Unit Second

Surface Finishing
Prof. Shashank S. Bhamble Mechanical Engineering Department

Shri Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering, Shegaon

imperfections in the honing stone's profile cannot transfer to the bore. Instead. Honing stones Honing is classified as an abrasive machining manufacturing process. Due to the oscillation. Process mechanics Since honing stones look similar to grinding wheels. the wheel moves in towards the axis of the part. Therefore. which in the case of bore honing is a cylinder. Since the honing stones tend to erode towards a desired geometric shape. The accuracy becomes even worse as the grind wheel wears. Instead both the bore and the honing stones conform to the average shape of the honing stones' motion. In grinding.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques HONING (METALWORKING) Honing is a manufacturing process that produces a precision surface on a workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. corundum or silicon carbide are acceptable. the accuracy of the finished workpiece geometry is limited to the accuracy of the truing dresser. the grinding wheel Page | 1 . it is tempting to think of honing as a form of low-stock removal grinding. The limitation on geometric accuracy is overcome in honing because the honing stone follows a complex path. As a result of the averaging effect. material is cut away from the workpiece using abrasive grains. the grains are bound together with an adhesive to form a honing stone (or hone). but may also improve surface texture. but the most commonly used are corundum. each slice of the honing stones touch a large area of the workpiece. in plunge grinding a shaft. In the case of honing. Generally. As with all abrasive machining processes. the stone moves along two paths simultaneously. To do this. Therefore. it is better to think of it as a self-truing grinding process. honing stones may be treated with wax or sulfur to improve life. Honing machines are much more compliant than grinders. The choice of abrasive material is usually driven by the characteristics of the workpiece material. In bore honing for example. The purpose of grinding is to achieve a tight size tolerance. A honing stone is similar to a grinding wheel in many ways. grinds it. but honing stones are usually more friable so that they conform to the shape of the workpiece as they wear in. To counteract their friability. any inaccuracies in the geometric shape of the grinding wheel will be transferred onto the part.[1] Any abrasive material may be used to create a honing stone. Smaller grain sizes produce a smoother surface on the workpiece. wax is usually preferred for environmental reasons. Since each slice of the wheel repeatedly contacts the same slice of the workpiece. the wheel follows a simple path. CBN or diamond. and then moves back out. silicon carbide. so truing must occur periodically to reshape it. The path of the stone is not the only difference between grinding and honing machines. honing grains are irregularly shaped and about 10 to 50 micrometers in diameter (300 to 1. This averaging effect occurs in all honing processes. In most cases. there is no need to true them. they also differ in the stiffness of their construction. both the workpiece and stones erode until they conform to the average shape of the stones' cutting surface. the accuracy of a honed component often exceeds the accuracy of the machine tool that created it. The stones are pressed radially outward to enlarge the hole while they simultaneously oscillate axially. For example. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface. but extremely hard workpiece materials must be honed using superabrasives.500 mesh grit).

In honing. it can only be economically justified for applications that require very good form accuracy. A honing machine. In fact. Then the part is honed to improve a form characteristic such as roundness. Grinding determines the size. cylindricity. and honing improves the shape. The difference between honing and grinding is not always distinct. Many through-feed grinding operations rely on the same averaging effect as honing. The improved shape after honing may result in a quieter running or higher precision component. or sphericity. flatness. Instead of relying on the accuracy of the machine tool. Page | 2 . Superfinishing stones are softer and wear more quickly. It is typically the last manufacturing operation before the part is shipped to a customer. The dimensional size of the object is established by preceding operations. superfinishing can improve the geometric form of an object. the contact area between the abrasive and workpiece are larger than in grinding.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques must be moved to an exact position relative to the workpiece. while in honing the stone is actuated with pneumatic or hydraulic pressure. Superfinishing stones don't need to be dressed. A superfinishing machine must move the stone in a compound or orbital motion relative to the part surface. Superfinishing has lower cutting efficiency because of smaller chips. This leads to an obvious difference between the two machines: in a grinder the stone is rigidly attached to a slide. High-precision workpieces are usually ground and then honed. Economics Since honing is a high precision process. compliance is a requirement of a honing machine that is necessary for the averaging effect to occur. Superfinishing has lower material removal rate. Therefore a grinding machine must be very stiff and its axes must move with very high precision.[3] Unlike polishing. Honing configurations Track/Raceway honing Spherical honing OD through-feed honing (taper and straight) Flat honing Bore honing Comparisons to grinding Superfinishing is more expensive than grinding. and some honing machines are equipped with in-process gaging for size control. Performance advantages of honed surfaces Since honing is a relatively expensive manufacturing process. it relies on the averaging effect between the stone and the workpiece. is relatively inaccurate and compliant. The primary purpose of polishing is to improve surface finish without concern for form. the last of which is usually grinding. ironically. Some grinders have complex movements and are self-truing. Therefore it is only used in components that demand the highest level of precision. it is also relatively expensive.

