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SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance
PROCEDURE FOR MAINTENANCE OF SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES PROCEDURE NO.: P1-GIPL-003
The users of this procedure are advised to refer the corresponding OEM (O&M) manual for carrying out specific O&M activities. moulded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB).2 Circle Manager The Circle Manager or In-charge is responsible for ensuring that all activities related to this procedure are complied with and recorded as described in this document. 3. 2. This procedure provides general guidelines as applicable for different types of SMPS. The AC & DC distribution unit mainly consists of components like contactors.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 1. Scope This procedure will outline the maintenance routines and responsibilities for the Switched Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) in BTS sites. 3. Alarm Control Module. Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB) & HRC fuses. AC distribution unit & DC distribution unit and metal clad enclosure housing these components. 2 . The National Head or his nominated Deputy shall be authorised for any changes with this procedure. Responsibilities 3. Purpose This document provides instructions for carrying out Periodic Maintenance of Switched Mode Power Supply and its parts like Rectifiers.1 National Head Based at Corporate office –New Delhi is responsible for the technical integrity of this procedure.
in order to prevent battery over-discharge. fault alarm. the rectifiers stop working. The rating of the rack depends on the total number of rectifier modules. It also has the functions of detecting the signal of DC and AC power distribution units. terminal blocks for loads & battery distribution and protection like BLVD. contactors for mains supply to the power rack terminal and surge protection device to prevent damage to rectifier modules due to surges & spikes present in AC mains. the battery to maintain normal operation powers the equipment.e. The DC distribution unit consists of a number of miniature circuit breakers. The alarm control module receives the operation information of AC & DC distribution units and rectifiers and performs the corresponding controls. battery fuse. In normal conditions. i. When the battery voltage drops to the terminating voltage 42. The AC distribution unit consists of MCBs for protection. When an AC main fails.5V. The rectifiers supply power to the telecom equipments & security systems and float charge current to the battery. When the AC main is recovered.2 Maintenance Frequency and Records 3 .1 Background The rectifiers in SMPS are in modular fashion. 4.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 4. the rectifiers and batteries operate in parallel. LLVD. the system operates in parallel float charge state. All the rectifier modules provide active load current sharing. the system activates the BLVD contactor to disconnect and thoroughly protect the battery.4. the rectifiers resume powering the equipment and charging the battery to compensate for the consumed energy.4 Maintenance Process 4. and communicating with host and monitoring module.
4. Do NOT touch any components with bare hands as this may lead to electrocution.1 Inspections SMPS in energised condition • Inform the concerned authority and start • The SMPS and the components therein are LIVE and in energised state. never directly touch the radiator of the rectifier to avoid any scald. 4 . • Maintain a safe distance while working near LIVE terminals.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 Format No. the temperature of the heat sink is very high. 4. • When the rectifier is working. • Wear safety shoes while working. • Do not touch any live conductors/cables without verifying that they are dead. • Use only insulated tools while working on DC circuits.3.4. When the working rectifier is extracted out.3 Safety Precautions The following safety precautions need to be followed for carrying out any work on the SMPS: 4. • Stand on dry and insulated objects like Rubber Matt during working. OEM/002 OEM/0013 Frequency Yearly Fortnightly Location BTS BTS Period to be maintained 3 Years 3 Months Contact the vendor for any manufacturing defects or discrepancies found during the maintenance.2 Maintenance SMPS in de-energised condition • Ensure that all supplies to the panel are switched OFF and the respective switch locked and red tags placed on them. 4.4.3.
• Use personal protective equipment like safety shoes and hand gloves while working on SMPS. • Discharge the circuits using proper discharge wire.4.5 Fortnightly Maintenance Tasks 5 . 4.4.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • In case the maintenance is to be done on part of the SMPS and where the other part is LIVE then appropriate care should be taken to mark its LIVE portion. • Warning signs.4 Tools Required • • • • • • • • • Calibrated Digital Multimeter Spanner set Cloth. keep the earth connections continuously on the bus-bars. Use hand held tools with ELCB boards only. • Temporary stickers have to be placed to discourage working personnel from operating at the LIVE parts. Cotton rags Nylon Brush Normal hand gloves Megger 500 V Discharge wire First aid kit Vacuum cleaner 4. if required shall be placed at appropriate places. Care should be taken to first connect the discharge wire to ground bus and then connect it to the circuit. • To protect the system against the rise in potential of metal structures. • Access to working space and escape passages shall be kept clear and unobstructed. drill machines etc. • Use only insulated tools while working on DC circuits. • Follow all precautions while using hand held tools like blowers.
