You are on page 1of 676


Foreword by the Minister


In a demanding world of constantly and fast-changing economic and social challenges such as increasing food prices, food insecurity and rural development, there are people who, although willing and enthusiastic, cannot realise their full potential. Contributing factors such as lack of skills, resources and opportunities could all play a role in limiting people’s achievements. To reach its full potential the country relies on a vibrant agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector in providing food and employment opportunities. Sustainable agriculture is also vital in the protection of our scarce resources, caring for the land and in plotting the way for future growth. I trust that as we page through the National Agricultural Directory 2011, useful addresses and numbers could become a business linkage tool through knowledge and information sharing. The information in the directory could also be useful in agricultural training and education, as well as empowerment and capacity building. A divergent range of clients, e.g. students, planners and business entrepreneurs, will all find the directory a valuable starting point and orientation in establishing future contacts. By regularly updating the Directory we also aim to ensure that the information remains relevant and focuses on the latest technology. May the Directory, or the websites, publications, and role players mentioned within these pages, provide answers to a wide range of challenges and queries in the agricultural field.


Africa and agriculture SADC and agriculture South Africa and agriculture The importance of rural development Agriculture and the provinces The urban question


193 198 201 202 205 207 211 217 221 225 228 229 231 233 234 236 240 241 244 246 249 252 258

8 15 20 22 29 34

National issues
Biosecurity Black Economic Empowerment Climate change and global warming Emerging farmer support Energy Food Security HIV and Aids Human Settlements Labour and job creation Land reform People with disabilities Safety and security Water Women Youth 36 43 55 60 70 75 80 83 86 91 97 99 102 108 112

Grain and oilseeds Grapes Groundnuts Herbs and spices Honeybush Horticulture Indigenous Knowledge and African vegetables Indigenous medicinal plants Maize Other fibre crops Other grains and oilseeds Potatoes Rooibos Sorghum Soybeans Subtropical fruit Sugarcane Sunflowers Tea Tobacco Tree nuts Vegetables Wheat

Animal feeds Animal health Biocontrol Boreholes and windmills Compost and organic fertiliser Conservation tillage Crop protection Earthworms and vermicompost Fencing Fertigation Fertiliser Fleet maintenance and spare parts Forklifts Fuel and lubricants Grain storage and handling Implements Irrigation Livestock-related equipment Miscellaneous equipment Packaging Pumps and generators Seeds and seedlings Structures and building supplies Tractors, combines, balers Trailers Trucks and heavy machinery Tyres Undercover growing and hydroponics Use of animal power Water storage 4x4s and other vehicles 261 264 269 272 274 276 280 286 288 291 292 300 303 304 309 314 315 320 321 323 325 327 333 334 339 340 341 342 347 349 351

Capacity building, science and technology
Agricultural education and training Careers and employment in agriculture The Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) ICT and agricultural media Mapping Plant breeding and biotechnology Precision farming Precision livestock farming Science and research 116 128 139 140 145 146 152 154 155

Field crops and horticulture
Barley Berries Canola Cassava Chicory Citrus fruit Coffee Cotton Cut-flowers and ornamental plants Deciduous fruit Dry beans Floriculture and nursery crops Forage and pastures Forestry Fruit 159 161 163 164 165 166 170 172 176 178 180 183 184 187 190

Disclaimer: We have tried to make this information � mentioned in the relevant chapters. We will not be held responsible for consequences of actions which may arise from information contained in this book.





Animal Improvement and Breeders Aquaculture Beef Beekeeping Dairy Donkeys Equine industry – horses Gamebirds, waterfowl and other poultry Goats Goats – mohair Goat and sheep dairy Indigenous breeds Livestock Ostriches Other livestock Pork Poultry Rabbits Sheep Sheep – wool Speciality fibre production Wildlife ranching

353 359 366 371 374 378 383 387 389 391 393 394 397 404 407 408 414 420 422 424 428 430

Resources and Good Agricultural Practice
Biodiversity Biological farming Birds and farming Conservancies and farming Environmental Impact Assessments and other legislation Fire Invasive Alien Species (IAS) LandCare Organic farming Permaculture Rainwater harvesting Rangeland / veld Renewable energy Soils Waste management Weather and climate Wetlands Wildlife on farms 542 550 552 555 558 563 566 570 572 580 585 586 591 596 599 603 606 612

Value add and agro-processing
Agro-processing Abattoirs Baking Biofuels Canning and preserving Dairy Dried fruit Essential and vegetable oils Food safety and traceability Hunting Leather Milling Small and micro milling Winemaking 618 628 633 634 638 640 643 644 651 656 658 661 664 666

