Manufacture of Sulphuric acid

Stage II Sulphur enter a roasting tower Stage I

Stage III

Raw Material: Sulphur Oxygen Water

water Stage IV

air supply from bottom produces sulphur dioxide HABER PROCESS

Suitable/optimum condition : sulphur dioxide oxidised by air to form sulphur trioxide 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 Temperature : 450 0C Pressure : 1 atm Catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5


Stage I S + O2

Sulphur dioxide

Stage II

Sulphur trioxide

Sulphur burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide Stage III Uses H2SO4
Making fertilizer Making detergent Making electrolyte

2SO3 + H2SO4


Sulphur trioxide dissolve in conc. Sulphuric acid to form oleum

Sulphuric acid

Stage IV 2H2S2O7


H2S2O7 + H2O

Oleum dilute in water to form sulphuric cid Environmental Pollution Sulphur dioxide gas dissolves in atmospheric water/water vapour/rain water to produce a acid rain. SO2 + H2O → H2SO3 ( sulphurous acid) 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O → 2H2SO4 (sulphuric acid )

Sulphur trioxide not dissolve in water because very vigorous and produce large amount of heat

Effect of acid Effect of acid Rain: corrodes concrete buildings Depletes essential nutrients for plant growth Makes the soil acidic Lower the pH of water in rivers and lakes

Manufactures Ammonium Fertilizer Can be prepared through neutralization process 2NH3(ak) + H2SO4(ak) Haber Process Volume ratio N2 : H2 = 1: 3 Nitrogen in air + H2 from natural gas N2 (g) + H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g) NH3(ak) + → (NH4)2SO4 (ak) HNO3(ak) → NH4 NO3(ak) Catalyst : iron filling Pressure : 200 atm Temperature : 450 oC % nitrogen in (NH4)2SO4 = Mass nitrogen x 100 RMM = 28 x 100 132 = 21. One of the essential nutrients is nitrogen.Very soluble in water Change red litmus paper to blue Pungent smell Detergent Make nitric Prevent coagulation of latex Properties Colourless Base Ammonia + acid → salt + water Uses Make fertilizer • • • Soap Urea ammonium sulfat ammonium nitrat Produce thick white fume with hydrogen chloride gas AMMONIA NH3 Plants need various nutrients for healthy growth. 2 % .

(NH4)2SO4 [ RAM : H = 1 . One of the essential nutrients is nitrogen. Examples: Percentage of nitrogen (by weight) in ammonium sulphate. 2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4 • Formula to calculate % of nitrogen : Mass of nitrogen Relative molecular mass of the fertilizer 1. (NH2)2CO [ RAM : H = 1 .67 % × 100 × 100 % = . O = 16 . S = 32 ] = 2(14) × 100 2 [14 + 4(1) ] + 32 + 4(16)] = 21. Percentage of nitrogen (by weight) in urea. • Ammonium fertilizers contains nitrogen in different percentage . Preparation: (a) Ammonium sulphate Ammonia reacts with sulphuric acid through neutralization reaction to produce ammonium sulphate. N = 14 . O = 16 . N = 14 .21 % 2.Ammonia (Haber Process) Process N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Temperature 450 -550 oC Catalyst : Iron Pressure : 200 atm Properties Make fertilizer Make soap and detergent Prevent the coagulation of latex Uses Very soluble in water Colourless gas Pungent smell Produce thick white fume with hydrogen chloride gas Production of Ammonium Fertilizer Plants need various nutrients for healthy growth. C = 12 ] = 2(14) 12 + 2(14) + 16 + 1(4) 46.

Cu/Sb Usage Vehicle.bridge Electrical componen Medal. statue Airplanes Coin Souvenir Pure Metal Draw the atoms arrangement Alloy Pure atom has similar size and shape and arranged orderly but still space between atoms Explain the atoms arrangement above The presences of impurities atoms disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in pure metal.The layer of metal prevent from sliding one another easily Copper Tin . *To prevent rusting Defination ALLOY An alloy is a mixture two or more elements with a certain atom of impurities in which the major component is a metal Experiment Weight Iron ball Metal block Composition and uses of alloy Alloy Steel Brass Bronze Duralumi Cupronickel Pewter Composition Fe. When force is applied to pure atoms. . C Cu. Ni Sn . its prevent from slide one another easily Question Explain why bronze harder than pure copper? .Aim *To increase hardness *To improve appearance. atom slide one another easily Explain the atoms arrangement when forces is applied When force is applied the layers of atoms.The presence of tin atom disturb the orderly arrangement of pure metal . Sn Al.Zn Cu. Mg/Cu Cu.

Recycle Use biodegrable polymer Reuse Polymer Starch Monomer glucose amino acid isoprene Uses food food Tyre Way to solve problem: Protein Natural rubber Most of the synthetic polymers are nonbiodegradable and producing poisonous gas on burning They are exist in living things in nature example: Protein. packaging material . film. wire Polypropene Propene Bottle. Example: Plastic and nylon Synthetic polymers Polymer Polyethene Monomer Ethene Uses Plastic bags. natural rubber POLYMERS Environmental pollution Natural polymers They are made in laboratory through chemical process. plastic cup Polychloroethene Chloroethene Pipe. Toy Polystyrene Styrene Disposable cup and plate.

glass window Body car. light. bridge Transportation and telecomunication Cement. Very good as heat insulation/ electric insulation.Laboratory Apparatus (boiling tube. calcium oxide Silicon dioxide. Water impermeable. 4. transparent. sodium oxide. Heat insulation. bones and teeth Uses CERAMICS Properties of Ceramic Very hard. High melting and boiling point. special properties and uses Ceramic is produced by heating clay at high temperature. optical fiber Bottle. 8. Brittle 5. strength and cheap No electrical resistance Uses Building. sodium oxide Borosilicate glass Properties of glass Lead crystal glass Main component of glass: Silica (silicon dioxide) Construction materials Ornamental articles Semiconductor Electric insulation. sodium carbonate and Fiber glass calcium carbonate Silica. helmet. small boat Electrical cable Optical lenses. calcium oxide Silicon dioxide. Transparent 3. gravel. Composite Material GLASS Type of glass. O. sodium oxide. Main component: silicate Basic composition : Al. withstand heat and chemical reaction Soft and easy to melt. Si. conical flask etc) Crystal. high melting point.Type of glass 1. lenses. Density less than most of metals. Inert toward chemicals. iron Alloy of metal compound or Superconductor ceramic of metal oxide Silica. GLASS AND CERAMICS structural material that is formed by combined two or more different material Type of glass Reinforced concrete Composition Properties Strong. lead(II) oxide. Compress resistance 6. rod . withstand corrosion Racket. Glassware. water. easy broken Transparent. Artificial limbs. Fused silica glass Soda lime glass Composition Properties High meting point Point High viscosity Low melting point. Electrical insulation 7. light bulb Dishes. high tensile. Hard 2. mirror. high density Uses Lab. Able to extend high pressure. copper Fiber optic and Aluminium Photo chromic glass Plastic strengthened with glass fiber Silica and silver chloride Plastic and glass fiber Good insulator heat and electrical Transmitted in light form at high speed Dark in colour when exposed to bright light and bright in dark Very strong. prism and lenses Silicon dioxide Silicon dioxide. aeroplane. boron oxide. Weak toward extension. sand. Inert to chemical substance.

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