The general steps for inspection are as outlined below: 6 . The following types of problems can be detected during the fortnightly inspection: • • • • • • • • Overheating of components like MCB. Proper maintenance of SMPS ensures continuous power availability to loads.6. Extreme care should be exercised while opening the door and working near or close to LIVE parts.2 Inspection Procedure Refer the manufacturer’s manual for the maintenance guidelines and record the observations.1 Purpose of Inspection The purpose of the fortnightly inspection is to assess the general condition of the SMPS including the condition monitoring check of its various parameters. High amount of dust and dirt inside the SMPS. Possible source of entry for vermin entry 4. which could lead to failures.4. Oxidation of connections at terminals.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 Ref the data sheet OEM/0013 4. Relays. Overheating or chaffing of cables inside the panel. Intention of this inspection as described above is to find out the visible abnormalities. Contactors. Unbalance or overloading of the circuits. MCCB. NOTE: Whenever performing maintenance inspections ensure that the manufacturers’ instruction manual for the SMPS is available for review. Non-working or missing indicating lamps and meters. Improper voltages from the supply side.6. This fortnightly inspection is intended to be a general quick check for the more conspicuous problems that can be encountered.4.
• Check all the three-phase or single-phase voltage(s) from the Monitoring Module.4 V). • Check the battery float voltage with the batteries in fully charged condition (for VRLA battery.25 + 0. • Check that the frequency of supply is within the range i. MCB.4. Check that the SPD is not discoloured. The difference between the system voltage displayed by the monitoring module and that displayed by the rectifier should not exceed 0.2 to 54. Check normal display parameters as per OEM.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Follow all safety precautions as mentioned in section. MCCB etc. Do not try to rectify the switch or meter in LIVE state as this may lead to short circuit. 50Hz ± 5% • Check that the output voltage and current of rectifier is normal.4. • Check the load current and compare the same with the ratings of the breaker.02 x 24 =54. Do not disconnect the secondary connections of the CT as this may lead to high voltage on the secondary side and damage the CT and as well as create a hazard for the working personnel.e. • Check that the output current imbalance between rectifiers is less than 5%. • Check the normal condition of the surge protection device (SPD) and its breaker. deformed or torn up.2V. • Check the three phase or single-phase current(s) from the Monitoring Module. In case of doubt check the voltage using a multimeter on the incomer switch/MCB/MCCB. it should be 2. Check the output current of each rectifier.3 • Check whether all indicating lamps/alarm control module are in working condition and are as per logic designed. • Check the earthing bonding between surge arrestor ground and main earthing bus. 7 .
• Wherever feasible observe the cable terminations and connections. Observe for insulation chaffing. • Check that the rectifier’s fan and airway. improper glanding. Take corrective actions if possible or else arrange for planned event. Plug such opening with proper material. As a general rule. If found abnormally hot then switch off the concerned circuit and observe for any abnormalities. frayed sheath. This can be source for rodent/reptile entry. If water leaks are observed then cover the panel with plastic sheet as a temporary measure. Use of Laptop to check all parameter is not necessary. dust net and cabinet ventilation are not obstructed by objects and no dust is accumulated. • Check that the sockets are connected firmly. wrong sizes of glands and terminals. • Observe for any leaks over the top of SMPS. Subsequently attend the water leak. Check that the cables are routed in order and firmly and that no cables are distorted due to the pressure imposed by metallic parts. • Observe for any unwanted cable openings. • Check the neutral conductor condition for any visible signs of over-heat. any temperature that the palm of the hand cannot stand for about 3 seconds may indicate trouble. Temporary measure can be adopted to cover the openings till permanent arrangement is made. • Feel the SMPS with bare hands. In case the circuit cannot be de-energised because of operational criticality then arrange for a planned event at the earliest.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Check the individual general parameters of the SMPS available from the panel display. • Check that there is no blockage in equipment radiation passage. during operation. 8 . If dust is observed then clear the same using a vacuum cleaner or a blower or brush.
