Unit Second

Surface Finishing
Prof. Shashank S. Bhamble Mechanical Engineering Department

Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering, Shegaon

The stones are pressed radially outward to enlarge the hole while they simultaneously oscillate axially. both the workpiece and stones erode until they conform to the average shape of the stones' cutting surface. the grains are bound together with an adhesive to form a honing stone (or hone). To do this. there is no need to true them. but honing stones are usually more friable so that they conform to the shape of the workpiece as they wear in. Therefore. grinds it. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface. honing stones may be treated with wax or sulfur to improve life. This averaging effect occurs in all honing processes. CBN or diamond. it is better to think of it as a self-truing grinding process. The accuracy becomes even worse as the grind wheel wears. Honing stones Honing is classified as an abrasive machining manufacturing process.[1] Any abrasive material may be used to create a honing stone.500 mesh grit). and then moves back out. it is tempting to think of honing as a form of low-stock removal grinding.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques HONING (METALWORKING) Honing is a manufacturing process that produces a precision surface on a workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Process mechanics Since honing stones look similar to grinding wheels. For example. Honing machines are much more compliant than grinders. silicon carbide. corundum or silicon carbide are acceptable. Due to the oscillation. material is cut away from the workpiece using abrasive grains. In the case of honing. Since each slice of the wheel repeatedly contacts the same slice of the workpiece. but may also improve surface texture. but the most commonly used are corundum. the stone moves along two paths simultaneously. Instead both the bore and the honing stones conform to the average shape of the honing stones' motion. they also differ in the stiffness of their construction. In grinding. Smaller grain sizes produce a smoother surface on the workpiece. honing grains are irregularly shaped and about 10 to 50 micrometers in diameter (300 to 1. any inaccuracies in the geometric shape of the grinding wheel will be transferred onto the part. the grinding wheel Page | 1 . As a result of the averaging effect. Instead. In most cases. imperfections in the honing stone's profile cannot transfer to the bore. The limitation on geometric accuracy is overcome in honing because the honing stone follows a complex path. To counteract their friability. each slice of the honing stones touch a large area of the workpiece. In bore honing for example. the accuracy of the finished workpiece geometry is limited to the accuracy of the truing dresser. but extremely hard workpiece materials must be honed using superabrasives. wax is usually preferred for environmental reasons. Generally. Therefore. Since the honing stones tend to erode towards a desired geometric shape. A honing stone is similar to a grinding wheel in many ways. so truing must occur periodically to reshape it. The choice of abrasive material is usually driven by the characteristics of the workpiece material. The path of the stone is not the only difference between grinding and honing machines. in plunge grinding a shaft. the wheel moves in towards the axis of the part. the wheel follows a simple path. the accuracy of a honed component often exceeds the accuracy of the machine tool that created it. The purpose of grinding is to achieve a tight size tolerance. which in the case of bore honing is a cylinder. As with all abrasive machining processes.

[3] Unlike polishing. Superfinishing has lower cutting efficiency because of smaller chips. The dimensional size of the object is established by preceding operations. A honing machine. Honing configurations Track/Raceway honing Spherical honing OD through-feed honing (taper and straight) Flat honing Bore honing Comparisons to grinding Superfinishing is more expensive than grinding. Then the part is honed to improve a form characteristic such as roundness. Superfinishing has lower material removal rate. This leads to an obvious difference between the two machines: in a grinder the stone is rigidly attached to a slide. is relatively inaccurate and compliant. and some honing machines are equipped with in-process gaging for size control. Superfinishing stones are softer and wear more quickly. Page | 2 . Superfinishing stones don't need to be dressed. The primary purpose of polishing is to improve surface finish without concern for form. The improved shape after honing may result in a quieter running or higher precision component. ironically. or sphericity. Many through-feed grinding operations rely on the same averaging effect as honing. It is typically the last manufacturing operation before the part is shipped to a customer. Instead of relying on the accuracy of the machine tool. Economics Since honing is a high precision process. Therefore it is only used in components that demand the highest level of precision. A superfinishing machine must move the stone in a compound or orbital motion relative to the part surface. Performance advantages of honed surfaces Since honing is a relatively expensive manufacturing process. and honing improves the shape. it can only be economically justified for applications that require very good form accuracy. the contact area between the abrasive and workpiece are larger than in grinding. compliance is a requirement of a honing machine that is necessary for the averaging effect to occur.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques must be moved to an exact position relative to the workpiece. superfinishing can improve the geometric form of an object. The difference between honing and grinding is not always distinct. it is also relatively expensive. the last of which is usually grinding. High-precision workpieces are usually ground and then honed. Therefore a grinding machine must be very stiff and its axes must move with very high precision. In fact. cylindricity. Some grinders have complex movements and are self-truing. it relies on the averaging effect between the stone and the workpiece. In honing. while in honing the stone is actuated with pneumatic or hydraulic pressure. Grinding determines the size. flatness.

