. di4: (cf. say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. to be near. to water. to conduct oneself. 'to speak'). totality. 'with'. bi6 [BA]: bu(3.dé ). neuter + e 'to speak'). dé: to pour (often with -ni-). v.. sing. side. bi[z] ) [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261. decide. pron. mention (cf. dù('). verdict.. to instruct. suffix.. ég .be: (cf. the.. differentiates the semantic meaning of certain verbs... di5 [RI]: to advise. lawsuit. adverbial force suffix. Used like the terminative postposition -šè after verbal phrases to indicate intent or goal.. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .. to escape (di-dé used as non-finite marû form of dug 4. biz.. de6. to remove (earth clods) (reduplicated).3. twitter. da5: (cf.. judgment. be full. to hold. dab6). bé: v.cf. marû form suffix . to increase. this (one).denote direction). decision.. cf.. to speak. to continue on (singular hamtu.. bí: (cf. re7. hum.. to murmer. to come (sing. Sumerian Lexicon. form. di: n. to tear off (with -ta -). buzz. to protect. howl. du: to walk. tud).2. cf... that (one) . copula. prep. súb) [DU archaic frequency: 299]. de5. marû. bad). de 6. cry. sentence [DI archaic frequency: 99].. gù.in this sense can occur with animates. v. to go..6): to tear. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to diminish.. adv. i-bí). concatenates 4 sign variants] . to sink (for other meanings . work. dú: (cf. bìd). comitative suffix. bi7: (cf. chirp. it. carry (-ši . Emesal ga(14)).. conj. bu5: to rush around (cf. arm.. ñin.. demonstrative suffix. art. tumu2. da: n. lessen.. nearness (to someone) [DA archaic frequency: 227. bi. bul ) [BU: archaic frequency: 393. bul). ðú: n..often indicates a present participle to be translated by English -ing or connotes future sense. tur). Version 3. laþ4..0 9 . to judge. 'its' applies to inanimate (things and animals) and collective objects. (cf. dè: ashes. 'and' (mainly in Sargonic date texts).or -ta . conjugation prefix.

du10: du11: du12: du14: (cf.. wool yarn. 'also'... reliable. to restore. dislike. dug 4). gi25[DUGUD]: frequency: 53]. adj. dùg ).. to send (back) (with -ši -). to be necessary.. small. gir 10). to lock up (circle + to descend into). du5: (cf. conjugation prefix. orig. cast. strengthen. to establish something as the property of someone (dative) (loanword from Semitic.v. dul(6)). gi: reed. to confirm. ge(n): v. toss (reduplication class?) (regularly followed by rá ) [DU 7 archaic frequency: 7]. trustworthy. to build. ge9: gi17: (cf.. to act justly. to raise up. Orel & Stolbova #1403. to erect something on the ground. gir15). concatenation of 3 sign variants] . besiege. du9: (cf. and with -ni-) (circular motion + to go out.. gi(17): gí.. du8: (cf. gig ). reed mat. milk (chamber + water) [GA archaic frequency: 245. gi(n). just. ñen). used with hamtu forms. apply (dù-e in marû). ñin. *ka'Vn.6): girl. gu: string... Akkadian kânu. net. cohortative. young man (small and thin like a reed).. fixed. struggle. cf. modal prefix. length measure. send) [GI 4 archaic frequency: 37. to fasten. hemp. to answer (person to whom answer is given resumed by dative prefix. to set up. to reject. ga6: (cf. to return. gùr). (cf. Version 3. tuku ). du7: to be finished. duþ). gore. gi7: (cf. fight. gi(4): to surround..0 10 . come back. flax. snare. thread.. firm. gé: gi4. to stabilize.'be true'. make. complete.. ge4: n.. 'and then'. (cf. dun5). fitting.. gíg ). concatenation of 3 sign variants] . gi9. (cf. sug5) du6: (cf. quarrel. ga: n.. reed = 6 cubits = 3 meters (circular + to sprout) [GI archaic frequency: 484]. word for needle (circular + grass-like) [GU archaic Sumerian Lexicon. to butt. to mould.. ge(2. adj.. (cf. to plant. to be suitable.

ñá: ñu10: *þa: I. angle [GU 7 archaic frequency: 236]. gu7.. pulse. 'cries. chick pea (for 'land.7. indicates distance from speaker. finish off. ka5-(a): fox. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . kua) [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. consume. ká: gate [? KA2 archaic frequency: 11. land. gíg). use. indeed. 'on top of'. ñi6: (cf... gun.gú: neck. þé: precative and affirmative verbal prefix (same as þa). u: to mix [ÞI archaic frequency: 291]. edge. benefit (with -ni -) (throat + ú. ka9: (cf. þe(2): abundance. þa: precative and affirmative verbal prefix: may. abundant. screams').. þu: bird (earlier word than mušen). ñe26.. þi-a: þe. concatenates 4 sign variants] . kas7 and níñ-kas7/ka9).. ia2. ñál.. ñe: (cf. ñar. to eat up. myself. ñá: basket. gún. concatenates 3 sign variants] . gu2. þù. mine.. ñá: (cf. sound. gún. me). numerous.. fish (not the usual word for fish. noise. cream. gíg).9. but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of ÞA from *þ 'many' + a 'water' = 'fish'. nurse. counter. impersonal verbal conjugation prefix. sustenance.. cf. front. Version 3. to exclaim. other side. þi: þà. my. to feed. neck. river bank. ñar) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125. ì: n. oil. fat. for 'load. nape.4: (cf. swallow. ka: in late usage the difference between a rough measuring and a final measuring of a quantity of grain. let. talent' cf. gú ) (circular + u5.8).0 11 .. v. to utter a cry (said of an animal) (throat + u(3. food. house.. ten (usually written: u ). mixed. fodder. a6. gù: n. v. i4: pebble. í: five. kú: n.. district' cf. þá.4. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ìa. voice. diverse.. ñe6: (cf. my. side. to eat. Sumerian Lexicon. gud(2)). stable (cf. nape") [GU 2 archaic frequency: 34]. *gun"occiput. an alternative to the usual ku6. Orel & Stolbova #982.. assorted. 'food'). ia4. ñe26 and ma(3)). ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108.

whenever. someone. lú: grown man.0 12 . to be/make numerous. mud6). gentleman [LU2 archaic frequency: 85]. found. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to mix. (cf. oracle. location. lu5: (cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ku5: (cf. grain ('base' + 'to rise. to look after. ku: to base. people. ma4: to leave.-ke4: often occurs at the end of a genitival compound which functions as the actor or agent of the sentence (ak. alaaku). wealth. ki: n. Version 3. sheep. ideal norm. kua: ku10: fish (kú. ñiš li: juniper/cedar tree [LI archaic frequency: 14].. lug ). mà: (Emesal dialect for ñá-e).. also. la: abundance. kù: (cf. 'water') [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. area.. genitival suffix 'of'. kur9). ku4: (cf.. embarrass. man.. kú: (cf. má: boat [MA2 archaic frequency: 6]. ñá: ñiš to go (Akk. the phenomenal area of a deity's power. divine decree. wish. + e. ergative agent marker). mù). office. shine. male. wherever. lí: true measure.. pierce. trouble. place.. gu7). prep. to multiply... concatenates 4 sign variants] . ñe: n. depart. force a way into (in order to see).. mì. to lie down (reduplication class) [KU archaic frequency: 64. men. many. youthful freshness and beauty.. lul). 'food'. bliss. much. kuruš).. anyone. function. to stir. concatenates 3 sign variants] . cult [ME archaic frequency: 363. lù: to disturb.. ground. human being. lu: n. ñá) [MA archaic frequency: 250]. li9: to glisten. sprout') [KI archaic frequency: 386. v. desire [LA archaic lá: to penetrate. ku6. blend. kìd). to fluster. ma5: (cf. where. ma: to bind (Emesal dialect for ñál. me. build. frequency: 20. Sumerian Lexicon. ku7: (cf. behind. abundant. no one. kì: (cf. responsibility. fine oil. go out (cf.. lal) [LA2 archaic frequency: 57]. happiness. to have a beard (cf. kug). gíg ). to graze. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ma(3). agitate. pasture (reduplication class [?]) (cf. to know. luxury. lub. earth... + a. kud).

. exorcism ?..0 13 . ne. vigor. na5: chest. adj.. he. me6: to act. she. forces. concatenation of 4 nè. mur10). used especially before dative infixes.. mu4: (cf. ní: ni.7. me3. the Sumerian copula. munus) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. frightfulness. ñu10) [MU archaic frequency: 99].. demonstrative affix [NE archaic frequency: 303. plump. our. preferred for animate and agentive subjects. stone weight. because. host. Hallo & van Dijk. ne(-e). p. human being. female (cf. no. to name. this (one). mi: (cf. to say. woman. Sumerian Lexicon. v. incense [NA archaic frequency: 105. one's own [NI2 archaic frequency: 34]. ná. nud ). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . oath (cf. na: n.. suffix. ní. feminine. female (this pronunciation of the sign found in compound words and verbs or in enclitic or proclitic position. poss.. adj. hailstone. awe. 85) (cf.. munus ) (compounds are more likely to preserve an older word) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. name. nú: na4. mug ).v. modal prefix. respect. that one (human animate pronoun or possessive suffix) [NI archaic frequency: 263. roar. violence.9: battle [ME 3 archaic frequency: 4]. scream.. box. to be. also. prep. entry. mu5: well-formed. mud6). Version 3. mu7[KA×LI]: mu10[SAL]: to shout. mù. gíg). suggests involvement by speaker. gíg). fattened. ordinary stone.. na: strength. year. rock. mú: (cf. to burn (reduplication class).en: sign variants] . grind. ní: self.. speak (cf. emphatic in past tense. mu 10.. behave. na: (cf. conjugation prefix. token. woman. that (one). tell. mí. mu: n.. also.6. pebble. mí[SAL]: n. body. ma5[KA׊È]: to mill.. word. ne4: fear. prohibitive in present/future tense. mé: (cf. beautiful. concatenates 3 sign variants] . line on a tablet..

. put into. v. without. re7. pron. ara4). that.. alabaster [NU 11 archaic frequency: 32]. stamp.er . a pronominal prefix in a compound noun describing a person.. to throw. ri6.. RI: calendar month 5 at Umma during Ur III.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . rá: (cf.. pàd). to blow. rúg ). bud.. figurine. to emit. wing. remove. pa4. ñin . to give. fire. string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54. to impress. sa: n. si. branch. pa: leaf. cistern.. rù: to be equal in size or rank. to drive along or away. dative suffix . advice. rà: (cf. adj. present. rig ) [RI archaic frequency: 1]. to place. nu11[ŠIR]: (ñiš) light.. to butt.. no. to beget. cf.. níñ). small canal. regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker .. cf. depth [PU2 archaic frequency: 37]. to expel. to gather. mix (plural hamtu e.. to take. sprout. ir: to accompany. likeness. lead. net. glean. throw away. pà: (cf. ni9: (cf. slay. to stir. er. inundation [RA archaic frequency: 25]. ru5: to send forth shoots.denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done. to pack.. to send (cf. dù).. or roll (a seal into clay). to break open. sá: n.0 14 . gift [RU archaic frequency: 120]. to inundate. buds. v. negative. prep. to roast (barley) (cf. ru: n. pú: well. sa). to bear. ri-g is marû form. bundle.. to be located.. ri-ri-g is plural. to moor a boat. to stir.. to flood. not.5.nì: (cf.. cast. adj. nìñin). mat. ir10. súb ). to go. pool. rú: (cf. image.. statue [NU archaic frequency: 101]. pour. sweep away (with -ta -). e-re7. those.for . stab. to touch. Version 3. du . Sumerian Lexicon. n.. picture. haul. sinew.. to exchange. to place upon or against (with -ši-). demonstrative affix. re7). feather [PA archaic frequency: 378.over yonder). overflow.6(-r): ra(-g/þ): irrigation ditch. nu: n. or throw away (with -ta -). v. concatenates 2 sign variants] .re 7. far. & adv. to strike. to branch out (from the side of a canal). to blow (said of a storm). to plan something (ri is hamtu form. lamp. tendon. dike. ri: v. rá.. or a phonetic writing for lú . cord. to measure. or blossoms. fountain. to gore.

v., to approach or equal in value; to compare with; to compete (with -da -).

sa4: to name; to call by name. sa5: n., red ocher.
adj., red, red-brown.

sa6: (cf., sag9). sa7: well-formed. sa9[MAŠ]: sa10: sa12:
half. to be equivalent; to buy (cf., sám ). (cf., sañ ).

si: n., horn(s); antenna(e); line; ray(s); light; plowland (cf., sig5) [SI archaic frequency: 417].
v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become completely still. adj., regular, normal.

si; su; sa; sa5:

v., to fill up; to fill with (with -da -); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient, enough; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (probably reduplication class) (cf., sum , sug 6, rúg , sig , sig 5).

adj., suitable, fit.

sì, sè: si14:

(cf., sig 10).

si4, su4, sa11: red [SI4 archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 5 sign variants] .
a small pot.

su: n., body; flesh; skin; animal hide; relatives; substitute (as verb, cf., si; sug6 or rúg) [SU archaic
frequency: 188; concatenates 2 sign variants] .

adj., naked.



su(3): (cf., sud, sug4) [SU3 archaic frequency: 6]. sú: (cf., zu) su4: to grow; to multiply. su5: (cf., suþ5). su6: (cf., sun4). su7: (cf., sug8). su8: (cf., súg, súb). su9; ša4: su11: su13:
n., red ocher.

v., to mourn, grieve. (cf., zú ). (cf., sud 4).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


sux (TAG): šà: (cf., šag4). ša4, še13:

to spread (cf., sud ).

ša: to dry up [ŠA archaic frequency: 97].
(cf., su 9).

ša5: to cut, break (reeds). ša6: (cf., sag9). še: n., barley; grain; a small length measure, barleycorn = 1/6 finger = 1/30 cubit = 1.67 centimeter in Presarg.OB period; as a surface area measure = 432 square linear barleycorns = 12 square fingers; as a volume measure = 1/180 gín = 1/3 gín-tur = 1 2/3 sìla = 360 cubic fingers = 1/10800 sar = approx. 1.667 liters; 1/180 of a gín or shekel of silver = ca. 0.0463 grams (cf., še-ga/ge ) [ŠE archaic frequency: 639; concatenates 3 sign variants] . demonstrative affix, may indicate 'there' within the view of the speaker.

šè: n., portion [ŠE3 archaic frequency: 152].
prep., to, unto, as far as, up to; as regards, concerning; because of, for the sake of; until (terminative suffix and in Old Sumerian period terminative prefix).

še4: (cf., sed). še6: (cf., šeñ6). še7: (cf., šèñ). še8: (cf., šéš). še10: še17:
excrement, dung. (cf., sed 4). (cf., šaña ).

še29[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]:

ši: contrapunctive modal prefix; terminative prefix after Old Sumerian period (cf., šè). šu: n., hand; share, portion, bundle; strength; control [ŠU archaic frequency: 360].
v., to pour.

šú: (cf., šúš). šu4(-g): šu12:
to stand; to be deployed, set up (plural, reduplication class).

šu4: (cf., šuš).
(cf., šùde ). n., nature, character [TA archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 6 sign variants] .

ta, dá:

prep., from; to; for; by means of (ablative-instrumental noun suffix and verbal prefix; as a noun suffix can be a locative with remote deixis, as in an-ta and ki-ta ).

ta6: (cf., taka4). te, de4:
n., cheek, chin (cf., temen ) [TE archaic frequency: 199].

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


te, de4; ti: v., to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (alternating class, hamtu stem; cf., te-ñe 26) . tè: an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (cf., naña). te8[Á]mušen:
bearded vulture.

ti: side, rib; arrow (cf., te, diþ, and tìl) [TI archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 2 sign variants] . tu: to interfere (cf., tud and tur5) [TU archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 3 sign variants] . tumušen:
(cf., tum 12


tú: (cf., tam). tu2,3: (cf., tumu2,3). tu5,17:
n., bath.

v., to wash, bathe; to pour; to make libation (probably reduplication class).

tu6: exorcism; conjuration; exorcistic formula. tu7: soup; soup pitcher. tu9: (cf., túg). tu10,11: tu15:
(cf., dun ). (cf., tumu ).

za: you (singular). za: to make noise (occurs as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a
repeated monotonous noise or motion (Krebernik, Beschwörungen, p. 70, summarizes the different compounds that occur in ED IIIB texts).

za(2): precious stone, gemstone; bead; hailstone; pit; kernel [ZA archaic frequency: 9]. zà: (cf., zag). zé[ZÍ]:
to cut; to shear, cut hair; to pluck (Emesal dialect for dùg , cf., zil;


zi: n., breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (cf., zid, zìg) [ZI archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 3 sign
variants] .

v., (with -r Auslaut) to destroy; to annihilate.

zí: stench; bile; bitter. zì: (cf., zíd). zu, sú:
n., wisdom, knowledge. v., to know; to understand; to inform, teach (in marû reduplicated form); to learn from someone (with -da -); to recognize someone (with -da -); to be experienced, qualified. adj., your (as suffix). pron., yours.

zú, su11[KA]:

tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


to balk. upper part. ugu4-bi). crown (of legitimate kingship). i7: river. áñ. horn. her. eye(s).) [AK archaic frequency: 149..0 18 . íd. strength. top of the head.. áþi. [A2 archaic frequency: 3] aka. upon.12) (abbreviation of igiñál. ak. pron. wether [UDU archaic frequency: 452.KA]: debits part of account tablet. circlet. in front of. crowd. concatenates 3 sign variants] . a5: to do. ùñ. ugu4[KU]: to bear. corpse. + gú. ád: 3 sign variants] . work performance. v. raven. looks. them. ugu[U. this one. un(-ñá): people. ab-ba ). over. ugu(4)) (ù. a marine and fluvial fish [UBI archaic frequency: 7. produce (cf. him.GÙ]: n. egir2/3). Version 3. + a. aspect. turban [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. ad3. áka. 'that which is opposite') . azu). skull. father. to see.. mete.. watercourse (éd.. wing. skeleton [ADDA archaic frequency: 4]. after. carcass. to check. = 1/2 of an iku (= 50 sar ). time. procreate... diadem. to dispatch.zu5: (cf. concatenates 2 signs] . shout..6: adda4. shrub. ègir). ag. úgu[A. á: arm. before. comparative enhancer of adjectives. population. to measure (area. n. wages. ùgun. ám: ùña. to place. ùku. capacity). on top.. adda(2).. side. front (reduplicated ig. moment.'after it'. thornbush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. 'door') [IGI archaic frequency: 21]. áña.. (cf. act. sea [AB archaic frequency: 384.. area measure.. length.'neck'). glance. ab: abba: ubiku6: lake. aba. main canal. udu: aga(3): sheep. concatenates ída. concatenates 2 signs] . aþ5. send. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to measure out. concatenates 2 sign variants] . concatenates 3 sign variants] . prep. Sumerian Lexicon.'to issue'.. (cf. ad: v. voice (cf. ram. prep. the igi of 5 is 0.'water'). to make into (something) (with -si. to drive away. small cattle. n. ugamušen: egi(2): égi: igi: (cf. face. igi: reciprocal of a number (= the multiplier that will give 60. top side. song [AD archaic frequency: 36. ubu [AŠ]: ada.

(cf. (amniotic) fluid.. chief cowherd. flood. enmen ). tumu ). ili5: to rise. weather. rain ( cf. (cf. clay. íli. (cf.. wind. to support. íla. to shine. eme: emma: émma: éme: eme3. ar.àka: iku: fleece. ùña). únug). im.. áme: women's quarters.. ùnug). am: eme: ñiš mother [AMA archaic frequency: 241. ukur3. get up. a utensil. she-ass.5). resin. im. to bring. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . glorify. to lift. v. illu: ùlu: ama: high water. em: imi. praise.. Sumerian Lexicon. ara3.. ár[UB]: v. (cf.. ummeda (2)). to endure. plow's share. storm. to shine (íl-i in marû). ara4.5: (cf. Version 3. jenny. v.. bright. to deliver. nurse. tablet [IM archaic frequency: 67. 'levee'). glory. ùnu(-d): unu6: (cf. em: umu. (cf.. a surface measure of 3600 meters 2 = 100 sar = 1 square 'rope' = 1/18 bùr (plural Akk.. (cf. úllu[KIB]. n. (cf. carry. living room.. form of ég. to blaze. speech. u18). ára. to carry forward (in accounting). leash. direction. ék. cloud. tongue. mud.4). ùl: áma. loam.. íl: n.6: imi.. feast. carrier.5: ùku: (cf. ummud). wise or skillful teacher. reins [KIB archaic frequency: 7]. énmen ). um: ùmmu: únu: old woman.. polished.. to praise.0 19 .. wild ox or cow (aurochs). to be high.5.. rà: adj. ama(4. concatenates 2 sign variants] . þara). clear. uku2.

cage. kínda ) [URI archaic frequency: 35.. myrtle [AZ archaic frequency: 13]. strength. Sumerian Lexicon. village. Version 3. + þà/u.3): eša. éše. rope = 10 nindan rods = 20 reeds = 120 2 cubits = the side of 1 square iku in area = 1.16 hectares or 6 iku .5: (cf. iri11: uru2. luminous object.5). to protect. light. uru). v. devastating flood. cultivate. valiant.. uru4[APIN]. guard. uru12: to plow. city. a surface measure = 2. deep. iri. full.5. concatenates 3 sign variants] . glowing..3. district [URU archaic frequency: 101. mountain [IŠ archaic frequency: 88. as. mighty. urin ).iri: uri(2): uri2. urim 2.'three'.. high. length measure. concatenates 3 sign variants] . ussu(2. uru16(-n): esi: isi: usu: (na4) asa. town. n. ear of barley or other grain.. uru(2)(ki). 'five'. ùri[ŠEŠ]: (cf.. thunderstorm. eight (ía.. a surface area measure. till. eše4: éšša: aša5: (cf. rí. 'three'). emmer wheat flour.. ud). 'much'.dNANNA]: utu: the sun as a god (cf. + eš.4) with the marû aspect -e suffix and vowel harmony. = 6 iku. 'much') [ŠE 3 archaic frequency: 152]. èše: iši: eššu: ušu: ùšu: itu. a crop-devouring insect. itud ). Akkadian ( cf. iti: d iti6[UD. clever.0 [60 ] fingers. (cf.. skill.18: concatenation of 5 sign variants. (cf. adj. az: (cf.0 20 . bear. support.. moonlight.'ten'). strong. same meaning as ur (2. pit. leash (can be an adverbial suffix like eš ) (eš. watch fire. thirty (eš5. ašag). to be satiated. éš[ŠÈ]: rope. UNUG archaic frequency: 206. URI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. ur11(-ru): uru9: stanchion. ùru(-m)[ŠEŠ]: n. clay pit.. to watch. measuring tape/cord.0.. esig). + eš5. fetter.

a type of weaver (?). v. 'milk'. gall(nut) (attracting many vermin in open container) . da5: dib(2): dub: frequency: 6]. install (singular). malodorous. an object. chest. athlete. to beset. to serve (with -da -).. (cf. kibx[GIG](-ba): wheat. to take away. tie up. doctor (cf. þub.. cross. resin. left (hand) (cf. n. cleanse. heap up.5). to shake.. strew (with -ta -). 'to give') . a left-handed or ambidextrous person (?) [ÞUB 2 archaic káb: kib: flaxen measuring string ?. knock down. úzu. dib(2): n. Version 3. that could be made of gold. sunset. þab and þúb. þup: þúb. defeat [ÞUB archaic frequency: 1]... to infringe upon. (clay) tablet. to move in a circle. to receive (motion into open container) . Sumerian Lexicon.. omen (ùz. to (make) tremble. depth. and slaughtered animals). to dye (fabrics) (reduplication class ?). to set down in writing. hammer. gilim[-b] ). the left was the hand that stank from wiping excrement) [GUB 3 archaic frequency: 15. cut of meat. breast. libx[Í. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . dúb. to wander [? DIB archaic n. quake. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . to strike.útu: a dish prepared with milk. newborn animals.UDU]: mutton fat. to hold. acrobat. foul smell. seize. concatenates 6 sign variants] . + ba. besiege.0 21 . document (motion into open container) [DUB archaic frequency: 229... flop (said of fish. to rot. to stand. v. + zé. zu5: izi[NE]: uzu: fire (cf. iz-zi) [NE archaic frequency: 303. to pour out. to stand by. flesh. to surround. þúp: frequency: 2].4. to hire.. 'to cut') . a-zu) [AZU archaic frequency: 7]. erect. to sprinkle off. túb: gaba: gib: gub: gúb: gùb: þab(2): to kick. to stand aside (with -ta -) (to be long and throat-like in open container) . to traverse. adj. to set. to do service (with -ši -). to pass (by/along). catch. to stink. to rumble [DUB 2 archaic frequency: 2]. to purify. grease (abundance collected in open container) . dab(2. fetter.. uzu5: evening. dab6.. to bind. azu. to store. v. 'goat'. lub[LUL](-bi): a cut of meat. side (of a field or mountain) (ga. to take. to send over.

0 22 . to drive away. fetter. 'fear. to bless. leopard (ní. musician. to travel (plural marû su8-bé. sipad ). to be higher in rank. to gather up (portion + divide). stock. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . disappear. + bu[r]. father. sub2/3: (cf. to let out. to join (with -da -).. to burn. bàd: v. such as a herd. sickle (zú. shackle. to snip out. (with -ta -) to throw out. a precious stone . tooth'. tubx: (cf. sub. to bind. exorcism. 'to pull. adv. to clog. to fell a tree. distinguishing mark. chip out. 'hand' + bu5. (with -da -) to drop. Elamite word for 'god' (ní. pretty. šab) [ŠAB archaic frequency: 61. ocean. cut off') [? ZUBI archaic frequency: 2. companion. stem (cf. brand. bara 4 and semantics of bar ) (open container with motion away from) [BAD archaic frequency: 23]. clasp. a priest (cf. rabbu). 'thigh'). be: concatenates 2 sign variants] ...agate (?). n. remove (šu. to make haste. Sumerian Lexicon. 'fear. 'to be angry') . to be at a distance. dug šab: pot. 'to rush around') .. to go away. sea') [NAB archaic frequency: 10] . to open. clamp. n. shake. n. brother. to subtract.. pab. cf. together (precedes the modified verb). šib. pillory. pa4: rib: rab. shining. respect' + íb.IB): sign variants] . said of two or more. leader [PAP archaic frequency: 501.. 'flint. man. ab.. to lick. to be/make double (sometimes reduplicated) (side + open container) .. also du . šip: šub: to cast. concatenation of 2 v. let fall.. pail. to suck. to stand. to tremble. šub6[ŠID]: šuba(2/3): v.. zubu. 'fire' + íb. to be bathed. sting. (city) wall [? EZEN archaic frequency: 114. súg. rap: ring. cf. to fall out. to suckle. remove (regularly followed by rá . to be cast. stamp. tab: n. dug šab (PA. to hold. sipad ). su8: to lead out. pap. respect'.. color (izi. middle. Version 3. su-ub: súb.. ñin . nab: nib: (ñiš) cheetah.. throw. sabad. 'lake. to go away (Akk. draw. to climb.. ascend. to pray (naked flesh + open container) . zubi: bad.. pair. clean ('licked clean' ?). v. snare (to slide + open container) . fever. to fall (upon). vessel. re 7). deduct. zib(2): haunch. adj. to bite off. + aba. concatenation of 3 sign variants] .urudu lub(-bi): an ax for use in agriculture or as a weapon. tun). to apportion (lots). to separate..

concatenation of 2 sign variants] . a small bowl. concatenation of 2 n. young. leaping fish') .5: gi morning [UD archaic frequency: 419]. þúd: kad4. length [BU: archaic frequency: 393. a right-angled tool [MUD archaic frequency: 88].. beer ingredient. to tie. bi7: dida: didi: gada: n. gudug). to breach (a dike). gur 5.4: gùd: nest. kìd. kì: kid6. linen (clothing) (gu. to manage. concatenates 5 sign variants] . to reach out (to take) (to be long and throatlike with motion away from). þáda. guðx. gudu4: (cf.bad4: fortress. to dispossess. gu 4-ud ). kìr. adj. domestic ox. Sumerian Lexicon. pull. sign variants] . leap (cf. to shine brightly (þé... v. + dág. bìd.. and gur 10) (base with motion away from) . distant. dried (e. white. to build.. 'to nip off clay') .. ku5: lud: mud: to cut off (with -ta -). gud8: short (related to but opposite in meaning to gíd).. adj. dry. 'to protect') [GADA archaic frequency: 96. dark. to be afraid. kad6. to divorce. cf. cf. carp ('dancing.. to curse (regularly followed by rá .8: kud.. to frighten (closed container with motion out from) . bull (regularly followed by rá .. to open (ground with motion away from.refers to the bellow of a bull) [GU 4 archaic frequency: 182]. reed mat [KID archaic frequency: 76. to defecate. to levy tax or tribute. gud. kìr . fish). to dance. small.. flax. heel. to dry. long. hardship. to remove. gur (4)) (voice/sound with repetitive processing .. gíd[BU]: v. 'let it become'. to weave a mat (ground/floor plus motion). to give birth. to make. anus (open container with motion away from) . n. bind together [KAD 4 archaic frequency: 13. thread'. to separate. to urinate. cf.g. gu-udku6: gud(2).0 23 .. 'flax. 'brilliant'). gúda. adj.. tow. beer.. concatenates 4 sign variants] . to act (ground/floor plus motion). handle... + da. v. Version 3. kid: kid2. kur5. to draw. difficulty. to lengthen. inarable land. dim. gu4: n. v.. þad(2): v. to measure out. gudku6. a pestle (abundance + motion). warrior. gu2.7: to pinch off (clay).

v. n. bless (šu. pà: to show. long. su13: adj.5: (cf.10. quieted. 'to lie down' + nominative [from R. faith. cf. to sleep. to furnish. Version 3. confidence. to sprinkle. šùdu. to bear. sed (4. to make grow. to be born.4: blood (closed container with motion out from) . to spank. + éd. processing) [? PAD archaic frequency: 38. long (duration).6)). to ignite. provide. to wag (a tail). to blow. paðx: + éd. 'soul'. ñiš nàd. truth (zi. Englund]) [NA 2 archaic frequency: to lie down... sanction. fashion. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to repose. (cf. subside. Presargonic Girsu. + dé. archaic frequency: 139. to stretch. prayer. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .18. mud8[NUNUZ-ÁB = LAK 449]: ku-li. sud.. šed7. present (regularly followed by rá ) (narrow line + repetitive process) [BU: archaic frequency: 393. ér. take an oath. coolness (si. feel delight. šu12: tud. remote. an amphora in the 30-60 liter range with two neck handles. to pray.. to choose out of (with ablative prefix) (pà-dè in sing. to sink. changed (to approach and meet + to go out). a large vat for beer [MUD 3 archaic frequency: 27. to swear. n. to make. šùd. to make appear'. jubilation. 'to go out') . to find. + éd.. to give. 'to go forth') . distant. 'hand'. blessing [ŠU 12 archaic frequency: 1].11. šita 5). 'to interfere'. crush. 'to fill up'. possibly a citrus tree [ŠITA3 sed(4. pàd. concatenates 4 sign variants] .5. nud. to cool down. far away.. small repast (regularly followed by rá .. branch + to go out.12: šid.23: n. call. to sip. to drown (reduplication class) (regularly followed by rá ) (su4. n. 'to show. + motion). give birth to. + éd.4. súd: to pound. adj. to choose. 'not'. lasting..pàd) [PA 3 archaic frequency: 30].. mud5: exultation. = 50 'word'.éd.. to sprout. ná: bed.. to strew. to seek.0 24 . create. to immerse. 'to go out') . mú: to sing. bite. lengthen. 'red ochre'. dú: túd: v. zi: Sumerian Lexicon. to kill (nu.. to be reborn. to declare.. + motion). legitimacy. to pacify. cp. pà-pà-dè in plural marû) (sprout. pa. to abate. to beget. to be calmed. šita (4)). to be long. to prolong. 'to hail').. appear (reduplication class) (mu. cold water. to break off. 'to go out') . to rejoice.10.. to last. multiply'. (cf. sud4. bur and búru ) (sprout + repetitive 72.. mud6. šùde. v. šed7. ñiš rad[ŠÌTA]: a tree. couch (ná = nú-a. šed: šid3. reveal. to lay down (with -ni -). concatenates 4 sign variants] ..12. marû.múd: mud3.. 'to go out') . nú: pad. su: v.11. cf. + éd..5. tu. to be/make remote. 'to grow up..6).. zid.17. sù. še4. kindle. to gnash (the teeth) (su9. transformed.5. v. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to cane (tu. to lie together with (with -da -).

v. night (sounds represent the throat chamber or the mouth as an enclosed dark chamber) [GI 6 archaic frequency: 105]..7.8.v. to make cultically pure.. dark (cf. to become moist. gi25 v. v. gíg. zíd. joint. nail. ñe6. gi17: 16] . speech.. gig. to strengthen (e. to be in a weakened state (motion + throat-like chamber. standard size earthen jar. dùg. du10: n. gladness.. clod. circlet. kúkku ). pot. gug: ninda monthly offering. fresh (water). brand. lump. to order. kib x) (throat + i. holy. mi. to reject. 'diadem. zì[ŠÈ]: dag: 4] . to be painful to (with dative).. sweet. 'diadem. ge6. concatenates 3 sign variants] . + throat) [GIG archaic frequency: v. vagina).. pressed-date bread (gu7. (ñiš) gag. clean ('to go out' + aga(3). = 30 liters (sìla ).. member (motion + throat-like chamber. lawful. dwelling.. Version 3. moist. knee(s). to stretch (out). bone. painful.. ku10. dág: dig: dug: brilliant. cf. to enjoy. collected mass (abundance + round). adj. gúg: gug5: hostility. loins.. n. du11: n. wheat (cf.. right (hand). money. swallow.g. gub) [KAK archaic frequency: 46. soft. 'to base. good. kù: n. war (might be reduplicated ug5. flour.. vessel. 'cry of pain'. n. to roam about. mé. pure. 'to kill. ñi6. lañ: piece. gi6. kug. adj. sacred. chamber (motion as in traveling + throat-like chamber) [DAG archaic frequency: v. beautiful. v. illness.. good. white. v. adj. to speak.0 25 . cf. crown') [KU 3 archaic frequency: 181. to cleanse. to speak with. to add. lag. appropriate. faithful. hinge. legitimate. noble (ku... ñíg. true. injury. black. command. except at Presargonic Girsu = 20 liters [DUG archaic frequency: 581. the levees of a canal).. n. pure. knee (reduplicated to be long and neck-like. favorable. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun) (nonfinite form = di) (to make a motion in the throat). silver. circlet. 'to eat. pleasing... meal (life + motion as in grinding). crown'). carnelian (with na 4).. spike. build' + aga(3). gob. also. jug. to be black or dark (ku 10: reduplication class). adj. concatenates 5 sign variants] . purify. adj... to die'). concatenates 2 sign variants] . resting-place. dug4. cake. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . kak: peg. adj. ég). bright. workable. precious metal. converse (with -da -) (singular hamtu form.. consume' + round and neck-like) [GUG 2 archaic frequency: 70. bulk size. vagina).. to be/make enjoyable. firm. righteous. to be/make sick. lap. to sing.. Sumerian Lexicon.

to beat (rhythmically. cf. 'door. sag2. to glean. low. sè: v.ŠU. to stay silent. Sumerian Lexicon. grain-fed (ní. rig. sag10: (to be) mild. carve.11. sig5.. si(-ga): adj. crush. 'female' + ig. narrow.rig 7). quake.. fruitful (sa7. sty. respect. to remove.. mace. to flatten. 'to be numerous' + gù. 'body' or níñ.10.. damage. to strike. grant (see etymology of sa 12. list. of fine quality (narrow. sound') . entrance') . weak (cf. Version 3. lioness (ní. 'strength. mug(2): nug: nig: níg: n. 'to accompany. to demolish. 'thing'. sagi [SÌLA. mu: n... to please. hurt..8. entrance'. to restore. bitch. wall(s) [? SIG4 archaic frequency: 2].6). nigu. to hew out. si: v. pick (reduplication class) (flowing motion such as re7. ša6: n.7: to bring. leopard') .. v. 'to throw' + ug5. 'to stand upright' + ug5. 'girl').SU]. to silence (si. eat' + nominative a).9. to be friendly (with dative or -da -) (reduplicated in hamtu. small. sig. niga(2): pag. v. fattened (e... v. a perfume plant. (divine) grace. sag9. good fortune. (cf. pleasant.18. to chop down (trees). n. raze. 'to kill'). erode (chamber + ku. fear' + ig. 'to feed.. sweet.. good.7. 'noise. 'to give. weapon (ri. n. verb. chisel. ri: rìg: rig5. síg: (cf. to replace.. drive along' + ig. 'well-formed' + ge(2.. entrance') . short. brickwork.. sì. + gu7. bag[ÞU]: to cage. broken wool fibers.. sig3. silence. 'door. si-ga as noun. mug. sa6. fine + throat for eating). zàg). to become still. šeg5. níñ ). nib. šag5..g. to tend. blow. to deed. šaaqû). to be/make good. lu: to swarm (said of birds and fish) (lu. 'cheetah. to pull. and adjective in compounds) [SIG archaic frequency: 66].7.3. to receive (reduplication sag5: (cf. beautiful. sig6. late. good. sig5. sweet.8. muk. 'to be still' + throat for vocalizing). to abrade. sug5). adj. to engrave. rúg [SU or NAM. to be in heat.. pudenda (mu10. nakedness. favor. to send' + entrance). oxen or sheep). 'to build'). for instance a drum). sa 6ge in marû). settled (si. lead... temple ward. sig4: sun-dried unbaked brick. shake. ru: class) (ru. cf.lug. shelter (birds) (branches + round chamber) . stroke.. tow.DU8]: cupbearer (loan from Akk.. doff. eyesore. 'door. n. hollow out. to (make) totter.0 26 . to pay back. satisfy. v. siki ). 'to kill'. slave.

BALAÑ]: túg. grain pile.. 'to stand upright' + ug5. 'body' + 'long and neck-like'). to create.3. tigi [BALAÑ. to let live. break' + ug5.11. sag2. sag9). to pull out weeds. midst. fertile land (to fill. 'life'. etc..9: sug: súg. destitute. tígi [NAR.. place. to compare.8.7. sè: to apply. Version 3. restore. tùn) (si. šenbar ) [ŠEG 9 archaic frequency: 10].7. šag5: to slaughter (ša5. su: adj. to do. at. sug5[GÍN]: sug6. su8: wild mountain boar ? (cf.'nakedness') . content. even.. taka4). green. to knock down (also read dùn.sig7.. cause. pale. 'to cut. sul4. sù. to replace. se12(-g). cloth garment (side + to encircle) [TUG 2 archaic frequency: 311. put in.. (cf.) (reduplication class) (cf. cloth. inside. to dwell. to complete. a small animal (cf.. cf. súb) (su. sur12. cold shudder. to subject. interior.. lake. 'upright stalks' + ég. sa7(-g): v. sig 3) (combination of meanings such as: sux. entrails. to garden. intestines. volition. 'body' + ig. 'to restore') . body..NAR]. TÚG: fuller. sig9. taka ). šeg8. swamp. fine [ + neck-like]). 'to kill').18. šaþ . concatenates 6 sign variants] . in.. significance (grain/excrement + water/urine + chamber) [ŠA 3 archaic frequency: 137. tag4: (cf. tu9: lú harp (ti. šà: n. plural stem of tìl) (si. tug4: (cf. yellow.10. stomach. prep. heart. Sumerian Lexicon. su-a . sig10. 'to spread'. šeg8/9: šug: tag: snow... 'to water') [SIG 7 archaic frequency: 61]. to sweep along. sallow. empty. to surround. sig3. sug8.. 'to knock down'. sig). dike') [SUG archaic frequency: 15]. sì. threshing floor. 'levee.. adj. v. womb.. sigga. sig17 (GI): the color of the low or setting sun = reddish yellow or gold (cf. lay bare.. will. 'entrance'. to empty (su. ice (cf. 'cat').. tuku4). + gi4. to make flat. to be/make pleasant or beautiful. du5 with this meaning) (cf. su: chamber) . chills. and sá. to match (cf. šuku ). to strip naked.. cp. sug4. (cf. sigga ). to engrave. bed of a river. 'to kill'.. šeg4: frost. 'to compare') . to live. rúg ) (to fill up + entrance. sì. si: to be narrow (narrow. su7: šag4. sè) [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67]. to stand (plural marû) (cf. flood basin. gub. set. to tear out. return (a loan. šag5: (cf. mood. inundate + ég. abdomen.. to bring low.0 27 . gut. subdue. to complain (in meanings 'to live'. meaning. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sum . sig14. sig3. mug(2).8.

work (to build + to mete out to) [KIN archaic frequency: 9]... to stand up.or -ra -). lu9: nañ. cook. cf. šaña. to order (reduplication class). drink.. boil. a matter. to water.. potash (used as soap). zàñ. to rain (šu. sa4. treasure. sañ2/3: to scatter. archaic frequency: 125. territory. break. to help (motion into numerousness). še6: zàñ: daþ. outside of (life + to encircle) [ZAG archaic frequency: 71. þuñ. to repeat. Version 3.. to say further.. 'water') [NAGA to crush. impudence.7. 'to pour' + to mete out). zàg.ÑÁ]. class) (ša. district. adj.. a measure for fish. giñ4: (cf. zà: boundary. cusp. 'to name'. prep. irrigate. kíñ. to dry a field (redup. sañ11. assets. þeš5[LÚ×KÁR. to spend or credit. partition (úz. 'water'. leader. human. 'to drink'. to spread + to mete out). na8: n. ñá. to rest. to multiply. to add. first. 'to equal'. fetch (with locative-terminative -ni -). wall. message. naña: [ñiš] soda. bad. zàg ). luña[PA.. slave. fault. še29. point. zàg). repose. sag5. to recruit (zi-zi in marû).. to drink out of (with -ta -) (na 8-na 8 in marû) (ní. myself) [SAG archaic frequency: 420]. (cf. saña11. to seek. individual (sá.0 28 . 'to mete out to') . harvest. to be hot. sañ5[ŠID]: zìg. error.. side. to approach. + ig. concatenates 3 sign variants] . lúñ[PA].4. þun(-ñ): to hire or rent (someone or something).. + a. + a. zug4[KA×LI]: (cf. valuables. border. v. high. KUM]: níñ. order.. to tear out. v. 'door'). to abate (many + to mete out to). limit. + áñ. used as a prefix to form concrete nouns (self + to mete out to) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. lú-éše). to rouse. še7: rain. taþ: to heat. sañ5: (cf. captive (tied up with a rope éše. self'. to introduce (to a job). head. sañ. nañX[GAZ. thing. šeñ6. an alkaline plant. v. percentage. nì: property. to go out or make go out. sa12: adj. to drink. 'body. extract. soapwort (nañ. gín). scattered (to multiply.zag. present.. alkali. bake. naña3. to send. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . front. something. to choose. sanctuary. right (side). in front. + ñe26. 'to dry up' + to mete out). first-class.. abusive remark. zi: n. Sumerian Lexicon.. to rise up from (with -ta . place. 'side.. task. v. weed. beginning. edge'. kin: n. rise . shoulder. ú-zug4). siñ18[KIN]: to cut. chosen. LÚ-KÁR]: šeñ3. (with nominative -a ) pestle. to take out. n. gift. prime. replacement [DAH archaic frequency: 21]. substitute. uproot.

potsherd. bran (motion + plant.5): an adjective for cows (as opposed to ñiš for bulls). de6. (cf.3: domestic pig (grain + water + numerous (offspring) .0 29 . síg: hair (of head. to untie. to flee. adj. lofty. rind (hand. by-product... 'mother of'. ration.3) (íla. to uproot. laþ. capture. àþ[UD]. 'boundary. v. šaþ(2): zaþ: zaþ2. duþ. + þá.. abundant). šuku. body).. tranquil. ñišù-suþ5) (ussu. uþ: to dry up. to adorn. rob (zú. transfer. exalted.. 'black' ? or kul. 'long. torpidity (?) (cf. take away. to crack. + kud. du8: concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'thick. làþ). to wash. sickness. 'to mix'). high.. to sparkle. suku5: šika: (cf. máþ[AL]: paþ[LUL]: suþ(2. làþ: maþ: to be clean. to bake bread/bricks. siki. point. luþ. loosen. 'numerous'). concatenates 12 sign variants] . cf. 'seven' .ÁŠ. confusion. sting. 'portion'. to caulk a boat (with pitch). súkud ). narrow + plant + numerous). 'to bring'. 'youthful freshness'. residue. to sweep (la... cf. hide (si. shell. adj. esp.. to spread. Sumerian Lexicon. to abandon. ti ) (motion + cry of pain + insect). v. fresh. open. just as þúb relates to gùb). barb. to plunder. + þe. sublime. to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control) (derives from zag.. archaic frequency: 39. concatenates 2 sign variants] . foremost. to be or make large (ama. shine (cf. to dry out.. zuþ[ZÚ]: kak: to steal. v. to drive off. to prepare the threshing floor. heavy' ?) [SIG 2 archaic frequency: 224. district'.diþ(2): to sting.. Version 3. free. to clean.5: to bring (plural). disorder. dry. wool. luþ. suþ4: reed matting (fine. to be lost. + numerous. adj. leg. allotted field plot (regularly followed by rá) (šu.. to hide. + numerous. clothe (reduplicated). to remit (a debt). to gouge (eyes). to become confused. n. tumu2. on the liver. laþ4. fur. 'eight'. eight is confusing) [SUÞ 3 archaic frequency: 4]. grass + numerous times) [DU 8 archaic frequency: 29. + ku10. border. displace. šug: allotted food portion. v. beard.. 'goat'.GÀR]: female goat-kid (ùz. provision. thin things'. 'teeth' + numerous). the ancillary meanings of imin. n.. + numerous) [MAÞ archaic frequency: 6.. secrecy. zeþ[SAL.3. great. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . encircling wall (cf. a mark or impression.pigs efficiently turn feed into food) [ŠAH 2 to be calm. to fling (away) (plural form. portion + mouth). 'to separate') . adj. n. gag ). carefully chosen. to relocate..as more than seven. fever.

v. chief.. to protect. to turn around. deliver (to someone: dative). to chase (da.). be near'. dála: dél: (cf. hoe. to leave with a person. to sprout (onomatopoeic). concatenates 2 sign variants] . tug. annual contribution to the state [BALA archaic frequency: 19. + ku4. to be or make bright. to have a claim against somebody (with -da. to hide (the object covered often takes the locative case) (verb can be reduplicated as in du 6-ul-du 6-ul-e) (to protect + ornament). ñal: n.. to shine. 'to approach' + aka. + ge4. 'conjugation prefix' or 'turtle shell'. to marry. go back (bala-e in marû) (ba. hold. spade') . dil: one. v. to divorce. foot-race. to decorate. 'to build. gal. erect'.4. bala('). deliver. 'to pierce'). out of. tuku4. unique. sanctuary. to play music (da.. to pass through. tag. eldest son.. tak. du6-ul) (dù.. turn. ba. to ignite. own. 'to carry. tà: to touch. to weave. taka4. tak4.5).taka. enduring') [DU6 archaic frequency: 37. push. cave (redup. entrust. v. bring. place. sprout. tu12 : v. dúk. to transfer. concatenates 3 sign variants] . distant' and ul4. creditor [KAB/TUKU archaic frequency: 105]. + lá. + íla. only. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . + al. with -ta . to tremble. to be angry (probably reduplication class) (tu15. + ul. beam. to disregard. bu(5): n. leave open (reduplication class . to change. dul(3. 'to hold'. to quarry. 'needle' when made with a bright metal). in plural) (cf. bar.. 'ancient. to sing.. to pour (as a libation. ruins. to abandon. + ku. to fly (towards something. taga. 'to bal. hostility.. catch (can be reduplicated) (te. tuk.'remote. Version 3. to transgress. to be far away. dili.or -ra -). be high).. bul(4).. restore') [TAK 4 archaic frequency: 128.. tuk4. to dig out (a ditch). single.ta 6-ta 6 in marû) (ta. dalla: n. Sumerian Lexicon. 'turn from. to blow. to cover. to acquire. tug4: enter') . + ul. dálla. support') . 'wind'. 'to do. to open. to remove. dellu: mast. enemies (cf. demolish (ba.. du12 . 'to build.'to hold. adj. dálla. term of office. to clothe. to have. 'tell'. to heat (soup) (container + to lift. alone. v. with -ši -. neglect. v. protection. excellent. bal: n.. dul(6). a large cup. 'to. to strike. from'.. n. to revolt. heap. 'share'. cleft. shoot ('it rises'). to start a fire. compound sign verb.al: n. to cross over. 'digging stick.. get (in marû reduplicated form). dal: n. 'with'. to lie down') . to revolve. to fish. conspicuous.0 30 . rotating fund.'to hasten') . hit. with -ta -). spindle. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to dig up. tag4.. make') [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. ta6: tuku. to roast. to tear down. bil: bìl: dal: to burn. du6: mound. dílim ). to receive. handle. bala ). needle (da. ray (cf. kindle.. adorn. hunt.