charged with emery. In use. In operation. The second picture is that of a commercially available lapping machine which is needed for this process. usually in a "figure-eight" pattern.8 nm helium neon laser light source. Due to the dimensions of such small samples. typically involves rubbing a brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron or glass itself (also known as the "lap" or grinding tool) with an abrasive such as aluminum oxide. this pump feeds abrasive slurry onto the rotating lapping plate. emery. At the other end of the size spectrum. lensmakers can produce surfaces that are flat to better than 30 nanometers. A jig allows precise control of the orientation of the specimen to the lapping plate and fine adjustment of the load applied to the specimen during the material removal process. in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them. although it is similar). a slurry of emery powder would be spread on the plate and the workpiece simply rubbed against the plate. The workpiece would be placed inside one of these rings.. The weights can also be seen in the picture along with two fiber spacer disks that are just used to even the load. with the aid of accurate interferometry and specialized polishing machines or skilled hand polishing. Taken to the ultimate limit. machines with eight to ten foot diameter plates are not uncommon and systems with tables 30 feet in diameter have been constructed. lapping machine and jig). A weight would then be placed on top of the workpiece. This can take two forms. which is "charged" with the abrasive. etc. (This is not the same as the wringing effect of Johansson blocks. in between them. When there is a requirement to lap very small specimens (from 3" down to a few millimetres). Page | 3 .Advanced Manufacturing Techniques LAPPING Lapping is a machining operation. In this machine. For a commercial machine that is about the smallest size available. This produces microscopic conchoidal fractures as the abrasive rolls about between the two surfaces and removes material from both. a lapping jig can be used to hold the material while it is lapped (see Image 3. Operation By way of example. The first type of lapping (traditionally called grinding). this will produce a polished surface such as with a polishing cloth on an automobile. This is one twentieth of the wavelength of light from the commonly used 632. by hand movement or by way of a machine. a piece of lead may be used as the lap. Surfaces this flat can be molecularly bonded (optically contacted) by bringing them together under the right conditions. Taken to the finer limit. and used to cut a piece of hardened steel. The jig sits in a cradle on top of the lapping plate and the dial on the front of the jig indicates the amount of material removed from the specimen. diamond. The other form of lapping involves a softer material for the lap. That particular plate is made of cast iron. The lap is then used to cut a harder material—the workpiece. a small slurry pump can be seen at the side. traditional loads and weights are too heavy as they would destroy delicate materials. the rings stay in one location as the lapping plate rotates beneath them. Referring to the second picture again. the lap is the large circular disk on the top of the machine. or a polishing cloth or polishing pitch upon glass or steel. silicon carbide. On top of the lap are two rings. The lap or lapping plate in this machine is 30 cm (12") in diameter. The abrasive embeds within the softer material which holds it and permits it to score across and cut the harder material. The small plate shown in the first picture is that of a hand lapping plate.