Marketing and finance
Agribusinesses Agricultural shows and events Auctions – livestock Banks Commodity trading Co-operatives Development financial services Embassies and donor programmes Exporting Fibre trading Fresh produce markets Infrastucture and agricultural logistics Intellectual property rights Managing your finances Marketing Providers of financial services Risk management and insurance Supply chain management 434 443 446 448 456 463 468 473 475 481 483 490 493 498 502 508 512 518

Roll of honour: our advertisers
Without you this public resource would not be possible 672

Organised Agriculture and agricultural services
Agricultural consultants Agricultural land valuations Legal aid and legislation Organised Agriculture Tourism and travel in agriculture 520 525 527 531 538

Update your information by calling Rainbow SA at 011 485 2036 or by writing to


Africa and agriculture
1. Introduction
There has been much excitement over growth prospects for Africa, based largely on the oil and raw materials available on this continent. How much of increased investment and foreign interest will filter down to the poor remains to be seen. Agriculture, already the backbone of many of Africa’s economies, still holds out the greatest promise for making a difference, especially if it were to increase its agricultural industry (or value add / agroprocessing). It is … imperative for Africa to sharply and sustainably increase its agricultural productivity. No country in the world has managed to develop its economy and increase standards of living for its people without first significantly increasing agricultural productivity. About 80 per cent of Africans depend on agriculture in one way or another for their livelihood. Yet Africa’s yield per hectare for food crops is less than half the level in developing countries, less than 10 per cent of its arable land is irrigated, and fertiliser remains scarce – only 8kg per hectare as compared to a global average of 100kg per hectare. African policy-makers must embrace technology and develop their own technological solutions. African research institutions are pioneering new forms of irrigation that could transform the way staple foods are cultivated, fertilisers are available that can feed nutrient deficient soils, modern crop varieties can dramatically increase yields and new farming techniques can make processes significantly more efficient. Not only can it be done, but it has been done. In less than six years, the production of maize in Malawi has increased from under two million tons to well over 3.5 million tons, allowing the country to become an exporter of the crop to neighbouring countries. It is why, despite all the obstacles we face, I remain such an optimist when it comes to Africa’s agricultural development. Our continent has twelve times the land area of India, with only half the population to feed. With few exceptions, the distribution of cultivable land in sub-Saharan Africa is equitable compared to many other regions of the world. Moreover, the technology already exists, demonstrated through the success of improved varieties of cassava, rice and maize. I believe that with the right commitment, policies and technologies, Africa will better the Asian agricultural miracle of the 1970s and 80s – doing so in an environmentally sustainable way.
Source: Joachim Chissano, former president of Mozambique, New Vision Online 25 August 2009 (adapted)

MDGs are a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators to measure progress towards these goals: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. Goal 5: Improve maternal health. Goal 6: Combat HIV/Aids, malaria, TB and other diseases. Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.

• Find the latest release of Africa Development Indicators which analyses the progress that African countries have made towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The document is available on the World Bank website, www.worldbank. org • Find the Millennium Campaign pages at www.milleniumcampaign. org. See also the related websites of,, Accelerating growth in agriculture is critical not only to making progress towards MDG (Millennium Development Goal) 1, but also to sustained growth and industrial diversification in the wider African economy. It is estimated that agriculture accounts for around 75 per cent of employment, 40 per cent of exports and 35 per cent of GDP across the continent and it is clear that there is significant potential for the sector to compete more effectively at a global level. At the same time, in both rural and urban areas, poor people, particularly women, depend directly on agriculture for their livelihoods and food security. Policy makers are currently wrestling with the many complex issues associated with developing Africa’s agricultural sector. A wide range of well documented obstacles and bottlenecks – climatic problems, huge agro diversity, lack of irrigation, decline in rural infrastructure, poor links between local markets to the global economy, coupled to an unfair global trading regime – all conspire to repress Africa’s agricultural potential.
Source: John Purchase, CEO of the Agricultural Business Chamber, writing for a publication by Business Action for Africa – 2008 MDGs at the midpoint.

3. Agriculture as a basis for growth
“… Aid alone will not end poverty in Africa. Market access, fair terms of trade, and a non-discriminatory financial system are equally essential in helping Africans to lift themselves out of poverty and deprivation. “The path to prosperity begins at the fields of our farmers. Yet ours is the only continent that cannot feed itself. To address poverty at its core, we need a uniquely African green revolution. Our farmers need better seeds, soils and prices for what they sell. They need access to water, markets and credit. They need national policies that accelerate rural economic growth, investment and job creation”.
Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan in the Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture delivered on July 22, 2007 in Johannesburg

2. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
In September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government endorsed the Millennium Declaration at the UN Millennium Summit. The declaration defines a limited number of achievable goals to be reached by the year 2015. The overall objective is to halve the proportion of the world’s population who live in absolute poverty. The entire group of UN member states, international organisations, funds, programmes and specialised agencies have committed themselves to fighting poverty and improving people’s lives.