. to accuse. to be rare. gilim ). 'to penetrate. to hang (from) (with -ta -). 'cellar granary.or bi-). hostile. minus (cf. also.5: store-pit. bad.). ñala7. Sumerian Lexicon. v. to lessen. ritual singer... to divide. enormous. set. to fall back. *pahal. precious. to lift. harness (with -ši -).. excellent..4. (cf. ki-lal/lá. to extinguish. kala 3. endear.). to stream. joyous.adj. joy (þé.4. kala3. to take an oath.DÚR]: gal4(-la)."break through. 'joy..5.secret. lá ). to destroy utterly (with -ta -) (reduplication class) (gu7. gála: gala3.. vulva. lá: adj. to place into (with -ši. evil. a demon (cf. deficient.). v. kul: heavy. numerous) [GAL archaic frequency: 1004. kalag ). diminish. crotch. gal5: to overwhelm. þul(3): n. to be available. light. distribute (þal-þa in marû). to stretch. to be possible (with -da. lal. upper thigh. value. to bind (a reed pillar).. adj.5).0 31 .. *pahal. to destroy. portion. kalag ) (ka. gala[ÑÌŠ. to be happy. to make dear. female genitalia (throat-like chamber + lá. to be appreciated (cf. denounce. lamentation priest. evil.. ñèle: þal: (cf. 'storage basket' + íla. to cease. to obstruct.. split") [ÞAL archaic frequency: 53].4. to dress oneself. 'to consume' + ul. to be destroyed. freshness and beauty') . 'to carry. pleasure') . adj. demolish (as preparation for rebuilding). to ruin.4.. ñá: to be (somewhere). to strap. to carry. to hold. to fall upon (with -ši -). ñál. gal 5-lá ).)... to deal out. 'let there be' + ul. valuable (cf. to destroy. to dwell (ñá.. sexually mature. to weigh.. míli ). 'youthful beauty. transvestite (throat + la. 'ancient. large.. concatenates 3 sign variants] . mighty. numerous) [ÞUL archaic frequency: 1].. cantor. 'to be high') .. hated. thigh" and #1929. big. be few. enduring') [GUL archaic frequency: 24]. v.. evil (vermin + abundant. Version 3. cellar (cf. put (with -ni. numerous). malicious. 'mouth' + la. also. to be high. gullax: (cf. but also -ši -).. divination expert. gùl. 'youthful vagina.5: gil: gul: galla. kal-(l): v. thick. silo' with vowel harmony). to deduce. adj. v. run. Orel & Stolbova #1928. reach. to esteem. to load. adj. pierce') . concatenation of 2 sign variants] . retreat (cf. support') [LA 2 archaic frequency: 57]. to place.. share (cf. þa-la and pap-hal(la)) (loans from Akkadian hallu I and pahallu. extend. þúl: n. great (chamber + abundant. unite (base + abundant. to be with someone (with -da. v. lá ) (reduplicated íla. gala3.. to have on one's person (with -da.. abundance') [KAL archaic frequency: 60. cf. to wreck to pieces. to place. police chief (?). to pay. to rejoice over (usually with -da -. to bring together."leg. to harm. n.

trail. moron (lallation word = unintelligible baby talk.. bait (cf.'to say. pharynx.. wind. vulva (narrow + numerous) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. 'joy. sil. to hang.. voice (me. 'star. šál: measure of capacity. 'to drape' pala(2.. disturb') . pleasure') . + lá. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. 'cedar scent' ?) [? KID archaic frequency: 76.4. mél. Syriac. tell' + ?. bud'). v. lil: líl: fool. 'arrears'). + lá. malicious.. 'uterus') [SILA 3 archaic frequency: 57. šal: sil: sil5.6).6.'to fill'. 'deficiency'. 50). adj.. spacious.. zíd-milla). làl: honey. 'hair. sal.3. path. thin. planet. 'to trouble. mèl: milla[IŠ]: (cf. market place (si. cf. (male) lamb. 'flower. clothing (of gods and rulers) (cf. kir 11) (síg.'to mill. reach') . but which means 'voice' in Hebrew. míli. + íla.'to burn') . and Ge'ez [P. spirit (of a place).. noose. glow. measuring pot (si14. liar. but cp. Bennett. 'a small pot'. v. 'anything long and narrow'. méli. grind'.(ú) lál: n. meteor (ñi6/mi. suspend. mul: mùl: n. mèl: 'scorching' = heartburn (?). n. 'luxury.'to stand up like a horn'. to be/make obscure. sìla. to be narrow. síl. 'be silent'. concatenates 5 sign variants] . liter = 0..0 32 . 'light. sal.. + ul. n. sun 4). v.6: v.. back or open country (reduplicated li. caterpillar (mù. + ul. infection. defiled. 'abundance') [SILA 4 archaic frequency: 73. 'to extend. road. wool'.. pierce') . owed amount (cf. zil. a destructive insect. vestments. cf. pa-paþ. sila(3): street. sìl. sila4: sùl: Sumerian Lexicon. p.. false. disgraced (could refer to soot from bil. Semitic root which manifests in Akkadian as qâlu. to belittle. lie. Version 3..842 modern liters in the Neo-Sumerian period. 'long and narrow'. constellation. to persist. and si. 'to sila. si-il: penetrate. la(l)'u(2. bliss') [LAL 3 archaic frequency: 14. to (let) sparkle. joy. to be/make dirty. bliss (si. Comparative Semitic Linguistics. to recline (in preparation for the love-making implied by sil5.R. or lal/lá. uterus. pleasure. concatenates 2 sign variants] . throat. mu7[KA×LI]. + ul. to infect. + la. and lal/lá. malicious act. ornament') [MUL archaic frequency: 6]. deceive (reduplicated lù. breath.. to lie. treacherous.5. deficient'). wide.7): debt. to cut into. 'inner sanctum'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . lá-ìa[NI]. also. to divide (si. ñèle. to silence [LAL 2 archaic frequency: 27. concatenates 4 sign variants] . deficiency (reduplicated lal/lá.3): pil(2): as in túg-níñ-lal). date-syrup (reduplicated la. ñìli[KA×LI]. lalla: shortage. to bind. lasso.. star. lul. (cf. to spread. 'night'. + lá. 'to carry'). to praise. lu5: n. v. shine. 'to weigh'..

. to peel off.'monotonous repetition' + numerous). zalag ) (za. to tarry.4. to dwell. crossroads (tìl.5: túl: v. + ul. + íla.. to be loving.. that indicates long and narrow as in si) dim: [DIM archaic frequency: 52. cut. tal3. tílla: market place. zil. cry. + àm. 'to shear.. deep. adj. 'to be' ?). tìl. to be/make wide. sig 7). n. sila ) (zé. fashion. hasten. who') [DAM archaic frequency: 10]. zi. to pare.. n. affectionate. zil). to hurry. cf.. to caress (usually reduplicated) (cf. complete. breadth. 'to lift... life (tu. gentle. to continue.'to keep alive' + nominative) [TILLA2 archaic frequency: 5]. 'bath'. protect'. to flay (cf. to shine' ?) [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. tie. to be halted (singular stem. weak (di4. young man. 'side. to put an end to. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . n. splendid. to hold. pleasure') . ul4)..17. to be ripe. šul. a bad disease involving skin eruptions (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu. finish... understanding (sides. + íl.. tal: large jug (sides + abundant). dim). to spend the day. build (dù. n. sul: v. broad. warrior. to shell. 'to be.. dam: the (curved) beam that connects the bottom of the plow to the pole. pluck'. heroic. proud. šal: šál: (cf. public fountain. elapse (said about time).sul4: (cf.. to flow.. pú-lá. 'to be born'. to make beautiful. (cf. dim4: n. with -ta . pole of a water lift. begging. make'. Sumerian Lexicon. to be full or abundant. arms). be high. zé: zíl: dam: ñiš to undress. zal[NI]: v. v. wait (often with -ni -. deep well). 'to sprout'. to spread. shout. 'joy. 'to be frightened'. to keep alive. 'spouse'. ti: til4. 'moon'. modified by i. 'to plunder. dìm: adj. sug8). 'clay. sìla ). dím: post (cf. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to live. dim). clinging vine (cf.. bond.. to survive (with -da.6. to rub into the skin (duplication class). speed up (cf. character + abundant)... lowland (tu5. 'to build. Version 3. n. + im.in a temporal sense) (cf... tìla. 'small'.. cf. + to lift. invader. well.. cistern. sickness demon. to pluck. ti. to deprive') . scream (te. mud'). carry'). to cease. strong. 'to be high. create. pleasing. dím[GIM]: ñiš to make. + ?). tendril.5. to make fast. n. sal ). supply. nearness. spouse (husband or wife) (da. + àm. to pass. tál[PI]: til: v. rope (dam. perish (iti.).0 33 .. unfold (said about wings.

gim7: kum. þúp. 'abundance' + me. gúm. þúb and gùb). þum. disk (of metal or wood) (ka. v. bruise (cf. runner( cf. aga(3). to heat. 'wind'). n. drive out (these verbs make me wonder if this became the Sumerian word for a changeable wax-coated writing tablet). summer.7. run (mainly said of animals) (gi4. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . 'abundance' + to be).. 'old woman'). abundance.eemum). to approach. kneel (for someone: dative. þúb. gim7: (cf. 'clay'). gum: kúm: willow tree.. kìm[BU]. + mí. alternation between þ and k/g like the alternation between þab.4..'to bear. n. punch.. ñéme(?): woman. as. kum4 [UD]: lam: variants] .. t.. almond tree.áñ. to bow down.. Sumerian Lexicon. dím) (syllabic spellings indicate both gim and gin7... to shrivel. 'function. 'to be' ?). + mú. to neglect. kìm). n. cf. an adjective describing flour [that would be ground in a mortar. to overturn. glitter (like a crown. 'to come back' + im.. information. géme.'to sprout. mortar (for grinding) [GUM archaic frequency: 47. 'tool'. handle (like a circle + to be). v.. kim... v. fever (kù. daughter (dú. 'small'. heat. death. 'mouth' + imi... depth (cf.. netherworld [LAM archaic frequency: 47. kum] and bread. + àm. gum: þum: kam(2): kàm: (cf. decline. v.9. subservient (di4. to influence. give birth'. maid. Akk. power'). break. to change. to succumb (like a circle + to be).. to make grow luxuriantly (la. son. gàm: n. n. like.v. sickle. n. v.. 'fight. adj.. + to be). athlete') . probably pronounced domu). láma. to banish. hot. v.. to trot. to be passionate. grow'. 'bright' + to be). 'acrobat. during (cf. intention.. curve. workwoman.. to beg.. ignore (ga. to paralyze (many + u(3. grasp. to bend. slave-girl (ñeš. ki.. 'milk' + um. luxuriance. dimmu: dumu: gam: news. dispute' + me3. gin7: prep. child. ím: n.. to bow. 'woman'). adj. kiima with same meanings). direction: terminative). gúr ). Version 3.0 34 . grip. decision (loan from Akk. instead of. v.. to smash. lám: an awe-inspiring quality (la... 'battle'. gim4. equative suffix. to bruise. concatenates 3 sign v. kum). dima. to shine. to desire (cf. cf. incline. n. gun5: to wrestle. tablet. to thresh grain.8). just as.6... kaš 4).. to crush. gim. to grow luxuriantly. 'to love').

fate. + àm.. narrow + to be). lím: four (cp. cf. sum: garlic. plant + to be. concatenation of 4 sign variants] ... sín[NAM]: to strain. to multiply in arithmetic.. sam is 'spice' in Hebrew.. cloud [LUM archaic frequency: 23]. ším[NAM]. 'garlic'. limi. purchase'.. high. to give. šim. 'to make grow luxuriantly'. used mainly as a prefix to form abstract or collective nouns. sum.. šám. sím. Version 3. soak. 'tongue. šag5. above. destiny. lima. break' + eme. num: concatenation of 4 sign variants] . noble (time. 'functions') .. perfume (see comments on šúm. planning ability.'sell. office. + a. šem3. v. fragrance. lùm[DUG]: nam: a small drinking pot.. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . v. utensil' ?. 'greatness' (n. resin. 'poison') . to sift (flour).. manure. to slaughter. 'six hundred').. manner. kaš4). buy') [ŠAM 2 archaic frequency: 51]. cf. morning (high + to be) [NIM archaic frequency: 109. ir-si-im) [ŠIM archaic frequency: 50. province. butcher. sám. enclitic copula. ablative) (sa 10-sa 10 in marû). v. related to šammu . drug. early. spice. concatenates 2 sign adj. šúm. sun4). to soften. to bear fruit (abundance + grass. to make productive. sínmušen: swallow (Akkadian sinuntu). šem. n. high + to be) [NAM 2 archaic frequency: 375]. fertilizer. way. adj. n. v. medicine'. sim. làma: a female spirit of good fortune. merchandise (Akk. adv. equivalent. prince. 'to be') [NAM archaic frequency: 30. loanword from šâmu(m) .0 35 . sickle with serrated edge (ša5. (area of) responsibility. behave).d lamma. rim4: (cf. governor. sám) [SUM archaic frequency: 43. to be satiated. 'plant. herb.. lend (with dative) (sum-mu in marû) (cf. sim.4. (barter) purchase.. to be fertile. limmu(2. Sumerian Lexicon. flying insect. productive. sam-. aromatic wood. sign.. Orel & Stolbova #2281 *su'um. tutelary genius (lam. šúm. nominative suffix) . nám[TÚG]: nim. n. 'to buy. east. 'to cut. filter. highland. fragrant. saw. to see through (fine... sale price. to buy (with -ši -). such as nam-lugal . destiny. 'precise essence'. lum: n. 'to slaughter') [? TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?.5(zabar): šum: tambourine (þalþallatu drum in Akkadian) (many + me. lim: thousand (four hundred greater than ñéš×u.5). full. 'kingship' or nam-maþ . concatenates 2 sign variants] . lam). cf. prince.. sa10: n. onion (Akkadian loanword from šuumu . Orel & Stolbova 2185. to grow luxuriantly. to sell (with -ra -. sim: variants] .. lot.. to be high. sì: sum4: (cf.

laþ 4) (in marû plural. dul(6)). concatenation of 4 sign variants] . gan. 8. to churn butter. de 6. overflow (repetitive motion + closed container. cf. reflective.4. cf. n. to ignite') . + ma4. 'human being') . zal. to blow. seep. gana. 'to be'). tu15: tumu2.. a measure of capacity or volume = 10 liters (sìla ) in the Ur III period. n.. direction (ta. pile up. measure of surface. to bring forth."field") [GAN 2 archaic frequency: 209]. blister. Version 3. regular. giñ4: constant...333 grams. and the term "carrier pigeon" for a homing pigeon). stand. smite. field parcel.. tum2. bul. kajjamaanu. light. bag-type of bellows. vessel. 'food'. 'food'. stagger. to break wind. hole). shape. go out') . dig (a field. = 6 liters at Presargonic Girsu (cf. to open (to move + to raise high. 'from'. to lay a warp (onto a weaving loom) (to move + to raise high). the planet Saturn (possible loan from Akk. wind. n.. rack..3 Sumerian Lexicon.šum4: (cf. Orel & Stolbova #890. (cf. gán: tract of land. to strike. bun(2).. to shine brightly (cf. banda 2. furrow. to complain (redup. tu11: dùn: dun(4): v. + na. flow') .5) (ba. a surface area measure.3. gina[TUR+DIŠ]: gín. 1/60 square nindan (sar) = 180 surface še = 2160 (=36. to be suitable. 'to leave. du9[BÚR]: v. dun5. gi(n). outline. iku ) (cf. pana ).17. tam.. work.. 'to blow. and kaanu 'constant'. to be swollen. cf. v. 'portion. + ma4. kan: v. + ma4. rebellion (hollow container + nu11. to leak. grinding stone (circular + to raise high) [GAN archaic frequency: 125. pupil.. 'to blow'). + àm. tin ). and zar.. subordinate. cf. gána. emit flatus (tu15. (cf.3: to bring. + ú. crossbeam. tum9. ge(n) and ñin. 'to bring. tum4[NIM]: to carry (ta. 'to flow'. gena. small. tumušen: zum: ban: bán: bàn: bird of the pigeon and dove family (cf. kajjaanu. lamp. suñin). a volume measure. ñen). tú: tum: tuma: polished. small ax(-head) used as money. zur4. to sway. tum2. pestle. depart. shiny. to prepare (marû singular. genna. tum12mušen. ginna. class) (see instead sun 5 if the sign is used as an adjective) (to move + to raise high). bathe'.. + mú. 'lamp' ?). 'to wash. bànda ). n.. du24.. plane. fit.3. tumu. tu2. bu(7): din: dun: (cf. reliable (tu5. = 0. 'from'. support. to obtain.. tu10.. tun.. 'wind'. ward.. bear. cultivation (cf. action. 'to leave') .0 36 .. 'from'. cardinal point. carry'.0) square fingers.. dun. (cf. sug 5). (flat) surface. 'to spout. ta(5). 'to leave'). + ú.. tumu4. rations'. arrow quiver [TUM archaic frequency: 48. shekel (of silver) = ca. pure. warp (threads on the frame of a weaving loom). to heap. *gan. to carry away. tùm-tùm[-mu] or túm-túm-mu ) (ta. concatenates 4 sign variants] . v.. to scrape.3.

urudu KIN: (cf. + na4. reservoir. gur 10. alike (cf. concatenates 5 ? sign variants. kiinu 'true measure'. because a woman has two breasts). v. embellished. men5: men(4): mén: men2.. millstone (base/ground + stone) [KIN 2 archaic frequency: 11. concatenates 3 sign variants] . gúm). gun5: (cf. land. cf. saltpeter is the oxygenating ingredient in gunpowder) ... partner. region. kana3. but cf. adj. 'fire'. 'mouth' + ní. slab. to decorate with colors.. spots') . Version 3. kin: na4 (cf.0 37 . to be troubled. firm. cf. constancy (to be + at a distinct point). ñen: n.. gú: back of a man's neck = load. cf. 'eye'. to sparkle.5. spot (circle + discrete point. 'neck. ñin.. 'pebble. two. + nu11. ordinary. gùn: n. population') .. stairs. 'distinct things'.. kun4.. spotted. 'lord') [MEN archaic frequency: 48. apprehension. ugun) [GUN3 archaic frequency: 23. lines. gùnu. súb ) (Akk. gana 'come!'. both. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . min(3. burden = a talent in weight = 30 +/. equal. 'people. nape' + ùña. mina.. myself (cf. gú). lines. 'decorated with colors. kín[ÞAR]: kun: (ñiš) tail. solid. 'function. affliction. gun[GÚ-UN]. speckled.. me-en). gú: gún. decorated. 'two'). un. staircase. threshold.. gùnu. variegated.14. *gan-/*gin. ladder. worry. companion. min(5. 'to make grow' . gin7: (this is sometimes the preferred form. a caustic salt (mú. to send. cf. *kin. outlet (of a canal). grasp (base/seat + high) [KUN archaic frequency: 2]. 'fear').. doorsill (base/ground + high). mina and mana ). tiara (metaphor of divine en-ship) (me..5. multicolored..cubic meters (Akk. v. steadiness. spangled. mun: salt [MUN archaic frequency: 24 ?. gim). office' + en. MUNU3 archaic frequency: 15]. adj. stone'.6): mina. 'edge' + ùña. ur4). dot. Orel & Stolbova #1459.. re 7. I.5: mana. storage basin.. kan3. mìn. brilliant. 'people'. un. hand mill (saddle quern for grinding). but cf. striped.5: n. district (gú. to come (with dative or -ši -) (sing. þuñ ). second (mí. Orel & Stolbova #892. 'woman'. mìna.2 kg. man. þun: (cf. crown. du . + na.3: concatenation of 2 sign variants] . kíñ ). hamtu.."count") [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. tribute (gú. dappled. reliability. to put on antimony paste makeup. Sumerian Lexicon."go"). two (cf. trouble (ka.6): múnu: munu(3).... gìn: lapis lazuli (igi. v. mana ).. cf. gún. to go. ne4. spots. (cf... concatenates 4 sign variants] .

n.. rín) (ara4... lower lip. raised high') . nin9: sister (reduplicated ní. šen[SU×A]: n. prince. deep. rà. Version 3. su16: n. (cf. v. one's own') . respect') .. pure. v. 'to be high'.6: nin: malt . respect'. + þà/u. 'to mourn. master (ní. to attach. and tùn. pan.. 'lip') [SU 6 archaic frequency: 1. bow (pa. thin things'. 'people'). with bowed head. suñin ).. to shine brightly. proprietress. frightfulness. adj. aurochs cow. beerwort (su. star.. su6: sun5[BÚR]. vessel.. 'to mount. 'long. 'time' referring to shorter days ?).).. to trample. modesty. 'to approach. te-en: v. ninu: ninni5: nun: a rush used in basketry. free (ta. 'pebble. discord. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . polished. to rise up (n. 'fear. allay. + to be high). 'branch'. munux. sùl. beard (cf. 'nature. bulrush (reduplicated nin or nin9. 'fear. nominative suffix.+ u5.. šún[MUL]: tán[MEN]: ten. chin.0 38 . be sufficient'. sleep') . awe') [NIN archaic frequency: 75]. alkaline.. noble. + nud. grieve' + ní. heaven') .. 'people' ?) [NUN archaic frequency: 652. 'sky. respect. clear. Sumerian Lexicon. hitch (cf. great. v.munu4.. fifty (nimin/nin5.soaked and germinated grain for use in brewing (mù.. 'to fill. extinguish. sim ). mušen nínna: nocturnal bird . 'fear. clear. concatenates 4 sign variants] . to cool (te-en-te in marû). 'bright'. + na4. brackish. the predatory owl with its human-like face probably gave rise to the demon Lilith myth. cf.. be on top of. mistress. a copper pan. mirror (?) (liquid + stone) [ŠEN archaic frequency: 66.. ar. 'forty'. BU 3 archaic frequency: 21]. 'to mill'. concatenates 2 ? rín[ERIM]: to be/make bright (reduplication class). 'self.. ban: sign variants] . to become clean. dnin-nínnamušen). humble. dominated (su9. érin. 'ten'. wild cow.. n. sun7[KAL]: quarrel. mun4 [ŠEŠ]: queen. cf. n. near' + en. sun4. cold. body. join. si. noble. where reeds and rushes were seen as belonging to a young woman goddess similar to the grain goddess Nisaba). pail. to enter (plural ?. coolness (te. pana. kur 9) . fine. character' + an. shiny. šén: verdigris. sum4. to soften. 'to lie down. + a. adj. stone') [BAN archaic frequency: 27.+ un. ninnu. lady.owl (nin. adj. lord (reduplicated ní. light.+ un. sín: sun: sún: (cf. 'fearsome lady'.

wrap. to drive along or away'. n.. barag ). intact. lip (te.. + ir10. life. n. to break (of the day) (cf. concatenation of 3 sign variants. the plural hamtu for 'to go'. to see. 'to accompany. which refers here to the sun. and cf. bir4.7: (cf. para4. to wreck. to rip to pieces. bar. v. innards. white. to break (cf. to blaze') . pouch. 'cheeks' + nu. + ér. to murder (ba.. bàra. 'to divide'. 'to expose'. to be stretched or spread out (cf.. wine [TIN archaic frequency: 93]. bir(2. tu10: tùn[GÍN]: to constrict.. adj. ara4.0 39 . + ir10. to break up. lead.. to scatter. mistiness (of the eyes) (ba. stomach. adj. (out)side. re7. sipad ). expose.. to divide. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. cf. to dry up. (cf. pap: rap: sipa: bar: (cf. to remove. flaccid.. divide'. 'to shine. bàr. wrinkle one's nose. bár: bar6. mix. v.. to massacre. 'to overflow'..7: locust. 'likeness') [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67].7 for similar semantics). pocket. prep. to bear. (cf. to distribute.. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to uncover. because of. + ra(-g/þ). barag ). rab).. 'to apportion... to select. sparrow (cf. bárag ) (interchanges with búru) (ba. re7) [?? BIR 3 archaic frequency: 23. (ñiš) pa4). shriveled up (said of a penis).. dun ). ZATU-143 ERIM archaic frequency: 175. bound. pàr[DAG].4): n. ír.. flame up (cf. tun(3). open wide.. to defeat. 'to smell'. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. case.. remove as in ri). v. bir for similar semantics).tin: n. with possibly a hidden meaning of 'to dry' for Vr or ara4 as also seen in dúr). ba-ra(-g)) [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]. to release.. 'to stir. be bright. smash (cf. adj.5: bir6. adj. to blaze.. fleece [BAR archaic frequency: 306]. shell. par4[KISAL]: to stretch or spread out. barag ). Version 3. to open.. mix') [BIR archaic frequency: 9. pare. to sniff. bìr[ERIM]: team (of donkeys/animals) (ba. to keep away (with -ta -) (container plus to expel. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . soul.. compound word. cf.6: bir: to spread out. pàra. foreign. to be healthy. shrivel up. to pass over. bir9[NE]: Sumerian Lexicon.. pab. 'to weep' and ur5. to live.. to shine. bára: (cf. (cf.. to go. to split.. to peel. bar6.. separated. to cure. to be absent. v. bandage. released. bara4[BAD]: bara5. bìr for animals in plural numbers).

to bore through. dar4: dark. buru14. 'to tear. fresh. bur14: dar: harvest. "space. supple (dé. bìr for animals in plural numbers. pit".. burin. to tear out. pot (cf. to slice. uproot. bùru ) (from Akkadian buuru IV... ) (cf. draw.. + úr. bùr: v.6): to tear. split. dim. to interpret (a dream). 'arm. harvest time (bur12. berry [rare word]. ub4. dirig). dár: n. concatenates 2 sign variants] . open container'. 'bond.. búru. dúr: (cf. depth (Akk. 'to be darkened. donkey stallion (usually written du 24-ùr or dur 9 (ùr) duru5.. fruit.. crow ?. hot season.. bur(2): n.."well. 'base. to dissolve. diri. anšedùr(ùr)). 'to water' + ru5.. Sumerian Lexicon. dur: bond. receptacle. v. dàr: (cf. dára. split').."vomit"). keep away (ba. buru7[GURUN]: buru8: to vomit (Akk. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. *'or. to receive. opening. dur10: gar: ax (compare dar.5mušen: raven ?. tie'). to dispose of. necklace. amulet chain. v. to despoil (reduplication class. grasshopper (cf. strap. to bind.. tie. pack. + ur. to remove.. (anše) dùr(ùr): 'fresh'). side'.. but cf. root') [BU archaic frequency: 393. could also be Sumerian from. locust. loosen. Orel & Stolbova #164. a-dé. hole. 'to shear. thread. bu(3. 'strap') . nominative suffix with vowel harmony). concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'plant' or a. dúru. dur5[A]: (anše) dur9[ŠUL]: (cf. bar. buuru 'cistern. dur. cut off'. hole'. to be drawn. sash (compare dur. cut off. rations. to shatter (reduplication class) (da. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . mine. dara4. cf. stone bowl. + ur4. v. to pay (with -ta ). bur12. to pull. + úr. to open. donkey foal (pack animal . 'to send forth shoots'. 'to divide' + úr. he-ass. release. Orel & Stolbova #120. 'to vomit'. high (compare dirig. 'cavity. fruit tree. 'lap. duraþ). Version 3. bir for destructive wreckers. repast. concatenation of 9 sign variants] .... cf. pierce. búru ) (ba. to knap. cf.. umbilical cord (da. bùr: a square surface measure = 6. sparrow ?. francolin. bar and bàra for similar semantics). belt. cf. dir: (cf.cf.6) + nominative for anything that harvests or destroys plants). arû IV .bur: meal. 'to surround') [DUR archaic frequency: 58. 'sides'. *ba'Vr-/*bu'Vr. bu(3. to tear out. 'portion. moist. 'floor' the u vowel especially correlates with round objects or openings). thighs. "hunger".0 40 . to go over') [DARA 4 archaic frequency: 81.48 hectares = 18 iku = 3 area éše = 1800 sar = the amount of land that supported a family (also cf.. distance"). flake off (flint). n. reap') . 'to slice. bùru(-d). string. pheasant [DAR archaic frequency: 36. legs') [BUR archaic frequency: 51. to spread out (a garment). duruna).. buru4. parû III.. dàra. to break into (a house). ñar ). thread [BUR2 archaic frequency: 45]. bii/eeru IV. well'. + either ú. n. irrigated. bur12) (cf. and bur12..

to reap. to reject evidence (in a legal case). laden (Umma reading for íla sign. great (cf. kìri). ca. cf.'place'..0 41 . to return. kur12: n. cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to catch (in a net). fangs. to grind (reduplication class) (circle + flowing motion). guru7. adj.dug4/du11/e). gir. kàr: knob. gir15. cf.'to restore'.. to protest. circle. fury (compare bir9). 909 liters (cf. and gúgur5.gàr. early (the 'bull of the sun'.. + ara4. gu4ud). to die (cf. to bow down. þir) (gi4. gir10.. roll over. kud. ga-àr-ra) [GARA2 archaic frequency: 106. = 144 sìla in Old Sumerian Girsu/Lagash. loop. cheese (cf. gud. filled sack (of silver ?) = purse.10.. 'to shine. appearance (to be + to send) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. to separate. ga6: to bear. fattened. cake. gir5: (cf. oven (cf. guru8. frequency: 152]. gùr. cf.11. used for round and high objects ('circular' + 'to send forth. kùr. to gather together. to send). gar4[GUD/GUÐ]: gara2. gam ). gur5. + ri. very strong. submit. 'to strike'. to run. gir11[KEŠDA]: to be tidy. to gather in. pull (weeds) (gú.9. saña 11[KIN]). ñar: n.. gi9. kùr: n. can only be seen right before sunrise. gur. kir: gir4.14. ge9[NE]: anger. 'to surround') . copper sickle (semi-circle + flowing motion). kir13: cow or mare of intermediate age. in admin. gur7. Sumerian Lexicon. preeminent.. to protect') .. storeroom. cream. 'fluid kiln (for lime or bitumen).12: thick milk. guru5. possibly a carangid (ki.. (urudu) gur10. kur4. to come back. kára ). divide. to be or feel big. Mercury. 'basket') . bright. 'to sweep away') . to cut. gur. kur5. belonging to the native in-group (circle + city) [ŠE3 archaic giri17: (cf.. ñiri5). hoop (circle + ur. v. nape' + ra. 'neck. mir ) (circular container + er. reed basket. granary. to turn.. v. plump.. to be endowed with. gir8: v. measure of capacity . 'basket')... silo. to wipe off. to gallop. v. guru6: (cf.. to pluck. kara6: grain heap. subdue. neat (cf. archaic frequency: 1]. a fish... to curb. ur4: n. 'to bring'. Version 3. a capacity measure.. giri11. hair lock on the back of the head (sign of a slave)... udun ) (ki. pommel. to join in assent (probably reduplication class) (cf. gur8 [TU]: high. civilized. texts = 2 bariga ) [? GUR archaic frequency: 14] (circle + to reap.. domestic. + ir(2).. gur. sphere.Biblical kor (= 300 sìla in Old Akkadian and NeoSumerian periods.. loaded.. to make a circular motion. to shear (sheep). coarse. deep. blaze') [GIR 4 secretion') [GIR archaic frequency: 28. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . gur(4). guðx.9. gar2. harvest. carry. to be full.. 'bull'). thick. gúr: n.10. to turn away from (object has ablative -ta ). form. ring. to give back.. v.. gi7 [KU]: noble.'place'. contradict.

n. (cf. to destroy. drive away. to seek refuge.. produce. to steal. sketch. to impute. crushed. link (in a chain).. besiege. 'support'. 'to drag') . to make groats. cf. way. path (ñiš. via. refuge.. to take away. scorpion. ñir2. to run. to remove and set elsewhere (with -ta-). step. lightning flash. kir.'place'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. millstone. gir ). ground. to scratch. to fulgurate. àr. ur5) (many small explosions + sliding motion) [UR5 archaic frequency: 34. run away. to dig (many small explosive sounds + ùr.. ñiri2. kára. hole. 'to branch out from the side of') .. n. v... v. mooring-place. marketplace. day) (reduplication class) (sometimes written for kúr ) (place + ur.. ur5: n.5: n. to avoid. ara3. ñìri. ring.. stab. embankment. giri 11). harbor. ñiri16. prep. limb. to grind. quay-wall. miller (reduplicated þar/àr. deposit. yield (abundance + to go out + to flow) . 'to strike. 'tool'. ñíri. ñir16 [ÑÌR×KÁR]: fortress. to pulverize (in a mortar). refugee. draw. restore (with ši-).. to be taken. a large vessel. kín .. kár. and ara4. young. to pillage. accuse. precative prefix. ten. pulverized. cf.. kikkin. 'cow or mare'). 'entrance') [KAR archaic frequency: 7]. dagger.. flash. + ir(2). 'to impress into clay'. þara5: spout. 'to shine') [? KAR 2 archaic frequency: 68. guru6: to encircle. ñír: n. send. + ra. captive (additional associations of 'road' and 'sword') . to stab. adj... take. place. to store. to expel (with -da-) (ñá-ñá in marû). concatenates 2 sign variants] . to drive away. 'leg(s)'. kar: n. capture.. to capture. booty. gàr ).. to be bright (of light. nominative ending. ñir5[KAŠ4]: v. Version 3. ur5[ÞAR]: n.. kàr: kir: kír: Sumerian Lexicon. to put.. inscribe. stem. illuminate. set down upon. þara. sword. tighten (cf. establish. cf. ñidri and ñušur for similar and different phonetic developments). to take away. foot. 'fluid secretion'. accumulate.5.. vessel with a large spout (þa.. coil or spiral of silver or other precious metal that can be worn as a ring or bracelet and was used as money (cf. to shine. úr.. v. kur9. trip (ñiš. 'millstone'). ara3. small. handle (þù. feet. outline. port authority (place + water + to flow. expedition..3: n. beer keg (ki. to chew. where a round hole was the symbol for 10) .v. + uru9. + ra. + ra. to raid. 'to surround' + a.. thorn. þir[KEŠDA]: v. lighten. gir. to squeeze. slay' with vowel harmony) [GIR 2 archaic frequency: 114]. v. ñiri5..3. (cf. trot. pillage. road.. þara. to deliver. þar. ñìr: n. milled. stranger. to make. v.0 42 .. v. knife. 'tool'. þur. adj. to escape.

. 'place'. mill. Akk.'hoe') [MAR archaic frequency: 117. grate (mu7. 'to sing. alien. 'smell'). entrance (ki. lock up. fodder for fattening. to get angry. n.'place'. stranger. kir13: kur: (cf. lirum ). kur4: (cf. spoon (ma(3). hostility (from kur.'place'.. to blow' + úr.. or blossoms') .'mountains. enemy.. kiri 3. to guard. to let enter (with -ni -). of gùr ) (me3. 'root.9. base') [KUR archaic frequency: 145. gur4). storm wind. 'to shear. sun 5) . kurum 7). also. + ir(2). lungs. kir6. liru. + ru5. reap'. + ùr. (cf. kir6. palm grove (ki. concatenates 2 sign variants] . anger. buds.'battle'. v. north(wind). turn into. to kindle. winnowing shovel. Sumerian Lexicon. ñá. an encircling snake (var. violent storm. (foreign) land.. adj.. hyena (cf.'to shout'/ mud6. to break a seal (often with -da -) (kúr-re in marû). concatenates 2 sign variants] . kir4. transform (with -da -) (singular [?] reduplication class stem.. 'entrance') . Orel & Stolbova #1738 *mar. cf.SILA4]: female lamb [KIR11 archaic frequency: 3].4: ñiš stream dam.0 43 .kìr[LAGAB]: off'). v. to nip off (clay) (ki. gùr: n. mur: worm. 'to surround') [MER archaic frequency: 48. + flowing motion. to grind. attain. ñar7: n.. muzzle (of an animal). enter into the presence of (with -ši -).. ur5 [ÞAR]: n. to shout. kur6: (cf. earthworm. weir (cf. to enclose.4) (ki.6. lattice. liri: (ñiš/urudu) (cf. kur5.. garden. to be different.'to go'. + ùr. mountain. + to flow / circle + ur. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to deliver (-ni . spade". angry. kud. kiri6: kir11[MÍ..4) (ki. giri17: nose. to surround. base') . kùr: (cf. scatter. kur5: kuru7. 'roof.specifies delivery location).. mir(2). belt. n. + ir. hostile. liver.7. mar. fierce. to don. 'earth'. highland. to turn round.. foreign land') . cf. to sow. 'fluid secretion'/ ra. ku4: (cf. to rise (sun). mur. 'to send forth shoots.'place'. kud ). to blow fiercely. gir 4). apply. kúr[PAB]: n.. to change.. v.4. v. to bring. mar. 'root. the netherworld (ki.. 'to flood') . + ur4. strange... mer(2). marru "shovel.. orchard. waistband. mountain pass'/ úr. to enter before someone (with dative prefix).7.. v.. Version 3.. furious.. mú. to coat. in the future. gur ). kuru5. to reach. adj. kurum6). kur7: kur9.. 'to pinch kiri3. wagon. v. 'place'. to immerse. to enter. and kid2.

lord [NIR archaic frequency: 45. 'to surround'..7: (cf. pursued. drive'.'to be full. extend. sur6. reach. density. victorious. depth. enter. to insert. ditch. divide') . síl. kar for such a progression from the noun to the verb). adj. 'to surround') .. bàra ). chopped straw [? SUR archaic frequency: 6]. to overcome.0 44 . sila. 'flood basin') . to clothe. foundation. deep furrow. proper. nir: n.. to begin. šár ). prince. sil. nir.. a volume measure of one square ninda times 1 kùš = 144 kùš 3 = ca. so. na4 nír[ZA. 18 cubic meters = 1. sir5. to winnow. run (to be skilled. + ir(10). v.. 'height. weak.. + to flow). 'sweat') . adj.UD. naaru I.. to pay. reed mat. suru5.. 'high. sa5. to wear (cf.RU6 = SAL. suspend. deliver punctually. contrast sug. cf. to support. to write.EDIN]: fog. lift'. brother-in-law (mu10. to disturb someone. n. "river" in the same way that Sumerian nab means both "ocean" and "musician") [NAR archaic frequency: 69]. concatenates 3 sign variants] . murux [GI. + uru2. v. par3/4: sar. chaff.. zara 5). sur: sur: (cf. Version 3. to hang. to grow weak'.18.. inundate + to flow. sumur ).U4. n. + rù.'woman'.demonstrative. to drive (with -ni -).... ner: adj. Sumerian Lexicon. mur7. rushes.. v. n.0 gur [= 60 gur ] of capacity = 1.5. deep') . haze (mi. to delimit. omen. to stretch. precise + flowing motion.GÍN]: (cf. thus.8: (cf. drain (to fill. (cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] ..KID. murgu ). šar: a surface measure. feverish (si.. cf.MAÞ]: singer.'woman'. su. but meaning probably derives from the act of chasing vermin from the vegetable garden. to hover.. in this way. cf. dense. mist. 'garden plot' = 1 square ninda = 60 surface shekels = 1/100 iku = 4 square reeds = 144 square cubits = 36 meters 2.. mur10. to dress oneself (reduplication class [?]) (mu10. ús. to drive. mu4: muru9: nar: muru5[MÍ. bound. to raise high. uš. sár: sír: adj.. 'to follow. šar: n. 'to cut into. + ur. sar. chase away (with -ta -). foundation pit (ús. which derives from Akk.. 'equal in rank') . to make hurry. for 'to drive away'. "musician". vanquish (to be high + to go out + to flow) . sa.'to be dark'. súr: sùr: sur6. + ur. frog. a garden plant.7). šur ) (si. clean grain. driven out. zil. 'long and narrow'. musician (loan from Akkadian naaru II. si-il.0 gín in weight.. a precious stone with black and white flecks.. vegetable(s) [SAR archaic frequency: 102. divide (reduplication class ?)(cf. sur5: height.

. explain. to exude. sír ) (Akkadian loan from šaraapu(m) . sir4: v. world. to flow.. sar. protect') [TUR archaic frequency: 272].. to flash.. šar8 [NI]: šér. thicket (ti. to decide.. šìr[EZEN]. v. a frequent metaphor for a temple. reap'. sick. zar. v. sheepfold.. to press (out). horizon. the number 3600 = 60 (many. to extract seed oil.. sur8: to tap. + ùru. ball. cf.. to be/make small.3) [ŠIR archaic frequency: 24. gleam (šu. flow. newborn. 'to pour' + to flow. numerous. lú šár: a military officer = commander of 3600. to cut.. to interpret. drip. šur: v. tir: tur: forest. 'from'. to be or become sick. sumur ).. concatenates 2 sign variants] . šìr: (cf.. v. (cf. deliberate. + ur4. šìr: šir. child. sickness. šír: šèr. to shine brightly (cf. sár: n. lament (Orel & Stolbova #2258 *sir-/*sur 'sing'). judicious. n. to sing. and ñiš2. token. stable. implore (reduplication class). to spin (a cocoon) (cf. þir. innumerable. to process wine and juices. šur. totality. song. weak... to bind. to slaughter. to multiply or mix (with -da -).. zur4. small. little.. tur5: tur5. coil'). tu: birth-hut. (cf. testicles (many + to go out + to flow. 'ring. 'to watch.7). guard. zar). destroy (ta. to spray out. to break. to determine. sur: šúr: tar: adj.tar) [TAR archaic frequency: 56. adj. grove. 'to surround') . pen. 'to be born'. tùr. sanctuary (cf. to submerge.. n. 'arrows' + ùr. to reduce. concatenates 4 sign variants] . 'beams. + ur. adj. concatenates 3 sign variants] . rafters'. tur) [TUR 3 archaic frequency: 121.. šèr ).. šeñ3. pour.. to produce a liquid. young..0 45 . sur12: šar: (cf. to smoke. all. sug 8). n. cf... byre.sur8: (cf. second in rank (tu. early example of asyndetic hendiadys). to inquire. to rain. 'to shear.. to be many. to be insufficient.. v. 2 šár. dar and nam.. nir. sug 8) (repetitive motion + to flow) [? ZAR archaic frequency: 15. cf. 'to burn') . decision. to make abundant. much + àr. young (of herd animals). Sumerian Lexicon.. Version 3. n. counter. to brew (beer). concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'rope'. the graphically similar sign. weakness.. šar). to spout. to decide (éše. to request. adj.

. 'to stand upright') . to furnish. Orel & Stolbova #1766 *mi’es. with its similar appearance. to arrange. 'endowment'. sheaves (rolled up and bound stalks and ears. ñeš2. 'strength'. ñeš: one (dili.'tree') [MES archaic frequency: 32]. za-ra ) (Akkadian loanword from . plow.0 46 .. prince.. 'excrement'.KUR.. šaña). chamber pot (kàš. that the homophone kaš.3. would have to be forced so much. zara5. terrible. lower abdomen. zar[LAGAB×SUM]: zara5 and zar). back.3. þaz ). zàr[SUM]. + usu. concatenation of 2 sign variants.. to mean 'urine' at some point).3. kás: kàš: beer. scepter. describes an animal assigned to the plow (sometimes ñiš-šè ). (cf. thigh (numerous + foundation. concatenates 2 sign variants] . furious. the form resembles that of the semantically appropriate male body part. 'one'. v. min(5. nissa: šes: (cf. twine (yarn or thread). used in working at the lower levels in excavating a canal. sisi (ANŠE. adj.. Version 3. wooden implement.. young man. + si14. urine (an etymology involving še10. to rock (an infant). fiery red (Akk. þuz). 'to walk'. settlement of accounts. Akkadian loanword . deš: ñiš.. ñiš2. uš: penis. wood.3. diš(2). 'hackberry tree'. + usu. to be angry (compare guz.. alcoholic beverage (ka. sacrifice. ñiš2. nisi. cf. ñeš2. 'water'. mèš: deduction.3: (cf.su.. 'two'). dúsu [ANŠE. zar5. base). 'mouth'. 'a small pot'). 'strength') .(ñiš) zar: wagon shaft (cf. n. + áš. ñeš2. 'to + si. loins. 'urine'. offering. ka9: kisi: mes. corvée (du. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. þaš: (cf. to pray.. an ass or equid used as a draft animal in front of plows and wagons (du. wild (said of animals).. cf. kas7. 'single'. þaš4: þuš: þeš5: (cf.RA): horse (reduplicated si. tool..serru(m) II). sur: to spin. 'beer'. transportation basket. cf. šeš ). tend. to roll up (repetitive motion + to flow). kaš. natural phenomenon (describes a trunk that goes out into many branches and leaves) [GIŠ archaic frequency: 381]. possession (back-formation from níñ-kas7/ka9). provide.meesu I. mina. nisig ). 'to desire') [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261. ñešta). adj. þáš. cf. prayer (repetitive activity + to flow/protect).. awesome. to offer. organ. hackberry tree in the elm family (me. ruššû). sheaf.4.. 'to fill up'). zur: dusu: n.3. nitaþ(2) and šir) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. + aš. man (self + to go out + many. Sumerian Lexicon.. son.LIBIR]: walk'. concatenates 4 sign variants] .6). tree. probably replaced the use of a. v. sir5. ñiš2.

maš. destruction. kišik (2)). kéš: (cf. + kid. adj. bitter. face. appearance. to glisten. extispicy (divination based on the entrails of a sacrificed animal). twin (ma4. terminative suffix/ šú. next to'/ šè.. build'. maš: máš: n. v. turtle (cf. boy (ki. a city's irrigated. 'to do. mèš: muš: (cf. kišib 7. depart. kiši16/17: kiši4: half. kušum x). 'to be joined. kušu: kúšu: liš: maš: (cf. act'. 'to kill').. messenger. 'tongue'/ ma4. Sumerian Lexicon. + šè. ell/cubit = 1/2 meter = 30 fingers [šu-si ] = distance from elbow to fingertips. he-goat [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. kiš. tourist (place(s) + locative + many) [KAS 4 archaic frequency: 1]. 'portion'). produce. channel (cf. 'female'. to worry. + áš.. forearm. kuš. interest (of a loan). (cf.. groom. 'to cover') [? UÞ 3 archaic morsel (happiness + small + šè. to run fast. + úš.. the etymology of muš.. 'to leave. 'to leave.3: n. to be out of breath. noncitizen. found. 'fish'. adj. frequency: 14. leather (ku5. to gallop. kuruš). surface (mu10. diadem. mes ). 'to leave. to calm (kúš-(ù) in marû) (aka. reptile (eme. where 'whale' must be meant) (ku6. profit.8. + šè. contrast gàr.9). 'snake'). inspect. 'dead') . v. snake. poison') [MUŠ archaic frequency: 3.. + úš.. aspect. 'to kúš: kùš: to be tired. to scrutinize. forelock (sign of a freeman.. + šú. totality. muš2. kus[SU]: skin.. nonresident. BU: archaic frequency: 393. 'to base.. Version 3. cultivated territory. go out'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . n. ŠIM×KÚŠU . kuš6: (cf. kešda ). + úš. shine. depart. keš: ñiš kiša(2). depart. go out'. muš4: a biting insect (cf. 'place'. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133]. šu-da) (ku. máš: máš. yield (of a field) (ma4. rent.. 'place'. esquire. 'venom. šè. + ús.kaš4. kiši7. + many). speed.. concatenates 2 sign variants] .. quick.8.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . kas4: n.. 'portion') [LIŠ archaic frequency: 4]. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133]. kàr) (ki.. runner. (cf.. sacrificial animal [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60].0 47 . courier. body-servant.9: cover') . v. 'to cut'. valet. entire political world (name of the powerful city in the north of Sumer that first bound together and defended the cities of Sumer) (places + many) [? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]. hide. 'to desire') [MUŠ 3 archaic frequency: 284. 'to kill'/uš11. kuš7: devastation. one-half. to travel fast. go out'. fluent.