lapping machine and jig). (This is not the same as the wringing effect of Johansson blocks. When there is a requirement to lap very small specimens (from 3" down to a few millimetres). emery. Operation By way of example. Page | 3 . In use. in between them. although it is similar). The other form of lapping involves a softer material for the lap. typically involves rubbing a brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron or glass itself (also known as the "lap" or grinding tool) with an abrasive such as aluminum oxide. a slurry of emery powder would be spread on the plate and the workpiece simply rubbed against the plate. silicon carbide. The weights can also be seen in the picture along with two fiber spacer disks that are just used to even the load. Due to the dimensions of such small samples. this pump feeds abrasive slurry onto the rotating lapping plate. charged with emery. by hand movement or by way of a machine. Taken to the ultimate limit. This is one twentieth of the wavelength of light from the commonly used 632. with the aid of accurate interferometry and specialized polishing machines or skilled hand polishing. A jig allows precise control of the orientation of the specimen to the lapping plate and fine adjustment of the load applied to the specimen during the material removal process. in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them. a small slurry pump can be seen at the side. In operation.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques LAPPING Lapping is a machining operation. For a commercial machine that is about the smallest size available. The second picture is that of a commercially available lapping machine which is needed for this process. and used to cut a piece of hardened steel. The abrasive embeds within the softer material which holds it and permits it to score across and cut the harder material. A weight would then be placed on top of the workpiece. In this machine. a piece of lead may be used as the lap.8 nm helium neon laser light source. Surfaces this flat can be molecularly bonded (optically contacted) by bringing them together under the right conditions. which is "charged" with the abrasive. the lap is the large circular disk on the top of the machine. this will produce a polished surface such as with a polishing cloth on an automobile. On top of the lap are two rings. At the other end of the size spectrum. lensmakers can produce surfaces that are flat to better than 30 nanometers. Referring to the second picture again. a lapping jig can be used to hold the material while it is lapped (see Image 3. The workpiece would be placed inside one of these rings. The lap is then used to cut a harder material—the workpiece. etc.. This produces microscopic conchoidal fractures as the abrasive rolls about between the two surfaces and removes material from both. The first type of lapping (traditionally called grinding). That particular plate is made of cast iron. The lap or lapping plate in this machine is 30 cm (12") in diameter. machines with eight to ten foot diameter plates are not uncommon and systems with tables 30 feet in diameter have been constructed. the rings stay in one location as the lapping plate rotates beneath them. The jig sits in a cradle on top of the lapping plate and the dial on the front of the jig indicates the amount of material removed from the specimen. usually in a "figure-eight" pattern. This can take two forms. or a polishing cloth or polishing pitch upon glass or steel. Taken to the finer limit. traditional loads and weights are too heavy as they would destroy delicate materials. diamond. The small plate shown in the first picture is that of a hand lapping plate.