The agricultural sector constitutes the economic backbone of most African countries, and this sector will remain the mainstay of pro-poor economic growth benefiting Africa’s poor. The sector is dominated by smallholders with land sizes usually not exceeding 1 hectare, which also includes livestock holders, small-scale agricultural processing enterprises and marketing actors.



Increased agricultural production is necessary to fight starvation and malnutrition. Most poor people live in the countryside, and experience from high-performing economies shows that rapid growth in agricultural production and productivity is a precondition for economic take-off and sustained poverty reduction. Agricultural production is also critical since agricultural progress generates local demand for other goods and services. It is generally agreed that for every dollar income goes up in the agriculture sector total income in society goes up by around 2.5 US$, and agriculture will have to underpin the export performance of African countries for years to come.

The vision for agriculture is that the continent should, by the year 2015: • attain food security (in terms of both availability and affordability and ensuring access of the poor to adequate food and nutrition); • improve the productivity of agriculture to attain an average annual growth rate of 6 percent, with particular attention to small-scale farmers, especially focusing on women; • have dynamic agricultural markets among nations and between regions; • have integrated farmers into the market economy including better access to markets, with Africa to become a net exporter of agricultural products; • achieve more equitable distribution of wealth; • be a strategic player in agricultural science and technology development; • practice environmentally sound production methods and have a culture of sustainable management of the natural resource base (including biological resources for food and agriculture) to avoid their degradation. NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA) Tel: +27 11 256 3600 / +27 83 704 4506 Also go to for more on CAADP
Source: The NEPAD Secretariat

The Multi-country Agricultural Productivity Programme (MAPP) was conceived in consultation with NEPAD, Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) and other stakeholders in the African and international community, together with the World Bank’s Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (ESSD) Network. The objective of MAPP is to improve agricultural research, technology development and dissemination. The MAPP vision seeks to improve the development and uptake of agricultural technologies to meet the Millennium Development Goals and in support of Pillar 4 of NEPAD’s Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP). MAPP is implemented in the Africa Region by FARA, and guided by the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP) developed by FARA. In Southern Africa, MAPP is currently being implemented by the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) directorate within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the programme is referred to as the SADC MAPP . Find more at and

5. Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
• Currently there are multiple regional blocs in Africa, also known as Regional Economic Communities (RECs), many of which have overlapping memberships. The RECs consist primarily of trade blocs and, in some cases, some political and military cooperation. • Most of these RECs form the ‘pillars’ of AEC , many of which also have an overlap in some of their member states. Due to this high proportion of overlap it is likely that some states with several memberships will eventually drop out of one or more RECs. Several of these pillars also contain subgroups with tighter customs and/or monetary unions of their own. CEN-SAD (Community of Sahel-Saharan States) Benin Burkina Faso Central African Republic Chad Comoros Côte d’Ivoire Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Liberia Libya Mali Mauritania Morocco Niger Nigeria São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Sierra Leonne Somalia Sudan Tunisia Togo

4. New Partnership for Africa’s Development – NEPAD
• NEPAD Dialogue is available weekly in English, French and Portuguese. If you are not on the regular mailing list and would like to receive free weekly e-newsletters, or you would like to update your subscription details, contact NEPAD by writing to • Visit for information on the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The heads of state and government in Africa have adopted the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) as a framework for the restoration of agriculture growth, rural development and food security in Africa. Through CAADP , NEPAD draws the attention of member governments to a wide range of actions to revitalise African agriculture and provides a framework for harmonised and collaborative responsive action. Five specific opportunities for improving Africa’s agriculture outlined by NEPAD are: • extend the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems; • improve rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access; • increase food supply and reduce hunger; • improve agricultural research, technology dissemination and adoption; • improve responses to disasters and emergencies. NEPAD’s overall vision for agriculture seeks to maximise the contribution of Africa’s largest economic sector to achieve a self-reliant and productive Africa that can play its full part on the world stage. In essence, NEPAD aims for agriculture to deliver broad based economic advancement, to which other economic sectors, such as petroleum, minerals and tourism, may also contribute in significant ways, but cannot achieve on the same mass scale as agriculture. The NEPAD goal for the sector is an agricultural-led development that eliminates hunger, reduces poverty and food insecurity, opening the way for export expansion.