As a side note: Two parts that are lapped to a flatness of about 1HLB will exhibit "Wringing-in" or "Jo Blocking": a phenomenon where the two parts will cling to each other when placed in contact.sometimes called "Johansson blocks" after the manufacturer . If one piece flexes due to this lack of support.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Two-piece lapping Where the mating of the two surfaces is more important than the flatness. separated by a distance determined by the average size of the abrasive particles. Accuracy and surface roughness Lapping can be used to obtain a specific surface roughness. Unfortunately. As the pieces are moved past each other. Measurement Of flatness The easiest method for measuring flatness is with a height gage positioned on a surface plate. The name "Jo-blocking" comes from the fact that gage blocks . Surface roughness and surface flatness are two quite different concepts. This yields closeness-of-fit results comparable to that of two accurately-flat pieces. A typical range of surface roughness that can be obtained without resort to special equipment would fall in the range of 1 to 30 Ra (average roughness in micrometers or microinches). the edges of the opposite piece will tend to dig depressions into it a short distance in from the edge. just placing the part on the surface plate and using a dial indicator to find TIR on the opposite side Page | 4 . Note that you must setup the part on three stands and find the minimum variation while adjusting them. without quite the same degree of testing required for the latter. Schematic of two-piece lapping One complication in two-piece lapping is the need to ensure that neither piece flexes or is deformed during the process. Though flatness is the most common goal of lapping. the two pieces can be lapped together. Again.can be made to stick together in this manner. without resort to special equipment accuracies of 1 to 3 HLB are typical. Surface accuracy or flatness is usually measured in Helium Light Bands.000011 inches (280 nm). the process is also used to obtain other configurations such as a concave or convex surface. they are concepts that are often confused by the novice. and the edges of the opposite piece are heavily abraded by the same action . resulting in two surfaces evolving towards some common shape (not necessarily perfectly flat). and fails in this manner if the workpiece itself deforms under that pressure. one HLB measuring about 0. part of each (some area near the edge) will be unsupported for some fraction of the rubbing movement. it is also used to obtain very accurate surfaces. The principle is that the protrusions on one surface will both abrade and be abraded by the protrusions on the other. with a surface roughness determined by the variation in the abrasive size. usually very flat surfaces.the lapping procedure assumes roughly equal pressure distribution across the whole surface at all times.

Roughness may be also measured by comparing the surface of the workpiece to a known sample. In the past the light source would have been provided by a Helium lamp or tube. Of roughness Surface roughness is defined by the minute variations in height of the surface of a given material or workpiece. The abrasive is oscillated or rotated while the workpiece is rotated in the opposite direction. unlike polishing which produces a mirror finish. kerosene is a common lubricant. Flatness is more easily measured with a co-ordinate measuring machine.5μm). Process After a metal piece is ground to an initial finish. which Page | 5 . The monochromatic light is then shone down through the glass. Calibration samples are available usually sold in a set and usually covering the typical range of machining operations from about 125 Ra to 1 Ra. This is achieved by removing just the thin amorphous surface layer left by the last process with an abrasive stone. The first phase is when the abrasive first contacts the workpiece surface the dull grains of the abrasive fracture and fall away. which can alter the metallurgical properties. Each fringe – or band – represents a change of one half wavelength in the width of the gap between the glass and the workpiece. The light bands display a contour map of the surface of the workpiece and can be readily interpreted for flatness. The picture to the right shows a typical monochromatic light unit used in workshops and laboratories. The individual variances of the peaks and valleys are averaged (Ra reading). SUPERFINISHING Superfinishing. The light will pass through the glass and reflect off the workpiece. an instrument that measures the minute variations in height of the surface of a workpiece.0001" (2. The abrasive cuts the surface of the workpiece in three phases. The optical flat – which is a piece of transparent glass that has itself been lapped and polished on one or both sides – is placed on the lapped surface. A lubricant is used to minimize heat production. As the light reflects in the gap between the workpiece and the polished surface of the glass. it is superfinished with a finer grit solid abrasive. a stone (rectangular shape) is for cylindrical surfaces and cups and wheels are used for flat and spherical surfaces. The superfinishing process was developed by the Chrysler Corporation in 1934. Superfinishing. or quantified by the largest difference from peak-to-valley (Rz). Another method that is commonly used with lapped parts is the reflection and interference of monochromatic light. these motions are what causes the cross-hatching. But neither of these methods can measure flatness more accurately than about 0. Roughness is usually expressed in microinches.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques of the part measures parallelism. is a metalworking process that improves surface finish and workpiece geometry. The geometry of the abrasive depends on the geometry of the workpiece surface. Surface roughness is measured with a profilometer. and to carry away the swarf. the light will interfere with itself creating light and dark fringes. but nowadays a more common source of monochromatic light is the low pressure sodium lamp. A surface that exhibits an Ra of 8 consists of peaks and valleys that average no more than 8 microinches over a given distance. this layer is usually about 1 μm in magnitude. also known as micromachining and short-stroke honing. creates a cross-hatch pattern on the workpiece.[1] A monochromatic light source and an optical flat are all that are needed.