without resort to special equipment accuracies of 1 to 3 HLB are typical. Accuracy and surface roughness Lapping can be used to obtain a specific surface roughness. usually very flat surfaces. Schematic of two-piece lapping One complication in two-piece lapping is the need to ensure that neither piece flexes or is deformed during the process. If one piece flexes due to this lack of support. without quite the same degree of testing required for the latter. Measurement Of flatness The easiest method for measuring flatness is with a height gage positioned on a surface plate. As a side note: Two parts that are lapped to a flatness of about 1HLB will exhibit "Wringing-in" or "Jo Blocking": a phenomenon where the two parts will cling to each other when placed in contact.can be made to stick together in this manner. Unfortunately. it is also used to obtain very accurate surfaces. part of each (some area near the edge) will be unsupported for some fraction of the rubbing movement. This yields closeness-of-fit results comparable to that of two accurately-flat pieces.000011 inches (280 nm). the edges of the opposite piece will tend to dig depressions into it a short distance in from the edge. A typical range of surface roughness that can be obtained without resort to special equipment would fall in the range of 1 to 30 Ra (average roughness in micrometers or microinches). the process is also used to obtain other configurations such as a concave or convex surface. with a surface roughness determined by the variation in the abrasive size. The principle is that the protrusions on one surface will both abrade and be abraded by the protrusions on the other. the two pieces can be lapped together. and fails in this manner if the workpiece itself deforms under that pressure. As the pieces are moved past each other. Note that you must setup the part on three stands and find the minimum variation while adjusting them. Surface roughness and surface flatness are two quite different concepts. The name "Jo-blocking" comes from the fact that gage blocks . they are concepts that are often confused by the novice. separated by a distance determined by the average size of the abrasive particles.sometimes called "Johansson blocks" after the manufacturer . and the edges of the opposite piece are heavily abraded by the same action . just placing the part on the surface plate and using a dial indicator to find TIR on the opposite side Page | 4 . Again.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Two-piece lapping Where the mating of the two surfaces is more important than the flatness.the lapping procedure assumes roughly equal pressure distribution across the whole surface at all times. one HLB measuring about 0. Though flatness is the most common goal of lapping. resulting in two surfaces evolving towards some common shape (not necessarily perfectly flat). Surface accuracy or flatness is usually measured in Helium Light Bands.

A surface that exhibits an Ra of 8 consists of peaks and valleys that average no more than 8 microinches over a given distance. But neither of these methods can measure flatness more accurately than about 0. Superfinishing. The light will pass through the glass and reflect off the workpiece. kerosene is a common lubricant. is a metalworking process that improves surface finish and workpiece geometry. Each fringe – or band – represents a change of one half wavelength in the width of the gap between the glass and the workpiece. also known as micromachining and short-stroke honing. an instrument that measures the minute variations in height of the surface of a workpiece. A lubricant is used to minimize heat production. Another method that is commonly used with lapped parts is the reflection and interference of monochromatic light. The optical flat – which is a piece of transparent glass that has itself been lapped and polished on one or both sides – is placed on the lapped surface. Surface roughness is measured with a profilometer. The abrasive is oscillated or rotated while the workpiece is rotated in the opposite direction. The superfinishing process was developed by the Chrysler Corporation in 1934. this layer is usually about 1 μm in magnitude. it is superfinished with a finer grit solid abrasive. This is achieved by removing just the thin amorphous surface layer left by the last process with an abrasive stone. creates a cross-hatch pattern on the workpiece. Of roughness Surface roughness is defined by the minute variations in height of the surface of a given material or workpiece. As the light reflects in the gap between the workpiece and the polished surface of the glass.5μm). Roughness may be also measured by comparing the surface of the workpiece to a known sample. The abrasive cuts the surface of the workpiece in three phases. The light bands display a contour map of the surface of the workpiece and can be readily interpreted for flatness. The individual variances of the peaks and valleys are averaged (Ra reading). Flatness is more easily measured with a co-ordinate measuring machine. unlike polishing which produces a mirror finish. In the past the light source would have been provided by a Helium lamp or tube.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques of the part measures parallelism. Calibration samples are available usually sold in a set and usually covering the typical range of machining operations from about 125 Ra to 1 Ra. The first phase is when the abrasive first contacts the workpiece surface the dull grains of the abrasive fracture and fall away. the light will interfere with itself creating light and dark fringes. Process After a metal piece is ground to an initial finish. a stone (rectangular shape) is for cylindrical surfaces and cups and wheels are used for flat and spherical surfaces. The picture to the right shows a typical monochromatic light unit used in workshops and laboratories. Roughness is usually expressed in microinches. or quantified by the largest difference from peak-to-valley (Rz). these motions are what causes the cross-hatching. which Page | 5 . The monochromatic light is then shone down through the glass. but nowadays a more common source of monochromatic light is the low pressure sodium lamp. SUPERFINISHING Superfinishing. and to carry away the swarf.0001" (2.[1] A monochromatic light source and an optical flat are all that are needed. The geometry of the abrasive depends on the geometry of the workpiece surface. which can alter the metallurgical properties.