Arab Maghreb Union – UMA Algeria Libya Mauritania Morocco Tunisia

Economic Community of West African States – ECOWAS Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Côte d’Ivoire Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo


Economic Community of Central African States – ECCAS Angola Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo-Brazzaville Congo-Kinshasa Equatorial Guinea Gabon São Tomé and Príncipe

Cameroon (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 460 0341 Central African Republic (Honorary Consulate-General) Tel: +27 11 970 1355 Comores (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 0138 Congo-Brazzaville (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 5507/8 Cote D’Ivorie (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 6913/4 Democratic Republic of Congo (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 344 6475/6 Egypt (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 344 6042 / 343 1590 Equatorial Guinea (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 9945 / 6470 Eritrea (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 333 1302 Ethiopia (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 346 3542 Gabon (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 4376 Ghana (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 342 5847 Guinea (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 7348 / 0893 Kenya (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 362 2249/50 Lesotho (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 460 7648 Liberia (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 2734/5 Libya Tel: +27 12 342 3902 Madagascar (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 0983 /4 Malawi (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 430 9900

Mali (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 7464 / 0676 Mauritania (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 362 3578 Mauritius (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 342 1283/4 Morocco (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 343 0230 Mozambique (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 401 0300 Namibia (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 481 9100 Nigeria (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 342 0805/ 0688 /0905 Rwanda (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 6536 Senegal (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 460 5263 Sudan (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 4538/7903 Swaziland (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 344 1910 Tanzania (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 342 4393/71 Trinidad and Tobago (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 460 9688 Tunisia (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 6282/3 Uganda (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 342 6031/3 Zambia (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 326 1854 / 47 Zimbabwe (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 342 5125

Intergovernmental Authority on Development – IGAD Djibouti Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Sudan Uganda Eritrea

Eastern African Community – EAC Kenya Tanzania Uganda Burundi Rwanda

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa – COMESA Burundi Comoros Democratic Republic of Congo Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Libya Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Rwanda Seychelles Sudan Swaziland Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Southern African Developmental Community – SADC Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of Congo Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

A customs union is a free trade area with a common external tariff. Customs unions exist within these RECs e.g. the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the East African Community, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). All REC members are not necessarily members of the customs union operating within the REC.

6. Some contacts in Pretoria
Find the directories at and Postal and street addresses are included Algeria (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 5074-7 Angola (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 4404 Botswana (High Commission) Tel: +27 12 430 9640 Burundi (Embassy) Tel: +27 12 342 4881



7. International organisations involved
The bimonthly bulletin from the Forum for Agricultural Research (FARA) is a feast of relevant information. Write to • Africa Investor “supplies a broad range of investment data, research, broadcast and published content to a growing number of investors with interests in Africa”. Find resources and news at com. Look for the “Agriculture” menu option. • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) – • African Union (AU) – • African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) – www.acbf-pact. org, “Building sustainable human and institutional capacity for poverty reduction in Africa”. • Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (Agra) – AGRA is a dynamic, African-led partnership working across the African continent to help millions of small-scale farmers and their families lift themselves out of poverty and hunger. AGRA programmes develop practical solutions to significantly boost farm productivity and incomes for the poor while safeguarding the environment. • Business Action For Africa – - is an international network of businesses and business organisations from Africa and elsewhere. Find their eLibrary and case studies. • CTA (Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation) – Agritrade (see, other newsletters and publications are available from them. • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – Thousands of agricultural and related industries publications are available on the website. • Developing Countries Farm Radio Network – www.farmradio. org – gathers and researches information about successful, low-cost practices in sustainable agriculture, nutrition, health and community development, and produce radio scripts for broadcast. • Diaspora African Forum (DAF) – The DAF provides “the vital linkage for diaspora Africans to become involved in Africa’s development as well as reap the fruits of African unity”. • East Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) – • Economic Partnerships Agreements (EPAs) visit http://epa.tralac. org/ • Eldis is one of a family of knowledge services at the Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK. Find the Eldis Agriculture and Development Reporter at • Food, Agricultural and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) – • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – • Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) – • Forum on China-Africa Co-operation – • The G8 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom and the USA. • – website of the Inter-African Phytosanitary Council • International Centre for Soil Fertility and Agricultural Development (IFDC) – • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – www. • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – www.ifpri. org • International Institute for Sustainable Development – www.iisd. org • International Trade Centre – • Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN) is part of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Find the “Africa” menu option at • Market Access Map – “making import tariffs and market barriers transparent”: • Mo Ibrahim Foundation publishes an annual index of good governance. The list rates sub-Saharan African countries by a set of indicators, including safety and security, rule of law, participation and human rights, sustainable economics and human development. The award, in excess of $5-million, dwarfs the Nobel Peace Prize. • The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is the AU’s blueprint for socio-economic development on the continent. See heading 4.