+ ú. litter.. 'to approach'. womb. fig tree (moist container + šè. pain. palm frond. cf.. šeš). river bank. colleague [URI 3=ZATU-595 archaic frequency: 77. be overcast (said of the sun). 'to be pregnant') . to rub. v.. 'hand'). + eš. to be pregnant. 'to approach'. to reside (su.muš5[ŠEŠ]: niš. pa. v. šub) [ŠUŠ 2 archaic frequency: 243] . 'to anoint') . three [GIR archaic frequency: 28. peš5. 'placental membrane'. peš4. fluff (cf. sex.6. 'fig'). 'one [finger. each of them (te. cf.. myrrh (reduplicated eš. 'to anoint') [ERIN=ŠEŠ 4 archaic frequency: 105]. šeš. tuš: n. adj. to erase. branch'. deep breathing. n. Version 3. much'. to weep. 'many..4: to overthrow. 'foundation place. + aš. precious. 'plant'. cry.. to be thick. relatives'. v. + uš8. to mourn. valuable.. 'hand'. 'portion') . to rub. šuš4: to fell trees. šes: šeš. + eš. 'self. to chop away (reduplicated šu.13: n. base'. ses: v..3. home (te. anoint (with oil) (su. ašte).. to cover (with -da -) (reduplication class) (reduplicated šu. šu2..21.A): púš: suš: suš2.. 'three'). to expand. šuš5. + eš. feed. 'to anoint') . šu5. eš5. n. difficult circumstances (derives from peš4. to throw down. brethren. neš: peš: bitter (eme. péš. to pluck apart. bitter. peš(7): ñiš child.4: to anoint. tuš).0 48 . fodder (scattered for animals) (reduplicated uš. to make an incision.6. body'. to go down. modesty. combed wool. son. cf. to conceive. -ba or -e ). 'spider').. tightness. together (often with suffix -bi . píš: pèš: fig.6: téš[UR]: bedding. 'body.. aš(5). to set.4): šeš2. sexuality. to sit down. šuš(2). all sorts. adj. + áš. all kinds. concatenates 2 sign variants] . river pebble. twenty (ní. piš10. scent.3: shore.. to taste bitter.. toe]') . peš10. to be dense (reduplication class) (reduplicated eš. become dark.. Sumerian Lexicon. 'leaf. + uš8. to comb and clean wool. n. 'foundation place. 'to anoint'. 'to desire'. 'tongue'.. 'body'. 'to stand upon') . cf.6: n. to feel ashamed.16.. spider. to breathe deeply. adv. concatenation of 4 sign variants] (moist container + ùš. wide. v. brother. base') . pešx(KI. šeš(2. brackish. to wail (reduplication class) (to become moist ?). a type of edible mouse (probably derives from pèš. shame..

to consider. moth (Akk. character') . small canal (šè. band. nus: meze: ziz: zìz: to break or cut off (twigs. 'to (let) drip'.. + gal. to cry. téš). 'niche. šed: šita6: n.4. Akk. plural. used on meat ('let it breathe'. a spice . number (šè. 'moth' and ašaašu . intact. accuse. bi(z): n. to vanquish. break.. + sín. to cut.4. 'flow of tears' and ba.. + lal. 'niche'. (seeded) furrow (ab. tie (šè. to gnash the teeth. to impute. bird niche. water') [ŠITA archaic frequency: 373. egg (na4. þaz. dá. + zé. Orel & Stolbova #1034 *‘açuç. abgal(2): ablal(3): absin(3): sage. þuz[LUM] v. kasû II) [GAZI archaic frequency: 14]. Sumerian Lexicon. + ta. šid. to lie down (singular. to hang') . nunuz). 'portion'. emmer (wheat) (reduplicated zé or zi). war (chamber + repetitive motion. 'to kill'. a type of vessel. to calculate.v. 'moth'. abrig: a purification priest (a. nest (ab. + te. concatenates 7 sign variants] . 'to be high.. 'by means of'/ dé. to join. trickle. slaughter (with -da. + ta. pluck') . to ooze. nita: (cf. long. wizard (abba. zíz[ÁŠ]: a crop-devouring insect (see etymology for ziz). measure. to pour.. to thresh grain (þá. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . [ñiš]naña3. to read aloud. also. 'elder'. dá. 'portion' + ída.0 49 . to be at home.. dá. tears (Akk. íd. ašte. to memorize. duruna ). adj. adj. 'portion'.. shaggy (hair). loanword from saasu .. to count. šita(4). establish. šíta. link with. cf. bound. throne') [ABRIG archaic frequency: 9]..s. + ta.. guz. fracture. a type of drum (function + repetitive noise).). to settle. bi-bi-zé)..cassia. i. èšda: (ñiš) clean. v. reside. 'to cut. to rage at.su . defeat.. + barag.. 'by means of') [EŠDA archaic frequency: 26]. v. þaš: nuz.'insect') . mace (úš. 'to approach'. figure out. bond. cf. 'to pour. powder.5: v. to (cause to) dwell. branches). cf.. to couple. loanword from bi.'goose'. to bind. 'numerous'. cf. cf. 'great') [ABGAL archaic frequency: 31]. bathed. Orel & Stolbova #256 *baz. to crush. šit. 7 n. to castrate (reduplication class: þu-þu-uz ) (gù.su .'flow. to sit. trim. nañX[GAZ.saa. + uz/us. 'to sift')... sing. Version 3. v. to dry (cf. to bare the teeth. èšda. to set up. 'nature. šita5. 'ruler. 'main canal') [ŠITA 3 archaic frequency: 139. 'to anoint'. + zú. be wet'). to rinse off. šita.. nook'. clip. to push someone away. biz. gaz(2): gazi: n. to kill. ešda: šìta: channel. 'noise'. to be together. 'water'. a priest (eš. šid3.'pebble'. nitaþ ). to recite. to drip. KUM]). 'teeth') .. cf. wise man.

bison. (cf. alla: amar: amaš: amagi(2. aþþur(2. 'to measure. 'sea' + zu. 'lift. 'to accompany. alal: alam: alan: alim: pipe.PAD. ferry. + maš. alañ.DIRIG]: addirx: agam: wages.3): calf. 'to decline. allalx. father. + dirig/dir. abzu: 28] . commons [AGAR 2 archaic frequency: 16]. akkil: lamentation.3): over') . (cf.3). net. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary (1995).0 50 . statue. vat. wild ram. sheepfold.abul[KÁ. agrun: inner sanctuary [ZATU-413 archaic frequency: 4]. 'house'.the sea personified as a god (aba/ab.. young animal (áma. a male protective spirit. fight. plural') [AMAR archaic frequency: 297]. a life force. incline'). figure. seine. alañ ). alam. cattle-pen (é. + lal.3). the 'sentient' sea . 'water'. ice.3): akani. + ñar... alan. IM. (cf. + re7. Sumerian Lexicon. 'water'. image. ál: concatenates 6 sign variants] .3). alañ ). ritual wailing. (cf. womb. mabi(2. aurochs. heavy rain shower.. añrig: steward. pipe for making libation offerings to the deceased (a. bridge (ída/íd. + gam. Orel & Stolbova. archaic frequency: 73. 'river'.3): agarin4. 'to go adamen(2.PA. añarx[IM×IM. akan: agar(2.5: field. akan: akar: alad: udder. lintel. #287). + rig7. powerful [ALIM=ZATU-219 [GIR 3] sign per P. 'to know') [ABZU archaic frequency: argument. akani ). leather armor. imþur ). cloudburst (a. mother. 'to accumulate. grant') . aka4[KÁ]: door-frame. Steinkeller. swamp (a. agargaraku6 [NUNtenû]: a fish. superintendent (áña. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . 'to deed.DUGUD]: to deposit') . ugar: agarin(2. ágan. gutter. crucible. Version 3. 'water'. to check'. appearance [ALAN archaic frequency: 51. uþþur(2. conduit. crab. addir[A. ákan.ÑISAL. 'goat'). carry').GAL]: city gate (loanword from Semitic for 'door'. beer-wort. 'wild cow mother'.

asila: (cf.4.. + zalag. 'to blow') [APIN archaic frequency: 181. téš). seeder plow (a. plot (cf. to be sympathetic. concatenates 4 sign variants. taboo. + kid(6).5. ašlag: (cf. lúazlag). equid. urdu(2).0 51 . onager. describes a plow animal (also apin-šè ). compassion. high'. vigorous. 'to cleanse') . vulture. 'to weave a reed mat'). ašgab: leather-dresser. abbar: marsh.5): joy. fierce.UŠ. terminative postposition = 'up to' = 'to raise up. 'to approach'. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. + gúb.3): Sumerian Lexicon.11: araþ4[É. 'youthful freshness and beauty') . 'bright. 'leather'. gladness. young.. concatenates 5 sign variants] . báþar: potter [BAÞAR2 archaic frequency: 50. 'water'. man-servant') [IR 11 archaic frequency: 10]. asilal).. banšur(2. funeral song [? BALAG archaic frequency: 20]. anzu(2)-(d)[dIM. launderer (a. ir3.4. + te. support. mud'. a mythical giant bird. canebrake (imi/im.DA]: (male) slave. subordinate (Akk. + bun. white. desirable or beloved object (áš. cf.. table.. 'base. 'male slave. ñiš ásal. adj.? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]. currier (kuš.. anše: male donkey. loanword from wardum. white') [UD archaic frequency: 419]. pity (úr. 'to cleanse'). + la. Version 3.5)). arali: the netherworld (þara/àra. + šè. aša5 [GANÁ]: field.4. reeds. necessity. (ú) aški: bulrush (Typha grass. root'. aškud: wedge (as a device to bar a door).3.. impetuous. azlag(2. + þáš. + bar. storehouse. v. pack animal (an.ambar. ašag. asilal (3. ašte: azag: lú need.GÍD. 'to desire'. arþuš: n. 'clay. 'to pulverize'. 'rope'.6). arala.MI/DUGUDmušen]: archaic frequency: 1]. proud. ú númun) (éš. balañ: lyre (?). servant.4. womb. 'seed'. cf. asil(3.'sky..4.5: bànda(da): ñiš prop. 'lower abdomen'). the rising sun (reduplicated bar6. banda2.5): (cf. carry') [ANŠE archaic frequency: 48. asilal(3. ašlag: babbar(2): bright. eagle [ANZU 2 anzalub: anzud(2). concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'to obtain'). reed pulp. arad(2). a-šà-(g)). fuller. ñiš apin: n. felt-worker. ramp (?). ásar: Euphrates poplar tree [ASAL 2 archaic frequency: 16]. container [? BANŠUR archaic frequency: 7. drum (?). junior.

broad. frightened. support. copious. 'valuables') . cf. dañal: n. concatenates 6 sign variants] . 'side'. barag. Equals 6 bán . barzil (AN. palm. 'big') [AMA archaic frequency: 241. 'the bán from picking..5): bùzur: hand. bunin: buranun: bitumen-coated reed container (for carrying liquids). to be swollen'.ŠE]: dadag [UD.. tub (bún/buñx.. secret. bar-rim4). (bán-rig-a. chamber (dag. to widen. biluda[PA. Sumerian Lexicon. novice.6: throne dais.. awl. width. dwelling (container plus ra(g). + gan. dabin [ZÌ. pure. bùluñ: n. trough. hurry.4. ? ZATU-764 archaic frequency 21]. brilliant. make grow. border (bul.. 'to pack') [? BARA 2 archaic frequency: 69. opposing or contrasting') .. pupil. worship. revolt (dal. stand.. to be nervous. + rim4. crate. 'to bear'). sack. + aka/ag. billuda. to hasten. daggan: dalþamun: dalþamun4: harem. gleaning') . tornado. sacred. living quarters. + nun. buniñx. 'resting place'. 'to rush around'. ordinance.0 52 . 'to flood. buzur(2. buñiñx.36 sìla in the Old Sumerian period and 60 sìla in the Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods. buniñ). foster child [BULUG3 archaic frequency: 19]. brewer [BAPPIR archaic frequency: 28. puzur(2. bulug: shoot. drill. + gal/ñal. 'dwelling'. disorder. buluþ: to worry. 'blister. 'to run fast'. clear (reduplicated dág.5). fields. 'great. concatenates 2 sign variants. duststorm. whirlpool. 'to do') [BULUG archaic frequency: 4]. box. Euphrates river (bu5.mixed with malt [munu 4] to make mash [titab ] for beer). violent storm. vicinity.AN]: bugin: basket. clean'). noble') . vat. barley malt. sprout. bárag. cult. 'to shine'. bàra. + þa-mun. v. enlarge. 'to fly'.TUR]mušen: ñiš duck.UD]: dagrim: coarse (?) barley flour.BAR): (meteoric) iron (bar6. adj.. wide. ruler. v. + níñ.4. dakkan. peel'). safety. overflow'. to grow. adj. 'brilliant. 'to cut. + zil. bara5. mystery. seal pin. boundary post. to grow big. concatenates 2 sign variants] .bappir(2/3): beer bread (a sweet and possibly pungent bread made from barley dough . security. king. bibad[UZ. búgin: basket (for carrying food) (cf. 'mutually confusion.. nest [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]. + ra. to rear. to clean. ñarim ) (dag. precinct (cf. riot. a merchandise tax. Version 3.. breadth (da. 'to sprout'. fright. v. . rite. bár. needle. bàr [DAG]: bariga [PI or UL(in Old Sumerian period)]: a measure of capacity . cult platform. bára. chamber. puniñx.

buttocks.appears in the credits section of the succeeding period's account tablet. cf. to go over. dingir: dílim. to sit. v. thighs'. 'to store. noted for its sweet water springs (cf. n. dir [SI. eclipsed. dìlim: oven for baking and roasting. 'to lessen') . 'fish'). 'to bring down (or up).DÚR]: dwelling [DUR 2 archaic frequency: 52]. 'bond. intercalary month after either 11th month or 12th month (based as much on whether the winter crop will be ready for the harvest month as on the need to reconcile the lunar year with the solar year. crucible. dubur(2): testicles (dub. + eme. + gud. lap.. IM dungu: cloud. dupsik: basket. ray'. anus. kiln. to dry out. tilmun ) [DILMUN archaic mast (dim. various.. + lal/lá. locks (cf. heavy. the island of Bahrain. hide') . young. difficult. to occupy. + ùña/un. dugud: n. brazier. very small. clothe. deity. outstanding. singular tuš ) (èd. 'needle'. durun. Version 3. hard (du7. + ñar. to break wind.7 miles/10. individual. superfluous. ñiš dubšik[ÍL]. dana: road-length measure. to be greater than. durunx [DÚR. dinig[KI. single (reduplicated dili). excess. dilina. to exit. mountain goat buck.. to be extra. separate. place (objects) (plural.. 'tears or any bodily secretion') .A]: n. 'people'). ušub). 'to cover. dal. (gi) which required an average of 7 intercalary months in 19 years) (cf. diñir. to be seated. to be erased. 'waist'. air vent (dè. weight. funnel-shaped bowl containing seeds for the drill plow. to be darkened. addition. tie'. 'potash') . determinative for divine beings (di. remove'. to be supreme over (with dative/locative). Sumerian Lexicon. 'bull'). to surpass. + áþi. dúruna. dúr. cloud [DUGUD archaic frequency: 2]. dàr: durun: (cf. superior. dàra. duruna).8 kilometers.. ibex (dur. 'beam.. dirig. stand out. surplus. 'ashes'. plural. 'tongue') . to float (with the current).danna. dalla.. didila: didli: assorted. overdraft. 'decision'. dìlib: hair. massive. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'root. cloudbank. 'enormous') . duruna. trouble. beer mug. ebir(2). 'complete'. 'to fly. dwell.0 53 . diri. 'to deliver'). and dul. + naña. 6. 'arm') [DARA 3 archaic frequency: duraþ. to pour'. + ir(2). salt. frequency: 35]. 'skeleton'. to exceed.. amount by which credits of an account tablet exceed debits . a watery type of beer .. 'march' = 30 UŠ = 21600 cubits = ca. epir(2): ebla: edakua(2): small pot. + ku6/kua.. 11. drain' + úr. to set down. adj.. additional. spoon (dal. + gul. adj. dálla. fish bones (adda. tie'.'light beer' (íb. 'to bond.NE]: potash. dél: dìlim[BUN]: dilmun : dimgul: ki god. dúru. double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2]. v.

imma: énmen. 'kidneys'. back.0 54 . emmen. crush. adv. against. engiz [ME. 'to dwell.. edin. + a(k). 'lord'. + tud/dú. city governor (post-Sargonic) (en. 'enigmatic background' + sig7. eden: prep. 'to mortar bricks'). plain. + agar. Sumerian Lexicon. n. cf. + mun. winter (en. emedu(2): émeš: house/estate-born slave (eme. 'to move in a circle. 'floor. summer. on. Akk.. driving stick ?. n. ereç ?[NIN]: ereš5[GAL-AN-ZU]: erib: daughter-in-law. ímma: ensi(3): frequency: 8]. 'to be born') . end. engar: irrigator.3. 'field'. bow ?. manager'.. cultivate"). nísañ. 'time'.3. + nañ. ímmin. queen. ereš. lady. guardian deity of the foundations [ENKUM archaic frequency: 14]. 'of'). inheritance. + kuš. farmer (en. + ñar. afterwards. 'time'. 'governor') [ENSI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. enkux [ZAG-ÞI-A]: enkum: temple treasurer. abyssal sea of fresh water (a. + dub. 'mammy'. spine (éd. 'lord'. to complete' ?) [ENSI archaic city ruler (Old Sumerian). emma. limit. hoop or wooden ball ?.GI]: 22] . + ku6/kua. enmen. egir2. to drink beer. + si. knowing. block of wood. brick wall (é. ímmen. 'ikkar from Semitic "to hoe. 'house'. back..4): bladder (éllañ.. grazing land between the two long rivers. an-gur4). 'water'..EN. + gaz. 'lord. immin. immen. future. 'skin'). iñar: eñir. 'to deposit'/ ñar8. 'lord'. ellañ [LAGAB]: éllañ: kidneys. 'to send forth'. cook (en. enku: fishing overseer (en. 'to fracture. eñar.edimx. root'. 'fish'. émmen. 'plowland'. thirst (en.. shake') [ENDIB archaic frequency: 6]. edin: earthenware vat for oil and fats. dream interpreter (en. énsi(-k): enten(a): + genitive. 'salt'). 'cold'. endib: cook (en. 'lord'. cf. elamkuš(2. eñer: prep. émma. 'straw') [EDIN archaic frequency: 5]. behind. slaughter') [ENGIZ archaic frequency: engur: subsoil water. egi(2): princess. intelligent. steppe. ñiš enkara: a weapon.ÞA) as ešsad). 'to drink'. + ten. stern (of a ship). endub. same signs (ZAG. tax assessment official. Version 3. + úr. + in. a number word.

diorite. high. 'liquid secretion'). rín: balance scale (cf. folk [ERIM archaic n. (cf. erum2. ešgiri: eštubku6: ezem: nose rope. army. muzzle'). gamar: to be overwhelming (gam. frequency: 175. + sañ. evil. hostile. 'illness. ezinu: grain. gagar [KI]: gakkul: area. galam: n. érin. + kìri. servant. erim). storehouse.. two') . tall.ÞA) as enku). caraway seed. concatenation of 3 ezen. + ir(2). strong. gamun: cumin. mash tun. us5. 'nose. troops.3: slavegirl. the deity Ašnan [EZINU archaic frequency: 24. clever. + en. erim3.5: (ñiš šim) treasury.SAÑ]: temple'. 'first. climb. ešsad: fisherman (éše. stairs. shoe. 'rope'. treasures. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . a river carp: binnî. Version 3. enemy. prime'). èsir: ešda: èšda: ešemen(2. 'violent storm').4. cereal. olivine-gabbro.. same signs (ZAG. gagig: to lament. erin7. bridle... erin. É. 'first. šíta ). sink'. 'to immerse.ŠE. complicated. gang of workers. clay brewing-vessel. 'rope'. offspring'. to ascend. man. elaborate. jump rope. cedar. 'seed. šita ). (cf. storeroom (é. adj..3): ešgar: (cf.. granary. 'time') [EZEN archaic frequency: 114. + men. eškiri.. ganam4. zeþ) [? EŠGAR archaic frequency: 12]. eren: érin. u8). + sañ. sandal. esañ: heir son (a/e4. jumping rope (éše. 'rope'.. 'both. festival. v. 'house. esir(2): kuš crude bitumen (usu. + gig. solid. feast (uzu. 'to kneel'. artistic. soldier. esañx[É׊E. ingenious. fine.. halter. injury'). ezen ). ebony. prime').0 55 . 'cut of meat'. to wail (gù. ésañ[ÑÁ׊E]. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . rim(3): adj. to anoint with cedar-oil [ERIN archaic frequency: 105]. Sumerian Lexicon. (na4) esig.3. 'strength' or esi. + mer. (cf. play. 'strong'. eru2.erim. éren: érim. 'to exclaim'. É. people. esi: good.. + sud. gana4: (cf.. celebration (éše. ezem: sign variants] . destruction [ERIM 2 archaic frequency: 20].

cf. gil. gukkal [KUN. girim. v. 'clay'.4: leek(s). cleanse'. wheel(s). nit(a)lam(2. divide'.5).4. roll') [PU 2 archaic frequency: n. giriš: butterfly. to fence off. Version 3. supply master. pile of sheaves (on a harvested field) (guru7. gaššu: intelligent. or gi6. 'to purify.3. 'reeds'. to twist. ga-ša-an) (Emesal dialect word. 'black'. 'to consume'. burning (gu7.3): ewe. 'sickness demon'. in which nin becomes šan).3. destroyed. to creep or glide on the ground (gur5.7): ñiš spirit. 'to be sick'... 'to make'). to be corrupted. garadin(4. darkened (gíg/gi6. girin. karadin(4. + lam. gudu4. darkness. a ritually pure. gašan: lady. kungal ). oracle. gúda: divinely anointed. decision. + tun(3). honeymooner. reed bundle. gidim6. work. karaš: military encampment. gudug. opaque. pole. to be twisted. mistress. 'to approach') . skilled person. (cf. gírin: (cf. gúdibir: war (gud(2). gir8: piece of clay.GAL]: Sumerian Lexicon. gilim-(b).5): shock. 'to constrict') . gukin(2): entire inhabited world. + dim4. gàrašsar: garaš3.. + bir. gidim(2. ghost (gig. 'to turn.4). 'to separate. gurun). bar. 'male. gazibu: gibil(4): frequency: 77]. 'grain heap'. gazimbi. to renovate (gúb. dancer.. the netherworld (cf. gigir(2): 37] . gili. first husband. 'to shine') [GIBIL archaic gíbil: to burn. stake. gazinbu. ganba: marketplace. + bil.. 'luxuriance'). to cross plow. adj. to go across. catastrophe. linen-clothed priest who cares for and feeds the gods. to bend.. to cross. 'black'. tangled. + lam. 'to wreck. moth. garaš: straw.. 'warrior'. + ul. ga-an. artisan. coach (reduplicated gur4/gir8. fresh. job. gáraš. + dìm. new. 'to burn'). wagon. beam. renewal. + imi/im. gidi6: eclipsed. to lie athwart. spouse (nitaþ.4): man'. lover. bow. bride crown (gi. gìrim. gi16: 'abundance') [GIL archaic frequency: 1]. office holder. to detach a piece of clay. gurun). murder'). + dím.0 56 . queen (cf.ganam6. gana6 [DARA4]: ganzer(2. to mess up.zír). chariot. gašam: craftsman. price equivalent.. wisdom. gitlam(2.

'sphere'. a measure of fish.LUGAL]: ñešbu. to be bent. lúša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba). ñirza[PA. adult workman. gírin: rin) (gúr.DIM4]: fist(s). to cut. reflection.'stranger.. duties. 'form. ñéšbu. guzza: throne. ñadub: tablet container (ñar. clip (a part of the body). 'to cut.4.. ñešpa[ÑIŠ-ŠUB]: pull. ñanun: barn. 'high'. ñárzu. to determine' ?). 'sickle'. + ñìš/uš. 'to deliver'.3. + bu(6).gunni: kiln. mud').3)[PI]: v. ñeštug(2. + nun. girim. guru5. cf. vine. 'storeroom'.. ñasisx: darkness. to throw. granary (ñar. grappling hook for a wrestler (ñiš. to notch. n. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ñarzu[PA. bunch of grapes (ñiš. + imi/im. 'penis'). pond (cf. gur5. ñalga. custom(s). ñeš'u: (cf. 'to receive') [GEŠTUG archaic frequency: 108. Sumerian Lexicon. cf. 'to know') . heap. + dub.. 'great') [GANUN archaic frequency: 3]. appearance' office. 'tool'. strip. girin. to understand. guruš3. 'to stand upon') [? GURUŠ archaic frequency: 68. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . gi- guruš. ñešba. storehouse. to trim away. ñansis. n. cf. boomerang. wine') [GEŠTIN archaic frequency: 42. 'to ñešta. young man (gúr. ñeš2. divine or royal orders (ñar. 'to store'. ñiš2. laborer (human sledge).. to be parted. gurdub: gurud(2): reed basket. Orel & Stolbova #1791 *mulak-/*mulik. throw-stick. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . understanding. 'wooden tool'. + an. ñeštu(2. + zu. 'tool'. ñarza.. counsel. 'clay tablets'. ñuruš: sledge (archaic pictogram). intelligence (ñiš. the netherworld. eclipse. Version 3. gurin.3: ñeštin: sixty (ñiš. ñárza.. wise one. arched beam. gìrim. berry. ñéšpu[ŠU. gurun.4. 'storeroom'. grape juice. flower (cf. kurušda ). gurum[GAM]: v. gigir]. 'tree'. chief') [GALGA archaic frequency: 16. gúrum: inspection.. ñéš×u in compound section). chair. to hear. + uš. rite(s).ñá. relieved of (gur10. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . rules. 'clay. pile. kur5: gurušda: (cf. to circumcise (?).. + tin. wine. to subdue. malga: advice. + tar.0 57 . incise. + tuku/tug. fruit. ñagia: cloister..DIÑIR]: or ñar. kurun).ñá. 'wheels' [cf. 'life. to fell trees.. ñarim: pool. reed basket. stove. dagrim) (ñar. consideration (loan from Akkadian milkum.3). hearing. bending. draw'). ear(s).

'message') . + buru14/bur14. wide') [GISAL archaic frequency: 3. chair. to terrify. to dive. apricot (?) (þaš. and used in perfumes. ñiš ñišimmar: date palm. + su. 'abundant'. staff. 'to seek refuge') . 'to sprout. mass (ída. 'hole'). cave. base' where stick was thrust to the base of a grain pile. 'big. beam'). + ir. 'tool. founder (reduplicated ñiri5. 'to go'.ñiš ñidru. 'wooden tool'. 'roof. 'impersonal verbal conjugation prefix' . + úr. spring.KISIM5]: carob. prefix) + íla. + kíñ. duru6 reading of PA and še ñiš-è-a). 'straw'). scepter. guruš). cripple. + gurun. stalks (þe. weight. rudder (ñiš. agent'. idim: n. heir. 'discrete individuals'. considerable. iskim. + bùru(-d). throne. þalba(2.3). + ñin. + sal. þalbi(2. sign. 'river'. 'fruit. the Tigris was a faster-moving river than the Euphrates.. frost. cf. successor. + nominative a. hole. freezing. (cultic) feast. izkim. [ÞAŠÞUR archaic frequency: 101]. 'thin. "the river that goes". 'substitute'[Akk. ñiskim. tarib(t)um]). a weed grass (þe.. inheritance (íb (subj.. underground water. þirim: the root stalks of the spikenard. 'to stink'. (now read as kù-sig 17). 'root. it was less likely to overflow because.. wild. it did not built up its bed as high) [? IDIGNA archaic frequency: 25]. idigna: the Tigris river (ída/íd. intelligence (ñiš. base') . + ì. ñiñri(2): ñiš ñisal: oar. raging. + in.'to pass time') [? GIZZAL archaic frequency: 1]. to be terrified. mad.MI]: ñišbun: ñišgal: ñiš shadow. 'low end. þuluþ: to tremble. trunk of a date palm tree (cf. + mú. ñizkim: ñissu. stick used to measure the height of a pile of grain (ñiš. (gi) þenbur(2): 'harvest') . imported from India. 'wood'. pit. shade (ñiš. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to sink. ñidri[PA]: stick.gúr. distinguished. þirin. 'abundant'. 'he carries it'). ibila: son. + zal. sphere') (green) reed shoots. great') [GIŠGAL archaic frequency: 9].0 58 .3): (ñiš) þarub[DAG. þašþur: apple (?). ñizzal: ñuškin: þabrud: attention. 'to break off (twigs or branches)'. Sumerian Lexicon. infant. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . omen (ñiš. þilib: netherworld (possible foreign loanword). ñuruš: (cf. 'to rot. adj. nimbar) [GIŠIMMAR archaic frequency: 55. appear') . 'perfume'. 'tool'. + ùr. + gal. þubur: netherworld (þab. cesspit. 'river'. ñušur: rafter beam (ñiš. ñizzu[ÑIŠ. cavern (þab. station (ñiš. stink'. signal. 'wood. tool'. þenzer: weakling. ñiškim.'tool'. not depositing as much silt. Version 3. 'wooden thing'.. + in. + dúru.

illuru. 'speech') . concatenates 6 sign variants] . milk cow (cf. immin. nation [KALAM archaic frequency: 91. baking oven (imi/im. immen. kapar: (cf. 'excellent. + ru. it4. 'five'. + nu. decree.. isiš2. gift. iti. ildu(2/3): crowd [ILDUM archaic frequency: 5. uncultivated land (ki. im-ma-al ). 'to lift'. ildum(2/3). command. iskim: (cf. totality. arc (íla. ilduma(2. Sumerian Lexicon. itima.. ñiskim). 'to strike').3. laughter.. + dág. illulu. 'clay'. 'earth. chapel. offspring. isim2. priest who performs exorcisms. kabar. 'to approach. adj. ímmen. concatenation of 2 sign ilimmu: ñiš nine (ía/í. + bar. adj.3): a species of poplar tree (íl. 'five'. 'two'). long. immindu: inim: roasting. 'excellent'. + eme. išin [PA-ŠE]: stalk. isimu2. clean. subject (in. + si.. kankal: hard soil. statement.. kabar). imñaña(2. ñiš ildag(2.A]: foam. 'straight. throw-stick.. narrow'. moaning. word. gift') . énmen). kapar[PA. illar: husked (?) emmer wheat.. 'to open') . agreement.3). to weep. itud.. itid. Version 3.3): imin(2. itu.3: n. 'gate'. ímmin. 'brilliant'). 'one shoot. innumerable. lustrations and purification. concern. idi: meet'.3: mú. + ninda. kalam: the land (of Sumer).id4: moon. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . + ud. itim. 'to make'). id8. mend (kal. variants] . + min. descendant (i. bow.DAG. v. + discrete individual'. + ra. sprout..KISIM5×GAG]: kadra(2): kalag. enmen).. anointed. month. 'the eye'. to laugh. oath. place'. moonlight (te. + limmu. cella. 'present. javelin. ñiskim). kala..3): immal(2): seven. + ru. to shine'. 'to grow') .0 59 . izkim: (cf.ígira: heron (igi. swift [GURUŠ+2-N14 (wagon pictogram) archaic frequency: 7. all (ía/í. ímma: (cf. imþur[IGI. affair. v. incantations. + kal[-l]. 'to send') . valuable'). 'sprout'. imma: (cf. 'bread'). 'to tie together'. 'to be high. strong. + aka/ag. 'not'. kal: shepherd boy (ká. matter. išib: n. 'four'). 'sun') . bribe (kad4. to repair.. order.

to bind. group of (wild) animals. ki-sug8).kaskal: kašbir: expedition. 'big. 'spacious') [KISAL archaic frequency: 145 ?. commander.8. n. 'to sweep clean'. 'swift') [KASKAL small beer. 'to sniff'). 'receptacle'). kikkin [ÞAR]: mortar. 'high'. kindling. to fasten. kešdr?. ñiš kešda: kíbir: weir. kišib7. totality. rodents or other very small mammals.5. concatenates 3 sign variants] . kindax[LAK-419]: a type of vessel for measuring barley or holding water. road. director (kíñ. kisim(3. + an. + luþ/làþ.. star(s). kiši7.. + kalag/kal.7): kisim(4): kisim2. hand. 'hand [of five fingers]').. seal. 'place'. knot. Version 3. weight measure (ki. receipt (cf. to join. journey (kaš4/kas4. gilili: kinda: barber. Sumerian Lexicon. 'hand mill'). kíkkin [ÞAR. kislaþ(2)[KI. great') [KINGAL archaic frequency: 39]. bundle. kéš. threshing floor (ki. adj. mouse.5: milk-processing wasters. + gal. sweet beer (kaš.UD]: kissa: supporting wall. kìli: kinbur: kilib[LAGAB]: package. tie. wrap. 'place'. inhibition (ki...ÞAR]: kìlib. + bír. kešda. for milling women (reduplicated kín. cheese maggot. kiši5. ñiš na4 pitchfork. kínda[URI]. + sílig. gílim. empty lot. 'task'. bird's nest or perch (ki. v.. 'place'. to bind') .9: ant. emmer wheat for making beer. 'to travel fast'. caravan. 'place'. kindañal(2): kingal: kiraši: overseer of a group of (five) slaves. + sal. pen. smelly cheese [KISIM archaic frequency: 67.8. milling.10: kišib(3): v. mill house.0 60 .6. 'to bind') [KEŠ 2 archaic frequency: 35]. to harness. fist. taboo. 'to snatch. + bùru/bùr. + šita4. kíbir: firewood. to snatch. kilim. spoiled milk. kéš-(d): archaic frequency: 6]. kišib. to seal. five-sixths (5/6) (kíñ.3. n. kisal: courtyard. concatenates 5 ? sign variants] . 'to order'.9. kingusili: greater part. cf. stable. sealed bulla. 'beer'.

honey (cf.. libir: n. used. + tán. ŠÚ.IGI]: liliz: a drum. kušum: to scorn. 'side. v. kiša(2). gurun ). physical strength. kurum7. 'big') [GUKKAL archaic frequency: kuniñx. gukkal [LU.. lagarx[SAL. kuru7. 'to wash'. 'to stand') [LAGAB archaic frequency: 84. kukkuç ? [IŠ]: a type of flour.0 61 . donkey. kunga[ŠÚ. kurun(2. anger. trunk (of tree) (cf. to live long. to abandon (ki. liru. old age [LIBIR archaic frequency: 1]. fat-tailed sheep (kun. + gub. heart. kuruš. grapevine. Version 3. kilib) (lag. to surround' ?) [GURUŠDA archaic frequency: 61]. + dim4. concatenates 2 sign variants] . spy (ki. 'sweet. + bír. bounty.. beer vat [LAÞTAN 2 archaic frequency: 7]. mule.. a high ranking cultic functionary.AN]: kungal. 'to shrivel up') . a thorny bush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. lipiš: courage. kušu[U. kurušda). laþta: a washing vessel (luþ/làþ. bitumen (ku. onager. kuruça ?: sweet fodder (for fattening cattle). to steal. piece'.ñiš kišik(2).ÞÚL]: 36.PIRIÑ]: herd of cattle or sheep. share(s)..MUL]. kuš6. + níñ. lagab: block. 'abundance'. fat. libiš. 'to watch. worn (la. kukkuš. 'to become clean') . kiši16/17[Ú. gurušda. 'assets') . 'to deliver'). wine grape. to watch. + da(5). 'clod.AN. kúkku [MI.. liri: Sumerian Lexicon.. or grape cluster (cf. a basket of food-rations. kur7: v. old. kur6: refined asphalt. kúnin: kurku(2): kurum6. lidim: to receive (in charity) (la. laþtanx. 'to beg'). + ùru(-m). hurt. lirum. 'solitary'). lilib[IGI. slab (of stone). traditional. guard') . plump. adj.. lagar: temple servant who pronounces invocations to the god [LAGAR archaic frequency: 51. ku7: sweet.3): sweet red wine. n. 'place'. 'tail'. core. kurušda. kúnga[BAR. fat'.ÞÚB]: laþtan(2): (divine) vizier. lookout. 'place'. abundance (reduplicated kur9.MI]: dark. libbu 'heart'). n. 'to build'. kušumx. 'youthful freshness'. concatenates 4 sign variants] .ÑÍR]: concatenates 3 sign variants] . stock-breeder (kuruš. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . fattener (of cattle). + ušum. lillan: stalk with ripe ear of grain. ancient. + gal. to last long. family (Akk. reject..

hair. lugud. lu-þu-um). lumgi(2. mur7. ridge (mur. nunuz. lulim: stag. mašda: drawing. apply') [? DARA3 archaic frequency: 11.. lúgud: short. Sumerian Lexicon. shoulders. woman (this pronunciation found in absolute inflection. destitute. + dím. support (?). hairy skin. 'to mill. 'to scrutinize'. 'reptile'. error' + éd. 'person'.3).ŠEŠ.5. short person (lú. cook (mù. madlu. nun.8: murub(2): murub4. 'big') [LUGAL archaic frequency: 80].? + kuš7. megida(2). 'middle. courtesan (?) (lú. murgu: dung (sheep).. 'to hang') . hart (male of the red deer. + þal. powerful. 'neck'). 'to divide. munus[SAL]. + ùru(-m). 'woman'. 'fault. mudul: muþaldim [MU]: mùnsub: munšub(2): shepherd.. 'hostile').adj. 'moist. serous fluid (lúñ. + a(k). grind'. middu(2). central. concatenates 2 sign variants] . Version 3. itimurub4). cf. sheriff. mí/mu10. murum5. 'to make. portion'. owner. pelt. 'partner'. launderer (mur10/mu4. battle (mur10. 'short'). 'to dress oneself'. + gú. back. ú munzur[KI. lukur: chaste priestess. + lal/lá.. sexual charm [MURUB 2 archaic frequency: 4]. mudla. mitum(2): mace (the weapon). mašda(2): maškim: commoner.0 62 . pole. 'devastation') . middle. 'sky') [MUŠEN archaic frequency: 178]. strong. murgu(2). + íb. master (lú. waist. clamor (maþ. + kíñ. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .3): makkaš(2): mangaga: (cf. mezem [ÚMBISAG]: maintenance.KI]: bitter plants. 'a right-angled tool'. and etymology of nitaþ). wailing. interval. lú ningi(2. megidda(2): sow (female pig). cf.. bast (man. luþummu[ÑIŠ-MI]: mud (cf. 'man'. 'genitive'). 'egg') (cf. gazelle (máš. urum: brother-in-law (mí. guard' or úrum. lunga(2. fresh').AN. + gal. muru3.. hips. 'relatives'). máš-lulim) (Akkadian loanword). 'grown man'. create') . 'work'). hide. loins'. commissioner (máš. in-between terrain. 'woman'. vulva. 'to inspect'. 'great'. + dù. mušen: bird (muš. múru: neck. 'peg. lugal: king. palm fiber. 'to clothe oneself'. + nuz/nus. 'to fashion. + gud8. nunus[Emesal]: female. luñud(?): pus. mí ) (mí. + an. median area. barber ('it falls down oneself') [? MUNŠUB archaic frequency: 3. + duru5. múdru: fuller. cf. monitor.11. inspector. woman. baker.3)). + kúr. 'to watch. stake (mud. 'to emerge').. nail'. 'lungs'. + gag.

concatenation of 2 sign variants] . 'fear'. + ba.'woman' and nim. middatu. hopper or seeding apparatus of the seeder plow. bushel. Version 3. lùm. nimur[KI. tube.. reliable. v. nin5: forty (niš.ñá. enclosure. + dar. carpenter. 'to measure') [NINDA 2 archaic frequency: 20]. capacity. district. 'to store') .3): 'a small pot'). 'to slice') [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. + min.NE]: kiln. lunga(2. nañña. lumgi(2. adj. + nam..0 63 .4. to pen up cattle. + ñin.ne4. true measure (na4.3). mindatu. 'food'. premature or monstrous fetus (ni9. to circle. nimen(3. to surround.NA]: tin.. monstrosity. 'to go'). fish roe. d nanna: the moon as a god [NANNA archaic frequency: 49. Sumerian Lexicon. kilib and gur 4-gur 4) [NIGIN archaic frequency: 11]. 'destiny' or just reduplicated nam). dizziness. ninda: bread..5). wood-chisel. 'to release. nañar: adze. herald.. faintness. nimurx[PIRIÑ. decent. craftsman (na4. (cf. 'stone'. 'twenty'.LAGAB] for marû form) (ní. miñir(2): a bride's male attendant.'morning'. to turn round.. 'knife') [NAGAR archaic frequency: 168. thirst. 'to measure') . turn away. 'valuables'. honest.ÑAR]: a dark room. nindaba) .ÑIŠ. bakery good. full'. mindatu. + ñír. town crier. nanam: n. 'to be satiated. ancestors (from Akk.8.3): vertigo (as a disease). 'the power of the mace'). to wander about. king (lit. nidba(2): lú ningi(2. milt. rod = 12 cubits (kùš) = 6 meters. nidba(2): nigida[PI]: deliver'). 'valuable thing'. meal').'to niñin(2): n. food offering (ninda. niñir (2)). índa: nindaba(2). ni-gi-da . concatenation of 2 sign variants] . true. niñar[NI9. + ñar.bariga ). (cf.TUR]: leopard.NÁM]: top warrior. niññi [AN.bur. to halt. whole (cf. pure-bred breeding bull. + ñar. potash.. circle. flower. ni9: niñin5.3).. pewter (níñ. 'garden plot' square measure (from Akk. night watchman. nimgir(2): nimin. malformed child. premature or stillborn child. lum. (cf. namešda[ŠITA. + ñar. niñin(2. province. ninda: a length measure.'premature birth'.'to deliver') [NIMGIR archaic frequency: 62].. bailiff (probable conflation of separate words: mí. 'to give') . middatu. nindan. brewer (nañ. nínda. 'token. naña: niñir(2).9. nimru(m) I). to make the rounds (usually níñin[LAGAB] for hamtu form and niñin or ni 10ni10[LAGAB. counter'. nìñin. inda. 'to drink'. to assemble.7. + bar. food (níñ. one side of a sar/šar . 'two'). ñiš nimbar: date-palm (nim.muššagana: voracious hunger. panther (from Akk. funnel. 'to be high'.

3. 'dots. cap. nita(2): wife. + ñar. bolt (of a door). 'thing'.IB]: hips. (ú) n. + sañ. guardian deity of the foundations [NINKUM archaic frequency: 11]. middle (su. sabad(2. progeny (níñ. vigor'. pisan(2/3): puniñx: (cf. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . man. spring time (month).PAB.3. offspring. 'to reside. sad2. concatenation of 2 sign variants. šab. rubbish. númun: a type of grass (halfâ').ME. sab [PA. ÑÁ×SIG7 ]. offspring. 'head'. leader (bala. mud. stove (cf. nisig.. box.4 [ÑÁ×U. dough. saþab(2). saþar: silt.. + taþ. rushes (cf. 'men'). manly (ní.. + sañ. to produce.4): ñiš triangle.UBARA]: temple treasurer. puzur: (cf.ninindu. sanña(2. + bad. ninkum[NIN. Version 3. loins. nindu. headdress (sañ. ú aški) [NUMUN2 archaic frequency: 2].0 64 . 'thing') [PIRIG archaic frequency: 103. buzur). seed. niñunx: v. dry land (as opposed to marsh land or water) (cf. vegetables (níñ. + šúš/šú. 'head'. nunuz. nuñunx. adj. male. lion (poetic). chest. cornfield. 'valuables'. 'head'. speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22]. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . nundun: lip (reduplicated tùn. sediment (cf. 'head'.3..'to multiply') [GIŠ 3 archaic frequency: 16. 'egg') [NUNUZ archaic frequency: 134. kuš7) (sa5. 'to cover') [SAGŠU archaic frequency: 14]. concatenates 2 sign variants] . green.4). concatenation of 5 sign variants] . 'to open') . foremost.3).3. ÑÁ×BAD. blue. + tuš. sañšu: helmet. 'head'. nunus: egg(s). 'body'. + tag. frame (bad/be. + dul. pulverized'). 'red-brown'. (open) basket. greens. 'to cross over'. nissa: n. parim: arid land.SIG7. dust. nisañ(2). headdress (sañ. nundum. beautiful. 'first') [NISAG 2 archaic frequency: 94. female (reduplicated nuz. protect') . + þara.'self'. sañtag. yellow'). santak(2. wine cellar ?. bar-rim4). 'crushed. (written) wedge. 'self.. + gùn.4: bar.. 'to shine'. buniñ x). 'to open'.. shock troops. immindu). 'to cover. single (sañ. light (bar6/7. nesañ(2): first fruits (offering). inda4: oven. pisañ(2/3). 'head'). + níñ. sañtušx[U+SAÑ]: hat. + lú. 'to store') [SANGA archaic frequency: 530. used for ritual cleaning. economic director of a temple or occupation (such as all the smiths) (sañ. governor (ní. loam. suþub3.. palil(2): piriñ(3): advance troops...4): a sprinkler. nisi. Sumerian Lexicon. sit'). píriñ: bright. sañña(2. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sowing. + sig7. nitadam. headdress (sañ.NUN.ñá. sañdulx[U+SAÑ]: hat. numun. 'green. nitalam: nitaþ(2). UŠ archaic frequency: 101. 'lip'). sand. 'to hold') . earth.