Generally it is recommended to conduct annual inspection during the first three years of operation. Repair if found loose. The following repair work/maintenance jobs are taken up during the annual maintenance plan: • Replacement of all missing meters and indication lamps. In case of any critical/pending jobs that warrants shutdown of the complete SMPS.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Check the individual component like MCB. corroded or broken. Check the continuity of earthing point up-to earth pit physically. unusual noises etc. contactors. then this job has to be done under PE window. • Check the grounding connections for the SMPS. However. broken condition. 9 . The inspection followed by subsequent maintenance during the annual shutdown (Partially & fully de-energised) is quite detailed.7. discoloration.4.7 Yearly Maintenance & Inspection 4. 4. The load (telecom) will continue to be fed through the battery bank and the respective load MCBs. MCCB. In order to avoid such a scenario. it is proposed to carry this maintenance procedure with only AC input & rectifiers in OFF condition. Replace if it is possible without affecting the operations else arrange a planed event for replacement. The normal course of maintenance of the SMPS shall be in PARTIALLY DEENERGISED CONDITION only.4. the maintenance of SMPS in fully de-energised state would lead to outage of DC power and thus outage of network. Inspection and maintenance frequency can then be increased or decreased depending upon the observations and experience.1 Purpose of Inspection The purpose of yearly inspection is to assess the overall condition of the SMPS. This is normally performed with the SMPS in OFF and DEAD condition. relays and fuses for any abnormality like overheating.
4.3 • Switch OFF the input MCB on the AC side.4. • Inform the NNOC about the work. MCCB. NOTE: Whenever performing maintenance inspections ensure that the manufacturer’s instruction manual for the SMPS is available for review. Place a red tag on the LT panel to indicate that the circuit is deenergised.4.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Rectification of faults observed during the normal energised state inspection • Cleaning of SMPS interiors • Meggering of bus ducts and bus-bars • Checking of trips and alarms.: OEM/0002 for annual maintenance of SMPS in partially deenergised and fully de-energised condition.2 Inspection/Maintenance Procedure Refer Format No. In case of two sources of power shut OFF both the power sources. Prolonged outage of SMPS panel may lead to site failure due to battery discharge Hence the shutdown work should be completed in stipulated hours of battery backup. • Identify the switches. The maintenance procedure for SMPS in partially de-energised condition includes shifting the DC load onto the batteries. breakers that need to be isolated for deenergizing the section of SMPS.7. • Follow all safety precautions as mentioned in section 4. This will shift the load on to the batteries. 10 . Ensure that the upstream MCB/SFU in the LT panel is also switched OFF. The general parameters of the SMPS shall be recorded in Format OEM/0003. MAINTENANCE OF SMPS IN PARTIALLY DE-ENERGISED CONDITION The following activities shall be carried out during the annual maintenance in partially de-energised condition: • Identify the section that will be shut down for maintenance.
Ensure that proper red tags are placed at appropriate places. Check that it is not damaged and replace if necessary. Check the normal operation of the surge protection device. wrong sizes of glands and terminals and take corrective actions if required. Switch on the MCCB corresponding to the SMPS at the ACDB Switch ON the AC input MCCB of the SMPS. improper glanding. Check that there is no fault indication displayed on surge protector. Observe for cracked insulation. Observe the AC cable terminations and connections. inspected & replaced. before resuming operation. the AC contactor closes. Switch on the rectifier’s circuit breakers in front of the AC distribution Module one by one. At this time. frayed sheath. Clean the air filter to provide filtered air. Check the SMPS earthing continuity. Check that all the nuts & bolts are tightened properly. Check for AC loose connections. Loose connections or bad terminations will cause heat buildup. Open the SMPS door and check the enclosure door gasket for proper placement & replace if damaged. Ensure that the load is transferred to the battery backup. If any signs of heat are noticed at any termination point. Check the wiring between SMPS and the remote alarm management system (either at DDF or SCADA system). being careful not to overstress the bolts. All the switches and breakers (AC input MCCB and rectifier’s circuit breaker) should be in OFF position and the lightning protection circuit breaker is closed before switching on the AC power. that connection should be disconnected.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Isolate the section planned for maintenance. if necessary. Check that the AC operation indicator turns ON. Check the cables for evidence of overheating. 11 . Switch OFF individual rectifiers by switching OFF the corresponding MCBs. Do not install a wet filter in the unit.