• The NEPAD Business Council is a formation of Africans living in the US and Europe, who have created a vehicle for co-coordinating participation in the development and implementation of the NEPAD programme. • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) puts out economic outlooks for countries of the world. The 2009 African Economic Outlook 2009 covered 47 African countries, up from the 35 the previous year. Find reports, statistics and summaries at Also take a look at the “Bookshop” option. • Pan-African Parliament – • Pan African Platform for the farmer of Africa – contact SACAU (find details in the SADC chapter). • Pax-Africa –, “African peace and security agenda” • PROPAC – The association representing farmers in Central Africa • Most of the REC websites (mentioned under heading 5) have a menu option in which agriculture features. • ROPPA (Network of Farmers’ and Agricultural Producers’ Organisations of West Africa) – • Tokyo International Conference on African Development • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) – www.undp. Of particular interest is the “GEF Small Grants Programme”. The contact number in Pretoria is 012 354 8166. • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) – • United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) – • Find the current world production, market and trade reports at http:// the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the US Department of Agriculture. • World Bank – Its private sector lending arm, the International Finance Corporation, agreed to almost double its investment in agribusiness in Africa in 2009. Find different publications and reports on the website. Its annual report covers the external financing of developing countries. The Africa Competitive Report highlights areas where urgent policy action and investments are needed, while the Africa Development Indicators provide the most detailed collection of data on Africa. A vast stretch of African savannah land that spreads across 25 countries has the potential to turn several African nations into global players in bulk commodity production, according to a study published by FAO and the World Bank in 2009. The book is entitled Awakening Africa’s Sleeping Giant - Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and Beyond. • World Economic Forum – • World Food Programme (WFP) – • World Meteorological organization (WMO) – • World Trade Organisation – Find the latest international trade statistics. Some 250 tables and charts depict trade developments from various perspectives.

8. South African roleplayers
• Access Congo Intelligence & Facilitation – www.accesscongo. com • African Economic Research Consortium –, “providing the evidence base for policy making in Africa”. Find the “Newsletter” and “Publications” options. • Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA) – This is “an independent research organisation and think-tank, focussing on Africa in its research, publications and resource library”. • AFRICA the good news – – looks at stories that the reader may not have noticed. • Africa Project Access – • Read about the role that agribusinesses have to play in releasing Africa’s agricultural potential on the Agricultural Business Chamber website Find the document “Accelerated businessled growth and collective action to reach the Millennium Development Goals”. • AGRIFICA promotes and facilitates agricultural development in Africa. A quarterly magazine The Farm Africa is put out in addition to market research and project promotion. AGRIFICA also runs the Agribusiness Africa Annual Conference and Exhibition. Visit



• A number of reports related to trade and agriculture in Africa can be found on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries website – • has launched an African edition of its email newsletter for the marketing, media and advertising industries. Countries targeted include: Algeria, Angola, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Seychelles, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe – view africa. • Read about the African Agricultural Development Programme (AADP), a technical assistance programme (TAP) established by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), at www. A number of reports related to trade and agriculture in Africa can be found here too. • Find the “African Union and NEPAD” menu option on the Department of International Relations and Cooperation website – www.dfa. . The “Regional Economic Communities” option provides links to CEN-SAD, COMESA, ECCAS, ECOWAS, IGAD, SADC and UMA websites. • Executive Research Associates puts out a newsletter covering developments in Africa. Visit for more. • Find the column “African News” in every issue of Farmer’s Weekly for news on agriculture in Africa. • The Foundation for the Development of Africa runs several websites: and www. are two of these. Receive newsletters by emailing • Institute for Global Dialogue – An “independent South African NGO broadly concerned with key issues in international affairs, and how these affect South Africa, Southern Africa and Africa as a whole”. • The Institute of Security Studies (ISS) website contains a wealth of information relating to Africa, including news headlines, database of “African Fact Files”, abbreviations, trade agreements, publications and more. Visit • Joint Agribusiness Department of Agriculture Forum for Africa (JADAFA) – – is a joint venture between agribusiness and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in South Africa. • Science in Africa – “Africa’s first on-line magazine”: www. • – aimed at anyone who may have an interest in doing business or investing in Nigeria and Kenya. Look for the “Agriculture and Agri-processing” menu option on their newsletters, and for articles like “’Agrologistics’ at home and abroad’”. • Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (TRALAC), www.tralac. org, has an electronic newsletter which often looks beyond Southern Africa to the wider issues on the continent. • – a South African based site for agricultural products and services Standard Bank has an extensive Africa footprint puts it in an ideal position to facilitate trade flows into and out of Africa. It focuses on a broad range of industries and sectors, including mining and commodities; energy (oil and gas); capital goods (linked to infrastructural spend); and agriculture. Find out more at