'threshing floor'. silañ. šandan: concatenates 2 sign variants] . šandana. sipa. root means 'peace' in 18 of 21 Semitic languages. simug: metal-sculptor... to make an incision.3: sipar: (cf. + en(2. 'to cure'.dug sáþar [SAR]: clay pot. 'abundant'. 'to create. offering. + kur9. sikil: v. 'to shine'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . something rotten. or pàd. silim[DI]: to be/make in good shape. to make beautiful') [SIKIL archaic frequency: 7]. sipad. siskur(2). + bad. sig7. to scratch.3. cf. 'pleasure. suþuš) [SUÞUR archaic frequency: 239]. suñin. to trim or comb the hair. narrow'. sun. Sumerian Lexicon. pure. 'body'. + þirin. cf.. 'sweet smelling grass') . saman(2.3). 'knowledge'. 'to shine brightly'. herbalist. crest (su6. 'red'. + dug. old. 'to find'). + mug.4): yoke.SUM]: the threshing floor with the piles of grain and straw (su7. smith (si4. to pasture. 'to be straight. 'roof'. n. silig3. suþur: n. v. + þe. 'head. tend (si. cf. + ùr. suþirin[SU7. 'beard'. Version 3. loanword. ancient. + -/ak/. pure (siki. horticulturist. + ñin. barbel.. pit. the past (su. 'to weep'.. decay.3. to ruin.. 'to be hot') [ŠANDANA archaic frequency: 3.. zabar). 'foreign'). also. date orchard administrator (sañ. rites. to decay. 'of').. rot. 'chills' and šeñ6. sacrifice with entreaties. pitfall. shepherd. + bar. sila11: to knead (dough or clay). 'to grow luxuriantly'). tree top. prayers. sílig: hand.. cf. 'time'. deliver'). sub2. keeper [SIPA archaic frequency: 4]. adj. santana. šeñ4. virginal. d suena. leash. sañña ). Northerner (su. suþurku6: giant carp. to pray. human'.3): sanña(2. + ul... n. scalp. šilig). + tin. complete (usually considered Akk.. hair. but Sumerians used word in greeting and root not in Orel & Stolbova's Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. to be/make clean. 'to engrave') [SIMUG archaic frequency: 13]. sizkur(2): n.. šuba. 'to let out'. (cf. to slay. to sacrifice (isiš2. or rope (for an ox). sumun. šum4[BAD]: v. trap (si.ZU]: the moon (sú. dsuen[EN.4: sin. 'hair' ?. 'to go') [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. 'to bring. clean. 'to keep in order'. v. joy'. + lum. subar: slave. silig: (cf.. sibad. suku5.. healthy... adj. sil5. fresh. sidug: ravine. 'body'. v.0 65 . 'vessel').

'to support'. zugud: n. shine brightly (cf.suþuš: roots. + gíd. support.. 'steady. 'flesh'. + ru. birthmark (su. suku5: to measure. 'portion'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . Sumerian Lexicon. genitive) [ŠAKIRA 3 archaic frequency: 56.mar).. churning. a priest. 'long') [SUKUD archaic frequency: 15].. representative. high. temple administrator. bathed. ú šakira(2).5): sumun: (cf. wild') [ŠUR2 archaic frequency: 17.DU]: sumug(3. support (su4. šagan). 'to bring forth') [? ŠAGAN archaic frequency: 55]. courier. swift') [SUKKAL archaic frequency: 130]. churn. súkud. 'strong. šakir(3): butter tub. to be/make high. 'abundant'... + kir.. 'to grow. 'stomach. tall. šúr.. cf.kud/ku5). enraged. samag(3. šapra [PA. adj. šakan: a large jar for oil. dug šakira(3). container'. + þe. depth (su. 'to gather up'.. suþur).SAÑ. surin).. container'.5). šakir(2): henbane. 'to bring forth'. šakan: (cf. 'straw'). v. 'guts'.. šákan: official in charge of expenditures . šarñeš[ŠÁR×DIŠ]. 'stomach.. šargalx[ŠÁR×GAL]: šassuk[SAÑ-GÍN]: registrar of deeds. 'to give') šagan. bedbug (šár. commissioner (šab. sulummar[KI. + mug. vizier (su.šamru . v. sumaš: a common marine fish [SUMAŠ archaic frequency: 3]. šandana: šaran. foundation. šaggina. 'cow'). 'body'. god of wild creatures (šag4/šà. santana ). disgrace (cf. susbu: clean. container'. Version 3. šarin: tick. suñin). mole. furious. 'fierce. envoy. military governor (šag4. adj. šabra. stubborn. 'cow' + /ak/. fierce. súr: n. + gan.. sukkal: messenger. šaggina). sty') ... su(11)-lum. šakar: milk jug (šag4/šà. height. concatenates 3 sign variants] . also.4. + kalag/kal. cf. + in. sumur.4.0 66 '216000'. + kir. to flash. 'to be numerous'.. sukud. šagina: ŠAGINA archaic frequency: 1]. šaggin. to lift. + gan. 'stomach.comptroller (šu. surim: (cf. . reliable') [? šañar: hunger (cf. distribute. fierceness (Akkadian loanword . to be enraged (against someone: -da -).. 'to engrave. šardiš. (cf.AL]: [ŠABRA archaic frequency: 1].. multiply'. šà-ñar). pitcher (šag4/šà. minister. + uš.. 'body'. + gi-na. zú.

šušana: šušur(2): one third (part). shepherd's staff ending in a curved end. luminous metal'). šerin. sibir: n. cricket. + bar. šerimsur: cocoon]') . šudug(2). strong(cf.. basket. šenbar: ñiš a type of wild boar (?). + imi/im. 'enemy'). concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . ñiš (kuš) šuþub(2). 'to lead.5. 'to cover'. 'clay. Version 3. adj. sérim: a part of the loom . make') šikin2. 'to stand') . šilig(5). slanted. šurim: animal excrement. crooked. šiten: course of march. šurin4. Mesopotamian fallow deer (?) (šeg9. salve. ñiš šudul(2. + ùru.5). to spin [a šibir. to bear') .e. + zar/sur8. slave. gi šukur: fence. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'to cover') . lance (šu. ointment. šubur: earth. šurun4.šedur: caterpillar cocoon (éše.4.3. urudu/ñiš šukur: šurun.3.5: cockroach. adj. + lam. šembi: kohl. to trample. ñišbun). extremely powerful. šilig: šinig: axe.4. 'to cover'. i. + kúr. quince or medlar [ŠENNUR archaic frequency: 11.. 'channel'.5.5). drip'. 'to pour'.either the harness or the heddle [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. tamarisk.. silig(5): v. šutug(2): a reed hut for purification rites. šennur: šerim(2). n. to lay aside one's work. 'hand'. 'boar'. šidi[GIM]: [ŠIDIM archaic frequency: 35]. + dím. spear. ñiš ñiš ñiš šilig and nam-šilig). ñiš šudun(2. šitim..3: a jar for body oil. a fruit tree. also such a staff used by a god or king as a scepter (sipad.4. + re7. + gub. mason (šid3. Sumerian Lexicon.. dung. 'rope'. šitim: (cf. to step. crosspiece (šúš/šú. stove grill (šúš. mud'). 'to bind'. deprived person [ŠUBUR archaic frequency: 181]. šidim. ñiš caterpillar cocoon (šerim. 'people'). 'hot. to feed by grazing..0 67 . passage (šìta. antimony (as makeup). stable (šur. 'abundance') . šidim). boots (šúš/šú. šuba. šubun: (cf. 'foreign'). stop. 'dwelling'). suþub(2) [MUL] : v. uštil: yoke.. 'shepherd'. architect. + un. šilam: milk-producing mother cow (šu.. 'to exude. to cease. 'to build. + dun(4). 'part of a weaving loom'. a crook. 'to flow.. + dúr. 'to cover'. 'warp yarns connecting opposite sides of a loom frame' and dul..

taskarin[TÚG]: Akk. udug. Version 3. workgang. 'plant'. tešlug: small young animal. army.šutum[GI. + lal/lá. beer mash .10): herdsman (udu. release' ? 'the beggar's open palm') . reed bundle. clasp'. a figure on the ground made of ropes stretched between pegs. utug: údug. 'man') [UDUL archaic frequency: 32. tidnum[UG-UG or ÚG-ÚG]. tukun: if. wisdom (reduplicated tál. excavation (often written te-me-en) [TE archaic frequency: 199]. (ñiš) tukul: mace (thigh bone ?). foundation platform. hard wood) (may be taškarin. foundation-charter.AB.3. 'cloth garment'. a weapon. 'to burn'.0 68 . light. ubara[EZEN×KASKAL]: patronage.5.UL]: lizard. high') . ugnim: crowd. tibir(2. tukumbi: if. foundations. merchant. + ùru. 'liquid secretion').NA. 'cavity'. tíbira. 'to lift.bappir mixed with munu 4 and allowed to ferment (tìl/ti. nibble. temen[TE]: perimeter. please. 'to be deficient. fledgling. certainly (usually followed by hamtu verb form). útug: variants] . udul/utul(3.5): hand. 'to hold. ibira: open hand of the customer) . cloud. campaign. midnum: tilþar: tilmun: titab(2): burn') . distinguished. knowledge. thigh (túg. ubilla(2): ubur: soot (ú. foreman (loan from Akkadian waklu where Christopher Ehret's 1995 Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic has *wax "to look at"). in case. strike ('life' + 'open. oven. + lú. in case. Sumerian Lexicon. concatenates 4 sign udun[GIR4]: ugra: kiln (for pottery and bricks). loan). silence. experience. 'to ki tugul: hip. 'life'. + tab. palm.108 describes how the peddler 'flays' or 'skins' the tiger ?. at once. box shrub or small tree (or its heavy. tibira: taltal: ñiš metalworker (tab. weapon. 'sheep'. ugula [PA]: overseer. leopard ? [? TIDNUM archaic frequency: 1]. + ir(2). tukum. + bil. pitfall. tibir: carving knife. tradesman (Proverb 3. teat (ub4. blow. protection. 'understanding') .4. captain.4. túkur[KA׊E]: to gnaw. 'luminous object') . female breast. + íla. respectful (same sign as dilmun ).6. carry'). tabira. troops. a demonic being.

'ten. + sañ.0 69 . umun5. folkmoot (ùña/un. harness') . harness. wheel (of a chariot. ug. decision (u6. intelligence. cf. uku2.5: n. secret. knowledge. 'to examine. sanctuary.DAR/GÙN]: adorning speckles and lines. progenitor.LÁ]: title of respect. hoof. 'to hold. mold. concatenates 3 sign variants] ... ùnug. 'people'.. 'nail impression [on a tablet]'.. chain (u. inspect') . arad ). marsh. (goatskin) water bag. ruler. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to decorate with colors' may be popular scribal etymology. éme: umun: ùmun: ummud. úmun. living room. rage (ur + gù. + kir. idea. 'plant'.. inlaid decoration (u. (cf. + maþ. bear. 'cow'). fortress. to beget. ugu(4): n. wetnurse. mammy (umu/um. ukkin: communal assembly. 'discrete point') . many'. úgunu. temple. unkin. v. discernment. 'to kill'. poverty. úkuš: ulul(2): ulušin: úlutin: umaþ: cucumber. + da. ùmmu[EDIN. umum: flea. Version 3. natural. unug(2). reflection. + ig. binding. attention-getting. consideration. swamp. cheek. 'individual human') . unu6 [TEMEN. ukur3.ÈŠ = TE.. louse. protect') . adornment. Emesal dialect form of en . hair pin. attractive. wagon) [UMBIN archaic frequency: 34. + gùn. + kíñ/kin. application. unu(2): dwelling. ukum: úkur: dust (devil). úrdu[ARAD×KUR]: ferocity.ugun[U. to be or become poor. 'high'). + lal. 'ten. concatenates 4 sign variants] . butcher (ug5. jewelry. 'to seek. umbin: nail. raw form or material. 'barking dog') . 'door') [UNUG archaic frequency: 206. claw. emmer beer.. a swamp plant. the city of Uruk (ùña/un. elevated shrine. poor man. adj. talon. 'people'. umbisañ: kuš scribe (umbin.4. uš4: (stagnant) pool. fetch'. unkin-ñar-ra) [UKKIN archaic frequency: 108. any deadly cat' + n.11: umuš. ointment.AB]: uraš[IB]: úrgu: earth. úgun[GAŠAN]: lady. leash. mistress. v. genetic.. nail impression (on a clay tablet). 'lion. 'to strap. cf. ùgun. swamp (u.6. 'to be impressed' + máš. many'. loincloth. ummeda(2). scholarship [UMUN 2 archaic frequency: 114]. 'nurse'. concatenates 3 sign variants] .

siparrum. sign variants] . standard. ušum. urrub(2): (cf. cauldron (ú. + zìg. zi.A/DIRIG]: basket (uš. dragon (ušum. zurzub(2)). concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'luminous object'. 'large jug'). metal (ùru. 'semen. ú-si4 an). + bar6. powdered milk. breed bull (udu. + zag.. cf. penis'. uru6. uru7: usan(2): ùsan: usug: relatives. alone. 'food'. father') [UTUA archaic frequency: 74. evening (cf. 'city'. uzalag. urin. adj. solitary.3.. (cf. 'to support. cut'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . spawn. 'big'). neighbor (uš. uruda.4). urum. monster of composite powers. 'ten'.BAR]: frequency: 1]. ušu: n. concatenates 2 (cf. zabalam: zabar[UD. níñ-ka 9). person under a taboo (cf.4. Version 3. usar: ušbar: weaver.. + gal. cast') [URUDU archaic frequency: 61. 'to support'.0 70 .. hole'). 'iron') [ZABAR archaic Sumerian Lexicon. uri2. ušar(2. Akk. sovereign. + am.. fry. ùri[ŠEŠ]: eagle. menstruating woman. 'outside.urim2. banner. urudu. father-in-law. uzalak[GE22]: uzug.5: (ñiš) tithe. uzug ). breed ram. ú-sug 4) (úš. 'sheep'. dragon. concatenates 2 sign variants] . + ub4.5: doorpost (cf. white'. urud: copper. ur7: úrum.. 'bronze' borrowed before vowel harmony changed Sumerian word. barzil.KA. + dù. solitary. + a. 'man. + ára/ár. 'cavity. sky.. ušera: reed bundle (ú. ušumgal: lord of all. 'bright.4). tenth-part set aside (þà/u. mother-in-law (ñìš/uš. whip. 'to praise') [UŠUR 3 archaic frequency: 3. composite creature (uš11. + šár. area measure. ursub(2).. go out') .5. 'snake venom'. 'to mould. ùru(-m)) [URI5 archaic frequency: 21]. concatenates 3 sign variants] . foreign') . 'to expend. juniper (cf. 'wild ox'). za-ba-lum ) [? ZABALAM archaic frequency: 45. utaþ.. zé. + bar. útu: dried. 'dragon'. kin. udul ). lift'. 'blood'.. 'great') [UŠUMGAL archaic frequency: 21]. + tal. uttuku: utua(2): utul: utul2. 'to pare. ušbar(3/7): (gi) (female) companion.3. kettle.7: (cf. bronze (zil. blood [ŠEŠ ZATU-523 archaic frequency: 25.. + gal. 'outside of') . 'plant'. ušur(2. pot. = 1/4 of an iku (= 25 sar ). woman isolated after birth. urugal: the netherworld (uru. 'to be many'). ušub[SI. emblem. usug: uzug2.3.

BAD]: 'open hand' . to mourn'. may be Orel & Stolbova drawing of water (a. 'to crush') . + a. v.. zalag(2).. aþ-du 11-ga ). to live near the water ('water' + 'near' + 'to dwell (singular)'). ursub(2). 'turn. zubud: a kind of club. the light before dawn. zukum: to trample. who (a. to compete (with someone: -da -) ('contest' + 'to do. early morning. to pour out water. 'burning tears' ?). (cf.dug4/du11/e: to compete ('contest' + 'to speak. a-bala: a-da-ab: a-da-al-ta: a-da gub-ba: a-da-mìn: a-da-lam. pure. from now on ('now' + 'from').tuš: a. water duty ('water' + 'near' + 'to stand' + nominative). a-da-mìn.0 71 . (cf.abaalu. light. 'people').approx. bright. abnormal growths on a fetus. a container provided with teat-shaped protuberances a-a: father (reduplicated 'offspring') . to cleanse.. 'to spout. to step on (súg. chrysalis. luminous. to walk on. zal: n. duty') . aba ). roaming... zizna: fish roe.aka: a-da. 'to suckle') . to irrigate. fresh. a length-measure. + lú-ùlu. adj.zadim: jeweler. 'it'.. a fish (cf. 'to be dry. + bi. za-dím) [ZADIM archaic frequency: 2]. zapaþ[ŠU. caterpillar (zi. distance measured by span of outstretched thumb and little finger) . + bun. radiant. vagabond (zil..BAD: zilulu[PA. span = 1/2 cubit = 15 fingers = 25 cm. do. pupa. plural 'to stand'. make').. i-da-al-àm: a-da-mìn. to shine. 'blister'). stone cutter (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to flay. gleam. foraging (said of animals). pare' ? . zanbur: zibin(2): prowling. zugud. a-ab-ba: a-ba: a-aþ-du11-ga: a-ba-al: #2519). Version 3. 'dry' asphalt (Akkadian loanword . peddler. a-dar-túnku6: a fish ('water' + 'to slice' + 'to smash'). (ŠU.. also. make'). now ('now' + 'to be').dé: a-dé: contest ('when' + 'with' + 'an equal').. 'to'.. 'water'. half. urrub(2): (zur4. purify (often reduplicated). to illuminate. + bala. + kum. a type of song (also written as a-tab. zurzub(2). to flood ('water' + 'to pour')...ÑIŠGAL]: zipaþ.. + sub. sukud). 'the'). brightness. flow'. 'life'.

the metal. when' + 'like').. carry').EN-da-urudu: a-eštubku6: a-ga: a-ga. a-è-a: overflowing or breaks in levees ('water' + 'to emerge' + nominative). inshore fisherman (?) ('water' + 'lowly student' + nominative). a flat area (measured in sar ) (cf.. a-ñá-ri-in: A-ñar: (cf. a-ga-am. deliver') . to go to fetch water ('water' + 'to the' + 'to go') . marshy.0 72 ... reject'). a-ga-bi-šè: a-ga-zu-ta: afterwards ('after' + adverbial force suffix + 'towards'). a-gar5: -a-gin7: a-gúb-ba: kuš lead. (cf... leather sack (for flour) ('water' + 'to store' + 'to lift. carry'). early flood ('water' + 'river carp').. a-ia10-lum: stag (Akkadian loanword). e5-ñar). to deposit. a-ga-àm.. ugu4-bi). Sumerian Lexicon..íl: a-ka: to carry water ('water' + 'to lift. back room (cf. a. a-e. fresh'). as (= when) .dug4/e: a-dun-a: to irrigate ('water' + 'to do'). backside.. a-dùg: freshwater ('water' + 'sweet. in that way.. úgu )... a-gal: overflow of flood waters ('waters' + 'big').gu7(-a): a-ñá-lá: holy water ('water' + 'to purify' + nominative).. ñarim )..a-dé-a: the yearly spring flood ('water' + 'to pour' + nominative).gur: a type of copper. high tide. how! ('if. þu-ru(-um)). loanword). back. A... eroded by the water ('water' + ergative agent marker + 'to consume' ( + nominative)) . Version 3. after. and permanent or semi-permanent lake used as a reservoir to dispose of flood waters (prob.. to be submerged ('water' + 'to store. to turn back ('back' + 'to return'). a-þur-rum: (cf. a. behind you ('back' + 'your' + 'from'). a-ga-mu-um: artificial pond .ñar/ñá-ñá: a-ñi6(-a): a-šè.ñin/gub: to irrigate.a large. a-gáb: (cf. a-gig: bitter tears ('water' + 'pain').. Akk. eñir).. a-kúm: hot water ('water' + 'hot'). seed' + 'cake' ?). flood ('water' + 'to be black' + nominative). a-ga-aš-gi4: the most awkward one ('in back' + 'the one' + 'to send. a. a-gàr: irrigated field ('water..

.. ú (cf. + a.. a-ñi 6).e: a-rá-bumušen: a. a-na me-a-bi: as many as they are. to give as a votive gift (with dative) ('water' + 'to send') . times (multiplication) ('where' + 'to go.. a-na-àm. duck ('water' + 'to go [plural]' + 'to pull. prayer. + ni... bursting of a dam ('water' + 'high. all of it ('what there is of it'). rushes ('water' + 'grass.. a-ri-a.. to ejaculate ('seminal fluid' + 'to strike. a-la-la: a-lu: exclamation.'the').ra: a-ra-zu: a-rá: a-ra-zu. a-MI: a-na: (cf. district. a-na-gim.. to say a prayer [often introduces direct. a-ri-a). road. propitious water ('water' + sa6-ga. a-na-àm: thus. á-nu-gi 4-a ). to dedicate. rite ('tears' + 'to overflow' + 'to inform').. cf.. a-nir: lamentation.ru: a-sa-ga: a. cf. tear out'). mighty'). overflow. a-sal-bar: architrave ('water' + 'to spread' + 'to distribute. what (will/did) X do?... a-na-gin7-nam: a-ne: (cf. amaš). Version 3.. e-ne ). potion ('water' + 'health'). desert. a. what (a. a-ru-a: to engender ('semen' + 'to pour into') . carry [plural]'. a-maš: sheepfold (cf. adjective for small cattle. often of joy. to be filled with water ('water' + 'to fill up')..'he.. water of the first seeds = watering of seeds just planted ('water' + 'seeds' + 'first' + a numun-sañ-ñá: a-númun: reeds. a-nu-gi4-a: genitive). a-pa4: funerary pipe (a clay pipe through which water and beer were poured into the grave) ('water' + 'small canal') . overflow').aka: a-na-aš(-am): why? (why is it that .?) ('what' + 'one'[ + 'to be']). 'to win fortune') . exuberance ('tears' + 'happiness') .si: a-silim: way.0 73 . Sumerian Lexicon. how ('what' + 'like'[ + abstract process]) .a-la. a-ma-ru: destructive flood ('water' + 'to go' + 'to send'. why ('what' + enclitic copula). a-lum: adjective for sheep. a-maþ: flood. waste land ('where' + remote demonstrative affix + nominative)...'to'.ri: a. quoted speech in the texts]. rushes') . remove'). u 18-ru)... she'. dirge ('tears' + 'to raise high').

0 74 .. á-še ). á-daþ: help.tab: a.aka: to bathe ('water' + 'to wash'). to command. a-zu5. instructions..'its'. to instruct (someone: -da -) ('strength' + 'to check') ..nominative. what one needs ('strength' + 'to wish. hollow (of the furrow) ? ('water' + 'birth-hut' for a plant seed ?. high' + 'date fruit').. bind. desire') . a-še-ra: cool water ('water' + 'cool'). to dam up water ('water' + 'piling up an earthen dam') . a-tùr. a-(IM)šèñ-ñá: a-šeš: bitter. to mock ('water' + 'to cut. orders ('strength' + 'to check'. act') .. to play. take away' + nominative). rainwater ('water' + 'rain' + genitive). Version 3. date clusters. + 'to be') . ally ('strength' + 'to add') . *hadar. -a-ta: after . high water. levy ('wages' + 'spouse') . a-šà-dib(-dib)-ba: a-ša4: a-šed12: (cf. the act of trimming the fields and levees of vegetation in preparation for drainage and irrigation ('fields' + 'to seize.tùm: to hold or block water ('water' + 'to hold'). a-zu. break' + 'to do.a-šà-(g): field.... nominalizer). raceme ('arm... lamentation.tu5: a-tu5-a: a. brackish water ('water' + 'bitter. at the cool of the day ('when' + 'day' + ten. a-tur-ra.... ('when' + 'away from'). a. to be at its high tide ('when' + 'on top' + bi. + a.ñál: the father who begot one ('semen' + 'to procreate') . rising waters ('water' + 'to rise up' + nominative). cf.áñ: á-áñ-ñá: ñiš a-u5-ba. a-u4-te-na: a-ugu4[KU]: a úš-a: a-zi-ga: á. é-tùr: a-ù: related to Orel & Stolbova #1323. a-tar. a-su: physician (cf. brackish'). á-dam: settlement."darkness" ?).. á-an-zú-lum-ma: á-apin: á-áš: part of a seeder plow ('arm' + 'plow'). + a. azu). Sumerian Lexicon. at one-half its hire price ('wages' + 'its' + 'to divide' + 'to go' + 'from').. á-bi ba-ma-ta: á. to flow with water ('water' + 'to bring. spring flood ('water' + 'high'). a-gàr. lustration ('water' + 'to wash' + nominative). area ('seed' + 'womb'.búru: á-dab5: to open the wings ('wings' + 'to spread out') .. wing' + 'sky.'coolness') . hirelings ('wages' + 'to hire').. carry')... ašag).

to act strongly. migrant harvest workers ('arms.dúb.. Version 3. components (of the plow).. bar ('arm' + 'to relocate'). equipment ('arm' + 'to join'/'to complete'). at night ('side' + 'dark' + 'to divide' + locative). to take care ('strength' + 'to emerge'). early morning ('arms' + 'necks' + 'rising'. iti to bend the arm ('arm' + 'circular motion'). á-dúb.ñar: reimbursed wages ('wages' + 'to return... work performance' + 'road. á-gú-zi-ga: á guruš-bi: á-ñe6-ba-a: á kaskal-la: genitive).. a device for moving irrigation water. caravan.. á-gàr: embrace (?) ('arms' + 'something round and upraised') ..sud/sù: (urudu/zabar) to move [intransitive] (reduplication class) ('arm' + 'to stretch'). restore' + nominative). wing' + 'bed'). by means of the strength of ('strength' + instrumental suffix) . kuš á-mi: áme). workmen's wages ('wages' + 'workers' + 'its'). á-kúš-ù: á-lá: ñiš fettered legs.. á-ná-da: bed chamber ('side. calendar month 7 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. á-šita4..... á-sur: a type of ax ('arm' + 'to divide').. to oppress. á-sikil(-la): pure. plow extension ('arm' + 'strong'). to reinforce ('strength' + 'to establish') . return' + nominative).5).. á-lá: á-lá: ('arm' + 'to hang'). involving a water bucket hanging from a swinging beam drum ('side' + 'to bind'). á-si: whip ('arm' + 'antenna-like'). undiluted strength ('strength' + 'pure' + nominative). á-suþ: elbow. á-še: attention-getting exclamation: 'hey now!'.dar: to confiscate ('wages' + 'to split') .gur: á.aka: flap' + 'to do') ..è: to bring up..dúb: to be (supported) on your own ('wings' + 'self' + 'your' + 'to flap'). á-nu-gi4-a: kuš á-sàñ[PA]: disease. to flap one's wings (with -šè and -ši -. á. á-šu-du7: á. nominalizer). á-gi4-a: á. Sumerian Lexicon. bolt. (cf. sickness demon ('strength' + 'to scatter') .-ta: at the prompting of. rear..0 75 . parts. month 6 at Drehem through year 3 of Šu-Sin. á-ní-za. paralyzed arms ('arms' + 'to bind'). Á-KAL: strength. + a.á. á. irresistable ('strength' + 'not' + 'to answer. ama (4. journey' + á-ki-ti: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III. to prevail ('strength' + 'to be tired') .. to resist. to fly towards) ('wings' + 'to á..

violence ('arm' + 'good. to spread wings or arms ('arms. companion. attendant. phonetic writing of ablal (3). ad.0 76 . ab-sín-gilim-ba/ma: crossing.. to give counsel. firm. to take counsel (with someone: -da -) ('shout' + 'to answer') . mixed'). reed weaver.. to ponder. àga-rí(-na): aþ-du11-ga: spittle (of sorcery) ('spittle' + 'utterance'). ab-ba: father.uš7[KA×LI]: to spit ('saliva' + 'spittle'). wicker-worker. and containers.gi4: to echo. clean furrow. wings' + 'to be broad. Sumerian Lexicon. possibly for drainage ('furrow' + 'to cross plow' áb-ama: áb-amar: mother cow ('cow' + 'mother'). agarin (2.. ada).ša4: ad-tab: aga(3)-ús: reed mat plaiter ('father' + kid. maker of reed mats. mother cow ('cow' + 'calf').. ad. cow in 3rd year of life that has calved ('cow' + 'calf')... unobstructed by weeds ('niche' + 'trimmed').. to wail. domestic cow ('cow' + 'domestic'). ab-ki-iz: ab-làl: ab-sín. to converse (confidentially) (cf. able-bodied. áb-gir15/gi7[KU]: áb-máþ[AL]: áb-sañ: áb-gud-þá: herd ('cow' + 'bull' + 'assorted. áb-úr: a piece of tableware (?). ad. strength. cool down') . to spread') . furrow ('niche' + 'to sift'). aþ. ab-si-im-ma... ab-ba: (cf.3) or agarin 4..gi4). ab-ba-uru: city elder ('elder' + 'city'). right' + 'with'). ñiš-ab-ba(-k) ).. elder. ancestor (Akk.. to sing ('song' + 'to mourn') . iti ab(-ba)-è: calendar month 10 at Nippur during Ur III. (cf. strength' + 'to have') . boats.5).gi4-gi4: ad-kub4[KID]: ad-kíd: ad.tál: á-tuku: á-úr: to have broad arms. policeman. 'reed mat'). loanword). á-zi(-da): right arm. á-u4-te-en: limb. to be double') . ad-da: (cf. aba ). rein(s) ('shout' + 'to hold. mighty man ('arms..... in the evening ('side' + 'daylight' + 'to extinguish. with hitting. extremities ('arms' + 'legs': Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys). limbs. a piece of tableware (?). to resound. transversal furrow.. ab-(ba): ñiš (cf. ab-sù-na: ( + 'its') + nominative). Version 3.á. soldier ('crown' + 'to follow').

to fell'). šu-si.. natural or birth mother ('mother' + ùgun. in-ga-na-nam ). dirt ('open air' + 'to give up').. to hoe ground that is already broken ('hoe' + 'to mould. cf. an-bar7[NE]. Version 3.dù: ñiš ñiš ñiš because (genitival suffix + adverbial suffix) . 'oak'. (cf. a type of ax (phonetic harmony variant of al-šub ?).di/dug4/e: to desire. weaned young animal ('calf' + 'to cut away from').0 77 . an-bar: an-dùl: an-edin: an-ga-àm: an-gur4: an-kára: an-bir8[A-SUD]: noon. al-la-þa-ru: al-lu5: al-lub/lu5: al-lu5-þáb: ñiš ñiš crab ('digger' + 'to deceive') .. antenna'. barzil ). al-gazumx [ZUM+LAGAB]: an exotic spice.. al-ñar: musical instrument ('hoe' + 'form. ama-gan. insist (often with -ni-) ('hoe' + 'to make the motion of'). 'finger'). noon. separated. to strike') . cf. (cf. shade. high plain ('high' + 'steppe') . ama-ar-gi4: iti freedom ('mother' + 'to shine' + 'to restore') .. + 'to hang.. to punish ('hoe' + 'to break open... to hoe ('hoe' + 'to handle') . emedu). al-ñar-sur9: musical instrument (ñišal-ñar. appearance') . ray.ri/ra: al-šub: al-tar: ax-like hoe ('hoe' + 'to throw.. protect') . midday rest ('sky' + 'to be hot' ['WATER' + 'TO SIP']).. pray. ama-a-tu/tud: (cf. demolishing tool (?) ('hoe' + 'to cut. shape') .aka: al. break') . ama-ugu: amar-a-a-si: amar-kud: AN.. Orel & Stolbova #31 *'alan-/*'aluna tanning agent used to produce a white color. demand...BAR: calendar month 10 at Lagaš during Ur III. an-ñá: and yet (affirmative prefix ? + 'exists').. midday ('sky' + 'to be bright') .-/ak-eš/: al. (cf. al. loanword from allaanum.. likewise (cf.. suspend' [suru5 ?]). al-la-an: 'tree'). engur ). to demolish with the hoe. litter. to work at hoeing ('hoe' + 'to do') . al. 'to beget') . a type of net (for crabs ?) ('crab' + 'to stink').tag: ñiš am-si: elephant ('wild ox' + 'horn. enkara ). oak tree (Akk. protection ('sky' + 'to cover. Sumerian Lexicon. an-ba: refuse. ugu(4). al..

floor'). an-šár(-ra): an-še: ear of grain ('grain ear' + 'grain. an-zà: an-zaþ: where heaven ends ('heaven' + 'side. yes ('sky' + 'stone'. is probably an Akkadianism. blue sky ('sky' + 'beautiful. all of heaven. Sumerian Lexicon. an-ta-sur-ra: a stone ('heaven' + 'from' + 'boundary marker' + nominative).an-ki: universe ('sky' + 'earth'). 'tin' + 'to be calm'). 'negation') .. "quarter" ('sky' + 'corners' + 'with'). anše-bala: pack-ass ('equid' + 'to cross over. (cf. deliver'). an-nisig )..place name for powerful city in Elam . an-úr: horizon ('sky' + 'base. high' + 'from' + 'to be'). but cf. fort ('heaven' + 'stone' + 'round.. 'indeed' and in-nu. an-na.0 78 .Tall-i Malyan near Persepolis in the Fars province of Iran. AN. workass ('equid' + 'tool'). an-nisig(-ga): an-SAR: beautiful sky. cf. evening ('sky' + 'evening') . heated or fused lead (an. an-za-kàr: tower. universe ('heaven' + 'earth') .. an-sig7-ga: an-ša4-anki: Anshan .. anše-bar-an-mi2: anše-bìr: anše-dub: female donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'female').MUL] ). anše-du24-ùr: anše-ñiš: ANŠE-ka: anše-edin-na: wild ass ('equid' + 'steppe' + a(k). kunga[ŠÚ. an-ta: above ('heaven' + locative with remote deixis).. Version 3. boundary') . an-na: tin. heaven and earth. affirmative nanam. ass yoked in a team ('equid' + 'team'). ass registered on a tablet ('equid' + 'tablet'). an-ta. dur 9[ŠUL] ).. the whole sky ('heaven' + 'totality. 'yes'. anše-bar-an-nita2: male donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'male'). an-zag. an-ta-ñál: high. horizon') . blue'). superior ('sky. an-pa: zenith ('sky' + 'branch' of sun dial ?). Civil thinks an-na. one of the best groups of people. the beautiful sky ('sky' + 'to be beautiful' + nominative).dug4/e: to say yes ('yes' + 'to say') . barley').MUL: starry sky (verify than AN is not the rare sign ŠÚ . an-ub-da: an-uraš: an-usan: regions. (cf. genitival postposition). high thing') ..gi4: to meet ('heaven' + 'from' + 'to return').

. it is short (conjugation prefix + earlier/later ablative case prefix + 'small. Sumerian Lexicon. with hamtu denotes negative affirmative.GÀR: (cf. ba-lá: it is less (conjugation prefix + 'light. ba-rV: to fly. rosette ('unique' + 'function... ñiš ba-rí-ga: bushel.with marû denotes vetitive. ñiš ba-an: a container. calendar month 8 at Nippur during Ur III. ba-da-ra: poniard (Akk. speak') .anše-kunga(2): anše-mar: iti mule ('horse' + 'donkey') ... bad. áš. ar(2). deficient'). it is more (conjugation prefix + inanimate direct object prefix + 'to be full..bal: SAL to curse with violence ('curse' + 'raised arms' + 'to deliver').. apin-dug-a: apin-numun: APIN-lal: ñiš cultivating leasehold land ('plow' + 'to pay'). bara4). áš á-zi-ga..za).. star symbol.. to curse ('curse' + 'to blow.0 79 . malt-sweetened porridge... to be next to') . to praise ('praise' + 'to bring'). to curse ('curse' + 'to write'). to curse ('curse' + 'to deliver'). Version 3. plow fitted with seeder attachment ('plow' + 'seed'). sundisk. glimmer.. ba-an: a measure for bread and flour. square-based measuring vessel = 6 bán in all periods (= 36 liters in Old Sumerian period and 60 liters in Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian period) (cf. apin-ús: ñiš plowman's helper ('plow' + 'to follow. ba-ra(-g): to spread out (cf.dug4/e: to curse ('curse' + 'to speak/effect'). to answer with a curse ('curse' + 'to answer') .. ki. ba-ta-tur.. patarru . to send forth') . áš. bariga ).de6/túmu: ar-ga-nu-um: ár.. aš-me: sparkle.. ba-ra: modal prefix . to channel ('to divide' + 'digging stick'). ba-ra-tur: ba-za: halt or lame person (cf. bar). pattaru )..bal: áš.. neck-stock ('fetter' + 'neck').. ÁŠ. sufficient'). ba-ba: pudding.e/i: to praise ('praise' + 'to speak.mú: áš.sar: ñiš az-gú: ba-ab-si: ba-al: to dig (a canal). chariot or wagon ass ('equid' + 'wagon') . power'). a coniferous tree (Akkadian loanword ?).. zeþ ).. flee (cf..gi4: áš. insufficient') .

balañ-íl: bàn-da: balañ-ír-ra: (cf. to escape ('outside' + 'to take away') . cf. bànda ). parim). worker hired to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to hire' + nominative).dag: to wander far away ('outside' + 'to roam about') ..gub: to withdraw from ('side' + 'to stand aside') .. to be extra ('outside' + 'to be'). bàd-si-an-na: high battlements ('parapet' + 'to be high' + nominative).... bar-bar: part of a weaver's loom (shuttle ?). bar.0 80 . bar. bàd-niñin: circular city wall ('city wall' + 'enclosure...ba-zi: dispersed ('to divide' + 'to go out') .. distribute' + 'to knock down' + nominative). to see. to select' + 'to do') . chameleon ('sides' + reduplicated 'to be multicolored' + nominative with vowel bar. bala.gub: to step outside ('outside' + 'to stand') . shiny' [ + 'to do']) .ñál: to be outside... bar. portion' + 'work assignment') . bar-ñál-la: bar-lá: bar-LU: unsheared ('fleece' + 'to be in place' + nominative). bar-dil: a type of plow (rare outside of lexical lists). harp or lyre carrier ('harp' + 'to lift').dab5: ñiš bar. battlement ('city wall' + 'long. Sumerian Lexicon. to see.. to select' + 'polished.. fraction of an assignment ('term... bar-ta.aka: bala-dab5-ba: bala éš-kàr: bala-gub-ba: ñiš outer wall ('city wall' + 'invader'/'path' + 'numerous'). bar-tam..(ak): (ñiš) ñiš to choose ('to open.. Version 3. bar-edin-na: bar-ég-ga: outer side of the levee ('outer side' + 'levee' + genitival a(k)).sir5: to spin with a spindle ('spindle' + 'to spin'). bar-gùn-gùn-nu: harmony). narrow'). bar-bé-da: a tool. one of the best wool blends. bàd-si: parapet. to examine ('to open. bàd-sìl-þi: bala-šè.. bar-dúb-ba: ñiš bar-e11-dè: rope braiding lever ('outside' + 'to descend' + participial ending). to transport ('goods delivery' + 'towards' + 'to do') . lamentation harp ('harp' + 'lamentation' + genitival a(k)).. edge of the desert ('side' + 'steppe' + genitival a(k)). bar-rim4[KAŠ4](-ma): dry land ('to uncover' + 'to travel fast'?.. worker stationed to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to stand' + nominative). a good price ('to split. bàd-šul-þi. part of an irrigation system ('outside' + 'to lift'). circle').aka: to choose..

. melting (cf. monotonous noise') ..0 81 . suffix) . kak-ús). flames (reduplicated 'to shine' + nominative).. dadag ). cf. let fall'). contractually bound worker ('team' + 'oath. bar-TÚG: bar-úsurudu: iti bar-ùl[KIB]: bára-zà-ñar: copper-tipped goading stick ('side?. bellows' + 'hand') . bún-ñìr: bún-šu: feet bellows ('to blow. mist ('outside' + 'to rain' + loc. a stone vessel ('stone vessel' + 'measuring pot' + nominative).aka: to sow broadcast (not in furrows with a plow). hand bellows ('to blow. bábbar )... bi-iz: drop (of water). tend') . bar6-bar6: (some prefer this reading. with dative) ('to protect' + 'to exchange') . mix' + nominative). a stone vessel.. ri. Sumerian Lexicon.. to belch ('to tear out' + 'to be numerous' + 'saliva' + 'to tear apart') . ri. chamber (dag.'to pull').. mingled (bir. bí-ra: mixed. biz. babbar ). da-ri: to bend (limbs) ('arm' + rig. bí-za-za: bír-bír: ñiš frog (za. 'to pour').su-su: da-ba-ri-ri: contortionist (cf. but cf. da-da-ga: ñiš da-ga: organization.ri: to pay off a delivery (?. (cf.. agreement' + 'to bind') . and ('with it').SÁ: bur-šál-la: drown') . bìr-inim-kéš-de6: bìr-mar: bu-lu-úþ. dog chain ('outside' + 'leash') . (cf./term.. da-ra-an-šub: negligence ('to drop. to tremble ('to tear out' + 'saliva' or 'to clean'. a long coat ('outside' + 'woven garment') . to have the harvest be drowned (by spring floods bursting the dikes) ('harvest' + 'to bur-BÚN.'to stretch' + nominative). Version 3. metal?' + 'to drive'. buluþ). calendar month 1 at Nippur during Ur III. da-ri). bellows' + 'foot') .'to bring. bir.'a repeated.. da-ri: driver (of animals) ('to protect' + rig.'to scatter. 'to pour') . da. bu-luþ: gi gi wagon yoke ('team' + 'wagon'). da-pa: part of a seeder plow (?). bar-šu-ñál: midwife ('innards' + 'hand' + 'to place'). bar7-bar7-ra: -bi-da(-ke4): bi-bi-zé: to drip (reduplicated biz.si-il: bu-úþ. cf. to dehusk ('to scatter' + 'to do') . dripping.. lú buru14.bar-šèñ-ñá(-e): (mi) violence....

lock up' + nominative). between (dalla... dirig). merchant (Akk. cf. reduplicated + nominative). long-lasting. ñiš dam-apin: part of a seeder plow ('spouse' + 'plow') . to conduct a trial.tuku/du12-du12: to marry ('spouse' + 'to get') . di4-di4-la: children. di4-di4-ba: walking about (phonetic for dib. touch' + nominative)... conduct oneself' + 'it' + 'with') . di-til-la: law case for which a final decision has been given ('verdict' + 'to complete' + nominative). to appear. dili-du(-a) ). forever ('eternal' + 'towards'). city quarter ('dwellings' + 'to surround. ashes ('ashes' + 'to fly') .da-ri-a: da-rí-šè: lú driven (animal) (da-ri + nominative). judgment ('decision' + 'to cut off') . traverse') . judge. (cf. to make resplendent ('beam of light' + 'to become visible')..0 82 . 'beam. to sue someone (with -da -) ('lawsuit' + 'to di.. makaarum 'to do business') .. to take up a lawsuit ('lawsuit' + 'to take'). loanword from tamkaarum.. di-ri: (cf. spread out over a wide extent ('wide' + 'to spread out') . dam-ab-ba: (professional) mourners ('spouse' + 'elder. Sumerian Lexicon. hostile judgment ('decision' + 'hostile') .. widely based ('wide' + 'to handle. ancestor') . di-bi-da: di. Version 3.. dam. ray' + 'to divide' + ?).dab5: di-dab5-ba: di-di: to play (an instrument) (cf. to judge ('decision' + 'to cut off') . decision ('decision' + 'to take' + nominative). to give a claim. enduring. hired man ('to hire' + nominative). dam-gàr(-a): dam-þa-ra: battle (Akk. donkey ('to go. water clock (onomatopoeic or reduplicated 'to pass. dug4). da-rí[URU]: dab5-ba: dag-gi4-a: dañal-búru: dañal-tag(-ga): dal-ba(-an)-na: dalla.è: to shine. cultic organization center... eternal ('near. 'merchant'. dar-ra: dè-dal: cured. to make clear. di. di.... loanword from tamhaaru(m) ).gub: di-ir-ga: di-kud/ku5: to judge ('judgment' + 'to set up') . ñiš dib-dib: clepsydra..kud/ku5: di-kúr: di-li-du-a: alien. dried (?). present' + remote demonstrative affix ?).dug4/du11/e: effect').

maltman. road ('good' + 'to follow'). da-rí)..nu-me-a: without a (personal) god ('god' + 'with' + 'not' + 'to be' + nominative). scribe ('tablet' + 'to write'). 'alone' + 'to walk' + nominative). leader ('list' + 'head'). du-rí: (cf. dùg ).. dub-alal-urudu: a temple servant ('to pour' + 'pipe' + 'copper').SAR(-d): DU.diñir-da. work ('to walk' + 'to make productive') .bala: dub-lá: dub-sañ: dub-sar: dub-sar: dub-šen: dub-dab... du6-ul: du8-du8: du10: du10-sa: du10-ús: du11-ga: du7-na-bi: weaned young (reduplicated 'to untie.mú: du24-ùr: lú gi to start a quarrel ('quarrel' + 'to ignite').. dirig-. (cf. platforms on either side of a portal ('to heap up' + 'to lift') . friend... dul (6)). young').. du-lum: burden.0 83 .DU: (cf. walking alone..ak/ñar: to quarrel (with someone: -da-) ('quarrel' + 'to do'). Version 3. store. dili-du(-a): dìm-šáþ: DIM4. to go over the account (with -da -) ('tablet' + 'its' + 'to pass through') .-še: beyond ('to go over' + 'to the') . treasure chest ('to store' + 'shiny') . du6-kù: calendar month 7 at Nippur during Ur III.. du14.. DU-zu: (read arax-zu. (cf. companion ('gladness' + 'to repay') .. dili-dili. speech ('to speak' + nominative). utterance.. du14. dú-ru-na(-àm): iti (cf.... dur 9[ŠUL] ).. in the proper way. dil-dil: one by one (cf.. gather (cf. a-ra-zu). dub-ba-an: pillar made of reeds. Sumerian Lexicon.. loosen') .. dub-bi. copper box. a fence made of such pillars ('to heap up' + 'to divide' + 'to be high') . cf. duruna ). to heap up.za: to thud. if you please ('fitting.. labor. adv. young scribe ('scribe' + 'small. bear (the animal) ('sickness demon' ? + 'domestic pig') . didli) (reduplicated 'one'). laþ5). dub-sar-tur: scribe ('tablet' + 'to write'). individual (dili. thump (see the definition for za). suitable' + ? + adverbial force suffix) .

dùg-ud-ak: politeness (cf. a standard capacity jar = 5 liters ('jar' + 'little'). dùg..dug-a-nag-nag: dug-níñ-nag: dug-tur: dùg/du10. dumu-dab5-ba: DUMU-DUMU-LA: (cf.gúr: to sit down.0 84 ... dumu-ga. to repair ('gladness' + 'to make. dumu-zi: DUN-a: dependent (on). son (born) of ('child' + 'to beget' + nominative). serf ('child' + 'to seize.. prince ('child' + 'king' + genitive). son. dumu-mí-lugal(-/ak/): dumu-me-KA. Sumerian [in contrast to slaves from foreign countries] ('child' + dumu-gir15/gi7: 'native group') . gentleman ('child' + 'gentleman'). drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'object' + 'to drink'). dumu-aš: only son ('child' + 'one').aka: water drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'water' + reduplicated 'to drink') . first-born child ('child' + 'principal'). dumu-KA: dumu-lú: dumu-mí: grandson. dùg. twin sons ('child' + 'pair'). dùg.zil: to run.. cause') . dùg. for someone: dative ('knees' + 'to place').. to rest ('knees' + 'to bend'). Version 3. di4-di4-la).UD: dumu-nitaþ: dumu-sañ: dumu-tab: dumu-tu-da: iti d (lú) a cult servant ('child' + 'function' + ?).. kuš dùg-gan: leather bag ('gladness' + 'to bring forth') . subordinate ('subordinate' + nominative).. (cf. princess ('child' + 'female' + 'king' + genitive).aka).ñál: to be pleased.. dùg...dúb: to rub the knees (?) ('knees' + 'to flop'). dum-dam. dumu-gal: eldest son or daughter ('child' + 'large'). freeborn man. flee ('knees' + 'to cut')... dùg-tuku: strong-legged ('knees' + 'to own') .. calendar month 12 at Umma during Ur III...za: to grumble (see the definition for za). Sumerian Lexicon.bad(-bad): to stride.ñar: to kneel down....eš8: deputy (?) of a merchant ('child' + 'merchantman'). satisfied ('gladness' + 'to be available'). dùg/du10.. ibila ) ('child' + 'masculine'). dùg. dumu-lugal(-/ak/): daughter ('child' + 'feminine'). hire').. hurry ('knees' + 'to open').

e-ra-núm: eren). e-ne-sù-ud.. him.. tuš). 'to lengthen. dur10-tab-ba: dusu. asyndetic hendiadys). her... them. e-íb-ùr: siege shield ('dike' + 'middle. e-re-sì-ki-in: e-ri-iš: kuš queen. servant (?). duruna. e-ne. (cf. Version 3. he is indeed (formal 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') . to dry out') .lá: to carry a basket ('transportation basket' + 'to lift').. dam to create a reservoir. e-li-lum: e-ne: e-ne-àm: e-ne-gim: e-ne-ne: he. dúr. a type of canal or ditch. armor (cf. you. é-a-nir-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. double ax ('ax' + 'to be double' + nominative). to copulate (with -da -) ('to play' + sud. ditches'. to play (3rd person pronoun + 'to do') . dúr-ru-un: to sit (plural).dug4/du11/e: to immerse'). e-pa5(-r): ñiš hydraulic system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation a tree and wood used for construction (cf. culm or stalk of barley. house of mourning ('house' + 'lamentation' + genitive).. èsir ).ñar: to sit ('buttocks' + 'to set down upon') . she. e-el[SIKIL]-lu: kuš a (pure) sound (Akkadian ellu.ñar: to establish one's dwelling ('to dwell (plural)' + 'place' + 'to establish').dug4/di/du11/e: like himself (3rd person pronoun + equative). dùn-lá: dúr-dúr: durunx) (reduplicated 'buttocks. ñiš dúr-ñar: chair. donkey foal... íl-lá.ñiš dun-gi: a tool. cry of joy. lady. dig' + 'reed' or 'firm.. pure').. dúr-ki.. dúr-šáþ: dùr-KAS4: ham ('buttocks' + 'domestic pig') ..0 85 . kuše-íb-ùr). they. cf.. depression ('to bring low' + 'to hang'. erin. a type of yoke (?) ('to scrape. to rejoice. 'clear. shoe (cf. duruna. strong').. e-si-na. in the streets ('sandals' + locative). loins' + 'roof'). (cf. ì-si-na: e-sír: e-sír-ra: e-še-á: e-ùr: e-zé: sandal.. throne. 'elevation')..

to break into a house (reduplication class) ('house' + 'to break into') .. pub ('house' + 'beer').... Version 3. mill house. Akk. daughter-in-law. é-a. Sumerian Lexicon. é-ganba: é-ñar8: é-gi4-a: é-ì-gára: iti warehouse ('house' + 'marketplace').. calendar month 8 at Umma during Ur III. *dar. é-iti-6: é-kaš: a public house. suburb ('houses' + 'fresh'.0 86 . (cf. sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven' + genitive). "woman's house" ('house' + 'woman') . brewery ('house' + 'brewer') . dairy ('house' + 'fat' + 'cream'). é-éše: jail ('house' + 'rope').3): é-me-eš: é-mí: beerhall. shape ('house' + 'form. é-lunga(2. é-da[-di-a]: é-dub-ba: house plot ('house' + 'to build' + nominative). prospective bride ('the one who restores the house') . school ('house' + 'tablet' + genitival a(k)).'dwelling place').é-a-nir-ra-gal-gal-la: euphemism for the netherworld ('house of mourning' + reduplicated 'big' + genitive). archive.bùr: é-dù-a: é-duru5: é-ta. é-KI. é-gal: palace ('house' + 'large').. appearance'). donkey stable ('house' + 'equid') . é-lùnga ). brick wall (cf. mill ('house' + 'millstone' + genitival a(k)). 'village. eñar ). a flour offering...LAM: é-na4kín-na: a storehouse ('house' + 'place' + 'abundance') . adurû. an adjective denoting a very fine quality. rural settlement. cf. outer house ('house' + 'outside' + nominative). summer ('houses' + 'are' + 'many') . deep'). é-kur: prison ('house' + 'netherworld').ti(-l): to live in a house ('house' + locative + 'to live').. é-mar-uru5[GUR8]: arrow quiver ('house' + 'to immerse' + 'high. é-ñar: form. é-ad-da(-/ak/): é-an-na: é-anše: é-ba-an: é-BAPPIR: é-bar-ra: é. outpost' and Orel & to leave the house ('house' + 'from' + 'to exit'). é-kišib(-ba): storehouse ('house' + 'receipt' + genitival a(k)).è: the house of one's fathers ('house' + 'father' + genitive). hamlet. Stolbova #658.