20 in). this is much slower compared to grinding speeds around 1800 to 3500 m/min. Through-feed This type of superfinishing is used for cylindrical workpieces. Honing is usually 3. decreasing wear.000 psi) and grinding is between 13. closer tolerances. and diamond. Silicone carbide is harder than aluminium oxide. which creates the cross-hatching. Examples of parts that would be produced by process include tapered rolls. Four to eight progressively finer abrasive stones are used to superfinish the workpiece. cubic boron nitride (CBN). CBN and diamond are not as commonly used. The wheel and workpiece are rotated in opposite directions.3 MPa (1. shock absorber rods. such as ceramics and M50.990 to 19. better sealing capabilities. usually between 0. If the two are parallel then the result if a flat finish. and elimination of a break in period. Abrasives Common abrasives used for superfinishing include: aluminium oxide. Wheels Abrasive cups or wheels are used to superfinish flat and spherical surfaces. but if the wheel is tilted slightly a convex or concave surfaces will form.06 MPa (299 psi). but can be as high as 2. Advantages & disadvantages Advantages of superfinishing include: increasing part life. plunge. The average rotational speed of abrasive wheel and/or workpiece is 1 to 15 surface m/min. The main disadvantage is that superfinishing requires grinding or a hard turning operation beforehand. where a most of the stock is removed. In the second phase the abrasive "self dresses". so it is used for "finishing" operations. but find use with specialized materials.4 to 6.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques produces a sharp new cutting surface. and wheels. Aluminium oxide is used for "roughing" operations. Abrasive grains must be very fine to be used with superfinishing.[3] Superfinishing can give a surface finish of 0.910 psi). Page | 6 . Note that graphite may be mixed with other abrasives to add lubricity and to enhance the appearance of the finish. Plunge This type is used to finish irregularly shaped surfaces. silicon carbide. The pressure applied to the abrasive is very light. When a stone is used it is oscillated at 200 to 1000 cycles with an amplitude of 1 to 5 mm (0.9 MPa (490 to 1. with 6 to 14 m/min preferred.7 to 137. usually 5–8 μm. shafts. The workpiece is rotated between two drive rollers. This adds cost to the finished product. and needles.02 to 0. The stones contact the workpiece at a 90° angle and are oscillated axially. the abrasive grains dull.01 μm. which also move the machine as well. higher load bearing surfaces. which improves the surface geometry. Finally.039 to 0. Types There are three types superfinishing: Through-feed. The workpiece is rotated while the abrasive plunges onto the desired surface.07 MPa (3 to 10 psi). piston pins.

are decorated with burnished patterns in which some areas are left matte. such as grinding. are common when drilling almost any material. It may be present in the form of a fine wire on the edge of a freshly sharpened tool or as a raised portion on a surface. Burr (edge) A burr is a raised edge or small pieces of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process. The Boeing 747 airplane has approximately 1. smooth stones. after being struck a blow from an equally hard.[citation needed] most of which have to be deburred to some extent. If one wood has a dye in it. milling is also a source of burr formation in machining. Drilling burrs. milling. fuel injector components. engraving or turning. or is colored in some way. For example if the teeth in a gear are superfinished they will last up to four times as long. the inside. while it still is in a leathery 'green' state. Burnishing can also apply to relief printing.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Applications Common applications include: steering rack components. the surface is extremely shiny. bearing races. so choose carefully and perform a test rub first. This technique can be applied to concrete masonry. One good example of unwanted burrs is in the automotive industry where cylinder blocks.e. and durability. Burnishing can also be applied to wood.[1] It is usually an unwanted piece of material and when removed the process is called deburring. transmission components. Burrs are most commonly created after machining operations. creating a polished finish. reliability. hydraulic cylinder rods. the cost and time needed to perform these drilling and deburring operations is significant. in the case of open bowls. BURNISH Burnishing is a form of pottery treatment in which the surface of the pot is polished. before firing. As one could imagine.3 million holes drilled in it. It has been proven that superfinishing certain parts makes them more durable. or heavy object. Rub them along one another. drilling. for example. using a hard smooth surface such as a wooden or bone spatula. and shortly a glossy sheen will come up and the wood will become slick. Hard woods are best to use with this. and sharpening stones and wheels. Often the whole outer surface of the pot is thus decorated. it may rub off onto the other wood. or even glass bulbs. With higher and higher demands placed on accuracy and precision. but you do not have to wait for a burnished piece of wood to dry as you would if you had varnished it. plastic. Burnishing does not protect the wood like a varnish does. After firing. camshaft lobes. needle rollers. but cross ways will still work. the more important one should be rubbed down its grain. pistons and other engine components are cast then milled to a specific dimension. In addition to drilling. burr formation is of critical importance because it can affect engine performance. but in certain ceramic traditions there is 'pattern burnishing' where the outside and. i. Page | 7 . Burr formation in machining accounts for a significant portion of machining costs for manufacturers throughout the world.