Southern African Developmental Community (SADC) and agriculture
1. Overview
Visit for the latest SADC trade, industry and investment reviews and reports. Agricultural production figures/statistics and news are included. • The potential of the SADC region in terms of trade and market opportunity is immense, with SADC possessing a market of some 250 million people, compared to South Africa’s 47 million plus. • Three countries (the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africa and Tanzania) account for almost two thirds of the total SADC population (64.4%), while the five smallest members (Swaziland, Mauritius, Botswana, Namibia and Lesotho) comprise 4%. • The picture is a mixed one. In a region that has abundant resources, 40 % of the people live on less than one US dollar per day. Yet while we know about the booming economic growth of countries like China and India, we are not as aware that some of the fastest growing economies in the world are right on our doorstep e.g. Angola, Botswana, Mauritius and Mozambique. • The success of South Africa’s economy – agriculture included – is interlinked with that of the region. • Strategic Priority 8 of the Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) is “pursuing African advancement and enhanced international cooperation”. The MTSF is dealt with in the next chapter. The Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP) and the Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organs (SIPO) contain SADC’s long-term strategy for: • deepening regional integration; • contributing to accelerated economic growth; • eradication of poverty; and • achievement of sustainable pattern of economic growth. Economic integration in SADC is guided by the Trade Protocol, which was signed in 1996 and ratified in 2000. For a background and updates on goods that have been accorded duty-free status according to the Customs and Excise Act, or on what the duties are on your commodity, visit the webpages of the Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (TRALAC) The Southern African Development Community is to have set up a Customs Union by 2010, a Common Market by 2015, and a Monetary Union by 2018. SADC commitments and strategic objectives more specific to agriculture are contained in the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration of 2004. SADC is also in the process of developing a Regional Agricultural Policy (RAP) scheduled to be presented for endorsement in the next two or three years. For more info on the RAP , contact Mr Martin Muchero, the RAP co-ordinator: Since most SADC economies are pre-dominantly agricultural based and food dominates agricultural trade among SADC countries, enhanced trade in value-added agricultural products potentially provides a tool for fighting poverty in the region, promoting regional integration, and increasing economic growth and welfare.
Source:; President Mwanawasa, 2008 SADC Chairman, addressing the opening of the SADC International Summit Conference on Poverty and Development; Jerry Vilakazi, CEO of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA); Buanews; Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (Tralac)

9. African country profiles
• The Mbendi website, gives updates on all economic sectors in Africa, including Agriculture. The website has helpful overviews of the different countries. Included on this website are African exchange rates – A regular eNewsletter is available. • Visit - take either the “Countries A-Z” or “Agriculture” menu options for statistics. • - notes on wikipedia on agriculture in 108 different countries
Our thanks to Andrew Kanyegirire at NEPAD for feedback on the draft chapter


The success of agriculture is linked to progress in the region. Agriculture must be competitive and profitable … any gap in the market is quickly occupied by foreign competition. We have to look from a southern African perspective, not only from the South African one. Farmers and agribusinesses, our commodities – be they crops (e.g. sugarcane and maize) or value-added products – will get a boost from regional progress and co-operation. Hans van der Merwe, CEO Agri SA

Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: +27 11 269 3000

2. Roleplayers
See also the “Africa and agriculture” and “Infrastructure and agrologistics” chapters. Numerous SADC roleplayers are also listed in the “Science and research” chapter Africa Project Access Tel: +27 11 465 6770 Africa Trade Centre Tel: +27 72 276 6923 African Micro Mills Tel: +27 31 584 6250 Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) Tel: +27 11 482 5495 Department of International Relations and Co-operation Tel: +27 12 351 1000

Federation of East and Southern African Road Transport “Driving profitable grain milling and Associations (FESARTA) basic food production in SADC” Agri Inspec – see FIRMS Agricultural Business Chamber (ABC) Tel: +27 12 807 6686 FIRMS Tel: +27 12 843 5640 The company has extensive expertise in the field of forensic investigations and market protection and also specialises in matters relating to international trade remedies. Agri Inspec is one of the divisions