. cf. wall ('house' + 'brick'. to stick out the tongue ('tongue' + 'to send forth') . first crescent moon ('house' + 'day 7') . é-ri-a: é si-ga: é-sig4: é-šag4/šà: é-šu-sì-ma: é-ñištukul: é-tùr: cattle pen ('house' + 'stable')..é-muþaldim[MU]: é-NI: treasure-house (?). armory ('house' + 'weapon') . fill'). full moon ('house' + 'day 15') .. cf. bakery. ég dal-ba-na: a dike that is shared by two watercourses or by two fields ('levee' + 'between').. the work of piling up a levee ('levee' + 'to increase.. ég si-ga: 'fascines') . brick wall (cf. manage') . utensil ('tongue' + 'to slice. temple' + 'midst'). eme. mend' + nominative). iz-zi). smash') . tangled' + nominative).0 87 . lú-é-níñ-ka). agrun). storehouse ('house' + 'rafter beams') . warehouse ('house' + 'portion' + 'to put. É-NUN: (cf.è/e11: eme-gir15/gi7: eme-ñír: eme-gilim-ma: confused speech ('tongue' + 'to be twisted. milking pen ('house' + 'teat') . to keep watch over a house ('house' + 'watch fire' + 'to reach out.. house interior. Version 3. Sumerian language ('tongue' + 'native') . treasure-house ('house' + 'things' [ + 'piled up']. é-níñ(-gur11[GA]-ra): níñ-gur11-ra(-ak)). (temple) cella ('house. surround' + 'to bind') . (cf. kitchen ('house' + 'baker. a quiet house ('house' + 'silence') . Sumerian Lexicon. é-ùru. lú storehouse. cook') . ég sa-dúr-ra: wide levees at the low-lying end of a field which halted and contained the water for irrigating the field ('levees' + 'low-lying end of a field').. eñar ).. é-u4-sakar[SAR]: é-u4-7: é-u4-15: é-ubur: é-ùr-ra: é-uz-ga: e5-ñar: new moon ('house' + 'day' + 'to begin') . sañ- é-níñ-ka: (cf.. ég kal-kalag-ga: to reinforce the levees ('levees' + 'to repair..gíd: fattening house ('house' + 'goose' + 'milk'). a-ri-a ). ég-ég/e ú-sañ11-e/a: reinforcement of the levees with cut/bundled plants/reeds ('levees' + eme-dar: a tool. dagger blade ('tongue' + 'dagger') .

tar: until when. note du12. to lament ('tears' + 'to complain').šeš2... likeness' + 'to send') . until. èn-tukum-šè: ér.. until now..sá..-a): en-na-bi-šè: lú en-nu(-un/ùña). guardian... to handle.. eme-sig. enigmatic background' + nominative).... en-te-en-na(-/ak/): the cold season. en-na (. compositions concerning the gods sung by the gala priests in the Emesal dialect to the accompaniment of a tambourine ('wail' + 'tambourine' + genitive).... to watch. a resin. Version 3. ñiš ñiš contrasting speech or languages (e. to take care of. prison.. small' + 'to speak') . lizard ('tongue' + 'to consider. èn-du: song ('time' + 'to walk'.. ér..sig7: ér-šem3. 'to do something in the right way' + 'not') .dù/ak: én-é-nu-ru: gi watch. to pay attention to. inquire') . to guard against. imprisonment.. how long ('time.eme-þa-mun: opposing') . to guard against. weep ('tears' + 'to show') .. introductory formula for exorcism/incantation texts ('enigmatic background' + 'house' + 'image. inim-sig. watch (as a division of night time)...gu7: eme. Sumerian Lexicon.g. Sumerian and Akkadian) ('tongue' + 'mutually eme-numun: an agricultural tool ('tongue' + 'seed') . lamentation ('tears' + nominative). to lick with the tongue ('tongue' + 'to lick')..'to sing') . ér-ra: mourning.šub6[ŠID]: eme-ŠID: en-mur: to slander ('tongue' + 'low. small' + 'to consume'.. 'reed-bed') . 'up to' [ + enclitic copula]) . as long as . wintertime ('time' + 'cold' + genitive). cf.5-ma engar-gu4(-ra): ox-ploughman ('farmer' + 'ox').... until the time ('time' + 'this one' + 'towards').gu7).pàd/pà: ér. èn-šè(-àm): èn... possibly myrrh ('lord' + 'lungs'). everywhere ('time. ('enigmatic background' + 'to determine.. until' + terminative postposition. ñiš eme-sig: ship plank ('tongue' + 'small'). heed for how long ('time' + 'if' + terminative postposition).0 88 . to cry. to watch. measure') . èn-bar: reed. ambar. to slander ('tongue' + 'low.ñá-ñá: ér.. to investigate. eme-si-nu-sá: describes a person 'whose speech is not right' ('tongue' + si.dug4/du11/e: eme-sig. reeds (cf.. weep ('tears' + 'to weep'). to burst into tears. to set up a lament ('lamentation' + 'to make').4/še8-še8: to cry.. eme-sa-du8-a: a tool ('tongue' + 'net' + 'open' + nominative).dù/ak: en-nu(-un)(-ñá): en-nu-un/ùña. to ask (someone: dative).

milk from beautiful cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'beautiful' + genitive).. a type of vessel. calendar month 3 at Lagaš during Ur III. calendar month 10 at Ur during Ur III. éš-gíd: éš-kir4/6: iti iti èš-èš: a festival (All-Shrines) (reduplicated 'shrine'). nose rope (cf. calendar month 6 at Lagaš during Ur III. decision ('much' + 'to divide'.3-dam: éš-gán: ceremony. brothel. calendar month 7 at Lagaš during Ur III. calendar month 8 at Ur during Ur III. epithet of a temple of the bride-goddess Inanna. Version 3. order' + 'to speak' + eš(2. asphalt ('bitumen' + 'to go out' + nominative). éš-kàr.3)-da: eš2. calendar month 11 at Ur during Ur III. harvest workers ('gang of workers' + 'grain' + reduplicated 'sickle. calendar month 12 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. one man's daily work assignment. Sumerian Lexicon. iti ezen-me-ki-ñál: iti ezen-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 5 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. eškiri ) ('rope' + 'muzzle/nose').ZU(Sin): calendar month 8 at Drehem in year Šu-Sin 3. ga-an-tuš: (cf. calendar month 10 at Umma after year Šulgi 30. goblet ('shrine' + 'with.. tavern ('shrine' + 'spouse') .0 89 . ka-aš-bar).erin-bábbar: white cedar (wood) ('cedar' + 'white'). esir-è-a. érin še-gur10-gur10: eš-bar: ésir-é-a. to reap') . calendar month 9 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 8 at Lagaš during Ur III. ezen-dAmar-Sin: calendar month 7 at Umma during years 6 . ezen-An-na: calendar month 10 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. pronounced decision ('decision' + 'message. calendar month 11 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. éš-gàr: lú task. calendar month 11 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. ga-áb-kù-ga: ga-áb-sig7-ga: milk from pure cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'pure' + genitive). iti iti iti ezen-dBa-ba6: ezen-dDumu-zi: ezen-dLi9-si4: ezen-maþ: ezen-maþ: iti great festival ('feast' + 'great'). gaba-kar). ésir-þá: eš-bar-kíñ-du11-ga: nominative). gan-tuš). cf. calendar month 12 at Ur during Ur III. iti iti ezen-dŠul-gi: calendar month 7 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. ga-ab-kar-re: (cf. to be near') . calendar month 6 at Ur during Ur III. the oxen or plows which perform a task. calendar month 8 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. calendar month 9 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. surveyor ('measuring rope' + 'long') .. calendar month 10 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 6 at Drehem after ezen-dŠu-dEN.. surveyor's rope ('rope' + 'surface measure') . Šu-Sin 3. to be assigned for someone's benefit ('measuring tape' + 'something round and upraised') .8 of Amar-Sin.

to boast ('chest' + 'to be available') .ñar: to speak against (someone) ('rival' + 3rd person with locative + 'to speak') .. to challenge. Version 3... ga-zum: ga-sa10: ga-sub-ba: milk sucking ('milk' + 'to suck' + nominative).. cf.. 'to finish. escapist ('rival' + 'to flee'. ga-ba-kar-re: (cf. a type of cheese ('milk' + 'strained in cheesecloth' ?). (cultically) pure milk ('milk' + 'pure'). gašan).ga-an. to nurse/feed with milk ('milk' + 'to feed').gu7: ga-gu7-a: ga-kug: lintel (above a door) (? + du7. ga-ba-ra-þum: revolt (gaba. leek(s) (Akk. 'rival' or Akkadian qablum.zi). compassion' + genitive).. ga-ti: plea. ga-du(7): ga-eš8: ga. 'rival' + 'to overflow' + 'to wrestle. break'). ga-ša-an: ga-še-a: lady (cf..ñál: gaba.sum and gazzum). quarrel (either related to gaba. entrance to the netherworld (cf. loanword). merchantman (compare ga-sa10). gaba.. the milk of mercy ('milk' + 'womb.. gaba-kar).za(-za): to drip.... petition ('let me live!').. comb (don't know why some read ga-ríg ..... suckling foal ('milk' + 'to feed' + nominative). carding (wool). gaba-diri-ga: enormous strength ('rival' + 'to go over. ganzer ).ñál ). powdered or finely grated cheese ('milk' + 'to grind' + nominative)..the Akkadian is kaa.. gurun).. ga-an-zír[ŠÈ-KA]: ga-àr-ra: ga-arþuš-a(-ke4): ga-ba-al.dug4: gaba-gi4: gaba-ñál: gaba. opposition ('rival' + 'to besiege'). milk for barley porridge. gaba-kar(-re): Sumerian Lexicon. (cf. ga-zi-in-bu: stake (for impalement). to bubble ('milk' + 'sky. bearing fruit (cf. air' + 'to make a repetitive noise'). to defy ('breast. gaba(-na). to put out one's chest.. contradict.. ga-murx[LAK 490]: ga-ra-an-da: ga-rašsar: ga-zum: ñiš ga-nam-me-àm: it is indeed (affirmative + 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') .0 90 .dù: ga-ba. strength ('chest' + 'to be available') . opponent. sour milk ('milk' + 'barley' + locative).. exceed' + nominative)..ñál: 'controversy' + 'to make') . gaba. chest' + 'to deliver') . complete'). tradesman ('let me buy!'). smash.

chest' + ru-gú.. gal-zu (gal-an-zu): wise. gag-zag-ga: gal-bi: gal-di: gal-nar: gal-ùña: adv. judge') . bailiff. elaborate' + nominative + 'idiot. to hold to the breast ('breast' ( + locative) + 'to hold.. Version 3. mighty (judge) (an adjective for the god Enlil) ('large' + 'to decide. galam-ma þu-ru: gam-gam(-ma): a fish (Pomadasys stridens) (reduplicated 'curved. boundary') . tenant ('to bring forth' + 'to occupy') . boaster (reduplicated 'large' + 'to judge') . gan-tuš: gan-tuš-tur-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. gada-níñ-dùn-dù: a linen garment ('linen' + 'object' + 'to bring low' + 'to make'). to look after' [ + 'big']) . rival. gendarme.. overseer ('large' + 'people'). shriveled') . gada-maþ-ñiš-lá: spread out linen ('linen' + 'large' + 'tool' + 'to extend'). omniscient.ri: to confront ('breast. a peg or nail ('peg' + 'one-half'). withstanding attack (describing a door or weapon). adj. deputy. minor tenant ('tenant' + 'little' + nominative). intelligent ('large' [ + 'heaven'] + 'to know'). gal-gal-di: head musician ('large' + 'musician'). gába[KAB]-ra: shepherd boy/girl (Akk. greatly ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . gaba.0 91 .. gan-gan-è: calendar month 9 at Nippur during Ur III. gaba. loanword from kaparrum I).. rival ('breast. hillbilly').. galam-kad5: galam-ma: ku6 iti ñiš artfully made ('artistic' + 'to bind together') . a demon ('to overwhelm' + 'to force into. gag-si-sá: arrow ('nail' + 'to make straight'). ñùl-lá(-gal): police chief.zi: to retreat ('breast' + 'to take out'). clever fool ('ingenious. duplicate ('breast' + 'to exchange' . chest' + 'to throw out') . gada-dilmun-ù-lal: a dress of Dilmun linen ('linen' + 'Dilmun' + pronominal prefix + 'to hang').imagines the two breasts as copies or duplicates). gaba-ri: n.. gal5-lá(-gal). side (?) peg ('peg' + 'side.ru(-gú): gaba-šu-ñar: gaba(-a). 'to oppose') . gan-na: grinding stone (?) ('rack' + nominative). exalted one ('elaborate' + nominative).gaba. chest' + 'hand' + 'to place on') .. gada-bar-TÚG: long linen coat ('linen' + 'long coat'). clasp') . resistance...tab: to encounter ('breast. copy. gag-þa-þar-ra-na: gag-maš: ñiš a peg or nail ('peg' + 'roads' ?)..

gi-gu4-ud: gi-gur: catapult ('reeds' + 'to leap'). hut ('reeds' + 'small.e.. gi-na: consent (cf. sacred building ('reeds' + 'decorated temple') . gi-NI: a scented substance ('reed' + 'oil'). to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') . (gi) ušub). reed wall. cut reed. shining. Version 3. a syllabic writing for gurun . a class of persons ('hair lock signifying slavery' + 'to go') .. gi-šà-sur: sieve ('reeds' + 'intestines' + 'to flow. blooming. gàr-du: ge-eš-tu: gi-a-dag: gi-dili-dù: gi-dù-a: reed hut. gi-dùg-ga: sweet reed. (cf. reed fences.gána-ga: gána-íl: iti ñiš hill country ('land' + 'milk'). firm' + nominative a). gi(-níñ)-sa-þá: bundle') . kí-sa.A]: supple. gi(n)) ('just. six hundred (geç -u (?). gi-izi-lá: torch ('reeds' + 'fire' + 'to hold up'). drip'). reed screen on the roof ('reeds' + 'to be thin and wide') . weak'). gi-dub-ba: stylus ('reed' + 'tablet' + nominative). gi-rin[LAGAB]: pure. gi-na-tum: security deposit (Akkadian loanword). edible marrow ('reed' + 'sweet' + nominative). fruitful. Sumerian Lexicon. gi-šul-þi: a reed or plant that was used as a medicine ('reed' + 'invader' + 'numerous'). gi-duru5[GI. used to make measurements ('reed' + 'to cut' + nominative). gi-gun4(-na). raft ('reed' + 'water' + 'resting place'). gi-sañ-þul: gi-sal: gi-SI. gána-maš: gán-ùr: harrow ('field' + 'to drag across') . gi-kud(-a): gi-muš: punting pole ('reed' + 'snake'). taxable land or field ('land' + 'to carry').. ('reliable' + 'bright' (?)). a single-growing reed (idiomatic expression) ('reed' + 'single' + 'to plant'). 'fruit' bundle of reeds. abutment or platform ('reeds' + 'mat. calendar month 1 at Lagaš during Ur III.0 92 . gi-gur-še-bal: gi.. gi-gù-na: reed basket ('reeds' + 'basket') . gi-sa.ku5: ñiš basket for carrying grain ('basket' + 'grain' + 'to transport') . ñéš×u).. with a sweet. cf. swaying reed ('reed' + 'fresh').. high-quality writing stylus ('reed' + 'to make' + nominative).A: gi-sig: a type of reed ('reed' + 'head' + 'bad'). spotless. i.

. extend') .. little shekel = 1/60 shekel = 1/3600 square nindan (sar) = 3 surface še = 36 square fingers = surface of the side of a cube of 1 sìla capacity. guzza ). to increase. to adjust (with a string) ('string' + 'to strike/to touch') . stretch. gir4-bil: furnaceman. lofty noble (an adjective applied to Enlil) ('noble' + 'royal'). gi-gunu 4). chair-bearer ('throne.dúb. to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') . to be great. to treasure highly..zé: (cf..gi-UGUN: gi. to set out a snare ('string' + 'to place. gu. gal. the first time ('new' + adverbial force suffix) . high').. to make numerous. gi-zi: a kind of reed ('reed' + 'good. she') . gi6-an-na: gi7-nun: at night ('black' + 'heaven' + locative). gi4-me-a-aš: colleague.. 'to destroy' (cf... nam-gi4-me-a-aš) ('to return... to be angry at ('injury' + terminative + 'to set'). slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'he. gu.. gilim). gín-sal: a light metal hoe. cultically unfit ? ('to reject' + 'heaven') .ñar: urudu to cause trouble. gig(-šè). chair' + 'to hold up') . gu-ul: to enlarge.. gi16[GIL]-da: gi16[GIL]-sa: gibil-bi: gig-ba: gi16[GIL]-sa.0 93 .. fellow (cf. gu-la: large. basket. ñiš gu-za: throne. great (cf. gín-tur: a surface area measure...aka: (cf. gir15/gi7-nun: gu-du: anus. come back' + 'office. Version 3. gal. kìri-zal).tag: to align. gir-ab-ba: sea fish. stoker ('kiln' + 'to burn'). of lasting value. gu-za-lá: Sumerian Lexicon. gi-1-ninda: gi4-an: gi4-in: measuring reed ('reed' + 'one' + 'a distance measure') . sometimes = gul.. gu-la). set.lal/lá: gu-sum: gu-ul).. throne-bearer. lasting... function' + locative + plural suffix) .. gu. kib x). chair (cf. gil-le-èm: destruction (cf. slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'master'). giri17-zal: (cf. impression on a tablet (a wedge) ('needle' + 'to give'). exalted.

to someone: dative ('neck' + 'to do'.0 94 ..si(-a): Sumerian Lexicon.. (cf.. gú-ñiri3/16: breach (cf. to cut down ('neck' + 'to separate' + 'to effect') .gur: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'insect.. gú.dug4/du11/e: gú... zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ ).kud: gú ñiri16..è: gú-è: gú.. cf.. lift')..dù: gú. bank' + 'that' + 'from'). gú-gú-GUD: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'ox. to despise. to cut (off) the neck ('neck' + 'to cut').... to neglect ('neck' + 'to fasten. gú gú. collect.ñar).ba-a-ñar which is the later Neo-Sumerian form of this Old Sumerian original) ('neck' + 'upon' + 'to place [a load of debt]') . gú-nida[NUNUZ]: gú-ri-ta: from the other side ('side.gíd: gú-gir: gú-gíd-gíd: processing of bitumen. a type of (high-quality) wheat (cf... extend') . an agricultural tool ('neck' + reduplicated 'long') . wrap. and still') . often reduplicated) ('chick pea/bean' + 'basket') . Version 3... to submit ('neck' + 'to set down'.... to kneel. to sum accounts ('loads' + 'to add') . vermin') . gú-en-na: gú-gal: ñiš river mud..aka: gú-an-še: gú-bala: gú.ñar/ñá-ñá: gú.. to assemble.. úgu.. caraway ('pea' + 'salt'). chick peas ('chick pea/bean' + 'large') .. cf. to bind an animal's mane ('neck' + 'to cut. gú. organize ('necks' + 'to be upright. amass (often with -da -.ñál: to submit (to someone: dative) ('neck' + 'yoke' + 'to place')...ñar/ñá-ñá: gú ñiš..ñar/ñá-ñá: gú-a.mar: gú-mun: GIG to pile up. throne room ('river bank' + ?).. to bow down.aka). edge' + 'to extend') .or -ta -)..... to cover ('neck.lal/lá: to breach walls ('to submit' + 'fortress') . ñiri16..ñar).. gú-tar. gú.. determine' + 'to gú.. the turning edge ('edge' + 'to revolve') . gú-en-bar-ra: outer throne room. in order. 'to stretch the neck' as something that mourners do ('neck' + 'to stretch out') . bull'). plant') .lal/lá: to style or dress hair. 'city walls') ('neck' + 'to hang. gú-gú-UÞ: gú... to bow.. all things considered ('land' + 'sky' + 'barley'). to peer out (with bàd . to embrace (with -da . gú...gú..dirig: to submit.. gú-gur5.. to gather.

sum: gù.. to flutter.. to say ('sound' + 'to pour out. the planet Mercury ('bull' + great (cf. shake') . to raise the neck ('neck' + 'to join'). back of the head ('neck' + 'to cut (hair)')..ñar: gù. roar ('sound' + 'to strike'). to scream with an ear-splitting voice ('voice' + 'to split')... gal.. gú-za: a jewelry (?) ('neck' + 'precious stone') . to dance (reduplication class: gu 4-gu 4-ud ). gù. gú. gù. left arm ('left-hand' + nominative with vowel harmony).. gù-nun. to roar.dúb: gù.ta-dé: gù. stud farm manager (?) ('left-hand' + 'speed. Version 3. bray' + 'to do') . breeding bull ('bull' + 'cow' + genitive).gú-šè: up to the edge.. to scorn (with -ši -) ('neck' + 'to make fall').sè(-g/k): to repeat. gù. great.ra(-ra): to shout. gu5-ul: gùb-bu: gùb-kaš4: gu7-kur-kur-ra: bread-basket of all the lands ('food. bank' + terminative suffix) . Sumerian Lexicon.. mighty. to talk to (with dative) ('sound' + 'to give. professional mourner ('to roar.. lend') .. bellow ('sound' + 'lungs') .. to make a pleasant/loud sound ('sound' + 'fine. load (cf.di/e: gù-ra-aþ: gù. gu4-ud: 'sun') . do') .. sustenance' + 'lands' + genitive).....0 95 . gú-un: tribute.. fluency') . to echo. gu-ul). gud)..si-il: gù.. bray. to be united ('voice' + 'to come together' + locative + 'to surround') . to cry. to jump.dé: gù...tumu2/4: to call ('noise' + 'to carry').. foremost ('neck [for carrying ?]' + 'to have') . gù-téš-a. hero. shape') . lentils ? ('chick pea/bean' + 'small'). to the other side ('side.šub: gú-tar: gú-tuku: gú-tur: gú.. gun).. to read aloud ('voice' + 'from' + 'to pour out').. chattering. to make obedient ('voice' + 'to apply..zi: gù..dug4/du11/di/e: describes the twanging of bows ('sound' + 'to deliver') ... to make a noise or sound ('noise' + 'to effect'). noise-making ('sound' + 'to strike repetitively.ús: gú..sì: gu4: (cf. to shout ('voice' + 'to make tremble'). deep' + 'to say. to cause') . to have success ('neck' + 'to raise')... to call.mur: gù-mur-aka: to be lax with respect. gud-áb(-ba): gud-alim: bison ('bull' + 'bison')...

ox driver ('bull. threshing ox ('bull.. ki-gul-la). ox' + 'subordinate' + nominative). ox' + 'threshing floor'). ox' + 'fattened'). to build a nest ('nest' + 'to moor. ox' + 'to exit'). a kind of wood ('evil. to graze'). Version 3. gud-si-su: calendar month 2 at Nippur during Ur III. gud-šúþub: grazing or trampling oxen ('bull. wild-cow ('bull. to butt. gud éš-gàr: gud-gal-gal: gud-ñiš: gud ñiš-ùr: gud-mu-x: gud-niga: working oxen ('bull.gud-am. suitable. oxen for sowing on the field ('oxen for sowing' + 'field parcel'). ox' + 'old'). ox' + 'beam. ox' + 'assigned task') . adv. ox' + reduplicated 'great'). ox' + 'tablet'). ox' + rá.ús: ñiš reserve oxen for sowing ('oxen for sowing' + 'excess') . = 160 sìla ('reed basket' + 'offering. old ox ('bull. destroy. ox' + 'to step. to extinguish' + 'to uproot') . fattened ox ('bull. join'). gur-sañ-ñál: a capacity measure. gud è: oxen taken out (of work) ('bull. where Civil says the difference is that this gur has been filled from measuring containers topped off with a 'head' of grain instead of being leveled off at the top ('reed basket' + 'head' + 'to place') . ox' + 'name. = 240 sìla . harrow').. gud-du7(-du7): perfect. cat ('to fall upon. unblemished bull. ox' + 'plow' + 'thing' + 'cloth garment'). gu4-dam: gud-apin-níñ-túg: iti a mythological entity ('bull' + 'wild ox'). gud-numun: oxen for sowing ('bull.. extinguish' + 'fertile'.0 96 . Sumerian Lexicon. ox' + 'complete. to slaughter' + nominative). ox' + 'aurochs cow').. oxen for the harrow ('bull. ox' + 'to drive'). perfect bull ('bull' + 'to be many. ox' + 'seed'). 'to drive along') . gud-dun-a: subordinate ox ('bull. year' + number). fierce. toss') . full-grown ox ('bull. cf. gud-laþ5[DU-DU]: x years-old ox ('bull. work ox ('bull. in return ('to return' + subordination suffix /-a/). GUL-BU: gul-lum: gur-ra: gur-2-ul: gur-sá-dug4: a capacity measure. measuring container of either 24 or 40 sìla'). ox driver ('bull. ox' + 'tool'). gore. gud-dub: ox (recorded) on a tablet ('bull. blanket for a plow ox ('bull. gud-numun-diri: gud-numun-gána: gud-ra: gud-sún: gud-su7-ra: gud-šár(-a): gud-šu-gi4: gùd. a capacity measure of 72 sìla in Presargonic Girsu. goring ox ('bull.

'to accumulate').ñar: [to]').... understanding' + 'to make available to listen to (with dative) ('ears' + 'to give'). beer. 'storeroom' + 'noble') .u18-lu: to forget ('ears.di: ñi6-par3/4: ñi6.sum: ñeštu(2..sá: ñi6-sa9: ñeštug(2.. it is me. myself ('I' + subjective ending).. ù-di). to set the mind to (with -ši -) ('understanding' + 'to set') . understanding' + 'great storm') .3). understanding' + 'to have') .3). raisins ('grape vine' + 'dried').gur4-gur4[LAGAB+LAGAB]: a standard size container for wine. ñagia).. imperative form of ñen.búr: 'poison') + 'to release') . female tender of goats ('work-woman' + 'goats'). residence of the en priest or priestess ('night' + 'to stretch out') .dag: to cease (doing something) (often with -ta-) ('to be somewhere' + 'resting place') ..šú: to stop one's ears ('ears' + 'to cover'). ñál. pay attention (to: with -ši -) ('ears. grain depot ('granary' + 'interest. ñe26-nam-ma-da). ñeš'u: six hundred ('sixty' + 'ten'. ñe26-nu). plump') . cf. come' + conjugational prefixes î -ba with locative force + 'with') . ñeštug(2. ('I' + enclitic copula + 1st or 2nd person ending). gur5[KA×GU](ru. ÑÁ-nu: (cf.. ñeštug(2.. ñe26[ÑÁ]-nam-ma-da: come with me! (ñe26-na.. 'to go.uš(11)).. stay to midnight ('night' + 'to make equal'). to bare the fangs (sign for 'mouth-needles' ( + 'to send' + guru7-du6: guru7-maš: ñá-e: grain stack ('granary' + 'heap') .. Version 3.3). earth moving workers ('laborer' + 'essence' + 'earth') ..3).. ñalga-sùþ: nitwit ('consideration' + 'to be confused') . ñéme-maš: ñeštin-þád: ñéš×u. = 10 liters (reduplicated 'thick. ñá-nun: storage area (ñar. round. cf.. profit'). addition (reduplicated form of ñar. ÑÁ-nam-ma-da: (cf. possessing intelligence ('ears. ñe26-nu: come!. ñá-la. ge-eš-tu).. Sumerian Lexicon..3)-tuku: ñi6... guruš šà-saþar: ñá-e-me-en: I.. ñeštug(2.3). ñá-ñá: adding. to listen. I am one who. stay to midnight ('night' + 'half').taka4: to open ('to be somewhere' + 'to open') ..0 97 . ñá-gi(4)(-a): (cf.gub: ñeštug(2...... and oil. to pass the night ('night' + 'to go'.

.. Sumerian Lexicon.ñál: ñìri-šè. ñìri.siñ18[KIN]: (cf. trot' + nominative).ñar: set down') . pass along') . scalpel ('knife' + 'to shine')..dug 4).ñar: ñìri-gub(-ba): ñìri. to be subjected ('foot' + 'at their place' + 'to be located') . slide ('feet' + 'to remove'...díb: ñìri-kúr.. ñìri. ñidru-šè. to stamp out ('foot' + 'to harvest'(?) + 'to ñìr-sè-ga: menial(s). ki-ma-an-zé-er).ñi6-ù-na: down') .. ñìri-saña 11. domestic(s) ('foot' + 'to apply.ñar: to clear the way ('road' + 'to place. ñìri KU-bi-šè.. fine').DÙ: lú ñír. ñír-lá: butcher ('knife' + 'to weigh'). establish').. ñir5-ñir5ku6: ñir5-ra: a fish (reduplicated 'to seek refuge') . slip. to join'). courier ('to run.. ñìri.. ñìr-šúþub: hoof ('foot' + 'boot'). to place something under the authority of someone ('foot' + terminative + 'to place.ra: to stumble ('foot' + 'to strike.dug4/du11/e: effect')... ñír.... be on one's way ('path' + 'to traverse. to lay (heaped-up grain) under the (measuring) stick ('stick' + terminative + 'to lie a scepter of long (years and) days ('scepter' ( + years) + 'days' + 'lasting.. stir')... ñír-pa: ñír-tab: ku6 ñír-ús: ñír-zal: ñìri. to take an unfamiliar path ('path' + 'strange' + 'to traverse') .. in the middle of the night ('night' + ù-na.ús: to follow on foot. cf...nú: ñidru(-mu)-u4-sù-rá: far away' + genitive). set down') . Version 3.. fruit-cake ('way. 'triumph').. path' + 'abundance') . to trample (with -ni -) ('foot' + 'to place. an inexpensive fish ('knife' + 'length')..zé-er: to lose one's footing.. footstool.. do'). ñin-na: ordinary ('ordinary' + nominative). to step on ('foot' + 'to stand') . ñìri-saña11[KIN]. scorpion ('knife' + 'sting'). to trample.. ñìr-pad-rá[DU]: ñìri.. butcher knife ('knife' + 'branch'). pedestal ('foot' + 'to stand') . bone(s) ('foot' + 'to break off a piece' + nominative). to take a path. to cut off (?) ('knife' + 'to erect').. step.díb: ñìri.gub: ñìr-lam: to step forward.0 98 .. anše ñír-nun: a type of donkey ('expedition' + 'great.. to set one's foot on ('foot' + 'to follow.

ñiskim-ti: recognized ('signal' + 'to stay alive'). ñiskim...tuku: ñissu...lal:

to get recognition ('signal' + 'to get').

ñiskim-zi an-na: good omen from heaven ('signal' + 'good, firm' + 'heaven' + genitive).
to cover with a shadow ('shadow' + 'to extend, reach') .


plow ('the' tool, par excellence). a type of thorn tree; a wood used to make boats and sickle hafts ('wood' + 'sea' +


ÑIŠ-BAD: ñiš-bad: ñiš-búru: ñiš-dù-a: ñiš-e11: -ñiš-en:

in the Akkad period, a length measure equal to 1 cubit, 1 kùš . a basket with a wooden handle; threshing sledge. net, trap ('tool' + 'to spread out' + nominative with vowel harmony). timber ('wood' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

key; door pin ('tool' + 'to exit'). irrealis suffix, 'unreality' form suffix ('tool' + 'enigmatic background') . to conclude a sale ('pestle' + 'to hand over') . harrow ('tool' + 'field' + 'to drag over the ground') .

ñiš-gan...bala: ñiš-gána-ùr-ra: ñiš-gaz: ñiš-gi: ñiš-gaz-mè:

cudgel ('tool' + 'to crush, vanquish') . battle cudgel ('cudgel' + 'battle').

reed bank, thicket, cane brake ('tree' + 'reed'). answering chorus ('tool' + 'to answer' + 'to be') .

ñiš-gi4-ñál, ñiš-ki-ñál: ñiš-gíd-da: ñiš-gíg:

long wood; punting pole; javelin, spear ('wood' + 'long' + nominative).

a date palm ('tree' + 'black, dark').

ñiš-gú-ba: a piece of tableware ('tool' + 'chick pea, bean' + 'to give'). ñiš-gù-di: a loud musical instrument ('tool' + 'to make a noise or sound') . ñiš...ñar: to assign ('tool' + 'to deliver'). ñiš-ñiš-lá: ñiš-ÞAR: ñiš-þé: ñiš-þum: ñiš-þur:
battle ('tools' + 'to raise'; cf., ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá).

dredging (?) work in the canal ('tool' + 'obligation' ?). firmament, sky ('tool' + 'abundant') . bench on a wagon ('wood' + 'to bruise') . plan, drawing ('tool' + 'to draw, sketch') .

ñiš...þur: to draw; to make plans ('tool' + 'to draw'). ñiš-ì: (cf., še-ñiš-ì). ñiš-KÁ: ñiš-kad5:
(cf., ákan ). stepladder ('tool' + 'to tie, bind together') .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


ñiš-kar2/3: ñiš-kíñ-ti: ñiš-maþ: ñiš-ná: ñiš-nañ: ñiš-nu(11): ñiš-pàr: ñiš...ra: ñiš-rín: ÑIŠ-RU: ñiš-si4: ÑIŠ-ŠAR: ñiš-šu:

task (cf., éš-kàr).

ñiš...lal/lá: to be silent ('tool' + 'to hang up') .
craftsmen ('work tool' + 'side'). (cf., ñiš-kad 5). bed; bedspread ('tool' + 'to sleep' + nominative). wooden water pail ('wood' + 'to drink'). lamp, light ('tool' + 'light, fire, lamp'). (cf., ñiš-búru ). to thresh ('stick' + 'to beat'). weighing scale (cf., érin, (cf.,



a date palm ('tree' + 'red-brown'). (cf., kiri 6). shackle; haft ('tool' + 'hand'). (cf.,



ñiš-šub(-ba): lot, share ('tool' + 'to cast, throw, drop' + nominative). ñiš...tag: to make a religious offering, sacrifice (often with dative) ('tree' + 'to adorn'). ñiš...tuku: ñiš-ùr(-ra): ñiš...ùr: ñìš...dù: ñìš-zu:
to hear, listen to ('tool' + 'to get, have') . log, beam, rafter (e.g., of a roof); harrow ('wood' + 'roof').

to harrow (often with -ni -) ('tool' + 'drag').

ñìš á-zi...e: to commit rape (ñìš, 'penis', + 'violence' + 'to do').
to have sexual intercourse (ñìš, 'penis', + 'to plant') .

ñìš-nu-zu: virgin (said of animals) (ñìš, 'penis', + 'not' + zu, 'to know').
having born young; open (ñìš, 'penis', + zu, 'to know').

ñizzal...aka: to pay attention ('attention' + 'to do', cf., sañ-kéš...aka). ñizzal-kalam-ma(k): the most intelligent person in Sumer ('intelligence' + 'land (of Sumer)' +


vandals (þa-lam + nominative ).

þa-bu(2,3,6)-da: a heavy copper hoe (Akkadian loanword, hap/buutum).
to ruin; to destroy (often with -ta -) (cf., þul(3)).

þa-la: (inheritance) share, lot (cf., þal). þa-lam:


þu-lu-úb: oak (?); sapling (?) [one Akkadian equivalent means 'young maiden'].


(cf., þu-luþ ).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0



mutually opposing; contrasting, harmonizing; clashing (þum, 'to wrestle' conjugated as Akk. huud, 'joy', conjugates into hadûm, 'joyful' - except in Sumerian there is no syllable 'mum', just the syllable mun ).


þa-šu-úr: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('abundance' + 'to pour' + 'tree trunk') . þa-zi(-in):

þa-za: to hold, grasp; to retain (Akk. ahaazum, Orel & Stolbova 25).
urudu ñiš

ax (Akkadian loanword, Orel & Stolbova 1318, cf., 1305).


a musical instrument; chain (reduplicated 'ring, bracelet') (cf., kíkkin).

þar-ra-an: road (a city on the route to the Mediterranean, Akkadian loanword). þaš4...ñá-ñá:

to rejoice ('lower abdomen' + 'to deposit') .

þaz...aka: to slaughter ('tool' + 'to thresh' + 'to do'; cf., gaz, 'to slaughter') .
[that] is our wish ('wish' + î + 'to be') .

þé-àm: 'so be it', 'let it be', consent, approval, wish (precative prefix + î + 'to be'). þé-àm-me-àm: þé-du7:
be') .

decoration ('let it be suitable, fitting').

þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: it is indeed (precative prefix + î + na-nam, 'indeed' + enclitic copula, 'to þé-ñál:
overflow; abundance ('let there be available') . let it be. abundance, fruitfulness ('may it be; numerous' + 'great, fine, deep') . knowledge (reduplicated [with vowel alternation]:

þé-...nam-...: þé-nun; þi-nun:

þé-zu-þé-zu; þé-zu-þé-za:
'numerous' + 'to know') .


(cf., þá ) ('to mix' + nominative).

þi-li: beauty; (sexual) charm, appeal; luxuriance ('numerous' + 'cedar oil, fragrance'). þi-li...aka:
to behave gracefully ('beauty' + 'to do') . to apply adornments ('beauty' + 'to adorn; to spread') . to be full of opulence ('beauty' + 'to bear, carry') . joyous (?) beauty ('beauty' + asa, 'cage, fetter' or ingredient in asilal(3,4,5),

þi-li...du8(-du8): þi-li...gùr-ru: þi-li-ma(-ra)-az:
'joy, gladness') .

þi-li...sù(-sù): full of appeal ('beauty' + 'to rejoice'). þi-nun:

(cf., þé-nun ). (cf.,


to scare; to become scared, frightened ('birds/fish' + 'to sweep away') .

þu-luþ, þa-luþ: þu-rí-in:

þu-nu, þu-þu-nu: helpless (þuñ-(ñ), þun-(ñ), 'to hire' + 'none').
eagle (Akkadian loanword, urinnu I; Orel & Stolbova #52 *’ar-/*war- 'eagle'; note that AHw says that urinnu II, 'standard, totem', is a Sumerian loanword). idiot, hillbilly, boor (Akkadian loanword ?).


Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


lament. valleys' + 'points..... i-gi4-in-zu: indeed!. itud ). Sumerian Lexicon. make') þul... perfume ('oil' + 'sweet' + 'fine').g.. cream. sing').šú: (cf.. ì-du10-ga: (lú) perfume. complaint. peaks') . isiš2.. flagstone. ì-du10-nun(-na): ì-duþ/du8: janitor. 'face. i-dib: threshold. heap up').þu-su: (cf. (reduplicated éd ).3). mountainous region ('holes.. inclination (e.lá: to sit in anguish (isiš2.3...0 102 .. inclined angle. i-lu: song. þul-ñál: þúl-la: þur-sañ: i-i: evil ones ('evil' + 'to be'). pitchers ('oil' + 'to store. clarified butter. waste'). ì-dùg-nun(-na). go out') .. Emesal dialect for igi. slab... waves (cf. i-bí[BIL]: smoke.dím: to hurt. cross') .the angle formed by animals eating fodder) . very happy...ñar: i-dutu: i-zi: í-kú: ì-áb: i-si-iš. hill-country. þúb. þul. cry for justice.. as. device. cause pain ('evil' + 'to create. i-si-iš: i-si-iš. þuš-a: something red ('angry' + nominative). outcry. porter.du11/e: to sing a dirge ('dirge' + 'to speak. lament (cf. contrivance ('to go out' + 'to traverse. 45 degrees . joyful ('joy' + subordination suffix /-a/). like (used in hypothetical comparisons). iz-zi ) ('to go out. to trample (?) ('athlete' + 'to cover') . Shamash!' ('cry' + divine determinative + 'god of justice') . i(-r): (cf. ghee (Old Sumerian) ('cow fat' + 'to make flat [by boiling away the water]') . rise' + 'to rise. fat of cows.3.. complaint. i-ti: (cf. cream (?) ('fat' + 'cow'). to see' ('to go out. door keeper (impersonal verbal conjugation prefix + 'residue. ibila ). slaughter ('athlete' + 'to slaughter') . ì-dùg(-ga). ì-dub: storage jugs. þur-sañ ). 'moaning' + 'to set') .gig: to hate ('evil' + 'to be sick').. Version 3. ir). rise' + 'to burn') . good oil ('oil' + 'sweet'). ì-áb-sè-ga: ì-bí-la: (cf. þu-úr-sá-ñá/ne: þúb-gaz: þúb. i-lu. dirge ('cry' + 'to multiply'). 'Oh. 'moaning' + 'to hang'). þáš). to wail (to someone: dative) (isiš2..sar: to run ('athlete' + 'to run').

ì-dùg-nun(-na). ì-rá-rá: ì-si-na: ì-ti: ointment mixer ('fat' + reduplicated 'to stir. fine oil (jar) ('oil' + 'true measure. to strengthen').. shiftiness ('eyes' + 'to turn. íb-dam-za: anger ('to be angry' + dum-dam. before his father ('front' + 'father' + ni-a(k) .. i5-ñar[KA. igi(-šè).. igi-bala: traitor.. clarified butter. 'to grumble'). for a lead animal. 'his + genitive' + terminative suffix. fine oil'). tallow ('fat' + 'sheep'). e-si-na ). leftover ('middle' + 'to disregard'). predict. ib-si8[DI]: íb-lal: íb-tag4: kuš square ('eye' + 'to crack open') . ì-šaþ: pig lard ('fat' + 'pig').. to put the evil eye (on someone) ('eye' + 'evil' + 'to fashion'). þi-nun).ÑAR]: to promise. itud )..dib(2): igi-þul. moonlight (cf. (cf... (cf.. 'word' + 'to make.DU: 'unto') . desire').dím: igi-du: igi-šè. to legitimate ('to look at' + 'legitimate.. ghee (Neo-Sumerian) ('fat.du: to pass in front of/before ('face' + terminative suffix + 'to pass by') .bad: to open one's eyes ('eye' + 'to open'). ì-ñiš: sesame oil ('oil' + 'tree'). igi-a-a-na-šè: igi.. þé-nun. turncoat. to bolt the door ('door' + 'hand' + 'base' + 'to go') . ì-ÞI-nun(-na): ì-ir-a: ì-ku6: ì-laþ4: ì-lí: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon.. igi-zi. igi. establish'). adj.. oil' + 'noble').bar: to choose. extend') .. igi-dañal: wide seeing eyes ('eyes' + 'wide'). Version 3.. underwear (?) ('hips' + 'to hang. ì-udu: fat. ì-nun: butter.. kuše-íb-ùr). mix').. to walk in front of ('to the front' + 'to walk'). ig-šu-úr.ì-gu-la): perfumed oil ('oil' + 'flax' + 'beauty.. íb-ùr: íd-a-dug: ñiš irrigation project ('canal' + 'water' + 'vessel'). fish oil ('oil' + 'fish').za. revolt') . ì-sañ: best. ominous remark (inim. change. leader (also read as palil ) ('front' + 'to walk').. fine oil ('oil' + 'prime').0 103 .bar: to look at ('eye' + 'to open'). ointment ('oil' + 'perfume' + nominative). stretch.. a profession (impersonal verbal prefix + 'to fling away').