Types There are three type of burrs that can be formed from machining operations: Poisson burr. SURFACE FINISHING Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that alter the surface of a manufactured item for achieve a certain property. rollover burr. modify electrical conductivity. hardness. chemical resistance.the great problem with the drypoint medium is that the burr rapidly diminishes after as few as ten impressions are printed. and breakout burr. tarnish resistance. Adding and altering Blanching Case hardening Ceramic glaze Cladding Corona treatment Diffusion processes: o Carburizing o Nitriding Galvanizing Gilding Glazing Knurling Painting Passivation/Conversion coating o Anodizing o Bluing o Chromate conversion coating o Phosphate conversion coating  Parkerizing o Plasma electrolytic oxidation Plasma spraying Powder coating Thin-film deposition Page | 8 . Surface finishing processes can be categorized by how they affect the workpiece: Removing or reshaping finishing Adding or altering finishing Mechanical processes may also be categorized together because of similarities the final surface finish. wear resistance. corrosion resistance. solderability. which gives a rich fuzzy quality to the engraved line. is highly desirable . The rollover burr is the most common. remove burrs and other surface flaws. adhesion or wettability. and control the surface friction.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques In the printmaking technique of drypoint. burr. In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item. Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance.

Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Electroplating Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) Mechanical plating Sputter deposition Physical vapor deposition (PVD) Vacuum plating Vitreous enamel o o o o o o o Removing and reshaping Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) Electropolishing Flame polishing Gas cluster ion beam Grinding Linishing Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Pickling Polishing o Buffing Peening o Shot peening Superfinishing Mechanical finishing Mechanical finishing processes include: Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Grinding Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Polishing o Buffing The use of abrasives in metal polishing results in what is considered a "mechanical finish". see Brushed metal. Mechanical finish designations For stainless steel finish designations. #3 Finish Page | 9 .

The quality of this finish is dependent on the quality of the metal being polished. A #7 finish can be made bright by color buffing with coloring compound and a cotton buff. Care should be taken in making sure all surface defects are removed. This is a semi-bright finish that will still have some polishing lines but they should be very dull. Carbon steel and iron are commonly polished to a #7 finish before chrome plating. directional or satin finish. A #4 dairy or sanitary finish is produced by polishing with a 180–240 grit belt or wheel finish softened with 120– 240 grit greaseless compound or a fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. It is produced by polishing the metal with a 120–180 grit belt or wheel finish and then softened with an 80–120 grit greaseless compound or a medium non woven abrasive belt or pad. When the finish is specified as #3. like pits. The part is sisal buffed and then color buffed to achieve a mirror finish. An example would be grinding gates off of castings. These finishes are coarse in nature and usually are a preliminary finish applied before manufacturing. #4 Architectural finish Also known as brushed. #6 Finish Also known as a fine satin finish. Some alloys of steel and aluminum cannot be brought to a mirror finish. #7 Finish A #7 finish is produced by polishing with a 280–320 belt or wheel and sisal buffing with a cut and color compound. This finish is produced by polishing with a 220–280 grit belt or wheel softened with a 220–230 greaseless compound or very fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. Polishing lines should be soft and less reflective than a #4 architectural finish. It is coarse in appearance and applied by using 36–100 grit abrasive. Castings that have slag or pits will also be difficult. Great care should be taken in removing the surface defects in the metal. This is a good way to keep polishing costs down when a part needs to be shiny but not flawless. This finish is much finer than a #4 architectural finish. #4 Dairy or sanitary finish This finish is commonly used for the medical and food industry and almost exclusively used on stainless steel.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Also known as grinding. #8 Finish Also known as a mirror finish. the material is polished to a uniform 60–80 grit. This finish is produced by polishing with at least a 320 grit belt or wheel finish. deburring or removing excess weld material. to polish to a #8. that could allow bacteria to grow. if not impossible. A #4 architectural finish is characterized by fine polishing grit lines that are uniform and directional in appearance. Page | 10 . roughing or rough grinding.