The ABC is a roleplayer in bodies such as the NEPAD Business Foundation (NBF) and JADAFA (Joint Agribusiness Department of Agriculture Forum for Africa which aims to eliminate trade blocks and Food, Agriculture and Natural non-tariff barriers to encourage Resources Policy Analysis trade and investment into Africa). Network (FANRPAN) Tel: +27 12 804 2966 / 3186 Agricultural Tours Worldwide Tel: +27 82 447 7718 To promote effective Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) policies by: AGRIFICA Tel: +27 12 804 9729 • facilitating linkages and partnerships between government and civil society; Agrifica is an Agricultural • building the capacity for policy Intelligence Company with services analysis and policy dialogue in southern Africa, and such as projects, market research, supporting demand-driven networking events to promote policy research and analysis. Agricultural development and encourageTrade and investment Forum for Agricultural Research for farming success in Africa. (FARA) Association of SADC Chambers (Chair) of Commerce and Industry (Executive Director) (ASCCI) C/o South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SACCI) Gordon Institute of Business Tel: 011 446 3800 Science (GIBS) African Leadership Programme (LBF) Business Unity South Africa Tel: +27 11 771 4302 (BUSA) Tel: +27 11 784 8000

The Industrial Development Corporation has been utilised by The main functions of the FANR South Africa as the primary catalyst Directorate include: for South African investment in Mozambique, South Africa’s • development of sustainable second largest export market in food security policies and programmes; Southern Africa. • development, promotion Maputo Corridor Logistics and harmonisation of policies and gender development Initiative (MCLI) strategies and programmes; Tel: +27 13 755 6025 • development, promotion and harmonisation of bio-diversity, phytosanitary, sanitary, See also - Maputo crop and animal husbandry Development Corridor policies; • development of measures to Mining Industry Associations of increase agricultural output Southern Africa (MIASA) and the development of based industries; • development, promotion and NEPAD Business Foundation harmonisation of policies and Tel: +27 11 884 1888 programmes aimed at effective www.nepadbusinessfoundation. and sustainable utilisation org AND of natural resources such as Water, Wildlife, Fisheries and Programme for Agricultural Forestry; Information Services (PRAIS) • development and Tel: +27 51 401 2739 / 225 harmonisation of sound environmental management policies; PRAIS is a partnership between • promotion of trade in the University of the Free State agricultural products. and the CTA (Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Co-operation – based in the Netherlands. See One of the programmes is ICART PRAIS provides (Implementation &Co-ordination of the SADC Agricultural Systems Agricultural Research & Training in stakeholders with information the SADC Region). Call +267 395 1863 or email services on demand. Small Enterprise Development Corporation (SEDCO) Tel: +268 404 2811/2 This is a parastatal under the Swaziland’s Ministry of Enterprise and Employment. SEDCO’s role in the SME sector is the promotion of small businesses. A focus is on agrobusinesses: facilitation of “business linkages” (small & big businesses), value-adding, export / import etc. SADC Banking Association Tel: +27 11 645 6700 South Africa Angola Chamber of Commerce Tel: +27 11 723 9000 South Africa Mozambique Chamber of Commerce Tel: +27 72 145 0129 South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) Tel: +27 11 399 2021 “African insights” perspectives. Global

SADC Secretariat Directorate of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR). Tel: +267 39 51863 (Gaborone)

Find the link to Public Private Southern African Confederation Partnerships in SADC on this of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) website or visit Tel: +27 12 644 0808 SADC Business Forum (SBF) Mr Maszwe Majola Tel: 076 230 3148/083 984 0512 SACAU is open to all national autonomous farmer-governed SADC Employers Group organisations within the SADC Tel: +27 11 784 8000 region as well as regional commodity associations. It is involved in agriculture development SADC Parliamentary Forum in the region by strengthening Tel: +264 612 870000 the capacities of Farmers’ Organisations, by providing a collective voice for farmers on




regional and global matters, and by providing agriculture related information to its members and other stakeholders.

is seen as a mechanism to combat crime in SADC, particularly important during the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