.du8: igi-du8-a: to be on the lookout for (with -ši -) ('eye' + 'to raise erect') .. igi. proportions. to witness ('eye' + 'to crack open') . cf.. igi.gíd: to despise..te-en: igi-te-en: fraction....kár: to look upon. igi. turn away').. igi-6-ñál: 1/6. visibility (of the moon) ('to see' + nominative)... Sumerian Lexicon.a slave.. to look upon (often with -ši-) ('eye' + 'to place [into]'). igi. intelligent ('eye' + 'to place [into]' + nominative).. i-gi 4-in-zu ). to appear before someone ('eye. mun-gazi ) ('eye' + 'to be good') .. to spy. to unite ('eyes' + 'to soften..íl: review.adds intensity to the gaze).. to select (often with -ši-) ('eyes' + 'to illuminate'). igi. to view.. igi-nu-du8(-a): blind person . front' + 'battle' + genitive).. inspection. supervision. inspect. Version 3. (cf. unskilled worker ('eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open').ñar: to face. igi.. igi-nim(-ma): upper country . igi-sìg-sìg[PA-PA]: an insulting face ('face' + reduplicated 'to strike..0 104 .. igi-íl-la: choice ('eyes' + 'to lift' + nominative). to understand.lal: to close one's eyes ('eyes' + 'to diminish. to see (often with -ni .suþ: to stare with wide-open eyes ('eyes' + 'to pop out') . look upon with disfavor or anger ('eye. to look over ('eyes' + 'to lift').. igi-gub(-ba): coefficient ('inverse' + 'fixed').dù: igi. igi-lá: (cf. at a specific object). flashing eyes ('eyes. knock down'. igi-mè(-/ak/): before the battle..from Sumer either the east or the northwest ('to face' + 'east').. to direct the eyes to (with -ši -. ka-sìg). sañ-ki..si(-g): to see ('eyes' + 'to fill').. igi-ñál(-la): clever. allay') . igi.gíd). retreat'). to have on makeup') . igi-tùm-lá ). look at (with -ši.gub: to look at ('eye' + 'to set'). to examine. IGI-ÑAR(-m): igi.. igi-gu4: a stylized biconvex geometric figure constructed from 120 degree arcs ('eye' + 'ox').. igi-sig5: igi-su: pulverized (onions) (cf.. igi. symmetry. igi-X-šè: in the presence of X ('face.. face' + 'to sparkle.or bi -). igi-níñin: treachery ('eye' + 'to wander. igi(-tur).. face' + 'to set') .. face' + 'little' + 'to lengthen'. igi-gùn-gùn: igi-4-ñál: 1/4. vanguard ('before. front' + X + terminative suffix) .ñál: to (be able to) see.igi. cf.

cf. greedy eyes. facing east ('face. longing. guard') . previous (year) ('the named'). select. adobe wall ('mud' + 'to build. dùn-lá. igi-zàñ-ñá.. Akk.dirig )..ùru: to be on guard. lightning storm ('storm' + 'lightning flash'). to register on a clay tablet ('clay tablet' + locative + 'to write down'.gub: im-ma-si-im-ma-diri-ga: travail (a deverbalized fixed form). im-lá: container.. Sumerian Lexicon.. one column tablet ('clay tablet' + 'long' + 'side'). also. pleasant poplar tree ('poplar tree' + 'good') . igi-zé-zé: dry-eyed (?) ('eyes' + 'to cut. igi-zàg-ga: igi-zu: (cf... lump of earth or metal (cf. whitewash ('clay' + 'white').. imri-þa-mun). im-sa12-ti-um: eastwind ('wind' + 'eastern mountains'). a starving person ('eyes' + 'to obtain. erect' + nominative). im-ru(-a). carry away' + 'to facing the sunrise. vigilant ('eyes' + 'to watch. im-ri(-a): relatives. im-þa-mun: a dark-colored earth used for a high-contrast dye ('clay. igi-u4-è-a: igi. im-dù-a. clump of clay ('clay' + 'piece'). Version 3. i-gi 4-in-zu ). im-ma: last. im-gíd-da: small. family. im-mar-tu: westwind ('wind' + 'western desert'). im-ri-þa-mun: storm. im-babbar(2): gypsum.. earth' + 'contrasting'. immal (2)). añar x) ('clay. cf. pluck'. earth' + 'weight'). im-me: to be the one for (ì + me + a). im.. whirlwind ('weather' + 'to blow' + 'mutually opposing').. before' + dutu-è..the scream of suffering men or of women in im-ma. 'it is too much' . im-þul: im-lag: evil wind ('wind' + 'evil'). íldag[A-AM]-zi-da: im-ba: loss ('the paid out') . íl-lá: elevation ('to lift' + 'to hang'. width ('clay' + 'to hold'). im-šu-gub). shear... 'depression') . clan ('the sent out') .0 105 . IM... cf.dirig: im-dugud: im-ñíri: (cf. 'sunrise' + locative). coveting. ní.igi-tùm-lá: weigh'). im-ma-al: milk cow (cf. precious ('eyes' + 'to choose' + nominative).suhhutum means 'pressed out') .. edge of the civilized world ('writing tablet' + 'great'). im-du8-a: wall of rammed earth.mir: im-nun: to be windy ('wind' + 'storm wind'). .

cf..dug4/du11/e: to say ('words' + 'to speak').šèñ: clay tablet.. in-ga-: again. bul). equally (frequently follows -gim ).. TAK4.IM: im-u18-lu: in-dal: in-dub: southwind ('wind' + 'storm'). Sumerian Lexicon.. small' + 'to consume'.. 'bed' + genitive). in-na: insult. to blow away the straw/chaff ('straw' + redup.gu7). northwind ('wind' + 'straight'). inim. im-ma. IM. good word ('word' + 'sweet. im-šu-rin-na: oven... storehouse (rare variant of uš-gíd-da). hubris ('words' + 'to exceed').. to interpret. in.gu7(-gu7): sig. section. loosen' + nominative). excessive words.gub). inim. wisdom ('word' + 'word' + genitive ?). eme- inim-sig.. to cut. good') ...im-sar(-ra): im-si-sá: im. in-nam-gíd-da: in-nu(-da): inim. to rain ('storm' + 'to rain'). im-šu: paragraph.TAK4. document ('clay' + 'to write' + nominative)..ñar: inim.0 106 .kíñ: to bring an action against someone (before the court).. in(-nu)(-šè).dé-a: cleaning straw after winnowing ('straw' + 'to pour' + nominative). fetch') .... TAK4.. inim. fix')... to claim ('word' + 'to set. an-na. to have a conversation. curse'). 'yes'). 'to blow'.. cf.. to translate ('words' + 'to revolve') . in-ga-na-nam: it is also ('equally' + emphatic + 'to be'). to taunt (with -ni-) ('insult' ( + terminative suffix) + 'to knock down') . extract (on a tablet) ('clay tablet' + 'portion').. im-šu-gub: list tablet ('sections' + 'to write down'.dúb: to insult. to seek or find the right word ('word' + 'to seek. to answer (with dative prefix and -ni -).. in-nu: negation (cf. IM×TAK4. Version 3..gi4: return') .bu5-bu5: chaff ('straw' + 'to fly')... marked out border ('straw' + 'to heap up') . in. to be cut out. breach of treaty ('words' + 'to dissolve. arrogance..bala: inim-búr-ra: inim-dirig: inim-dùg: inim. straw ('straw' + nud. inim-inim-ma: compositions. cf..ku5(-r): to swear ('word' + 'to cut... to call back one's word (with bi -) ('word' + 'to to (produce) slander ('word' + 'low.

to accuse (reduplication class) ('mouth' + 'to build. spine') .sè(-g)[SUM]: to imagine. ka-aš.te: to set on fire ('fire' + 'to knock down.lá: shadow ('fire' + 'night' + 'steppe. a word of prayer ('word' + 'to pray' + nominative). ér). a leather wrapping for part of the plow. scent ('perfume' + 'to fill up' + 'wind'. Sumerian Lexicon. to extinguish or calm a fire ('fire' + 'to calm. fire. extinguish'). fierce or accusing mouth. ir-sim: Afroasiatic cognates). flood ('wood' + 'to rise up'. coal ('fire-place' + 'liver. demolish').. Version 3. é-sig4).dù: kuš to render a decision. small' + nominative). ír: (cf. soul'). 'vessel'). ka-aš-bar: decision ('mouth' + 'one' + 'to divide'.. eš-bar). Orel & Stolbova #1423. izi. fire approaches ('fire' + 'to approach').. to search for clarification ('word' + 'to request..te-en: ka-al: clay pit.. implore'). IŠ-gi4: iz-zi[ÑIŠ-ZI].ba: ka....šár: inim-zu: inim-šùd(-da): slander ('word' + 'low. izi-gi6-eden-na: izi-lá: izi. catastrophe ('mouth' + 'military encampment' + nominative). a tool..ne-ne(-r): to fan the fire ('fire' + reduplicated nir. is-þáb: ñiš fool ('organ' + 'foul-smelling'). cf. to purify with fire ('fire' + 'to raise up'). iz-zi8[ÑIŠ-KAL]: house wall. inim-sig-ga: inim.. current. ka-gáraš-a: ka-guru7: granary supervisor ('mouth' + 'silo'). fragrant aroma. izi.....šub: to hurl fire ('fire' + 'to throw'). cf. *kalVy-. make').. kalû. izi. ka-dù-dù: ka-duþ-a: ñiš with open mouth ('mouth' + 'to crack open' + nominative)....bar: ka..sìg[PA]: izi.. ka-dù: ka-dù-a. learned ('words' + 'to know') . to converse ('mouth' + 'to give'). torch ('fire' + 'to raise up').0 107 . KA-dúb-ba: a field tool (?).inim-ma. ízi[KI-IZI]-ur5: ka(-al)-lu5: a vessel.. izi. bowl (Akkadian loanword. conceive an idea ('in a word' + 'to place'). 'to winnow'). no indication of ir-si-im.. one who knows the (proper) words....

sig 14. praise..di/e: (cf. to take away ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to take away').. to become undone. to praise ('praise' + sil.GAL: (cf.. chariot. abul ).... canal intake ('mouth' + 'river' + genitive)..ka-ñìri: KA. precious (reduplicated 'to esteem... to put together.dug4: (dug) ñiš to measure or count commodities for accounting or taxation ('string' ? + 'to do') . to be clogged ('mouth' + 'to clasp') .. kar-kid: prostitute (B. ká-mè: wings of a temple door ('gate' + 'battle'). word' + 'to bind') .. KA.. ká-bar-ra: outer door ('gate' + 'outside' + nominative). ka-al-ka-al: kal-la-kal-la: (munus) barren. cf.kar: šu.ur 5).. KA×LI. supervisor of the fat stores ('mouth' + 'large oil jar'). princely. regiment ('mouth..sag9-sag9: ka-sìg[PA]: ka-sù-ga: ka-šakan: ka-ta-è: ka-tab: ka-tar: (cf. value') . KA×LI. (cf. cart. knock down'.0 108 .. gù-nun.. Alster reads munus-kar-ke4) ('marketplace' + 'reed mat')...zu-zu: ka-làl: to kiss the ground ('mouth' + 'ground' + reduplicated 'to know') . bar-úsurudu). empty ('to be rare')... to have an agreement. a type of fungus or rot ('mouth' + 'to decide.. (cf..di/e )..ús: Sumerian Lexicon.. 'to praise') . igi-sìg-sìg). utterance ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to go out'). a sweet person ('mouth' + 'honey') . path') . ka ki. zú. Version 3.. cf.gi 4).... to make the mouth pleasant ('mouth' + reduplicated 'good.... kiri 4 KA šu. highly esteemed or valued.ÞAR: ka-íd-da: KA-kešda: path ('mouth' + 'feet. to reach the quay (in a boat) ('quay' + locative + 'to reach... gù-nun.ñál: ka-ta. way.. kal-kal. an insulting mouth ('mouth' + 'to strike. ka-al-lu 5)..di/e: ka. to destroy') . káb-dug4-ga: KAK+LIŠ-la(2): kak-ús: goad ('nail' + 'to drive'..di/e).ñál). disorganized (with -ta -).kéš-(d): to organize. challenger. kar(-ra).. ka-tar..si-il: KÁ. (cf.. káb.gi4(-gi4): ka-lu5: KA-nun. moor to') .. a measuring jar with a capacity of 20 sìla . pleasing') ... an empty mouth ('mouth' + 'to be empty' + nominative). (cf.

to make flat. dark' + 'sweet. cf..... ki-bala: ki-búr: ki. tie' + 'to carry')... decide' + nominative without/with vowel harmony). to show affection ('ground' + 'to measure' = the first recorded euphemism ?. to bury ('ground' + 'to bring. ki-in-dar). run away') . ki-bad-rá: distant places ('places' + 'to be at a distance' + nominative). Sumerian Lexicon. to continue') . good beer ('beer' + 'good. cf. Version 3. a fish measure ('to join. zíd-sig15). 'instructions. ki. to break the ground ('ground' + 'to split'.. to run fast ('speed' + 'to escape.. kaš-dé-a: banquet. or the result of popular etymology from kam(2). rebel land ('place' + 'to revolt'). dark beer ('beer' + 'black.. fresh') .dug4/du11/e: kaš4-di: kaš4.dar: rebellious country. ki-di-ku5-da/ru: ki-dul: ki-dúr: place of judicial decisions ('place' + 'decisions' + 'to cut. kaš-dé..-terminative infix).. good dark beer ('beer' + 'black. ki-áñ: beloved. cf. to brew' + nominative). to engrave. solution. death offering ('place' + 'water' + 'to water'). fresh' + nominative).. kaš-gíg-dùg-ga: strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong... orders') .sur: to urinate ('urine' + 'to expel a liquid'). nest or den for animals (plural. ki-ná. fine quality') . ki-en-gi 7(-r) ).. libation. valuable'....áñ-(ñ): to love (someone: with dative infix.aka).0 109 . obscure point ('place' + 'to cover. hide') . party ('beer' + 'to pour' + nominative). something: with locative/loc. excellent'). or adv.kar: ke-en-ge-ra: kéš-de6: ki-a-nañ: to run ('speed' + 'to effect') . secret. kaš4..de6: ki. put in. cf. dark').... ki-á-áñ-(ñá): the place of issuing orders (cf. libation place..sig10/sì(-g): even') . ki-tuš ) ('place' + 'to dwell (plural)'). reddish-brown beer ('beer' + 'red-brown').aka: to put on a banquet ('banquet' + 'to do') . (cf. answer ('place' + 'exposed'). pressed out beer ('beer' + 'to press. running. adj.. light beer ('beer' + 'pleasing.kaskal. to clear a road ('road' + 'to place. 'to desire'. á-áñ-ñá. kaš-dùg/du10: kaš-gíg: kaš-kal: kaš-si4: kaš-sig5: kaš-sig15: kaš-sur-ra: sweet drink ('beer' + 'sweet. kàš..

. pešx[KI... 'to be many. ki-kal-la-kal-la: hard ground ('ground' + 'strong'.. riverbank. assigned place to stand.or bi -) ('ground' + 'to place') . 'great Heavens'). to paw the ground ('ground' + 'to scratch') . to bring success ('place' + šár. excavation.. Version 3. ('place' [ + 'its' + 'to' ] + 'to return.. socle ('place' + 'to stand' + nominative). establish (a building or town) (often with -ni . esteem' + nominative).A]) ('ground' + 'moist').denoting the object of the search) ('place.gi4: ki-gibil-gibil-lá: ki-gub(-ba): ki-ñar: big place.. gul-lum). path ('place' + 'feet. ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r).ñar: ki-ñìri: ki-þul: ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá: ki. shape.. to scratch the earth.ñar: ki-še-er. ki-in-dar: hole... lú-ki-inim-ma ) ('place' + 'oath' + genitive). to restore (usually with bi -. path') . Sumer ('place' + 'lords' + 'noble. guz).. kin-gi4-a). cf.ñar: ki-šè. or vegetation) (cf. cellar granary. ki. cf. ki-iz: to trim. to seek (with -ši . crevice ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to split'. ki-en-gi(-r): ki-(bi-šè). silo. kankal)... the barren place = the netherworld ('place' + 'barren. evil') . leaves. abundance' + 'to establish') . di-ir-ga ). the earth ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to walk') . ki-in-gi4-a: (cf. battlefield ('place' + 'tools' + 'to raise'.. kin: ki-kúkku: dark place ('place' + 'dark'). way. exit ('place' + 'to go out') . place of testimony (cf. to found. place where something is built ('ground' + 'to place') . mourning rites ('ground' + 'to destroy. (cf...ki-duru5: parts of the field where the ground is moist and productive. ki-e-ne-di: ki-è: ki-gal: playing ground. settled place. station..þur: ki-in-du: ki-inim-ma: ki-ir-ga: to fall/throw upon the ground ('ground' [ + 'onto' ] + 'to set') . cf. where weight refers to area or volume. ki-kal-kal-la: ki-kalag: ki-kid: scour') the very precious place ('place' + reduplicated 'to value.kíñ.. restore'). to clean (of hair. Sumerian Lexicon. piš10. generosity (cf. peš10. foundations ('place' + 'big').. native') .. ñiš-ñiš-lá). (place of) dancing (also read as ešemen ) ('place' + 'to play'). ground' + 'to seek. ki-lal/lá(-bi): (its) weight. a place of reed mats ('place' + 'reed mat'). ki-dar).. grave. or with dative prefix) (lit. grounds..0 110 . arrangement ('area' + 'to weigh. great Earth (as opposed to an-gal . lift'). ki-gul-la: waif ('ground' + 'to fall upon' + nominative. return [to its] place) constant renewal ('place' + reduplicated 'renewal' + nominative). empty'). ki. cf.

ki-sikil: ki-a. ki-ná. ki-nam-nitaþ: battlefield ('place' + 'manliness'). KI. ki-sá-al-ma-þe: place of silt deposits ('place' + 'silt').. cavity in the ground ('place' + 'fierce').su-ub: to kiss the ground. ki-ná: sleeping quarters. to bring') .aka: ki-sug8. place of honor. everywhere ('place' + 'totality'). high place.aka: to make love ('bed' + 'to do') . 'to be many'. to prostrate oneself ('ground' + locative + 'to suck') . calendar month 5 at Ur during Ur III. 'in the great courtyard'. to delimit').. to heed. young woman.zé-er). cf... to lay on the ground. ki. ki-su7: to kiss the ground... cf.ri: ki-sá-a: ki-saþar: ki-sì-ga: iti resting place ('place' + ní. horizon. bedding ('place' + 'bed').. grave... royal place ('place' + 'king' + 'to stand') . grave ('place' + 'exalted').tag: ki. ki-sig-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 4 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. syllabic writing for kisal-maþ-e . ki-sum-ma: onion-growing land ('land' + 'onions' + genitive)... virgin ('place' + 'pure').tùm: ki-še-er: to fix the boundary ('place' + 'ditch.. dinig and nemur).0 111 . a slippery place ('a place where it slips for me'. lower ('ground' + locative with remote deixis). fence. to bury (a dead person) ('ground' + 'to prepare.lá: ki-lugal-gub(-ba): ki-ma-an-zé-er: ki-maþ: ki-lul-la: place of murder or violence ('place' + 'malicious act' + genitive). disbursed by X ('from the place of X'). ki-ní-te: ki. snake hole.NE: (cf. place to eat bread ('place' + 'bread' + 'to eat'). ki-ninda-gu7: to scratch the ground ('ground' + 'to touch . ki-ta: below. Version 3.. funerary offering. set' + nominative).. threshing floor. quarantine hut ('ground' + 'to place.. ñìri..... 'to calm down'). Sumerian Lexicon. še-er-tab-ba). select fallow land whose surface was conditioned to act as a threshing floor ('land' + 'threshing floor'.ñiš ki-lá: water meter.te-en... cf. to make obeisance ('to kiss the ground' + 'to do') . to lay the foundation ('ground' + 'to adorn') ..to gather') . enclosure. ki. socle ('place' + 'to compare with' + nominative). limit ('place' + šár. pay attention to. calendar month 5 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.sur: ki-šár: ki-šúr: ki-X-ta: ki. bed. kislaþ)... ki-su-ub.

join'). ki-zú-ur5-ra: KÍD-alam: kíñ/kinku6: kí-sa: (cf.. a fish....túmu: to obtain homage.. submit (reduplication class) ('ground' + 'to make a repetitive motion') . hammering work ('tasks' + 'to strike. dry'). Sumerian Lexicon.. kíñ-dù-a: kíñ-dúb-ba: kíñ. ki-uri: the land of Akkade ('place' + 'protectors ?') . "place of knowledge" (school).. hold') . ki-dúr ) ('place' + 'to sit.bad. to touch the ground.. to make homage far from ('homage' + 'to be at a distance. evening meal.sù: ki-za. evening. to throw to the ground. messenger.. wonderful ('nose' + 'to shine') .. hammer' + nominative). splendor.0 112 . dwell (singular)'). kíñ-saþar: earth-moving work ('tasks' + 'earth.ñá: kíñ-gi4-a: iti construction work ('tasks' + 'to build. time of the evening meal. kíñ-dInanna: calendar month 6 at Nippur during Ur III. to refuse obeisance ('homage' + 'to obtain'). kìri[KA]-zal: prosperity. ki-ùr: territory. ki-za. sharp edge ('place' + 'teeth' + 'mill stone. envoy... knowledge'). kíñ-se11/12(-g): of the evening ('tasks' + 'late'). ki-za.. message ('messages' + 'to return' + 'the one who') . kìri/kir4[KA]-dib/dab: groom (for leading donkeys and horses and as a title of a court official) ('nose' + 'to catch.. ki-zàþ: a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide'). kín-an-na: upper millstone ('millstone' + 'to be high' + nominative). splendid. to establish (often with ni-) ('ground' + 'to moor. deliver').. large beer container ('place' + 'idea. ki. ki-umun2-(m): KI-UD(-k): desert land ('place' + 'sun. to manufacture ('orders' + 'to do').. to chew' + nominative).. kíñ. dwelling place (singular. gi-sa).. sculptor ('to pinch off clay' + 'statue') . cool kíñ-sig-gin7: kíñ.ús: to set on the ground.til: to finish one's work ('orders' + 'to keep alive'). erect' + nominative).. to work ('orders' + 'to make. silt'). cf.ki-tuš: seat.. (cf.. kíñ-sig(7/17)(-g). kíñ-šè. ki. kíñ ). to bow down..aka: to put to work ('orders' + terminative + 'to do'). Version 3.aka: to work.. to assign work ('orders' + 'to keep alive'). living grounds ('place' + 'roofs').za: remote').ti: kin: na4 during the evening ('evening' + 'during') . kíñ[-kíñ].

erudite.dù: kiš-nu-ñál: to sneeze ('nose' + 'cold') . to greet (dative) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to place on') . dragonfly ('friend' + 'sky' + genitive)...te-en: kiri4. ku-li: friend.. abundant') .ra(-ra): to seal. water'). ku6-a-dé: fresh fish ('fish' + 'water' + 'to pour. kisal-maþ: main courtyard ('courtyard' + 'foremost'). sea fish ('fish' + 'sea' + genitive). to be near. KU-KU: ancestors (?) ('to found. to plant') ... cumin (Elamite ? loanword).0 113 . Version 3. silver' + 'to clean' + nominative).dug4: dug to profit ('solid base' + 'to heap. metal worker ('noble metal' + 'to fashion') . ku-nu: to approach. joy.5 .. kú: (cf. 'anything' + genitive).. clever. kiri4 šu.. silversmith.1.. to lie down') . wisdom ('bright' + 'to know'). to sneer at ('nose' + 'to smell'). gold ('noble metal' + 'yellow'). one who has silver ('silver' + 'to have'). a standard size clay beer pot in range 0.lá: kù-sig17: kù-tuku: divorce settlement ('silver' + 'spouse' + 'to leave with a person') .. ku6-ab-baku6: Sumerian Lexicon. ransom money (for a slave) ('silver' + 'to untie')..ku4): to settle an account ('silver' + 'to weigh'). to lose money ('silver' + 'loss' ( + plural marker + 'to enter. to sniff at.. kù-im-ba(-aš.. brightly lit ('the city of Kish' + 'lamps' + 'to have') .2 liters ('solid base' + 'true measure'). to subpoena ('seal' + 'to roll. kišib. ku-kur-dù: a jar ('solid base' + 'mountain' + 'to mould. do') . turn into')... kù-luþ-þa: refined silver ('noble metal. goldsmith. ku-li-an-na: ku-mul: friend of heaven.ñál: to pay homage to. pile up' + 'to speak.. gu7). ku-dun. inspector ('silver' + 'to have'). make').ur5: kiri4-zal: kiri6. apply') . impress'). kù-dam-taka4: kù-dím: kù-du8: kù-ñál: kù. kù-zu-nì-nam-ma: the all wise ('expert' + níñ-na-me. to lay out a garden ('garden' + 'to set up. kù-babbar: silver ('noble metal' + 'white'). kù-zu: expert.kiri4-šu-dù: supplication(s) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to fasten. kiri4. prosperity ('dam in a stream' + 'to be full.. kišib-ñál: seal-keeper ('seal' + 'to have').

tag: la-þa-ma: la-la: joy.di: kur7. strap') .. kušu/kušumx(-ki). make'). treated or flayed skin. = 1 meter. kuš-dù-dù: leather-dresser. to run ('herd' ( + ground) + 'to touch') .0 114 . to wag a tail..ku6-banšur-ra: ku6-dar-ra: ku6-íl: kug: fish for the (offering) table ('fish' + 'table' + genitive).a metaphor for temples and for Sumer as a place where earth and sky meet kur-gi4mušen: goose.. long-haired hero(s) ?. leather cord ('leather' + 'to hang. appeal.za: kun-sañ: to bubble (see the definition for za). inspection record. to devastate ('devastation' + 'to immerse') . a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative). ku6-engur(-ra-k): kud-kud-rá: (cf. kun-su3/13(-su3/13): long-tailed ('tail' + 'to stretch. fish of the marshes ('fish' + 'fresh waters' + genitive). fish-pond fish. dried fish ('fish' + 'to slice' + nominative). to sneak away.dù: kuš-dù: kuš-lá: kuš-nañ: supreme over the lands ('lands' + locative + 'to be supreme' + nominative). abundance... Version 3. to inspect ('to watch.. leather water pail or hose ('leather' + 'to drink'). to crawl.aka: kur7-aka: kuš. la-gal: (cf. kuš7. kur-ra diri-ga: kur-sig: kúr. la-ga: (cf. staircase' + 'head.. kun-kà-an. kun-zi(-da): ku6 weir ('canal reservoir' + 'to strengthen') .sud/sù/su: la-ag: (cf... charms. a length measure equal to 2 cubits. kun-zi(-da): kur-ñišerin-na: kur-gal: ('mountain' + 'big'). lagar ). geese ('mountains' + 'to return').. chief').. mythological sea monster ?. to level. kùš-numun: in the Akkad period. great mountain . 2 ÑIŠ-BAD.. to be long') . lookout' + 'to do') . kù ). staircase of the sanctuary ('tail. lú-la-ga). to speak hostile words ('hostile' + 'to speak') . mountain of cedar trees ('mountain' + 'cedar' + genitive).... deep mountain ('mountain' + 'low'). vigor (reduplicated 'happiness') .. to treat or dress skin ('leather' + 'to raise up. Sumerian Lexicon. fish delivery ('fish' + 'to carry'). lag).

cf. prisoner ('man' + 'rope'. lú-á-tuku: strong man. brewer (cf. not straight ('numerous' + 'edge'. lú-ñišbala: man of the spindle ('man' + 'spindle'). lagab na4 za-gìn-na: a block of lapis lazuli ('block' + 'lapis lazuli' + genitive). lú-a-tu5(-a): a priest who bathes the statues of the deities and rulers . é-éše. stag (Akkadian loanword ?. lu-þu-um: lu-lim: lu-úbsar: kuš kuš mud (luþ.. 'to graze.. turnip.. cf. lu-gú: to twist. lú-gi-di(-da): lú-gu-la: piper ('man' + 'reed' + di-dé. manager of the treasure-house ('man' + 'house' + 'treasure' + double genitive [a]k- lú-é-níñ-ka: lú-érim: lú-éše: enemy ('man' + 'evil. mud'. Li9-si4: calendar month 9 at Umma during Ur III. lú-ga-šum: assassin ('man' + 'I will' + 'to slaughter'). date syrup' + 'ring') . le-um: plate. ningi . pond ('honey. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to speak' + nominative). 'jail' and šaña. leather bag for holding food. lunga ) ('man' + 'beer bread'). difference. arrears ('to weigh. to prepare (gold or silver) for the precious sack (by sifting) lu-úb: lu-úb-šir(-ra). bathe' + nominative). beet ('abundant' + 'container') . hostile'). exercise tablet (loan from Akkadian liginnu).'to wash' + imi.0 115 . pasture' + 'thousand') . a married person ('person' + 'spouse' + 'to have') . 'counter'. 'clay..lá-ìa[NI]: remainder of debt left over. may be a connection to ia4. despot ('man' + 'large'). lunch bag ('abundant' + 'container') .aka: ('leather bag' + 'testicles' + locative case ending + 'to do') . lú-bappir(2/3): lú-bar-ra: foreigner ('person' + 'outside' + genitive). minus' + 'oil'. lú-dam-tuku: lú-di-da: lú-du-du: a[k]). lú-gi-gíd-da: flutist ('man' + 'reed' + 'long' + nominative). lú-búr-ru: interpreter (of omens/dreams) ('person' + 'to reveal. don't find Semitic parallels to Akk. but Hebrew/Arabic LH/LHH means 'moist'. Version 3. lu-ga: (cf. manure'). mythological lake.lustration priest ('man' + 'water' + 'to wash. opposing party (in a legal case) ('man' + 'law suit' + 'with'). influential person ('man' + 'strength' + 'to have').. cf. lalla). 'captive').. lug). be crooked.. 'fertilizer. vagabond ('man' + reduplicated 'to walk'). interpret (a dream)' + nominative with vowel harmony).. ru-gú). làl-þar: li-gi4-in: iti d li-um. lum. cf. luhummû.

u4-na- lú-lul(-la): lú. acquaintance ('man' + su-a. lú-silim: lú-su-a: lú-šár: LÚ. people' + 'to be many') . uš7.lú-gub-ba: ecstatic ('man' + 'to stand' + nominative).. wealthy person ('man' + 'thing' + 'to have'). witness ('person' + 'word' + genitive). 'to withstand.. perfect man ('man' + 'good. ma-la-(g)). peel... release. incantation priest (cf. healthy') . lú-ní-zu(-/ak/): thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'your' + genitive).. lú-ki-inim-ma: lú-kúr-ra: stranger. foreign country' + genitive). which involved swimming a certain distance and returning to shore without being pulled under by the current ('man' + 'to send' + 'river bank' + 'to be near'..nu-tuku). recalcitrant. lú še bad-rá: to thresh ('man' + 'grain' + 'to open. 'cat'). lú-šuku-ra-ke4-ne: persons with allotted portions ('allotted portions' + genitive + plural). myriads ('men.nu-: me. lú-kurun(-/ak/): brewer. innkeeper ('man' + 'alcoholic drink' (+ genitive)). lú-nam-tag-ga: sinner ('man' + 'guilt' + genitive). cf. mu7. lú-KA×LI-KA×LI: dear one ('person' + 'precious') . rich man.. ru-gú). oppose') . lú-þun-ñá: hired worker ('man' + 'to hire' + nominative). enemy ('man' + 'mountains. zug4. Version 3. split' + nominative).na-me. lú-ní-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'to steal. treacherous man ('man' + 'lies' + genitive).. doorman ('man' + 'key'). courier ('man' + 'fast runner'). expose. river ordeal. tu6. witness ('person' + 'place' + 'oath' + genitive). unfaithful. cf. no man does X ('man' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'no. lú-ñiš-e3/11: lú-im/tum9: lú-inim-ma: lú-kal-(l): lú-kaš4: doorkeeper. lú-níñ-nu-tuku: lú-níñ-tuku: lú-ru-gú: lú-ru-gú-da: poor man. friend. intractable individual(s) ('man' + ru-gú.. lú-kar-ra: refugee ('person' + 'to escape' + nominative).ŠE: (cf. and sig14).0 116 . Sumerian Lexicon. níga). numerous individuals. lú-la-ga: lú-má-gur8: robber (cf. lú-tu-ra: a sick person ('person' + 'to be weak. boat captain ('man' + 'large boat'). debtor ('man' + 'thing' + 'not' + 'to have') .. 'wind man': unreliable person ('man' + 'wind'). not'.. rob'). to decide an insoluble legal case. sick' + nominative).

bind') . as a volume measure. ma-an-sim: sieve ('it sifts for me'). productive' + nominative). the stern of a boat ('boat' + 'back' + nominative). a fecund female ('to be fertile. lú-u18[ÑIŠGAL]-(lu): mankind. mina = ca. human being ('humans' + 'huge' [ + 'numerous']). má-addir: ferryboat ('boat' + 'ferry.si(-g): to keep silent ('lie' + 'to stay silent'). good man ('man' + 'faithful. the boat sailing downstream ('boat' + 'to float (with the current)' + nominative)... rob'). (ñiš) má-gan-an-naki: (ñiš) má-gi(4)-lum: Sumerian Lexicon. little mina = 1/3 shekel = 60 surface še = 720 square fingers. barge captain ('boat' + ?. fugitive ('man' + 'to flee'). má-da-lá: má-diri-ga: má-DU-DU(-d): má-egir-ra: nominative).. bridge'). a thick bundle of reeds used to build rafts ('boat' + 'to hold near' + 'to strap. (variant of ma-az ). joyful. realm (Akkadian.du8: to caulk a boat ('boat' + 'to spread with pitch') . 2 ma-na = 1 sìla of water) (Akk. maatu(m) I. merciful king ('king' + 'merciful'). true'). lul. ma-ra-az: (gi) (ñiš) (gi) ñiš lú ma-sá(-ab): a basket ('to bind' + 'to equal in value' (+ 'container') ?.. lú-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'to steal. 'reed bundle') . ma-na-tur: a surface area measure. runaway. ma-da: district. manûm. 'land'). name of a breed of small cattle (possible Semitic loanword). cornel (?). Version 3. 'to count') .. ma-mu(2)-(d): dream ('it is growing for me'). a female dancer. ma-al: Emesal dialect for ñál.dug4: lum-ma: (gi) to tell a lie ('lie' + 'to speak'). 'fire').. 'an obscene name for the female genitalia' per Landsberger) . lú-zi(-d): righteous. ma-az: exuberant. Magan (a country on the sea route to India) ('boats' + 'support' + 'to be high' + a type of small sailing boat ('boat' + gilim.0 117 . ñiš má. Semitic root means 'circle'). lú-zu(-a): acquaintance ('person' + 'to know' + nominative). lugal-šà-lá-sù: lul. 500 grams = 60 gín (since Akkad period. má-laþ4/5). ma-la-(g): friend (among females) ('to bind' + LA.. firewood bundle ('to bind' + nu11.. = 60 še . ride' + nominative). ma-na: a unit of weight measure. ñiš ma-nu: dwarf ash (?).GA. cf.lú-u5-a: lú-u18-um: lú-zàþ: rider ('man' + 'to mount.

a deep-draught boat ('boat' + 'empty' + nominative). é-mar-uru 5) ('to immerse' + 'high. flood (cf. (tu15) mar-uru5[TU/GUR8]: gazelle (cf. máš-ñi 6). má-lá: cargo boat ('boat' + 'to extend. cargo boat. barge captain ('boat' + 'to drive along') . pull').su: má-sù-a: ñiš má(-a)-si-ga: describes products used to fill a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to fill' + nominative). asphalt specialist ('boat' + 'to bind.. má-še(-/ak/): grain boat ('boat' + 'grain' + genitive). maþ-bi: ñiš ñiš adv. wagon ('wagon' + 'to draw. yield' + 'earth'). deep'). maš-dà: iti maš-dù-gu7: calendar month 1 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. mà-ùr: ravine. cf. má-ñéš-gur: (ñiš) lú a boat of sixty-gur capacity ('boat' + 'sixty' + kor basket measure). 'location. má-tùn[GÍN]: má(-a)... má. Version 3. site'. calendar month 2 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. Amorite . ñar7-dú: nomad. sailor. calendar month 2 at Ur during Ur III..0 118 . boat with first-fruit offerings ('boat' + 'first-fruits' + nominative). tow' + nominative)... settlement (Akk. concatenates 2 sign variants] . má(-a)..Semitic nomad of the western desert ('wagon' + 'to be born') . deep') [MAGUR archaic frequency: 5.. (cf. gorge ('to go' ? + 'mountain pass') .ñar: to load a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to place'). riding with the wagon ('wagon' + comitative + 'to be located' + nominative). floodstorm (cf. mar-uru5).. loanword from maškanum. mašda ). má-su(-a): sunken boat ('boat' + 'submersed' + nominative). ñiš ñiš ñiš ñiš (cf.gíd: to sail (with -da-).. head' + nominative).. MAR-TU[-KI]. šakaanum 'to place') (ZATU356 archaic frequency: 4)...u5: to go on board. má-gur8: a large boat. produce. pull. má-laþ4/5: má-nisañ-ñá: ñiš ñiš má-ru-ru-gú: má-sañ-ñá: the bow of a boat. yield ('profit. to embark ('boat' + 'to mount'). mar-da ri-a: mar-gíd-da: mar-ru10[TU/GUR8]: mar-sa: lú boat transport center ('to lock up' + 'to compensate') . agricultural income. prow ('boat' + 'point. the boat sailing upstream ('boat' + 'to move in a direction opposite to [the current]') . powerfully ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . pot stand ('boat' + 'high.du8). má. bandage') ..(ñiš) (ñiš) má... to tow a barge ('boat' + 'to draw. maš-gána: maš-ñi6: maš-ki: Sumerian Lexicon. load') ..

.. maš-da-rá-a: máš-ñi6. a type of priest . to be fitting ('fitting thing' + 'to be').. šu-maš-gíd-gíd ).) ('divine power' + 'awe-inspiring quality.0 119 . I. where ?. loan interest. one-half. ('civilization's functions' + reduplicated me-du10-du10-ga: 'sweet.probably the Indus valley civilization in Pakistan. light (myth. the high 'me's. also a writing for me. us ('to be' + '1st person plural ending') . offering ('goat kid' + 'driven [animal]'). the high functions ('function' + 'high.. me-lim5[LAM]: me-lám... (cf.lu(-lu): breeding he-goat ('he-goat' + 'she-goat' + genitive). to shine') . máš-da-ri-a.. to prepare') .maš-maš(-gal): profit'). how ? ('to be' + locative). the beneficial functions. great office ('function' + 'great'). máš-ùz-da(-k): me-a.? ('how ?' + 'numerous') . me-en-dè(-en): me-en-zè(-en): -me-eš: me-gal: we.. radiance.. Sumerian Lexicon. omen ('goat/extispicy' + 'black/night').. Version 3. mí-a: me-a. maš-šu-gíd-gíd: maš-tab-ba: máš-anše: young twins ('twin' + 'to be double' + nominative). me-àm: where is ? ('to be' + locative + enclitic copula). ñiš me-dím: ship's railing (?) ('function' + 'to build') . how numerous are.. exalted'). terrible 'me's. hart').. all the functions of civilized life.ñar: me-þuš: to make silent ('divine decree' + 'to set') ..(great) exorcist (reduplicated 'goat kid.túm: me-a. negative attributes ('functions' + 'terrible. especially in late Sumerian and Akkadian context texts. to deck with splendor ('splendor' + 'to strew. máš.. maš-ñi6: night-time vision. halo. furnish. you (plural) ('to be' + '2nd person plural ending') . máš-niga: grain-fed kid (smaller goat-like animal + 'fattened').ñál: me. me-li-e-a: 'woe is me'. a country . good' + nominative). livestock ('goats' + 'equids') . me-te.šub: describes an animal dropping or birthing its young ('goat' + 'to drop'). animals. all the 'me's. angry') . me-en: I am. 'function' ('to be' + '1st & 2nd person ending') . used as plural suffix. máš-lulim: hind (female of the red deer) (smaller goat-like animal + 'stag. me-kìlib-ba: me-lám/li9(-m). provide') . splendor.sù-sù: me-luþ-þaki: me-maþ: terrifying glance. dream. aura. to prepare something for the sake of one of the civilized functions ('me ' + locative + 'to be suitable.. the good 'me's.

mí-a: (cf. ornament. 'dead man') . men-sañ: head-crown ('crown' + 'head'. until' + enclitic copula). son-in-law ? ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value') .me-na-àm: me-na-šè: me-ni-da: when? ('to be' + èn. ewe lamb ('female' + 'ewe'). 'time. me-re: Emesal dialect for ñìri. costumes or other symbols of the Sumerians ('ornament' + 'to be' + 'the black-headed' + genitive). bride ?. suitability. sañ-men).dug4/du11/e: MÍ-eden-na: MÍ-gir: MÍ-u5-a: MÍ-u8: mí-ús-sá: ('female' + 'to speak. perfected 'me's ('functions' + 'thing' + 'artistic. to take great care with (often with -ni -) mí. me-nam-nun-na: me-nì-galam: along with himself ('to be' + 'self' + 'with'). Sumerian Lexicon. to be numerous' + nominative). to praise.tùm: men-an-uraš-a: adornment of the black-headed people. 'scorpion'. me-a ). until' + terminative). complicated') . how will X attain or succeed ('function' + comitative + 'to obtain') . proper dress ('function' + 'to meet'). caress. me-šè: where to?. 'time. MI(-si)-saþar(-ra)(ku6): + genitive/locative). to be bright'). me-te-bi-im: to suit.. me-šár-ra.. young cow ('female' + 'young heifer'). unique. me-te-ñál-sañ-ñi6-ga: me(-da). ray. me-ša-ra: all the 'me's ('functions' + 'totality. (ñiš) sieve. how long? ('to be' + èn. such as national totems. heifer. to handle gently.. cf. selected for breeding ('female' + 'to mount' + nominative). she-ass of the steppe ('female' + 'steppe' + genitive). crown of heaven and earth ('crown' + 'heaven' + 'earth' + genitive)... me-te: fitting thing. mè-šen(-šen-na): battle. befit ('to be its fitting thing') .. men-dalla: beaming crown ('crown' + 'beam. war ('battle' + 'copper implement').0 120 . tatoos. ñiš mi-rí-tum: a musical instrument (loanword). men-ri-ba. do'). mi-rí: (cf. sediment' (ñiš) mi-tum: a mace (Akkadian.. the (god-given) 'me' of royalty ('function' + 'rulership' + genitive). little'). men-rib-ba: supreme crown ('crown' + 'supreme'). Version 3. mí-ús-sá-tur: son-in-law ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value' + 'young. rub. mi-ir: Emesal dialect for ñíri. moray eel (?) ('dark'(?) + 'ray-like. miitum. mer). to fill' + 'sand. to where ? ('to be' + terminative).

iti min-èš: calendar month 7 at Umma during Ur III... mud-ñál: mun-du: begetter ('to give birth' + 'to be') . mun-gazi: spices. to invoke. mu-X: year X (indicates a date according to a notable event that occurred during the year)..-a(k)-šè: terminative).dun: to sort out the tow (from the usable. mu-dù-ù-bi: mu-gub: all year long ('year' + 'to work' + 'after' + 'it'). abundance' + genitive). Version 3. mundu). dirt..pàd/pà: mu(-šè). mu. the following year ('year' + 'to follow' + nominative). calendar month 9 at Lagaš during Ur III. for somebody's sake ('name' + genitive + mu-... to choose ('name' + 'to call. an industrial process of reducing the volume of goods by pulverizing until 'like salt' ('salt' + 'cassia spice') . an acceptable food offering for the dead (Akk. mug. appear') . delivery (personal prefix + 'to bring'). mu-lá: (cf. feverish' + nominative). mu. to swear by the king's name ('name' + king + 'to call. murub4. mu-sír-ra: mourning garment ('garment' + personal prefix + 'weak. mu-ša-lum: mirror (Akkadian loanword). sentence' + 'to set down') .. among all names = among known persons (reduplicated 'name' + locative). to name. gal5-la).. mu6[PA]-sùb: shepherd (PA as mu6 only occurs in this compound + 'shepherd') . mu-sar-ra: (royal) inscription ('name. this year ('year' + ? + nominative). line on a tablet' + reduplicated 'single'). swear'). word' + 'to write' + nominative). mu þé-ñál-la: a year of abundance ('year' + 'overflow... because (in a nominalized sentence). mu-šu-du7: mu-tuku: mu-túm: mu-ú-a: to be famous ('name' + 'to have'). Sumerian Lexicon. múru). spouse (mud.. to sprout..šè: iti because ('name' + terminative).sa4: túg mu-ru(-b): (cf. emmer groats.0 121 . mu-dur7[BU](-ra): assigned lines ('word. swear'). longer fibers) ('tow' + 'to heap up'). dirty (rags). to give as name ('name' (+ terminative) + 'to name'). mu-im-ma: mu-mu-a: last year ('year' + 'last.. previous') . morning meal (time). mu-dili-dili: individual entries (in a lexical series) ('entry.. 'to give birth' + 'human being') . mu-ud-na: mu-ús-sa: mú-mú: always being reborn (such as the moon) (reduplicated 'to ignite.pàd/pà: mu-lugal.