shock absorber rods.20 in). plunge. If the two are parallel then the result if a flat finish. Aluminium oxide is used for "roughing" operations. Abrasives Common abrasives used for superfinishing include: aluminium oxide. which creates the cross-hatching. decreasing wear. the abrasive grains dull.3 MPa (1.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques produces a sharp new cutting surface. Types There are three types superfinishing: Through-feed.06 MPa (299 psi). and elimination of a break in period. Finally. silicon carbide. but find use with specialized materials. with 6 to 14 m/min preferred. but if the wheel is tilted slightly a convex or concave surfaces will form. Silicone carbide is harder than aluminium oxide. CBN and diamond are not as commonly used. The pressure applied to the abrasive is very light. Honing is usually 3.7 to 137.039 to 0.07 MPa (3 to 10 psi).[3] Superfinishing can give a surface finish of 0. usually between 0. cubic boron nitride (CBN). Through-feed This type of superfinishing is used for cylindrical workpieces. When a stone is used it is oscillated at 200 to 1000 cycles with an amplitude of 1 to 5 mm (0. better sealing capabilities. and diamond.01 μm. The workpiece is rotated between two drive rollers. The main disadvantage is that superfinishing requires grinding or a hard turning operation beforehand. Abrasive grains must be very fine to be used with superfinishing. This adds cost to the finished product. which improves the surface geometry. and needles. Four to eight progressively finer abrasive stones are used to superfinish the workpiece. Wheels Abrasive cups or wheels are used to superfinish flat and spherical surfaces. Examples of parts that would be produced by process include tapered rolls. and wheels. The stones contact the workpiece at a 90° angle and are oscillated axially. usually 5–8 μm. closer tolerances. The wheel and workpiece are rotated in opposite directions. which also move the machine as well. so it is used for "finishing" operations. Plunge This type is used to finish irregularly shaped surfaces. piston pins.910 psi).02 to 0.9 MPa (490 to 1. higher load bearing surfaces. but can be as high as 2. Note that graphite may be mixed with other abrasives to add lubricity and to enhance the appearance of the finish. shafts. this is much slower compared to grinding speeds around 1800 to 3500 m/min. where a most of the stock is removed. The average rotational speed of abrasive wheel and/or workpiece is 1 to 15 surface m/min. Advantages & disadvantages Advantages of superfinishing include: increasing part life.4 to 6. Page | 6 . In the second phase the abrasive "self dresses".000 psi) and grinding is between 13. such as ceramics and M50.990 to 19. The workpiece is rotated while the abrasive plunges onto the desired surface.

and sharpening stones and wheels. drilling. and durability. As one could imagine. milling. One good example of unwanted burrs is in the automotive industry where cylinder blocks. the cost and time needed to perform these drilling and deburring operations is significant. With higher and higher demands placed on accuracy and precision. In addition to drilling. while it still is in a leathery 'green' state. Burr formation in machining accounts for a significant portion of machining costs for manufacturers throughout the world. engraving or turning. This technique can be applied to concrete masonry. and shortly a glossy sheen will come up and the wood will become slick. The Boeing 747 airplane has approximately 1. or is colored in some way. using a hard smooth surface such as a wooden or bone spatula. milling is also a source of burr formation in machining. Burnishing can also apply to relief printing. Drilling burrs. creating a polished finish. Often the whole outer surface of the pot is thus decorated. but cross ways will still work. the more important one should be rubbed down its grain.3 million holes drilled in it. Rub them along one another. transmission components. It has been proven that superfinishing certain parts makes them more durable. or even glass bulbs.e. such as grinding. Burrs are most commonly created after machining operations. burr formation is of critical importance because it can affect engine performance. so choose carefully and perform a test rub first. Burr (edge) A burr is a raised edge or small pieces of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process.[1] It is usually an unwanted piece of material and when removed the process is called deburring. the inside. If one wood has a dye in it. reliability.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Applications Common applications include: steering rack components. for example. Burnishing can also be applied to wood. Page | 7 . or heavy object. fuel injector components. It may be present in the form of a fine wire on the edge of a freshly sharpened tool or as a raised portion on a surface. it may rub off onto the other wood. After firing. i. bearing races.[citation needed] most of which have to be deburred to some extent. Hard woods are best to use with this. hydraulic cylinder rods. For example if the teeth in a gear are superfinished they will last up to four times as long. before firing. BURNISH Burnishing is a form of pottery treatment in which the surface of the pot is polished. smooth stones. pistons and other engine components are cast then milled to a specific dimension. needle rollers. are common when drilling almost any material. the surface is extremely shiny. plastic. camshaft lobes. but in certain ceramic traditions there is 'pattern burnishing' where the outside and. but you do not have to wait for a burnished piece of wood to dry as you would if you had varnished it. are decorated with burnished patterns in which some areas are left matte. after being struck a blow from an equally hard. in the case of open bowls. Burnishing does not protect the wood like a varnish does.

Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance. adhesion or wettability. The rollover burr is the most common. Adding and altering Blanching Case hardening Ceramic glaze Cladding Corona treatment Diffusion processes: o Carburizing o Nitriding Galvanizing Gilding Glazing Knurling Painting Passivation/Conversion coating o Anodizing o Bluing o Chromate conversion coating o Phosphate conversion coating  Parkerizing o Plasma electrolytic oxidation Plasma spraying Powder coating Thin-film deposition Page | 8 . is highly desirable . Surface finishing processes can be categorized by how they affect the workpiece: Removing or reshaping finishing Adding or altering finishing Mechanical processes may also be categorized together because of similarities the final surface finish. In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item. and breakout burr. remove burrs and other surface flaws. tarnish resistance. which gives a rich fuzzy quality to the engraved line. SURFACE FINISHING Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that alter the surface of a manufactured item for achieve a certain property. burr. solderability. rollover burr. Types There are three type of burrs that can be formed from machining operations: Poisson burr.the great problem with the drypoint medium is that the burr rapidly diminishes after as few as ten impressions are printed. corrosion resistance. wear resistance. modify electrical conductivity. and control the surface friction.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques In the printmaking technique of drypoint. hardness. chemical resistance.

see Brushed metal. #3 Finish Page | 9 .Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Electroplating Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) Mechanical plating Sputter deposition Physical vapor deposition (PVD) Vacuum plating Vitreous enamel o o o o o o o Removing and reshaping Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) Electropolishing Flame polishing Gas cluster ion beam Grinding Linishing Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Pickling Polishing o Buffing Peening o Shot peening Superfinishing Mechanical finishing Mechanical finishing processes include: Abrasive blasting o Sandblasting Burnishing Grinding Mass finishing processes o Tumble finishing o Vibratory finishing Polishing o Buffing The use of abrasives in metal polishing results in what is considered a "mechanical finish". Mechanical finish designations For stainless steel finish designations.

that could allow bacteria to grow. This is a good way to keep polishing costs down when a part needs to be shiny but not flawless. to polish to a #8. #7 Finish A #7 finish is produced by polishing with a 280–320 belt or wheel and sisal buffing with a cut and color compound. if not impossible. #6 Finish Also known as a fine satin finish. the material is polished to a uniform 60–80 grit. It is coarse in appearance and applied by using 36–100 grit abrasive. An example would be grinding gates off of castings. A #7 finish can be made bright by color buffing with coloring compound and a cotton buff. The quality of this finish is dependent on the quality of the metal being polished. Castings that have slag or pits will also be difficult. Great care should be taken in removing the surface defects in the metal. These finishes are coarse in nature and usually are a preliminary finish applied before manufacturing. #4 Architectural finish Also known as brushed. This finish is much finer than a #4 architectural finish. Some alloys of steel and aluminum cannot be brought to a mirror finish. The part is sisal buffed and then color buffed to achieve a mirror finish. Polishing lines should be soft and less reflective than a #4 architectural finish. When the finish is specified as #3. A #4 dairy or sanitary finish is produced by polishing with a 180–240 grit belt or wheel finish softened with 120– 240 grit greaseless compound or a fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. It is produced by polishing the metal with a 120–180 grit belt or wheel finish and then softened with an 80–120 grit greaseless compound or a medium non woven abrasive belt or pad. This finish is produced by polishing with a 220–280 grit belt or wheel softened with a 220–230 greaseless compound or very fine non woven abrasive belt or pad. Carbon steel and iron are commonly polished to a #7 finish before chrome plating.Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Also known as grinding. directional or satin finish. Care should be taken in making sure all surface defects are removed. #8 Finish Also known as a mirror finish. like pits. #4 Dairy or sanitary finish This finish is commonly used for the medical and food industry and almost exclusively used on stainless steel. A #4 architectural finish is characterized by fine polishing grit lines that are uniform and directional in appearance. deburring or removing excess weld material. This finish is produced by polishing with at least a 320 grit belt or wheel finish. roughing or rough grinding. Page | 10 . This is a semi-bright finish that will still have some polishing lines but they should be very dull.

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