12 .e. • Check for AC & DC loose connections. If any alarm is observed then it should be checked & rectified. • Remove the HRC battery fuse ensuring the battery is not connected to the system. Ensure that the upstream MCB/SFU in the LT panel is also switched OFF. Be careful to use insulated tools. • Note down the load currents. • Check the output voltage displayed on the monitoring module. Repair & paint as required. MAINTENANCE OF SMPS IN FULLLY DE-ENERGISED CONDITION In addition to the above-mentioned procedures for SMPS maintenance in partially de-energised condition. Place a red tag on the LT panel to indicate that the circuit is de-energised. • Using a digital voltmeter verify that the output voltage is in accordance with the system’s voltage. In case of two sources of power shut OFF both the power sources. verify that no parts of the power or control circuitry are energized by back feed from alternate power or control sources and proper red tags are placed at appropriate places. the following activities shall be carried out during fullyde-energised maintenance: • Switch OFF the input MCB on the AC side.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Measure the mains voltage. • Completely clean the SMPS interiors if dust is observed using vacuum cleaner or blower. • Check the parameters of the alarm simulation and check the alarms accordingly. • Ensure that the power has been properly locked out i. • Ensure that the load is transferred to the normal power supply. • Follow the OEM manual for the procedure of checking of alarms. • Inspect inside the enclosures for damage & corrosion of metallic objects. Use an insulated fuse puller. • Verify that all the rectifier modules are ON and without any fault alarms.
attention should be paid to prevent battery mutual charging due to unequal end voltages of the two batteries. • Switch on the MCCB corresponding to the SMPS at the ACDB • Switch ON the AC input MCCB of the SMPS. When connecting the battery.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Check that the fuses of appropriate ratings are completely inserted in the clips. • Turn ON the load MCBs to put the load on the system 13 . • Test the conductivity of DC cables by using micro-ohm meter or determine voltage drop under test load conditions. • Insert the HRC battery fuse thus connecting the battery to the system. • Before connecting the battery. • Check that the rectifier cooling fans are working properly. confirm with a multimeter that the polarity of the battery cables. the AC contactor closes. If two batteries are connected at the same time. • All the switches and breakers (AC input MCCB and rectifier’s circuit breaker) should be in OFF position and the lightning protection circuit breaker is closed before switching on the AC power. • Check and record the battery charging current. If any alarm is observed then it should be checked & rectified. • Verify that all the rectifier modules are ON and without any fault alarms. Check clips for adequate spring pressure. Check that all the rectifiers communicate properly with the alarm module by observing the LED indications. Insulation resistance would be low if there is any dust or moisture in the interiors of the panel. • Switch on the rectifier’s circuit breakers in front of the AC distribution Module one by one. • Using a digital voltmeter verify that the output voltage is in accordance with the system’s voltage. • Perform insulation resistance test on each phase-to-phase and phase-toground using a Megger on buses. careful attention is required to prevent short circuit of the positive and negative poles of the battery. DC bus and battery terminals match. • Measure the mains voltage • Check the output voltage displayed on the monitoring module. At this time. breakers and cables. Check that the AC operation indicator turns ON.
4. 7. These alarms are then extended to the OMCR. AC mains failure For details of various alarms available for each model. 4.8 Alarm Simulation The alarm module in the SMPS facilitates Potential Free Contacts (PFC) for remote monitoring of alarms. By switching OFF the AC mains check that the BOL alarm (or/and AC mains failure alarm) appears. • Note down the load currents. Simulation of Alarms 1. General alarms available in the SMPS are: 1. The entire SMPS related alarms and electrical parameters need to be verified after conjunction with OMCR. Various alarms are configured to functional relays in such a way that a single relay operates when one or more alarms configured to it appear. Switch ON the AC mains and check that the alarm is cleared. Battery On Line (BOL) 2. Fuse failure 3. please refer the OEM manual. Rectifier failure 4. High and Low DC voltage 6. Battery Low Voltage Disconnect (BLVD) 5. The output alarms of SMPS in case of Avansys make are grouped and these can also be checked either through keypad or shorting the terminals. 14 .PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 • Ensure that the load is transferred to the normal power supply. All alarms are potential free and may be connected to external displays/equipment as closed or open circuit when alarm is reported. Simulation can be done by shorting these terminals at the output relays or by actual operation of relays through keypads.
OEM/002 OEM/0013 Frequency Yearly Fortnightly Location BTS BTS 15 .5 Formats. Either by shorting the terminals on DDF or SCADA or by operating the relay through keypads check that the Fuse Failure alarm appears and the same is cleared when resetted. Records & Frequency Period to be maintained 3 Years 3 Months Format No. 4. 2. While carrying out the above alarm simulation. 3. Pull out the redundant rectifier module and check that the Rectifier Failure alarm appears. check that the alarms are extended to the OMCR when they appear and the same are cleared when the relays are resetted.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-003 1. Refit the rectifier module back in its place and check that the alarm clears. Check the BLVD alarm only by shorting the terminals of the relay and NOT through actuation.
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