.ri(-g): (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to pick'). instructions. feed ('fodder' + 'domestic ox').. to cease ('appearance' + 'to prepare') .0 122 . inanimate pronominal prefix + e. nañ-TAR: Sumerian Lexicon. na. na-áñ-gi4-in: na. appearance' + 'to say. 3rd person marû singular subject marker + nominal) . indicating a place for cattle to be inseminated).ri(-g) ) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to advise') . na-RI: instructions (cf. múrgu[LUM]-. fodder. divine bed ('bed' + 'fruit. instructions'.. tell') . sides' + 'plump. Version 3. (munus) munu4-gu7: munus-kar-ke4: murgu-ba: iti kar-kid). calendar month 5 at Lagaš during Ur III. turtle carapace.ri6.. forage. múš. face.. lung cancer (?) ('lungs' + 'illness.-ta: murub4: calendar month 4 at Umma during Ur III. drinking water reservoir ('drink' + 'to separate') .. na(-šè). slavery ('human being' + 'to check.de5[RI]: to give advice.. to be sick. 'advice.dub: comb or set hair ('appearance' + 'to heap up') ... shell . na-gada: na-ñá-aþ: na-izi: na-nam: na-kab-tum: indeed. na-DU).. incense ('incense' + 'fire'). big'). weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment') . city ruler beverage ('drink' + 'city ruler' + genitive). anvil ('weight' + 'hand.de6/túm: mùš-me: mušen-dù: na-ab-bé-a: to stop working.used as a mixing bowl or trough ('back' + 'turtle'). 'shepherd') .. ná-gi4-rin-na: na4-šag4-túg: na4-šu-mìn: nañ-énsi-ka: nañ-ku5: stone weight for cloak ('pebble. thus does he/she speak (affirmative + î. equal') . painful') . to cleanse. features ('face. measure' + 'slave') . 'to speak' in marû singular + e... to fell trees (cf.mur-gig: mur-gu4: iti paralysis (?)... lizard ('reptile'+ 'arms. strength' + 'partner. na-DU: read na... a cattle pen (Akk. reservoir created by erecting embankments off to the side of a canal to which to divert some of the flood water within the canal ('drink' + 'to cut').. muš-da-gur4: gecko.. na(4)-rú-a: ñiš stele.. flowers' + genitive). to counsel in a friendly way (cf. to inspect.de 5) herdsman (from Akkadian naaqidum. dedicatory stone ('stone' + 'to erect.de6 or na. (cf. conjugation prefix + b. after ('back' + ablative).. mùš. plant' + nominative). na. fowler ('bird' + 'to mould'). loanword. fool ('human being' + 'to deliver' + 'spittle' ?)..

nam-dam-gàr: nam-dùg/du10: nam-dumu: nam-en: nam-diñir: divinities (abstract prefix + 'deity'). fellowship (abstract prefix + 'to return.dúb: naña-gaz: naña-kum: to wash with soap ('soap' + 'to flop about.. nam-guruš: youthful vigor (abstract prefix + 'young man. come back' + 'office. nam-á-ñál: strength (abstract prefix + 'arm.. nam-kiri4-šu-dù-a: supplication(s) (abstract prefix + 'supplication(s)'). monarchy (abstract prefix + 'throne dais.. abundance (abstract prefix + 'abundant') . ruler') .kar: to take away one's destiny ('destiny' + 'to take away'). Version 3. marital status (abstract prefix + 'spouse') . feeling of importance (abstract prefix + 'to feel big')... alkali' + 'to crush. strength' + 'to be available'). nam-ab-ba: the older generation. discomfort (abstract prefix + 'to harm').su-ub: to rub with soap ('soap' + 'to suck [away with]').. elder'). pride. naña-si-è: sprouted alkaline plant ('soapwort' + 'antennae' + 'to go forth') . function' + locative + plural suffix) (cf. nam-érin: solemn oath. nam-kù-zu: wisdom. nam-érim. perfection (abstract prefix + 'artistic. childhood. office of lord. strike') .0 123 . gi4-me-a-aš). high priest (abstract prefix + 'lord'). nam-a-zu: medical arts (abstract prefix + 'physician') . Sumerian Lexicon. to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut') . complicated' + nominative). nam. crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. something favorable (abstract prefix + 'sweet') . destruction').naña. lordship. powder') . alkali' + 'to crush. nam-galam(-ma): nam-gi4-me-a-aš: nam-gur4: nam-þé: nam-þul: nam-išib: majesty. pain. expertise. nam-en-zi-da: true 'en'-ship ('lordship' + 'legitimate. importance (abstract prefix + 'heavy'). bruise') .. naña. youth (abstract prefix + 'child'). nam-ama: nam-bára: nam-dam: motherhood (abstract prefix + 'mother'). cleverness (abstract prefix + 'expert'). worker'). purification. nam-dugud: heaviness. crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. true' + nominative). collegiality.kud/ku5: to curse (often with -ta -). curse (abstract prefix + 'enemy. nam-ki-áña: love (abstract prefix + 'to love') . nam-kalag: strength (abstract prefix + 'strong').. trade (abstract prefix + 'merchant').. nam. elders (abstract prefix + 'father.

prohibitive + î. should there not be (na. nam-lú-ùlu: nam-lú-ùlu. sparkling (abstract prefix + 'stars') . fine. people. mine'). nam-RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) (abstract prefix + 'to tend' + 'bird'). conjugation prefix + ga. concert. rulership. Version 3. distinction.. 'it'.aka: to use violence ('violence' + 'to do'). 'to be' } + (-a)-m.aka: nam-luþ: nam-lul: nam-maþ: nam-me: to treat with human dignity ('humanity' + 'to do') .kud: 'to cut') . why does it concern me? (a-na-àm. the act of witnessing (abstract prefix + 'witness') . used for work. superiority (abstract prefix + 'noble. to practice shepherdship (abstract prefix + 'shepherd' + 'to do') .. to treat with respect (abstract prefix + 'first-class' + nominative + 'to do') .. authority') . harmony (abstract prefix + 'musician'). + 'to change' in marû form).. nam-šilig. nam-šeš(-a): nam-šilig: violence (abstract prefix + 'powerful.. position of supreme power (abstract prefix + 'queen') . 'why' + 'my.0 124 . axe'). nam-lú-u18/lu7. 'impersonal conjugation prefix'. conjugation prefix 'and then' + me. deceive'). nam-sa6-ga: pleasure (abstract prefix + 'to please. prohibitive + { î.... humanity (abstract prefix + 'human being' nam-lú-inim-ma: + 'huge') .nam-ku-li: friendship (abstract prefix + 'friend'). sing. to exalt ('greatness' + 'to effect') . greatness (abstract prefix + 'high.dug4/du11/e: nam(-ga)-me-a/àm: nam-mu: nam-mul: nam-nin: nam-nar: may he/she/it not be (na.. profound (abstract prefix + 'great. to swear.aka: nam-sipa. treachery (abstract prefix + 'to lie. great'). satisfy') . nam-maþ. reputation. deep') . bitterness (abstract prefix + 'to taste bitter') . nam-érim(-bi). quarreling.. purification (abstract prefix + 'to clean') . Sumerian Lexicon. mankind.aka: nam-sun5: nam-sun7: humility (abstract prefix + 'modesty') . conjugation prefix + 'to be') . nam-sañ-ñá.. nam-lugal: kingship (abstract prefix + 'king'). exalted. nam-ra-ag: prisoner of war. confirm by oath ('destiny' + 'hostile' ( + adverbial force suffix) + PN nam-kúr-re: 'may PN not change it' (na. ill-fated ('destiny' + 'not' + 'cut') . 3rd. enclitic copula).. + -ib-. captivity (abstract prefix + 'to impress with a seal'). nam-nir-ñál: nam-nu-tar: nam-nun: deep. prohibitive prefix + nasal î. bickering (abstract prefix + 'quarrel').

nam-šilig. swindle (?) ('planning ability' + 'legal case'). to position oneself ('precise' + 'to stand'. 'to suck') . supplication (abstract prefix + 'clean. ne-sañ: (cf. it is disastrous (?) ('violence' + 'mortar/back of neck' + 'to nam-šita: nam-šub: nam-tag: nam-tar: prayer. poverty (abstract prefix + 'to be poor') . nam-tar-eñir-ra(-/ak/): nam-ugula[PA]: nam-ur5-ra: nam-umun-na: nam-úš: NÁM-di: the future order ('fate' + 'future' + genitive).indicates that several parties are deciding the fate). nam-ti. NE-izi-ñar: NE-ra: (cf. bathed') .gum/gú-ñá-àm: place' + 'it is'). ni-gi-da: ni-gi4-íb: ni-is-ku: ní-a: ni-ik-tum: a resin (loanword ?). concerning someone ('this one' + terminative suffix) .. choice.. 'peace. foremanship (abstract prefix + 'foreman'). to make a firm promise ('destiny' + 'to determine') . ne.. fine steed (from Akkadian nisqum). security')... nam-ùkur/úku(-r): sovereignty (abstract prefix + 'title of respect' + nominative).. after that. as a result ('destiny' + 'it' + genitive). incantation. decide') .gub: ne-mur: iti ne-þa: rest. sg.su-ub: NI-dub: ne-šè: on whose behalf ?. 'its' + a. repose (from Akkadian neehtum. nisañ ). nam. nominative ?). responsibility.. Sumerian Lexicon. ì-dub ). ní-ba: by itself ('self' + bi. Version 3. death (abstract prefix + 'to die'). thing of sixty = ba-rí-ga (níñ-ñešta).tar: to decree the fate (most often with -ni-. (cf. calendar month 5 at Nippur during Ur III. cf.. ní-bi(-a): (by) itself ('self' + adverbial force suffix) . fate. fire.0 125 .. to kiss ('an instance' + sub. nam-til-la: life (abstract prefix + 'to live'). bí-ra). ne.. with -da. guilt (abstract prefix + 'to handle') .... spell (abstract prefix + 'to cast') . ní. destiny (abstract prefix + 'to determine. a resin ('this one' + 'to restore' + 'loins') . glowing coals. by itself ('self' + adverbial suffix) .. or -ri-. NI-KUŠ-NÍÑIN: a vessel.. unit of sixty.gub). 2. a class of persons or animals.

. deliver') .ní-buluñ5[DÚB].dar: pompous ('self' + 'to grow big'). respect (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to attack'). túg-níñ-XXX ).. awesome ('fear.gi4: ní. trading of merchandise ('things' + 'to revolve... to raise oneself ('fear. Version 3... personally ('fear' + 'to be frightened')..tuku: to experience awe or fear.gíd: ní. ní[IM].0 126 .. lú-ní-zuþ). Sumerian Proverbs). níñ-ba: gift. myself ('self' + 'my'). ní. check') . to relax ('self' + 'to knock down') . nì: (cf. present ('thing' + 'to give'). níñ-á-sì-ga: lú well-established (?) ('thing' + 'strength' + 'to set in place' + nominative).. níñ-bal-bal: níñ-bàn-da: Sumerian Lexicon. ní šu-a.. ní.. ní reading from Alster.dúb: ní-gal: ní-ñál: to sail ('self' + 'to float over'. cf. to fear. to cool ('fear. to submit oneself to someone's protection ('self' + 'hand..te(-en): to rest. to inspire awe.te/ti(-ñe26): ní.. to inspire fear (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to strike').. shatter'). a consecrated gift ('thing' + 'to give as a votive gift') . allay. túg níñ-XXX: (cf.. to stretch out ('self' + 'to reach out. níñ).. imposing. awe' + 'great')... body' + ten. great fear.gub: ní-gùr-(r).. activity ('thing' + reduplicated 'to do'). to calm down.. to position oneself ('self' + 'to stand'. a measuring vessel ('thing' + 'junior'). ní-diñir(-/ak/): the fear of god ('fear' + 'god' + genitive).lá: to diminish or humiliate (your)self ('self' + 'your' + 'to diminish'). awesome ('fear' + 'to get. ne. awe ('fear... cool down')... awe' + 'bearing'). ní-balañ: ní. self' + 'to raise'). ní-zu/zuþ: (cf. ní-guru6: ní-ñu10. níñ-ak-ak: deed. to be fearful ('fear' + 'to slice. have'). ní-te(-n): alone.íla: ní.. terrifying ('fear' + 'to place').. lú-ní-zu... ní(-zu).ri: ní-su-ub: return to') . coward ('fear' + 'to suck..dirig: ní.gub). níñ-a-ru: níñ-á-ñar: violence ('thing' + 'arm. to be afraid of something.. ní-zu: yourself ('self' + 'your'). ní-mu: ní. strength' + 'to set'). to pray. 'to extinguish. níñ-áña: a temple servant ('things' + 'to measure. transfer. prostrate oneself') . strength' + locative + 'to to be scared. lengthen') . awe.

abomination ('thing' + 'illness'). níñ-dím-dím-ma: níñ-diri: NÍÑ-DU: níñ-du7: níñ-dù-a: níñ. mongoose ('thing' + 'to twist'. a measure for fruit ('thing' + 'to erect on the ground' + nominative). spoiling. create' + nominative). taboo. supplement ('thing' + 'addition'). níñ-esir-ra: washbowl (made of bitumen-coated reeds) ('thing' + 'bitumen' + genitive). possession. prescribed. níñ-igi.. to say something ('thing' + 'to speak') . wages ('thing' + 'to hold. níñ-GA: níñ ga-ti: I promise it ('thing' + 1st person cohortative modal prefix + 'to keep alive'). Sumerian Lexicon. ruining. cf. níñ-þu-þu-nu: helplessness ('object' + 'helpless').. to be swollen') . wide ('things' + 'copious') . receive') . dnin-kilim).. a length measure. nourishment ('thing' + 'to eat' + contraction of marû participial and nominative suffixes). (cf. níñ-ñiš-tag-ga: offering ('object' + 'to make a religious offering').. evil. trustworthiness. níñ-gilim: sieve. Version 3. warehouse keepers ('thing' + 'to hold. níñ-gur 11). fattened. food consumed ('thing' + 'to eat' + nominative suffix) . something held or for which responsibility is assumed. reliable' + nominative). truth ('thing' + 'true. níñ-á-zi. property owner ('thing' + 'piled up').. or as it should be ('thing' + 'suitable'). something designated for consuming ('thing' + 'to eat' + marû participial suffix) . dishonesty. to speak unjustly ('thing' + 'violence' + 'to speak') . receive'). níñ-ñál(-la): sickle ('object' + 'to fill a storage basket' + nominative).. food ('thing' + 'to eat'). wickedness. used to break the clods left after harrowing ('thing' + 'to destroy') . what is suitable. níñ-dab5[-ba]-ke4-ne: níñ-dañal: teeming. maul.nu-du8-a: nominative). something never seen (by an eye) ('thing' + 'eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open' + níñ-íl(-l): support ('thing' + 'to raise up') ..0 127 . níñ-en-na: 'gentlemen's possession' ('thing' + 'lord' + genitive). níñ-gi-na: justice. injustice ('thing' + 'hostile').. hire. consumption. níñ gal-gal: níñ-gig: níñ-gu7: níñ-gu7-a: níñ-gu7-da: níñ-gu7-dè: níñ-gul: things of all sort ('thing' + reduplicated 'big') .dug4: níñ-DUN: níñ-érim: gi created creatures ('things' + 'to fashion.níñ-bún-na(ku6): níñ-dab5: lú turtle ('thing' + 'blister.dug4: submission ('thing' + 'subordinate). níñ-gur11[GA]: property. evil.

wedge to tighten a bound join ? on a plow ('thing' + 'to separate' + nominative). breaking an agreement ('thing' + 'hostile'/'to change') . result (of a mathematical operation or calculation) (from níñ-kal-kal(-la): níñ-kas7/ka9[ŠID]: níñ-ka9-ak: níñ-ki: níñ-kú: ñiš Akk. níñ-na-me. níñ-kas7.. the 'perfect tribute' ('thing' + 'to make silent'). muthummu ). good') . balanced account ('account' + 'made') . vermin. (urudu) níñ-sa-sa: roasting oven ('thing' + 'roasting') . to beat (up) ('thing' + 'to strike').sahharu . deceive' + nominative). esteem' + nominative).. garden fruit. níñ-ku5(-da): níñ-kúr: níñ-maþ: belligerence. níñ-lul-la: níñ-me-ñar: a lot. to compete') . treachery ('thing' + 'to lie. (cf. níñ-sá[DI]: níñ-sa6-ga: níñ-sám: goal ('thing' + 'to compare with. níñ-ka-bi ba-ak: account settled ('account' + 'its' + conjugation prefix + 'to make'). . nature ('thing' + 'fate').. too much ('thing' + 'to be large') . esteem' + nominative). 'to cut off') . accounting. níñ-nu-mu-da-sá: nothing is comparable with it ('things' + 'not' + conjugation prefix + 'with' + 'to equal in value') . acclaim. níñ-gaz: half-reed = 3 cubits (Akk. everything valuable ('things' + reduplicated 'to value. nothing is precious ('anything' + 'not' + 'valued') . good') .níñ-im-ba: loss ('thing' + 'the paid out'). from nakaasu . 'something small'. n i k k a s). níñ-sám/sa10-ma(-šè): Sumerian Lexicon. níñ-nam: anything ('thing' + emphatic prefix + 'to be'). silence. níñ-gu 7). nikkassu .ra: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. níñ-nam-kù: property made of precious metal ('possessions' + abstract prefix + 'precious metal') . to throw something. níñ-mí-ús-sá: wedding gift ('thing' + 'woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value'). pleasure... ki-sì-ga) ('things' + 'ground' + 'to apply') . Version 3. happiness ('thing' + 'sweet. account. (for) purchase ('thing' + 'to buy. sell' + nominative [ + terminative suffix]). good') . níñ-kal-la: precious ('thing' + 'to value. price ('thing' + 'to buy. beasts ('things' + 'ground') .0 128 . springtime fruit ('thing' + Akk. níñ-nu-sa6-ga: níñ. sell') . níñ-nam-nu-kal: níñ-nam-tar-ra: níñ-nu-dùg: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. cf. níñ-sa-þa(2): fruit remaining after the harvest. 'deduction'. níñ-ki-sè: funerary offerings (cf. also Akk.

sa6.níñ-si-sá: equity. níñ-šu-ti-a: níñ-túg: níñ-tuku: níñ-tur: what(ever) one receives ('object' + 'to receive' + nominative). níñ-u4-da-rí(-/ak/): níñ-u4-ì[ZAL]-li: with vowel harmony).. nin-diñir: high priestess ('lady' + 'gods'). níñ-úr-limmu: four-legged creature.. weak'). mood' + 'to soothe' + nominative). níñ-ZUM-DIM4: niñir-si: paranymph.. nin-uru 16). níñ-šu-taka4-a: objects that will be given away ('object' + 'to send. (cf. dough..ñír: to lighten.šub: to neglect something ('thing' + 'to let drop'). níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6: sweetness. pack-saddle ('thing' + 'cloth'). livestock ('thing' + 'legs' + 'four'). contents ('things' + 'interior' + 'its'). a man who had to take care of the bride before the young couple was married ('a bride's male attendant' + 'upright. persistent ('thing' + 'days' + 'long lasting' + genitive). nim. níñ-kas 7/ka 9). níñ-zi(-šà)-ñál: living creature ('thing' + 'alive'). to flash ('upper country' + 'lightning flash') . níñ-šu-ñá: everything in my hands ('thing' + 'hands' + 'in my'). wealthy ('thing' + 'to have') . blanket (for an animal). níñ-ú-zug4[KA×LI]: foul food ('thing' + 'plant. nin-EN: (cf. justice. something coincidental ('thing' + 'if' + 'from' + genitive). níñ-sila11[ŠID]-ñá: níñ-šà-ñar-ra: níñ-ŠID: níñ-šà-bi: what is in it. acquisition ('thing' + 'personal. níñ-sig-ga: weakness ('thing' + 'small. abandon' + nominative). everlasting. rich. rob') . something stolen ('thing' + 'to steal. níñ.0 129 . níñ-zú-gub: níñ-zuþ: lú food ('thing' + 'teeth' + 'to set') . private'). níñ-ú-rum: possession.. something for the future ('thing' + 'days' + 'to pass' + participial marû e(d) níñ-ul: what is fit for the cult ('thing' + 'primordial'). normal') . famine ('thing' + 'hunger' + nominative). 'to feel comfortable'). níñ-šà-te-na: soothing to one's heart or mood ('thing' + 'heart. nin-išib: Sumerian Lexicon. food' + 'to spit out ?'). fairness ('thing' + 'straight'). lustration priestess ('lady' + 'to purify'). níñ-tukum-ta(-/ak/): a small amount ('thing' + 'small'). a temple servant. (sexual) happiness ('thing' + ur5... Version 3..

5: nu-dùg(-ga): nu-dug4-ga: nu-gi-na: nu-gig: nu-èš: knife bearer . Sumerian Lexicon. ninda-kum4[UD]-ma: a type of bread ('bread' + 'mortar-ground flour' + nominative). temple prostitute. ninda-àr-ra: bread offering ('bread' + 'to give. unpleasant ('not' + 'sweet. expert. hierodule ('not' + 'sick. overseer ('not' + 'young') . authority. happy'). unjust. to rely. 'snack-bread') . a type of bread ('bread' + 'liter')..0 130 . šer 7-da ).. níñ-gilim). a type of bread ('bread' + 'expedition. nir-gam-(m): nir-padku6: vault ('raised high' + 'to curve') . cf. supervisor of works. ninda-sañ-gu7: ninda-síki[UD]: ninda-SÌLA: NIR-da: nir-ñál: the best bread for eating ('bread' + 'prime' + 'to eat'). (cf. bread to eat while sitting (?) ('bread' + 'to sit. apportion') . be without ('not' + nominative). NITAÞ-dun-gi: a type of jackass ('male' + 'yoke' ?). morsel'). a type of bread ('bread' + 'mouth' + 'to eat') . opposed to ninda-gub-ba. trip').DÚR]-na: ninda-gu: ninda-gu7: ninda-ñíri: ninda-KA-gu7: long-lasting bread (?). nir. unfit ('not' + 'just. nu-a: to lack. nin ur5 ì-sa6: lady. Version 3. painful'). ninda-pad-rá: morsels of bread ('bread' + 'bite. nin-nínnamušen: owl ('divine proprietress' + 'owl'). a type of bread. noble (one). food ('bread. not talking ('not' + 'to speak' + nominative). trust in (with -da-) ('authority' + 'to be with'). firm' + nominative). food' + 'to eat') . to be reliable. nir-ñál-mè-a: respected in battle ('authority' + 'battle' + locative). authorities.. a fish ? ('frog' + 'bite.. likeness' + 'shrine'). to divide. a type of bread ('bread' + 'net' ?). reliance ('raised high' + 'to be') . dwell. nìta[MUNUS-UŠ]-dam: husband ('male' + 'spouse').d d nin-kilim: mongoose ('divine proprietress' + 'herd of wild animals'.a cultic functionary ('image. ninda-durunx[DÚR. ninda-bar-si: a type of bread made with bar-si emmer wheat flour. small repast'). nu-banda3.ñál: to have authority. sweetheart ('lady' + 'to be/make comfortable. nin-uru16: ninda-ba: mighty queen ('lady' + 'mighty'). good' + nominative). to dry out' + nominative. pulpy dish (prepared) of green-malt ('bread' + 'to chew' + nominative).

.. nu-mu-un-su ). good') ... check'). nu-kúš: door pivot ('not' + 'to be tired') . nu-siki/síg: nu(-un/ub)-zu: nu-zu-a: nu-úr-ma: pomegranate (tree) (Akk. to not know. precious metal'). 'to be clean. payment. fresh' + nominative)... a worthless penny ('not' + 'silver. 2nd pers. nu-sa6: (ñiš) not good ('not' + 'sweet. sprout' + 'to send forth' + 'to make') .PÙ): a tool ('seed' + 'rudder') . Sumerian Lexicon.. nu-zu: ignorant ('not' + 'to know').è/i-i: numun. a part of the seeder plow ('seed' + 'to place' + 'to obstruct') . nu-ra: not stamped with a seal ('not' + 'to stamp')..è.til: NUN.e. unknown ('not' + 'to know' + nominative).. Version 3.. disorderly ('not' + 'to store' + nominative). you don't exist ('not' + me-en. PA+DUG-um: an allowance. temporal clause nu-me-en-na-ta: nu-mu-da-sá: (cf.aka: to show. níñ-nu-mu-da-sá ). luriinu. nu-kù: no money. sing. Orel & Stolbova #2122 *riman. restlessness ('not' + 'to be tired') . numun-ñar-GUL: NUMUN-ñisal: numun-sum-gaz: numun. numun. deposit') .. ('not' + 'to be' + nominative). nu-ma-su: widow ('she has not replaced [her husband]') . lurmûm.. rubbish' + genitive). pa-áñ: nostrils ('wings' + 'to measure. to not recognize. a-pa4)..nu-ñar-ra: thriftless. pa(4)-þar: wages ('small canal' + 'coil of silver'. nu-mu-un-su.. to make appear... crushed onion seed ('seed' + 'onion' + 'crushed') . to let shine. cf. + a-ta. bring forth offspring ('seed' + 'to send forth') . 'to be'. i. to not notice ('not' ( + 'him.0 131 . (cf. her'/'it') + 'to know'). nu-ñiškiri6(-k): ñiš gardener (pronominal prefix or dialectal lú --> nu ?). to run out of seeds ('seeds' + 'to finish. nurmû.. pa. pa-è. (cf. to sow ('seed' + 'to place. orphan ('not' + 'wool [garment/blanket?]') .ñar: ñiš to issue seed. put an end to') . to make resplendent (often with -nior bi -) ('bud. num-saþar-ra: fly (insect) ('flying insect' + 'dust.'fruit'). abgal (2)). a plant (asa foetida) the fetid gum resin of whose root was used as a medicine ('not' + nu-kúš-ù: nu-luþ-þa(sar): nu-ma-su: nu-me-a: suffix) .ME(. which is not.

þal. to hang. irrigated orchard ('well. lú ša13-dub-ba) ('vessel' + 'clay tablet') . a shepherd. Orel & Stolbova #1926. cf.ba-al: to dig ditches ('irrigation ditch' + 'to dig'). cf. carry. (cf. PIRIÑ. unkin). spacious. river bank' + 'to touch.. cistern' + 'to be high. canebrake mouse or mole rat ('mouse' + 'reeds') . to expand.. dried figs ('figs' + 'dried')..0 132 . pa4-úgur[SIG7]: pa5-sig: paþ-zil: small branch canal ('irrigation ditch. pa4.TUR: (cf. to peel') . walking about.zil).. pi-lá: (cf.. leather worker (??) ('bellows' + 'to cut'.. nemurx). cistern' + 'orchard'). to walk.. to go aground (said of a boat) ('shore. pa4[PAB]-a-da-ga: flowing irrigation ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'flowing with water'). adj... lock"). thigh. pa-sa-lal-a: cut-off branches/twigs ('branch' + 'to cut off') .tag: pu-úþ-ru-um: púñiškiri6: (cf. pi-lu5-da: (cf. pil(2)). assembly (Akk. ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'field.. very wide. pú-lá: deep well ('well. pap-hal(-la): n. to bind' + nominative). pil(2)). a part of the seeder plow (barig. strike') .. hearth tender (?). pil (2)). (cf. pèš-duru5: pèš-þád: PI-apin: pi-il: (cf. + 'plow'). peš-mur7: peš-peš: péš-(ñiš)gi: ñiš ñiš ñiš a palm tree product ('palm frond' + 'ridge'). puhru 'assembly'. parim ).. reach') . iti pa4-ú-e: calendar month 11 at Umma during Ur III. þa-la). fresh figs ('figs' + 'fresh'). garden' ?). share (Akk. physically handicapped (reduplicated 'womb. a bundle of brushwood ('branch' + 'bundle' + 'to lift.. movable. cf. *pah.. poverty.. to declare' + nominative). canal' + 'small'). leg..pa-paþ: pa-rim4: pa-TAR: PA+USAN: cella.. Version 3. stretch. billuda ). confinement.."close. a functionary. loan. v.. pà-da: an occupation ('to find. metaphor in pe-el(-lá): pe-en-zé-er: dùg. '36 liters in Old Sumerian period'. ñadub. Sumerian Lexicon. leprosy' + 'to divide. to be wide') . inner sanctum of a temple (cf. an intestinal disease (?) ('legs.. pisan-dub: container for clay tablets piš10.

ñiš ri-gi4-bil-lú: a tool. sa-KU: arms (rare meaning. samaanu 'skin disease') .. ri-ba: enormous. = 24 sìla in Presargonic Girsu and 40 sìla starting with Akkad period. to roast ('to roast (barley)' + 'for the sake of' + 'to go') . sa-ZI-ZI-a. numerous') .. of straw) ('net' + 'produce.aka: to rob (someone: dative infix). to commit murder ('robber' + 'to do'). extract' + locative or sá[DI]. burning. low-lying end of a farmer's field ('?' + 'buttocks') . supreme (Akkadian rabbu). to oppose.DI: to evaluate ('value' + 'to judge') .0 133 . ra-aþ: to strike repetitively [with a hoe]. bundle. RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) ('to tend' + 'birds'). yield') . cf. courier (Akkadian rakbu). Version 3. sa-ZI-ZI-ŠÈ: terminative suffix) . 'many. si-par4: a type of net ('net'/'to fill' + 'to stretch out').pú-níñ-ñìr(-/ak/): ra(2)-gaba: pitfall ('well.g. šadû(m) I. reddish (reduplicated 'to roast (barley)'). sabiitu 'gazelle'). ru-gú: to withstand. im-ri-þa-mun).. 'to cover' + 'big'). tendon' + 'to build ?').. supreme (Akkadian rabbu). to make wide (reduplicated 'to stamp') . sa-tu: mountain. to move in a direction opposite to. sá-dug4/du11: a capacity measure. sa-ma(-a)-ná: skin disease. bundle (e. to shake ('to strike' + þ. 'mountain(s)'). cistern' + 'thing' + 'path' + genitive). lú-ru-gú-da). to face (cf. to sweep. Sumerian Lexicon... sa-šè. ra-ra: to flatten. ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: sa-gaz.lal/lá: to stretch the net.gi4: sa-þab: sa-þir: to prepare ('mat' + 'to restore' ?). sa-gaz.. sa. sa-dúr) ('sinew. sa. rider. sa-šú-uš-gal: huge net ('cord. (metathesis of zipaþ ). upper parts (Akk.DU: ñiš sa-du8(-a): sa-dúr(-ra). rib-ba: ñiš enormous.. sa-sa: roasting. sa-bí-tum: a musical instrument (Akk. a trawling (?) net ('net' + 'to take out. net' + šúš/šú. regular "tithe" or "offering" important to the temple economy ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') . sa-par4. sañ-gaz: highway robber ('head' + 'to smash')... net.. to tie with cords ('net' + 'to stretch') .... grain diseases such as leaf rust (Akk. sa-li: a type of lyre ('string' + 'true measure'). roasting' + 'residue' + nominative). a tool ('net. ri-þa-mun: (cf.

sa12-su5[SAÑ-KU]. sa 12-du 5. Sumerian Lexicon.aka: to enslave ('slave' + 'to take captive').. to oppose (someone/something: -da-) ('the head' + 'to set') . overwhelm (often with -ni -).. sá-sug5: land register manager. to turn round') . sañ-an-na: upper end of a field ('head' + 'to be high' + nominative).sè(-g/k): to plot. arrive. wing'). to compare') . lower end of a field ('head' + 'water' + 'to be lower' + nominative). sañ. sañ.. sá. sañ-èn.. sañ. sa12-du5: read sa12-sug5 ?.dúb: to smash the head (often with -da-) ('head' + 'to knock down') . (cf. regular worker ('head' + 'tablet-recorded') . sañ-gaz. to pay attention (with -ši -).0 134 ....... šaaqû).bul: to toss or shake the head ('head' + 'to blow'. sañ-gú-ne(-/ak/): cupbearer (loan from Akk. sá-niñin(2): sá-pa: part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'branch. sañ. cf. sañ-du nu-tuku: triangle ('head' + 'shape') .. sañ.tar: to notice ('head' + 'to investigate') .. sa-gaz).. sañ šu.aka)..sá...aka: to care ('head' + 'to do'). to topple. both good and bad ('good' + 'bad') . cf. to close ('head' + 'to send back') .. registrar of deeds. sañ-ki. adviser.. part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'to halt.. to provide regular offerings (reduplication class) ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') ..... guardian ('head' + 'to investigate...aka: sañ...aka: cf. ñizzal. from the Akkadian form šassukkum). to plan ('advice' + 'to apply. to take care of. sa12-sug5. counselor ('guidance' + 'to halt.gíd).gíd: (cf... to shake the head ('head' + 'to turn') .. sañ-apin(-na): sañ. idiot. sañ-èn-tar: overseer. to turn round') .gi4: to slay ('head' + 'smash' + 'to do'. sañ.. to admonish ('head' + 'to fasten' + 'to do'.dug4/du11/e: sá-ñar: to reach.. Version 3... sañ-kešda/kéš. a term of derision ('head' + 'not' + 'to have') .ñar/ñá-ñá: to proceed... librarian ('head' + 'to lay the warp of the land' ?. also read sa12-du5). šassuk). head ('head' + 'to walk'). sa12-ti-umki: sag9-þul: sañ-a-ki-ta: the eastern mountains.bala: sañ-du: sañ-dù: sañ-dub: SAÑ-DÙN: plow guide ('head' + 'plow' + genitive)..bala). handle') .

grasp. sa 12-su 5).and -ri-) ('present. to pay attention ('head' + 'to apply. sañ...sañ-sig.. sañ.kéš: to attend to. cf. sañ-ki: forehead ('head. dumu-gir15/gi7 sañ-ñi6(-ga): and ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r). sañ/sa12.. sañ. slave' + 'male'). sañ-kul: sañ-kur-ra: ku6 sañ-kúr[PAB]: a fish ('head' + 'strange'). slave' + 'female'). gift' + 'to deed.. point' + 'location' + 'bulky like an ox'). to lift the head (towards heaven).ñar: weak' + 'to place') . to watch.. sañ-ki. dowry..íl: sañ-kal-(l): foremost.. grant. (cf. grant'... a foreign slave ('slave' + 'foreign land' + genitive).sar: to shave the head ('head' + 'to crop ?'). (grown) man ('head. murder ('head' + 'wood tool' + 'to strike').sè/sì-(g): to entrust. black-headed people. kuš sañ-kéš: a thong connecting the yoke to the plow ('head' + 'to bind') . to attach securely ('head' + 'to hold. sañ-ki-gud: SAÑ-KU: ñiš trapezoid ('head. where these meanings derive by back-formation from this compound which derives from Akkadian šaraakum). retain') . to bend or lower one's head (before someone/something: -ši -) ('head' + 'small. lock ('head' + 'thick')..... female slave ('head. ki-en-gi(-r)). leader ('head' + 'excellent'). sañ-ñiš.sal-la: to be silly (?) ('head' + 'to belittle'). to make foremost.sá: to vie with (with -da -) ('head' + 'to compare') .þa-za: up') ... capital on hand ('in front.gíd: to get angry (with someone: -da-) ('forehead' + 'to lengthen'). sañ. gift. sañ. sañ and 'capital' refer to the 'head' of an accounting column in different languages).. men-sañ ). sañ-kal-(l) ). give as a present (with -ni. sañ-sig-ga: head-covering ('head' + 'small' + nominative).0 135 . sañ-níñ-gur11[GA]-ra(-ak): sañ-rib: sañ-rig7: (cf. head-crown (cf.rig7: to donate.. guard ('head' + 'to bind')... Sumerians ('head' + 'black' + nominative. sañ.ra: to kill.. at first' + 'what' + 'piled up' [ + genitive]. Sumerian Lexicon. sañ-ñišmá: sañ-men: sañ-mí: sañ-nitaþ: male slave... bow of a boat ('head' + 'boat') . to take care of.. bestow.. sañ.kal: to choose.. point' + 'place') . to raise up ('head' ( + 'unto heaven') + 'to lift sañ (an-šè). prominent ('head' + 'to value'). prefer... Version 3. to surround') .

straight' + 'form. saþar šu-bal-a: sar-KA×SAR-KA×SAR: (cf. increase' + nominative).sìg: to tremble. deliver' + nominative). to go away. weak (cf. eunuch. šassuk). to pile up earth.. to be available. balance owing carried forward from an earlier account (from Akkadian šiaatum. to cover with dust or silt (redup.. 'to leave v.. šittu. earth moving ('earth.. sañ-sum-sikil: sañ-šu4: bulb of garlic ('head' + 'garlic'). Version 3. level. si-ga: n. earth for a levee or temple foundation). silt' + 'to fill.. to collect earth ('earth' + 'to receive' + nominative). quiet. immerse'). return') .. euphemism for 'to die' ('dust' + 'to turn...... to remove earth or silt. sila).dub: saþar(-da). agitate') . class) ('dust. si-ga/ge: v. cap ('head' + 'to cover') . appearance') . sig5 and sig). si-BÀD-na: top of the sky ('straight up' + 'to ascend' + nominative). weak (cf. adj.g. si(-g): silence. Sumerian Lexicon. to scatter (with -da ..túm: to defame ('first position' + 'to carry away').sañ.. to turn into dust.0 136 . earth piling ('earth. 'remainder... deficit') (cf. silent.or -ta -) ('scattered' + 'to effect') .su(3): saþar šu-ti-a: saþar zi-ga: SI. to calm or put out a fire... sañ. saþar-ñar-ra: volume ('earth' + 'to accumulate' + nominative) (cf. deduct' + nominative). sañ.. a vegetable.. si-ga: adj. sa 12-sug 5.sum: to hurry towards ('head' + 'to give'). to transport earth ('earth. lá-ìa[NI]). to tear apart.. silt' + 'to sprinkle.A: to raise a cloud of dust ('dust' + 'to shake. to place into the ground.. to care for something's maintenance ('point' + 'to be moored to') ..gi4: saþar si-ga: saþar.. ki-lá). sig5)... SAÑ-SUG5: (cf. to pile or fill up (e.dug4/du11/e: saþar.. absent oneself (cf. si-ig. sáñ. to si-ñar: si-ì-tum: behind'.. dirig or (gi) ušub). sañ ú-a. silt' + 'to tear out.. to strike down. sig5 and sig). croissant ('horn-shaped' + 'large') .šub: sañ-ur-sañ: sañ-ús: to hide ('head' + 'in the grass' + 'to drop') . to move the head from side to side (with -da-) ('head' + 'to shake'). bolt ('horn. silence (cf. royal attendant ('head or slave' + 'warrior').. si-il: to split. silt' + 'hand' + 'to transfer. si-ga kala-ga: si-gal: ñiš weak and strong points. constant..

'coal').or bi -) (redupl. kettledrum(s) ? ('to fill' + 'wind'). to card wool ('hair. narrow (reduplicated 'small').(urudu) si-im: substance') . rays' + 'to glisten. loosely hanging hair ('hair' + 'to uncover. wool' + 'white'). sig.. goat's hair ('hair' + 'she-goat'). si-mùš: si-par4: si. rations') .gub: sig4-ba: iti iti turtle shell (?) ('brick.ñar: to prostrate onself ('low' + 'to set').0 137 .. white wool ('hair.aka: si-li-ig: (cf.. si-sá: right. sig4-ñišì-šub-ba-ñar: Sumerian Lexicon. class) ('straightness' + 'to equal') . 'to demolish. si. flatten') . ration ('hair..si-sá: si-si-ig: si4-lum: sig-sig: síg-ba: síg-bar: si-šuš-nu: a sea creature ('antennae' + 'to go down' + 'do not') . (cf. Version 3. to yoke (often with -ni . whirlwind (reduplicated sìg. to be destroyed ('stroke. a garden plant ('reddish' + 'to grow luxuriantly'). wall' + 'turtle'). expel' + nominative). kiln-burnt brick(s) (cf.. horned [can indicate a 'male' animal if only the male sex grows horns] ('horns' + 'to sprout.. cf. wool' + 'to comb and clean') . silig). to do something in the right way.peš5: síg-ud5: sìg-sìg: sig4-áb: síg ga-zum-aka(-a): carded wool. to prepare. šim-im. síg-babbar: síg. to march in line.dug4/du11/e: whirlwind (reduplicated sìg. 'an aromatic si-im-si-im. to sniff (reduplicated 'to fill' + 'wind' + 'to do'. síg-sur(-ra): spun wool ('hair.sá: shining horns. appear') . sìg.. shine') .. to make straight.. šilig.. get ready. si-mú: to have horns. sig4-al-ur5-ra: sig4-anše. wool' + 'share.. sig4-báþar(-ra): sig4-ga: calendar month 3 at Nippur during Ur III. baked brick (?) or potter's brick(?) ('brick' + 'potter' + genitive). to stack a brick pile ('brick' + 'donkey' + 'to set'). flatten') . sa-par 4). to tune (an instrument). wool' + 'to spray out.... blow' + 'to apply') . to put in order. legal ('straightness' + 'to equal') . wool allotment. light rays ('horns. half-brick ('brick' + 'cow' = 'cow pat').. expose') . calendar month 2 at Umma during Ur III. ízi-ur5. to assemble in order.. 'to demolish...

say "Hello" ('greeting' + 'to give') . sub). slag. splendor (Akk... a type of copper. 'to stand up... to take a different way ('street' + 'different' + 'to take'/'to traverse') . sipad-udu-siki-ka: siskur.gi 4). quicksand. s/šu(t)tinnu)... ñiš su-din(-dal)mušen: su-gu7/kú: su-lá-a: su-lim: butterfly. sig 4. sig14[KA×LI].. cf. bat ('body' + 'to cure'. consume') . šalummu ). apply'... silim-šè gù.ri: su.e: su-a: su-búru: su-din: cat (cf. sig7-sig7: to be beautiful (reduplicated 'to be beautiful.sum: to greet.gi4: answer') .0 138 .. sig14. še26.. Akk.. to howl (reduplication class) ('walls' + 'to sig4-gi4-a: roaring ('to resound' + nominative). šalummatu. to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into') . to be afraid of (with -da -) ('flesh' + zìg. šudun).... treat with contempt... sipad-ama-[ŠA. mock ('body' + 'manure' + 'to coat. to greet. sila4-nitaþ: lamb buck ('lamb' + 'male'). su-zi: terror.dé: silim. offspring (children or of flocks). sipad-amar-ru-ga: genitive). Version 3.. say "Hello" ('health' + 'regarding' + 'to call. say').. quagmire ('to immerse' + 'to dissolve. zi.. Sumerian Lexicon. silim. borax (?) powder ('to stretch' + 'to support') ..dug4/du11/di/e: to greet. pleasing') .]GAN: shepherd of mother animals ('shepherd' + 'mother' + 'to bring forth'). shepherd of brought back (?) ('shepherd' + 'young ones' + rúg. to say a prayer [often introduces direct.. to disgrace. su(3)-þé[GAN]: salted or cured meat ('flesh' + 'to hang' + nominative). milk suckling lamb ('lamb' + 'milk' + 'to suck' + nominative). su-ub: (cf. skin disease ('flesh. su(11)-lum.gi4: sìla-bàn-da: sila4-gub: sila4-nim: sila-kúr. mature young of animals ('lambs' + 'to stand') .sig4. loosen') . to shout.. sug 8).. to resound. še25.dab5/díb: sila4-ga-sub-ba: small sìla -vessel ('liter' + 'junior'). early spring lamb ('lamb' + 'early').. say "Hello" ('health' + 'to speak').mar: sulummar). part of a wagon or plough (cf.zìg/zi: rise'). quoted speech in the texts] ('prayer' + 'to speak') . su-zìg/zi. to have/give gooseflesh. 'to restore' + shepherd of wool sheep ('shepherd' + 'sheep' + 'wool' + double genitive). skin' + 'to eat.. (cf. awesome radiance.

su7-su7: a basket (reduplicated 'threshing floor') . zú.. beard of life ('beard' + 'life' + genitive).. remove') . sù-rá: far-reaching ('far away' + 'to go'/indicator of ð phoneme in sud).. deliver'). šár-ra-ab-du ). sud ). sum-sikil: garlic ('onion' + 'pure. šà. immerse' + 'freshness') .li9-li9: (cf.. ša-ra(-g): to dry up. Sumerian Lexicon..ÁB: creation ('womb' + 'cow'). sug-zag-gi4. to destroy ('swamp' + 'territory' + 'to surround' + 'to finish off') . lapis lazuli (-colored) beard.dab5: to be angry ('heart.. bastard ('womb' + locative or 'seed' + 'to be foreign' + nominative).. stomach' + 'to grasp. might be some wordplay with Akk. clench') . šà-bar: cleaned fish ('intestines' + 'to cut open.bala: to breed ('womb' + 'to revolve. offspring ('womb' + reduplicated 'to revolve. sù(-ud)-áña: su6-nam-ti-la: su6-za-gìn(-na): gi diamond ?. ŠÀ. a kind of copper. šà. brass ? ('to be lasting. a quality of the ground ('to sprinkle.... 'minister of the interior' ('minister' + 'grand'). 'numerous'.. 'beard'). sù-ga: deceitful(ly) (cf. check') . electrum ?. clean beard ('beard' + 'lapis lazuli. zú-lum(-ma) ). concentrated') .0 139 . to rejoice' + 'to measure. a type of onion ('onion' + 'good. za-þa-ti/din ). prime minister. clean' + genitive. deliver') . vizier. descendant. pleasing') .li9-li9). sum-za-þa-ti/din: ša-ga-ru: sún-si-mú: horned (or male) aurochs cow ('aurochs cow' + 'horned') . šà-da: voluntarily ('heart' + 'with'). sug4).gu7: sukkal-maþ: sum-GUD: sum-sag9: suþ-kešda: ornament ('carefully chosen' + 'to fasten') . ziqnu. su11-lum: SUD-la: (cf... (cf.su(3)-ud: (cf. wither ('to dry up' + 'inundation') . su11. Version 3. sum-tab-ba: binding double sheaf ('to give' + 'double' + nominative). deducted from the state-bestowed capital debt (usually precedes account of credit transactions followed by zi-ga[-àm] ) ('contents' + 'its' + 'from'). ša-ra: syllabic spelling for šár-ra.. ša-ra-ab-du: šà-a-bar-ra: šà-bal-bal: ku6 (cf... šà-bi-ta: therefrom. a type of onion ('onion' + 'robust like a bull').

stomach' ( + 'in the') + 'to find. belt ('stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. šà(-ge). shape') ..lá: šà-lá-lá: šà-ne-ša4: to (en)gorge. will.tuku: šà.. to make love to. stuff ('stomach' + 'to extend. to calm down the heart ('heart' + 'to rest').. to be hungry ('hunger' + 'to have') ... šà-þul.. worry') .. one's nature ('heart' + 'to be firm. fodder.. mood' + ergative agent marker + 'to šà. šà-ga-dù: šà-gal: šà-gada-lal: šà-gi-na: food. to care. šà.šà. painful')..dirig: to be overflowing with joy ('delight' + 'to exceed'). declare') .kúr/kár: change') . šà(-ge). the (secret) will of the gods ('interior. šà-lá-sù(-d): merciful. šà-ki-áña: a loving heart ('heart' + 'to love' + nominative).kúš(-ù): to rest the heart.. šañar).. šà-ka-tab: hunger ('stomach' + 'mouth' + 'to tremble.dím: to grieve ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to make').e. true' + nominative).. šà-gi8[IGI]-guru6/7: šà-šè.. to change one's mind ('heart.. šà-dùg: a term for young animals ('heart' + 'sweet').dar).diri: to overeat ('stomach' + 'to exceed'). be bright.. individual'). šà-gada-lal).guru7: what is in one's heart. šà-diñir-re-e-ne: šà. šà-ñar.gíd: šà-ñál: šà-ñar: šà-gig-ga: an aching heart ('heart' + 'to be sick. all that one wants ('heart. load') .... šà-lá-lá).. supplications ('heart' + 'this' + 'to grieve'). i... šà-dub-didli: recorded on an individual tablet ('contents' + 'tablet' + 'separate.. to take counsel with (with -da-) ('heart' + 'to be tired. Version 3.. the heart's desire ('heart' + 'to dwell'). clothed (cf. šà-þúl-la: delight ('heart' + 'to rejoice' + nominative).þuñ: šà-þul-gig: to pacify.. stomach' ( + 'to the') + 'a large silo') . to make haste'). šà(-ge). šà-íb-ba(-/ak/): anger ('midst' + 'loins' + genitive). to bear in mind ('heart' + 'concerning' + 'to measure') . hatred ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to be sick.dar: to be afraid ('stomach' + 'to slice'. shepherdess ('heart' + 'to extend' + 'far'). cf. grain heap') . cf... will' + 'gods')..0 140 .. true heart. hunger ('stomach' + 'to deposit'. to choose ('heart. linen-clad ('midst' + 'linen' + 'to drape'... painful' + nominative). šà-þúl-la. ní. a voluntary offering ('heart' + 'eyes' + 'to shine. cf..pàd: Sumerian Lexicon. sustenance ('stomach' + 'enlarge') .

calendar month 3 at Umma during Ur III. šár-ra-ab-du: a temple official (from Akkadian šarru . trustworthy. negligent (cf. + 'to follow' + nominative..šà-sig-ga: a depressed heart ('heart' + 'low. (reed-mat) sieve ('gut-like container' + 'to press out a liquid') . barley lost in processing. cf. field. porcupine ('bush pig' + 'it eats') . porcupine ('pig' + 'to cut' + 'to protect' + 'outside. and further distribution ('barley' + 'to open. šagan-lá: peddler. še-bal: iti šab. without recompense ('stomach' + 'empty' + nominative). šà-zu: midwife ('womb' + 'to know'). storage. šáþ(2)-bar-gùn(-gùn)-nu: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4): šáþ(2)-niga: šaþ(2)-ú: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4)(-ì)-gu7-e: "bush pig" ('pig' + 'trees' + 'reeds'). šà-sur: šà. to have diarrhea. womb ('insides' + 'child'). hungry. Version 3. trader ('a large jar for oil' + 'to carry'). šàr-ra-ús-sa: body guard (from Akkadian šarru .sìg: šà-su-ga: šà-sù-ga: (gi) to be oppressed ('heart' + 'to strike. fattened pig ('pig' + 'fattened'). grass') .. ('barley' + 'portion. še-ba: to be careless. pisan-dub).šed7: šà-tam: šà-túm: šà-tur: credible. ñadub. release'). še-bar-ra-ñál-la: še-bi: value-equivalence in barley (used as a standard) ('barley' + 'its').. Sumerian Lexicon. speckle') . fleece' + reduplicated 'dot. 'to fall. commissioner ('heart' + 'to be polished') . šà-uru(-/ak/): šà-zi-ga: lú excitement ('heart' + 'to rise up' + nominative). ša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba: archivist (cf. empty' + nominative)... acre ('womb' + 'to be suitable. 'king'. 'king'. fleece' + 'to šáþ(2)-zé-da-bar-sur-ra: spray out') .0 141 . dry river bed ('river bed' + sug4. áña-ús. administrative director. + 'to bind. 'policeman')... palace. šub. etc. šà. 'to lay bare. weak' + nominative). rations') . to obtain') . to cool/soothe the heart ('heart' + 'to calm. wrap'). grain tax ('barley' + 'to demolish'). town center ('interior.. to spawn eggs (said of a fish) ('intestines' + 'to expel a liquid'). šakan-kéš: basket weaver (?) ('large jar for oil'. + abdu. pasture grazing pig ('pig' + 'plants. še-ba: barley rations distributed by the administration of the temple. starved.. 'slave'). crush') .sur: šà. porcupine ('pig' + 'outside. to prepare. midst' + 'town' + genitive). disappear') . še-búr-ra: grain released for transport. cool down') . small.

barley delivery ('barley' + 'to deliver. good crops. Sumerian Lexicon.dug4/du11/e: decorate with colors' + 'to effect') .dé: ñiš to clean barley after winnowing ('barley. deposit') .. 'load' ?).še.... še-sañ11-ku5). 'to be many' + gùn. še-er-gu/kum: a long string of dried fruit (probable syllabic spelling of Semitic root.. še-er-zi: shine brightly') . sínmušen). 'to lace.lá: še-LÚsar: še-muš(5): še-namušen: to carry grain. sè(g)... fresh')... itiše-sañ11-ku5). fine grains. einkorn wheat ('grain' + 'robust like a bull'). še-gub-ba: barley deposit ('barley' + 'to stand..ñál: to have authority (Emesal dialect for nir. še-er-tab-ba: haystack. to adorn (with -ni -) (šár. coriander ('grain corn' + 'man or many') [ŠELU archaic frequency: 28]. join' + nominative). še ñiš. light. to cover with. še gud(-rá) gu7: iti še-gur10-ku5: (cf. shine... (cf.ñar: še ñiš-è-a: ('grain + 'stick' + 'to exit from' + nominative). 'to be many' or zár. še-li: pine or juniper seeds ('grain corn' + 'juniper'). barley sprouts ('grain corn' + 'juniper'). 'sweet corn tree' = licorice tree (?) ('corn' + 'sweet'). še-íl-la: calendar month 12 at Lagaš during Ur III. še-gur10-ku5: (cf. crushed barley ('barley' + 'to crush') . 'sheaf' + 'to bind. a type of reed fence (šár.. set' + nominative). new grain ('grains' + 'new. ox' ( + dative) + 'to feed'). to agree (with -ši -) (cf. še-ñiš-ì. sig10). sesame oil ('grain' + 'tree' + 'oil'). interweave') . to obey. še-er-še-er. grain' + 'to pour'). cornstack.. še-ì-ñiš: sesame seeds.. še. še še-dùg: še. 'to še-er-ka-an. to be obedient. še-lum-lum: bitter grain ('grain' + 'bitter'). še-ga/ge: še-GAZ: še-gibil: še-gu-nu: še-GUD: favorite..è: ñiš-è-a). deposit') ..0 142 . to buy with barley ('barley' + 'to deliver. sim.ra(-an/aþ): iti to thresh grain by beating with a flail ('grain + 'stick' + 'to strike'). še-er.. harvested grain that has just been threshed and only roughly measured with a stick še-ñar: še. (cf... glimmer (syllabic spelling of šér. Version 3..ñál). barley' + gunu. to winnow grain ('grain' + 'to lift'). grain spent as oxen feed ('barley' + 'bull. late barley ('grains. 'to še-er. to sow barley.

. holy') . ŠIM×KÚŠU: šìr-kug: ambergris ('aromatic substance' + 'turtle. si-im-si-im. junior') . ba-an). še-sañ11-ku5: calendar month 12 at Nippur during Ur III.ús: ŠÈ-ba-an: to harvest barley ('barley' + 'to suck'). Sumerian Lexicon.. to thresh grain by beating ('barley' + 'to throw'). compete with') . Version 3.. šim-gig: šim-im: lú frankincense ...áña: to sing. tiny' + 'to mourn'). še10. 'to sniff'). šìr.. sacred song. še25/še26. to moan ('grain.ša4: še. calendar month 11 at Lagaš during Ur III.gi4: (cf. perfume (?) ('aromatic substance' + 'body' + 'to equal. še. crime.šub: še.gi4). capital offense. calendar month 3 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.... gleaned grain ('grain' + 'to bring').. šim-nañ: šim-PI-PI: an aromatic substance. whale ?') . 'treading' by animals as a way of threshing grain ('barley' + 'to drive. to follow'). calendar month 3 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 1 at Umma during Ur III.0 143 . an aromatic substance ('aromatic substance' + 'wind'. sa-dúr(-ra))..used in making medicinal plasters ('aromatic resin' + 'to be sick').. šeš-bàn-da: šeš-da-gu7: calendar month 2 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. še-sañ(11)-ku5: iti harvest ('grain' + 'to harvest ?' + 'to cut') . spice drinkers (?) ('spice' + 'to drink').. šen-šen: šer7-da: iti combat..zil-zil(-la): a measure for fish ('portion' + 'a measure'. še.ak. to dehusk barley ('barley' + reduplicated 'to peel') .. sig4. calendar month 12 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3.. shattered potsherds ('potsherd' + 'to break open. younger brother ('brother' + 'young..še-numun: še-ri-ga: seed ('grain' + 'seed'). calendar month 1 at Ur during Ur III. punishment. strife (reduplicated 'mirror' or 'shield' ?). an aromatic substance .. še-sa: roasted barley ('barley' + 'to roast'). ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: (cf.. cf. calendar month 1 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3... incantation ('song' + 'sacred.dúr: to fart ('excrement' + 'to break wind'). to throw away') . šeš-gal: šika-ri: older brother ('brother' + 'large').su-ub: še.. cf.. blame. to cry (out) ('song' + 'to mete out') . šim-su-SÁ: cologne..turpentine (?) ('aromatic resin' + reduplicated 'to bend. šim-gam-gam(-ma): to shrivel') .

šìr-ra-nam-en-na; šìr-re-nam-nir-ra:

song of lordship ('song' + 'lordship' +


chain (probable Akkadian loan word). regular, daily offering ('hand; portion' + locative + 'steady' + nominative).

šu-a-gi-na: šu...aka:

to take captive ('hand' + 'to do') .

šu-bal...aka: to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change' + 'to do') . šu-gibil-gibil...aka: šu...ba: šu...bad: šu...bal: šu...bar:
to renew ('hand' + 'to renovate' + 'to renovate' + 'to do') .

šu/šú-luþ...aka: to clean (a canal) ('hand' + 'to clean' + 'to do').
(cf., šu...bad , šu...bar ). to release ('hand' + 'to open') . to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change') . to release, let loose ('hand' + 'to open, release') .

šu...búru: to open the hand ('hand' + 'to open') . šu-da: hand and forearm, as a unit of measurement, ell/cubit (cf., kùš) ('hand' + 'arm'). šu-dab(5)(-ba): šu...dab(2,4,5): šu...dag: šu...dar: šu...de6: šu-dù-a: šu...dù: šu...du7: šu...du8: šu-du8-a: šu-dim4-ma:
sale ('hand' + 'to clasp, take away' + nominative). to take or accept ('hand' + 'to hold, take, receive') .

šu-kíñ...dab(5): to perform a service; to kneel down ('hand' + 'order, task' + 'to hold/seize').
to roam about; to run away ('hand' + 'to roam'). to slaughter (redupl. class) ('hand' + 'to slice, split, shatter') . to set to work ('hand' + 'to bring') . loyal ('hand' + 'subservient' + nominative).

length measure of 10 fingers = 16.666 cm. ('hands' + 'to stack') . to bind the hands; to apply one's hands to ('hands' + 'to fasten') . to destroy ('hands' + 'evil' + 'to fasten') .


to embellish; to put on the finishing touches; to complete; to make perfect (with -ta -) (reduplication class) ('hand' + 'to complete') . to hold in the hand (with -ni - or bi -) ('hand' + 'to open') . guarantee ('to hold' + nominative).

šu-du8-a...DU(de6/túm): to act as guarantor for ('guarantee' + 'to bring, carry'). šu...dug4/du11/e:
to touch; to place, put ('hand' + 'to effect') . to supply, to provide (generously) with (with -ni -) ('hand' ( + to be haunted ('hand' + 'spirit of a place' + 'to effect') .

'wide, copious') + 'to effect') .

šu líl-lá...dug4/du11/e:

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


šu pe-el lá...dug4/du11/e:
'to penetrate, pierce' + 'to effect') .

to defile; to be defiled ('hand' + pil, 'to be/make dirty, defiled' +

šu sá...dug4/du11/e:

to attain ('hand' + 'to reach, arrive') .

šu sùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: to confuse, disconcert; to be confused ('hand' + 'in confusion' + 'to šu-tag...dug4/du11/e: šu ùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: šu-dul5:

to adorn; to decorate (with -ni -); to sprinkle; to paint ('hand' + 'to (cf., šu

weave, decorate, strike' + 'to effect') .


(cf., šudun ). calendar month 8 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 9 at Ur during Ur III.


šu-gána: šu-gi(4):
return') .

agricultural tool ('hand' + 'field'). old ('hand' + 'to return' ?, 'to lock up' ?, 'reed-like' ?). to bring back; to lead back; to repay; to repeat; to answer ('hand' ( + locative) + 'to

šu(-a)...gi4: šu-gíd:
out') .

dues; general obligation ('hand' + 'to reach out; to measure out') . to accept; to observe/inspect the offering animal (cf., šu-maš-gíd-gíd; 'hand' + 'to reach to jumpily move around ('hand' + 'to leap, dance') .


šu...gu4-gu4-ud: šu...gur: šu...ñál: šu-ñar: šu...ñar:

to roll; to wrap; to wipe ('hand' + 'circular motion'). to hold by the hand ('hand' + 'to place in') .

effect ('hand' + 'to deliver'). to perform a task; to carry out; to be favorable; to cease doing something (with -ta -)

('hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu(-a/šè)...ñar: to be/place in the hand; to subdue ('hand' + locative/terminative + 'to deliver'). šu-šu...ñar: šu...þa-za: šu...þu-uz:

to grant a pardon ('hand' + 'hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu-þa: robber (cf., šu-ku6(-d)).
to hold in the hand ('hand' + 'to hold, grasp') .

šu-þal-la: open hand ('hand' + 'to divide, distribute' + nominative).
to roast; to burn ('hand' + 'to rage at') (cf., šu...ru-uz ).


barber ('hand' + 'to sprout' ?). prayer (hand-raising) ('hand' + 'to raise' + nominative).

šu-íl-la(2): šu...íl:

to build; to grow rich ('hand' + 'to raise') . to take away; to withdraw ('hand' + 'to take away') .

šu...kar(2): šu-kár:

tools, parts, components ('hand' + 'to encircle, besiege') .

šu ki-in-dar: full of cracks ('handful' + 'crevices'). Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0 145

ñiš gi


sickle ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . faggot of reeds ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . fisherman ('hand' + 'fish' + ?; should read ešsadx ?).


šu-ku6(-d): šu-lá-a:

šu(-a)-lá: paralyzed, folded, idle (said of hands) ('hands' + locative + 'to bind, diminish').
entrusted ('hands' + 'to hold' + nominative). to defile; to reach; to bind (the hands); to wring the hands ('hand' + 'to pierce, to hold in the hand, suspend from the hands ('hand' + 'to bind, hold, hang') .

šu...lal/lá-lá: šu-šè...lal/lá: šu(4)-luþ:

penetrate; to stretch; to bind; to hold') .

ritual cleansing, purification ritual, lustration ('hand' + 'to clean') . purification ritual man, lustration priest ('ritual cleansing' + nominative). diviner; omen (cf., šu...gíd; 'hand' + 'goat kid' + reduplicated 'to reach out') .


šu-maš-gíd-gíd: ŠU-ME-EREN: šu...mú:

cypress resin (cf., (ñiš)šu-úr-me).

to enlarge; to expand (with -ni -); to pray (with dative) ('hand' + 'to grow') . pestle ('hand' + 'stone') . grand total ('hand' + 'circle, whole') [? ŠUNIGIN archaic frequency: 1]. subtotal ('hand' + 'circle, whole'). to proceed; to hurry ('hand' + 'to make the rounds') .


ŠU+NIÑIN: ŠU+NÍÑIN: šu...niñin:
(ñiš) iti

šu-nim-ma: early to work ('hand' + 'early' + nominative). šu-nir:
standard; emblem with woolen streamers; totemic device ('hand' + 'to raise high') . calendar month 4 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 4 at Nippur during Ur III. to expand; to spread out ('hand' + 'womb; to expand') . to knead clay and form it into a tablet; to erase ('hand' + 'to beat, stir') . to wring the hands over (with -ši -) ('hands' + 'to place against') .


šu...peš: šu...ra: šu...ri:

šu-ri(2)(-a): one-half ('hand' + 'to take, remove' + nominative). šu...ru-uz:
to burn; to roast; to glow (cf., šu...þu-uz ). to rub ('hand' + 'to make a harvesting motion') .

šu...sañ11/siñ18: šu(-a)...si: šu-šè...si: šu si...sá: šu...si-ig: šu...su-ub:

šu-si: finger ('hand' + 'horn, ray, antenna') .
to fill the hands (with) ('hand' + locative + 'to fill'). to hand over; to deliver ('hand' + 'towards' + 'to fill'). to do things to perfection; to see that all is right ('hand' + 'right; legal'). to hit with the hand ('hand' + 'to strike down, silence') . to wave the hand ('hand' + 'to beat rhythmically') .


to gather up; to collect; to scrape together ('hands' + 'to suck') .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


. to send. to borrow. received ('to receive' + nominative). šúr-dùmušen: tab-ba: TAG. šu. enclitic copula). to delegate' + 'king'). staples. to deprive') . partner ('to join. go') . seed' + 'productive') ...sud/sù: šu. ten ). to take (variation of šu. (trained) falcon ('fierce' + 'to work'). dispatch (with dative) ('hand' + 'to push') .túkur: (ñiš) to stretch the hand out after something ('hand' + 'to make remote').. to push or knock on (a door). accept.. to pray ('to pray' + 'plural.ti: šu-ti-a: šu-tu-tu: šu.. šu-úr-me: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('to pour' + 'tree trunk' + 'to be').. 'together'. taka4. Sumerian Lexicon. + 'to speak/do') .sum: šu-šúr: šu.and bi -. to gain. to grab.šu... to receive. accepted (with terminative and -ši -) ('hand' + 'to approach') . ta-àm ). to give. bound' ? + 'grain.ùr: šu-ùr-ra: šu. to be double' + nominative). adopt.. to be taken.te: šu.. seizing ('hand' + 'fierce. nibble') . to hold out in the hand ('hand' + 'to reach to raise one's hand (in violence) ('hand' + reduplicated 'to rise up') . to erase. sing.. escape ('hand' + reduplicated 'to interfere') ...dug4/du11/e: to put together (?) (téš. 'to plunder. furious').ús: out') . goods.ME: ta-àm: what is it? ('from' + 3rd.. to leave (something) to (someone) ('hand' + locative + 'to push') .. etc.tag: šu. (cf. to cover. šu. true') ...ti).taka4: šu. šuku-dab5-ba: šul-a-lum: punishment (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu.. decorate') .. to take up. to nibble or lick one's fingers ('hand' + 'to gnaw. šum ). (cf. Version 3. te-eš....zi-zi(-g): šùd... to adorn... (cf.. decorate (often with -ni -) ('hand' + 'to weave.. dispatch. tám-še-lum: te-àm: te-en: a resin. person assigned to pick up allotted rations ('rations' + 'to hold' + nominative). to entrust ('hand' + 'to give') .. šul-zi: worthy young man ('young man' + 'good.lal: to open ('to open' + 'to reach') .0 147 . scraping or grinding by hand ('hand' + 'to shear' + nominative). to come. to send.. also with -ta -) ('hand' + 'to drag over') . perhaps from the boxwood ('shiny.rá: lú šub-lugal: subordinate of the king ('to drop.. to wipe (with -ni .taka4: šu-a..

ti-mud.. assault. to bake') . TU-gur4mušen: (cf. a small bird ('arrow' + 'city' + 'to dwell'). te-ñe 26). téš.. ní. modesty' + ('not' + ) 'to have'). tu6-tu6: tud-sum: incantations (reduplicated 'exorcistic formula')... te-me: (cf.. ti-mar-uru5: arrow quiver (?) (play on tu15-mar-uru5 (?). te-me-en. meet (someone: dative). ti-rí-ñálal: ti-zú: barbed arrow ('arrow' + 'teeth.. téš. tu15. to assault' + 'to return. tir-an-na: rainbow ('forest' + 'sky' + genitive).. tu-lu: to be/make loose or limp (Akkadian tulluu. téš(-a).. 'to hang up') .gu7: to devour everything. 'flood'. ti. healthy' + subordination suffix /-a/).ra: ñiš to shoot an arrow ('arrow' + 'to stab').dirig ). together ('together' + adverbial force suffix) .bal: ti-gi4: dug kettledrum ('to approach.. te) .(nu-)tuku: to have (no) shame. cf.te-ñe26(-d): to approach.ñál: to create life ('life' + 'to give birth' + 'to be').sì-ke: to make agree ('together' ( + locative) + 'to put.. tud). túg-dim-gal(-la-k): sail on a mast ('cloth' + 'mast' + genitive).0 148 .. deep').. ti-na: adv. harp of beautiful sound ('harp' + 'thing' + 'sweet' + genitive).... ñiš tu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum. rib ('rib').. téš(-bi).... to attack.. to be frightened... place. Sumerian Lexicon. túg-bir7-ra: torn clothes ('cloth' + 'to rip to pieces' + nominative). 'arrow' + 'to enclose' + 'high. 'Oriental plane tree'). tu-ud: (cf. tu-ra: (cf.dirig: onion or garlic bulb for planting ('to beget' + 'onion') . cause') ... te-te(-ma): téš-bi: (cf.i-i: to pray ('together' + 'to rise'). strongly ('to live. flint'). tigi-nì-du10-ga/e: til-lu-ug: elephant ('lion-killer' ?). tur5).. tum12-gur4mušen). temen). shameless ('shame. Version 3. (cf.. ti-lim-da: a vessel ('lives' + 'thousand' + 'with'). to consume ('together' + 'to eat'). TÚG-DU8: textile fuller ('cloth' + 'residue. ti. to signal (?) ('arrow' + 'to revolve'). to answer') . worried (alternating class. ñiš ti: strut. brace. marû stem.

a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to drape') . túg-ZI-ZI-a: tukul. fine quality clothes ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to gasp' + nominative). bed spread ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'stretched out') .. túg-níñ-dára-gála-sír-ra: túg-níñ-dùn-dù: túg-níñ-lal: túg-níñ-lám: pubic band or napkin for a woman ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind.. túg-šà-ga-dù: cloth belt or woolen belted garment (?) ('cloth' + 'stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. di 4-di 4-la ) (reduplicated 'little').0 149 . hips' + 'to mould'). sanctuary with the loud voice ('birth-hut as metaphor for sanctuary' + 'voice' + 'great.. hurt') . túg-níñ-sal-la: túg-siñ18: shape') .. túg-ku-ru-um: mourning (?) clothes (Akkadian kuuru . harvest') .. depression. Version 3. slice.. north.. stupor') . a festive garment. weapon' + 'to strike. to strike') .sìg: tukumbi. morsel of food ('stomach. 'daze. TÙN. tùr-gù-nun: tuš. the last plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'deep'). break.ñá-ñá: Sumerian Lexicon. sash' + 'vulva' + 'dense. to eat modestly ('little' + 'to eat'). mu-dur 7(-ra) ). to dwell ('home' + 'to establish') ..-nu: tumu-mer: TÙN. feverish' + nominative). a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bring low' + 'to mould'). TÚG-TAG: túg-TAR: túg. didi .PAD: tur. túg-níñ-dára: loincloth ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind.. túg-íb-dù: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'waist. tum12[TU]-gur4mušen: turtle (?) dove ('dove.. belt..ùr: ñiš to fill or pile cloth (?) ('cloth' + 'to weave..túg-gú-lal: túg-gur8/gur: blanket (for an animal) ('cloth' + 'back of neck' + 'to drape') . pigeon' + 'plump. to slaughter ('mace.gu7: tur-tur: noble') . short-cut robe (?) ('cloth' + 'to cut'). little ones (cf. except ('if' + 'not'). magnificent (?) robe ('cloth' + 'to spend' + nominative). túg-me-zé-er-ra: rags ('cloth' + 'function' + 'to tear up. túg-mu-dur7[BU]-ra: túg-níñ-bàra-(g): (cf.. break' + nominative).bar: to hew or split with an axe. túg-níñ-ur5-ra-ak-a: the first plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'to cut. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'vulva' + genitive). lip' + 'bite of food') . big'). dress ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality') .. belt. northwind ('wind' + 'anger'). sash'). to make a sacrifice ('clothing' + 'to drag') .

.... to lie down in security ('food' + 'to persist' + 'to lie down') .ri(-g): ú-sañ11: a resin measured by volume. Version 3.U. 'to watch.. fascine to sustain a canal bank or levee ('plants' + 'to cut. to disappear.'top of the head' + 'to sink') .GÙN: (cf. ulušin ). evening ('food' + 'red' + 'sky'). ú-kíñ-ñá ).tag: ú-a: ú. (cf. caretaker.þúb: ú-kíñ-ñá: ú. ú-sañ11.nú: ú-si4-an ú-sug4: ú. herb(s) ('plant' + 'fine smelling'). ú-gu(3).. to be deaf...sud/sù: ú-sal: a low-lying fertile area along a watercourse ('grass. udul).. to diminish.. Sumerian Lexicon.. the eating of which is a metaphor for sexual intercourse ('plant' + 'honey').tag ). food' + 'to seek..... personal (property).0 150 ... to sprinkle') .... ). lu-úb (cf.. untested grazing grounds (cf. to eat ('food' + 'to sip. guard.zé: ú-sal-la... ú-làl: a sweet water-plant. to dine.. plants' + 'to persist') .PIRIÑ. protect') . ú-durunx[DÚR. unclean.. ú-šè. nettles (?) ('plant' + 'anger/heart' + 'illness'). udug ). break.dé: to lose. sar ú-lipiš-gig: ú-lu-úbsar: ú-lu5-ši: leeks (cf. to deafen.DÚR]-na: ú-gíd-da: long grasses ('grasses' + 'long' + nominative). harvest') . to be lost (ugu.bu-bu(-r): ú-du(-l): ú-dug4: (cf.. possession (cf. U. Ú-NINNI5 [TIR/TIR]: ú-nu-kíñ-ñá: ú.. (cf.. ú-šim: grass and herbs = pasture (a Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys). ú-tul: (cf. to dry out' + nominative). kušu/kušum x(-ki). menstruating woman (cf. udul ). to tear out plants ('plant' + reduplicated 'to tear out') . pasturage ('plants. to stem (the flow of water).. Ú-TIR: a spice or seed measured by weight.lá: ú-li: to go to fetch food ('food' + terminative + 'to go/to stand') . hay or dry brushwood ('grasses' + 'to dwell. to collect firewood ('plants' + 'to glean. grass.... ùru[-m]. ugun). úzug). ú-rum: private.. to cut fascine plants ('fascine' + 'to cut') . provider ('food' + 'water' or nominative). to bring') .ñin/gub: ú. work' + nominative).

ku(4): ù-la: to sleep (reduplication class). to give birth. pronominal prefix + 'to throw. while. ñi6..gub: to attain victory. all this (pronominal prefix + 'these').-a-ta: force suffix) . cf.. cf.. 'menstruating...dab5: to be overcome by sleep (ù-sá. bright light (?) (ù for u4 ?). impetuous. to pray to. rejoice').á-bi/ba(-/ak/): u4-an-na: light of the heavens ('light' + 'heaven' + genitive). (at the time) when. flame (pronominal prefix + reduplicated bul(4).. ù-suþ5: fir or spruce tree or wood (phonetic spelling shows original full pronunciation of suþ 5.. [this brackets an entire phrase] ('time' + nominative or genitive). plop'. triumph (prospective modal prefix + me-a. u 6-di ) ('sleep' + 'to go'...-a-gin7: u4.. u 4-bar ).(-a): u4. ù-an-bar: ù-bu-bu-ul: ù-di: Akkadian bubu’tu(m) ).. rest... ù-ma/ù-na. 'to chip out.di).0 151 .. foul food ('food' + úzug. adj. (cf. 'kiln for bricks'. u4.. nothing (pronominal prefix + 'numerous'). encircling wall') .. cf. drop... triumph ('when in battle' + 'to emerge standing') . sleep ('to sleep' + nominative). ù-sá. tud). pugnacious. ù. 'confusion. sleep. unclean woman') .....sá. ù-sun[BAD]: ñiš ù-šub: brick mold. Version 3. cf.. 'sleep' + 'to seize'). en .. pus.ñar/ñá-ñá: take oaths') . ù-na: anything. sún . ù-mu-un: ù-sá: ñiš Emesal dialect.sù: ù-ma.. a platform for molding or drying bricks (same form as udun.. šab.. to be or do on time. domineering... 'when in battle') . to entreat (with dative) (prospective modal prefix + 'evil' + 'to ù-gul... fraud (pronominal prefix + 'not' + 'established' + nominative).. depression (cf. ù-nu-ñar-ra: sleep ('sleep' + 'to equal in value'. pustule... after (the time) when.. to create ('to lie down' + 'to create'. when'). ('time' + 'as. victory. to sleep badly ('sleep' + 'treacherous' + 'to lie down. to ignite.. to rest ('sleep' + 'to lie down. to uproot.ú-za-gìn: ú-zug4: ù-a: fresh hay ('grass' + 'clean').. bu(5)..ku(4): ù-luþ-gi4-rin: ù-luþ. apportion out') . cf. ù-lul-la.. cf. 'midnight'). daze. wild cow. Sumerian Lexicon. to enter') . scepter of pure. to enter') . at the right moment ('time' + 'moment' + adverbial ù-tu-(d): ù-ur5-re: u4. to sprout.. ('time' + 'after'). ñi6.. to send out offshoots (pronominal prefix + 'clean' + 'to stretch. n.

u4-ba: u4-bar:

at that time; in those days; then ('time' + bi-a, 'that; its') . midday (cf., an-bar). the past ('days' + 'those' + 'from'). at the time of the harvest ('days, time' + 'harvest') .

u4-bi-ta: u4-buru14: u4-da:

today ('day' + 'with, near, present') . if ('today' + irrealis suffix) .

u4-da ñiš-en: u4-da-tuš: u4-gíd-da: u4-þuš: u4-imin:

a clown who performed with bears and pigs ('today' + 'to set up camp') .

u4(-bar)-dañal: extensive daylight, long day ('day' ( + 'middle') + 'wide').
all day long ('day' + 'to be long' + nominative suffix) .

raging storm ('storm' + 'furious, terrible, awesome'). seven days ('day' + 'seven') . there was never ('time' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'to not have'; cf.,


u4-nu-dùg-ga: u4-ri-a: u4-sa9-a:

unhappy days ('day' + 'not' + 'sweet, good' + nominative suffix) .

in those (far remote) days ('days' + remote demonstrative affix + locative). half a day ('day' + 'half' + nominative suffix) .


crescent moon; new moon; segment of a circle; a plant, possibly rushes or nettles ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., é-u4-sakar).

u4-sakar-gibil: reviving new moon, thin crescent moon ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., éu4-sud-ra:
for eternity ('time' + 'remote' + dative 'for').

u4...(al-)šú-šú-ru: u4-šú-uš(-e):

to become cloudy or dark ('daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + šur, 'to rain' ? + marû 3rd. sing. ending with vowel harmony). daily; day by day ('day, daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + locative-terminative evening ('daylight' + 'to extinguish, cool down') . morning ('daylight' + 'to approach') . birthday ('day' + 'birth' + genitive).

u4-te(-en): u4-te(-na):


u4-tur(-ra): early in the day; short in duration ('time' + 'small'). u4-u: ten days ('day' + 'ten'). u4-ul-la; u4-ì-li: u4-ul-lí-a-ta: u4...zal:
tomorrow ('day' + Akkadian elûm, 'to come up' and eli, 'above, beyond') .

from long ago ('days' + 'ancient' + nominative + 'from'). to waste a day; to disappear ('time' + 'to flee, hide, be lost' + 'to cause') .


the day dawns; to spend the day; to elapse; to waste time; to be late ('time' + 'to flow, pass').

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0



day, morning, dawn ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative).

u4-X zal-la: on the Xth day ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative). u5-a: lullaby ('raised high' + nominative). u5-bímušen; ú-bímušen; ub-bìmušen:

whooping swan (onomatopoeic).


calendar month 3 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Ur during Ur III. admiration, amazement ('to be impressed' + 'to judge') .


u6(-di)...di/dug4/e: to admire; to gain admiration ('admiration' + 'to speak, do'). u6...è/i(-i): u6-e...gub: u8-udu-þá
to look; to appear ('to look at; to stare at' + 'to be or become visible') . to be wonderful ('amazement' + ergative agent marker + 'to stand') .

sheep; (flock of) sheep and goats. southwind [with classifier


]; storm; sandstorm ('huge' + 'numerous, abundant') .

u18-lu(-da)...dul: u18[GIŠGAL]-ru(-n): ub-ba...gub:

to cover with a storm ('storm' + 'with' + 'to cover'). exalted; high; overwhelming; mighty ('huge' + 'to send'; cf., uru16(-n)).

to deposit in the corner ('corner' + locative + 'to set') .

ub-líl-lá: outdoor shrine ('niche' + 'wind, spirit (of a place), fresh air' + nominative or genitive). ub-šu-ukkin-na:

assembly ('corner' + 'power' + 'meeting' + 'human being').

ub5-kug-ga: keeper of the sacred drum ('drum' + 'pure, holy' + nominative).

ud: (cf., u4). UD.KA.BAR: (cf., zabar). UD.UD: (cf., babbar, dadag). udu-dub:
tablet-recorded sheep ('sheep' + 'tablet') . fattened sheep ('sheep' + 'fattened') .

udu-níñ-gu7-a: udu-sar: udu-siki:

udu-nitaþ: male sheep, ram ('sheep' + 'male').
a vegetable (?) ('sheep' + 'vegetable') . wool sheep ('sheep' + 'wool') .

udu-šag5-ga: slaughtered sheep ('sheep' + 'to slaughter' + nominative). udu-šár-a: perfect sheep ('sheep' + 'totality; to slaughter' + nominative). udu-še-gu7-a: udu šu-nir: udun-maþ:
(wool from) barley-fed sheep ('sheep' + 'barley' + 'to eat' + nominative). sheep whose wool was used to make streamers for the group standards. huge baking oven ('oven' + 'huge') .

udun-še-sa-a: barley roasting oven ('oven' + 'barley' + 'to roast' + nominative).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0



to place in a person's debit account ('account' + impersonal conjugation prefix +

locative infix + 'to deposit') (cf., gú-a...ñar).

ugu4-bi; a-gáb: ape, monkey ('to give birth' + inanimate demonstrative ["Inanimate are things and
animals." Thomsen, p. 49]) .

ugula-àga-ús: overseer of vassals ('overseer' + 'crown' + 'to follow'). ugula-íla: foreman of the porters ('overseer' + 'to carry'). ugula-ñéš-da: officer in charge of sixty men ('overseer' + ñeç, 'sixty' + genitival suffix /a(k)/). ugula-uru(-na-/ak/): ùña-lu-a: uþ...uš7: uku-ús: ÙKU.ÍL:
(cf., aþ...uš 7). (cf., aga (3)-ús ). (cf., un-gùr ). captain of the/his city ('overseer' + 'city' + 'his' + genitive).

multitudes ('people' + 'to be numerous' + nominative).

ul.KU: receiver (?). ul-šár-ra: jubilation ('joy' + 'to multiply' + nominative). ul...šár: ul4-la-bi: um-me-da: um-mi(3)-a:

to gladden; to exult ('joy' + 'to multiply').

ul-ti(-a): happy mood ('joy' + 'life' + genitive).
very soon, quickly ('quick' + adverbial ending).

um-ma: elderly lady; witch ('old woman' + 'to bind').
(cf., ummeda ). schoolmaster; scholar; artisan ('wise or skillful teacher' + 'offices, functions' + nominative or

umbin-gud: oxen hooves; oxen tracks ('fingernail' + 'ox'). umbin...kud: umuš...kúr: un-íl-me: un sañ-ñi6: unu(2,6)-gal:

to shave; to shear; to manicure ('fingernail' + 'to cut off'). to change one's mind ('discernment; decision' + 'to change') . a menial worker ('people' + Umma reading for íla sign, 'to bear, carry' + 'to be') .


menials ('people' + 'to carry' + 'to be') . black-headed people = Sumerians ('people' + 'heads' + 'black') .

unkin-ñar-ra: communal assembly ('people' + 'to fetch' + 'to establish' + nominative).
great dining hall ('elevated shrine, fortress' + 'great') .

UR: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 10 at Umma before Šulgi 30.
together (cf., téš-bi ). dog ('dog' + 'domestic') .

ur-bar-ra: wolf ('dog' + 'outside' + nominative). ur-bi; ur5-bi: ur-gir15/gi7[KU]:

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


.. ruler's staff.ñar: ur4-ur4: ur5-da: úr. cf. outside the city..zé(-zé): to roam ('legs' + 'to cut continuously') . watchdog (?) ('dog' + mud6. uru-bar-ra: uru-kúr(-ra): (in) a foreign city ('city' + 'strange' + locative). ur5-e: in such manner.ur-maþ: lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty') . strong copper ('copper' + 'thing' + 'to be strong' + nominative). loan' + 'to have') .. ur5. a pampered dog ('dog' + 'to be friendly' + nominative). ur-ur-a.. 'to sing' + nominative). soul' + 'to bow down. Version 3. ús-sañ: urudu-nì-kala-ga: rigging (of a ship) ('side. thus shall it be indeed ('thus' + 'it is indeed') . ùsan-mar: usu-tuku: uš-bar: ñiš (cf.gúr: ur5-ra-šè: ur5. ušbar ). urudu-A-EN-da: us-ga: a type of priest. careful.ša4: ur5-šè: ur5-tud: ur5-tuku: to be mindful. soul' + 'with'). domestic servant ('debt' + 'to be born') . wagon whip (?) ('whip' + 'wagon'). lú-di-da ). soul' + 'to mourn') (contrast še. outskirts of the city. strength' + 'to have') . a strong person ('skill. to gasp ('liver. scepter ('penis' + 'to see. níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6). cf. to roar.. to be/make comfortable. debt with interest ('loan' + 'portion'). uš-bar: Sumerian Lexicon.. submit') . in front') . to assemble a list... creditor ('debt. to hear ('heart.. ur5-re. famous (one) (?) (cf. a pet dog or puppy ('dog' + 'small'). or plan ('servants' + locative + 'to set') . happy ('liver. to join' + 'bow of a ship'. lay bare (reduplicated 'to harvest') . to devastate. warrior ('young man' + 'first. debtor. ur-mú-da: ur-sa6-ga: ur-sañ: ur-tur: hero. uru-tuš: (cf. soul' + 'to satisfy'. thus ('it.. schedule. show') ..sa6: ur5..ša4).. thus' + locative terminative e). ñišmá-sañ-ñá). a type of copper...0 155 . bellow ('liver. ki-tuš ).aka: ur5-di-da: ur5.. the countryside ('city' + 'outside' + nominative).. ur5 þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: to be like that ('in such manner' + nominative + 'towards') . soul' + 'to do'). to bow down (in grief) ('liver.. uru-šà-ga: the interior city (contrasts to uru-bar-ra)('city' + 'inside' + nominative).

za-þa-ti: cure') ... uš11. stone cutter ('[precious] stone' + 'to fashion') . za-gìn: za-gìn: (na4) za-gìn-duru5: za-þa: (cf.. ('venom' + 'to apply.. wagons. dates. é-uz-ga).za). 'it is' + 'to speak').uš-gíd-da: storehouse. bibad mušen ). you. UZ.UDU]: (ñiš) mutton fat ('meat' + 'mutton fat'). ùz-ga-nañ: milking goat ('goat' + 'milk' + 'drinking')... silo (for barley.áña).. do. 'rhythmic sound' or zi. uz-ga: (cf.. oil) (cf.. and doors (cf.dug4/du11: za-za: (cf.TURmušen: (cf... piling up an earthen block or dam (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. uš-ñar-ra: firm foundation ('foundation' + 'to establish' + nominative). make'). shiny lapis lazuli ('lapis lazuli' + 'moist'). za-a-kam.0 156 . precious stone (in general) ('stone' + 'colorful'). zaþ2. harrows. uš7.dug4/du11: za-ba-lum: za-dím: za-e: na4 a variety of juniper (resin) ('kernel' + 'to give' + 'abundance') . uzu-libx[Í.3). zipaþ ).. say: it is thine ('you' + /ak/. ñiš ñiš za-na: puppet. a type of onion.. utu-è: sunrise ('sun' + 'to rise... breath (za. yourself. shaft of chariots. za-þa-din. uš-sì-ga: úš-a: unsafe foundation ('foundation' + 'to damage' + nominative).. to handle a puppet ('puppet' + 'to touch. cf. za-na. (cf.sig10/sì: d to throw/inject venom on/in. clean ('precious stone') . ki. Version 3.. granary.. possibly Allium desertorium ('kernel' + 'many' + 'to za-na: caterpillar ('monotonous repetition' + 'distinct things or selves') . za-ra.. lustrous.dug4: to spit ('spittle' + 'to speak.. lapis lazuli. araþ4) ('foundation' + 'to be long' + nominative). put in') .tag: za-pa-áñ: za-pa-aþ: sound. 'of' + àm. handle') . to lecture ('to you' + 'to speak') . za-za-ga: marjoram or oregano (?).. 'breathing' transformed by vowel harmony + 'puffing sound' + 'to mete out'. a úš-a) ('to block' + nominative).. šìr. ñišzar). uzu-ì: fatty meat ('meat' + 'fat').. to become visible') .. za-ra: pole..

.zà: (cf.kéš: to endow with ('side' + 'to bind to'). threshold ('boundary' + 'to adorn') . zi-bí: a form of caraway seed (Akkadian loanword. cf. zà-mí). zag-munus: (cf. zag-gal-la: a type of chair. shoulder' + 'great').. to heap up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to be zàr-tab-ba: šáþ the work of binding sheaves ('sheaf' + 'to bind' + nominative)..dib: to elevate over ('barrier' + 'to cross'). to remove.. cf.. push'). zag. 'you'. zé-eþ-tur: small pig (phonetic spelling of šáþ + 'small'). to overthrow. from zibû. to spread') . zé-me ñiš that is yourself (za... sexually mature female goat kid ('female goat kid' + 'breasts') . zag-è: buttress (?) ('barrier' + 'to rise'). adv. limit' + 'to lean against'). to break (often with -ta-). zag. limit' + 'city')... sheared' + 'an individual case of') . (ñiš) zà-mí: musical instrument . zag-ša4[DI]: zag-še(3). bed ('limit' + 'to the'). Version 3. zag-ša4: equal.ús: záþ-bi: outskirts of the city ('edge. zé-er. zar(-re-eš).sal: wide'). to push off...0 157 .. a fifth (as a division) ('percentage' + 5 or other number + 'length') . Sumerian Lexicon. zà-mí: (hymn of) praise ('territory' + 'woman').du8: to pile up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to open.. to spread. strength. zar(-re-eš). to stand by. with vowel harmony + 'to be .šuš: to brand. zé-èm: Emesal dialect. appeal'. zag-gu-la.. zé-na: zeþ-gaba: zi-ba-tum: an aromatic seed (?). sahlû).. to border on. to set aside ('edge. zag-uru: zag 5-ús: zag. palm frond ('to be cut. Akk. beginning' + 'charm. dùg. rival ('limit' + 'to equal'). launch ('edge. to tear out. to reject. zag).. zà[ZAG]-þi-li(-a)sar: a condiment made from a prickly plant such as wild safflower ('border. 'black cumin'). zag-sá[DI]. sum.. zag-bar: zag-du8: zag. zag. (metal) quantity left over by cutting ('percentage' + 'to pare away') . zi-re: to tear up. until disappearance ('to perish' + adverbial force suffix) .. to slip.a lyre. limit' + 'to touch.. zé-eb: Emesal dialect. to the bitter end.tag: to push away. seat of honor ('side. to mark ('side' + 'to throw down').

sprinkle off.. cheap type of flour ('flour' + 'mountain' or 'scorching' ?).. to rise up' + nominative). loyally. chick pea flour ('flour' + 'chick pea'). soul' + 'king') . flour for the best ritual actions ('flour' + reduplicated 'to pour. Version 3. a type of barley flour ('flour' + 'mortar-ground' + nominative). zíd-bar-si: zíd-dub-dub: zíd-gu: a type of emmer wheat flour ('flour' + 'to release' + 'like a sprout'). zi..ñál: zi-zi-i: to provide (someone: -ši -) with life ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to place') . rebel. zi-ik-rum: zikru II. worried. to be broken ('faith' + 'to lead away [plural]'). zi-ri/rí-gúm/qum: a device for moving irrigation water. deducted. zi. legitimate (and) lofty ('legitimate' + 'lofty').. subtracting. old men (Akk.. subtraction. to revolt. zì: (cf.gi4: zi.. zikru(m) I. 'to blow'). to breathe ('breath' + bun.... oath ('breath.. sustenance ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to be available'). expended. zi-du: a good person ('good' + 'to walk').. sad. shake. wise.pà-da: to faithfully choose ('faithfully' + 'to choose'). revolting (reduplicated 'to tear out') .. faithfully ('truth' + adverbial force suffix) .(ši)-tum2. 'male'). oar ('to rise up' + 'pestle') ..ñál: zi-ñál(-la): to grant life. a coarse.. zi-šà-ñál: n.. 'utterance' and zikaru(m) and zi-ik-ru-um.. deduct' + nominative + 'to establish') .. inspiration. zi-šà. to conjure ('faith' + 'to swear'). risen up ('to tear out. strew') .. zíd).. extracted. zi. move in a circle.. zi. fine barley flour ('flour' + 'net'). torn out.ñar: ñiš to tell the truth ('truth' + 'to speak') . alive. Sumerian á-lá ).. divine encouragement.0 158 .pà(-d): (ñiš) to take an oath. zíd-gú-gal: zíd-kum4[UD]-ma: zíd-milla[IŠ]: Sumerian Lexicon. living being ('breath' + 'to be available' + nominative). adj. put') .dug4: zi-ga(-àm): zi-ga..zi-dè-eš(2)(-šè): adv. to place.. to impose a levy ('to tear out. involving a water bucket hanging ñiš from a swinging beam (cf. to have life ('breath' + 'to be available.. a reed or clay pipe or pipette (Akkadian loanword ziriiqu from zaraaqu). zi-gan: rudder. zi..3/de6: to take refuge ('life' + ('into') + 'to bring').pa-an-pa-an: zi. to be on good terms ('faith' + 'to restore').ir/ra: zi lugal: zi-maþ: to be troubled. zi-dè-eš(-šè).

.... zaatum flour.... zú. dabin ). (cf. to bite ('teeth' + 'to cut') .gaz: zú-gub: zú. to rock') . zú.zalag: zur-zur: zur-re-eš. zú... su(11)-lum. (cf.ÞAR: zú... valuable'.ur 5).kešda: lunch ('teeth' + 'to stand') . shake') .. to oblige ('teeth' + 'to bind. Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran. 1999 Home page for the Sumerian lexicon: http://www... zíd-za(-tum): a type of flour. zíd-še-sa: flour from roasted barley ('flour' + 'roasted barley').mar: (cf. to show one's teeth ('teeth' + 'to shine... gleam') ... Version 3.. imñaña ). gnash') .... (animal) nurse. zíz-AN: zíz-bal: zíz-babbar: zíz.. acquaintance ('to know' + nominative).ra(-ra): to bite ('teeth' + usually reduplicated 'to strike. date fruit ('teeth' + 'to be satiated') .ra-aþ: to devour ('teeth' + 'to strike repetitively. cleaning emmer after winnowing ('emmer wheat' + 'to pour' + nominative).du 8). iti zíz-a: calendar month 11 at Nippur during Ur III.. zú.dé-a: zu-a: emmer wheat lost in processing ('emmer wheat' + 'to demolish').zíd-sig15[KAL]: sig15)..súd-súd[ŠÌTA]: to gnash the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush.org/ Sumerian Lexicon. 'to pass through a hole. zú. shake (reduplicated 'to tend..sumerian....ur5[ÞAR]: zú. to rock. zar-re-eš. cracked barley mixed with wheat flour (?) ('flour' + 'pleasing.mar). pierced (Akkadian sahlu. to laugh ('teeth' + 'to glisten') . Last revised August 11.. zú. zu-þu-ul: zú. white emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'white'). harness') .0 159 .du8: to chew..... zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ: a form of emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'chick pea' + 'eggs').. (cf... bite ('teeth' + 'to chew') . cf. to crush with the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush') . All Rights Reserved.li9-li9: zú-lum(-ma): zú-lum. stab') .kud/ku5: zú.. to thread') . kaš- ZÍD-ŠE: (cf.

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