3. Websites and publications
Find the websites listed next to roleplayers listed in the Africa chapter

SACAU has currently 14 members Southern African Railways from 10 countries in Southern Association (SARA) Africa: Tel: +263-4-736777/8 • Agri SA and the National African Farmers’ Union Southern African Regional (NAFU); Poverty Network (SARPN) • Botswana Agricultural Union (BAU); • Lesotho National Farmers The Southern Africa Trust “supports processes to deepen and widen Union (LENAFU); • Fédération Chrétienne participation in policy dialogue with des Paysans Malagasy a regional impact on poverty”. Visit (FEKRITAMA) and the Coalition Paysanne de Madagascar (CPM); Standard Bank • Farmers Union of Malawi Tel: +27 11 299 4701 (FUM) and the National Smallholder Farmers’ Association of Malawi Standard Bank services 18 sub(NASFAM); Saharan countries and 21 countries • Namibia Agricultural Union on other continents, including the (NAU) ; key financial centres of Europe, the • Seychelles Farmers Association United States and Asia. (SEYFA); • Agricultural Council of Trade Law Centre for Southern Tanzania (ACT); Africa (Tralac) • Zambia National Farmers Tel: +27 21 880 2010 Union (ZNFU); • The Zimbabwe Farmers Union (ZFU) and the Commercial Subscribe to TRALAC’s newsletters Farmers Union of Zimbabwe to stay abreast of trade issues in (CFU) Africa, SADC in particular. It also closely works with the Swaziland National Agricultural Union (SNAU) and has an MoU with UNAC of Mozambique. Regional commodity bodies include the Eastern and Southern African Dairy Association (ESADA); the Southern Africa Poultry Association (SAPA); SADC Poultry Forum; SADC Cane Growers Association; Horticultural Council of Africa (HCA); Southern Africa Livestock and Meat Forum (SALMF); Eastern Africa Fine Coffee Association (EAFCA); and the African Cotton and Textile Industry Federation (ACTIF). Southern African Enterprise Network Tel: +264 61 272203 Fax: +264 61 271007 In 2009, South Africa’s Bheki Cele was appointed chairperson of Southern African Regional Police Chiefs Cooperation Organisation (SARPCCO). SARPCCO is seen The Trade Law Chambers (International) Tel: 021 880 2010 Business focus on Agribusinesses needing to explore the impact of trade agreements (WTO, SADC, SACU, EU) on their businesses and needing advice on market access tariffs, antidumping and anti-subsidies issues or facing SPS barriers, Companies wanting to develop a trade regulatory strategy. University of Pretoria SADC Centre for Land Related, Regional and Development Policy Tel: +27 12 420 4515

The official SADC website is Visit other websites listed earlier in this chapter e.g. Take the “US-SACU” menu option at – The SADC Trade Development Project. Find menu options like “SADC Trade Database”, “Other SADC Trade Resources” and more. Find the “Member countries” option at Articles and papers are captured from countries in the Southern Africa region. Find the “Research papers” under the publications option on za. A number of these deal with intra-African trade e.g. “Trade potential between South Africa and Angola”. Included in the latest “Abstract of Agricultural Statistics” on the same website is the following information: • Value of the Southern African Custom Union agricultural products • Value of the Southern African Custom Union agricultural products by country of destination • Value of the Southern African Custom Union agricultural products • Value of the Southern African Custom Union agricultural products by country of origin (SACU) exports of (SACU) exports of (SACU) imports of (SACU) imports of

Find the “SADC Information” menu option on This provides information as to the grain situation within the Southern African Development Community. Find websites of the various SADC trade missions e.g. www.zambiapretoria. net and A list of the embassies/high commissions can be found in the previous chapter. Find the websites of SACAU affiliates like the Zambia National Farmers Union,, and the National Small Farmer’s Association of Malawi, The magazine Pax-Africa deals with SADC issues. Visit Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme (RHVP) – www.wahenga. net Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (TRALAC),, has an electronic newsletter which often looks beyond Southern Africa to the wider issues on the continent. Our thanks to Stephanie Aubin of SACAU for valuable feedback


South Africa and agriculture
1. Overview
If you were asked to form a government and lead your country into the next decade, what would you do first? You would probably make a list of priorities, goals to steer your policies. A vibrant economy enables its people to earn a living and to improve on life as we know it. This would include functioning infrastructure, access to credit and entrepreneurial possibilities. Social issues and political stability are vital too – safety and security, a functional justice system, political stability, equal opportunities. The environment, something we take for granted, is a priority (see the Resources and Good Agricultural Practice section). It is no good if the resources that support us are degraded and depleted. Many of the issues that face us as national priorities are pointed to in the National Issues category of this publication. This is not to say that other issues are unimportant, of course, and numerous points for debate and concern are touched on elsewhere in the National Agricultural Directory. After the national elections in 2009, Mr Jacob Zuma and his team sat down to plan the way forward for this country. They worked out the five-year Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF), a framework to guide government’s programme in the electoral mandate period 2009 – 2014. It was released by The Presidency and can be downloaded at (it can also be found elsewhere e.g. www.polity. The priorities outlined in the MTSF are to be translated into the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of government ministers, against which their performance over this term will be measured. The Strategic Priorities listed in the MTSF are: 1. Speed up growth and transform the economy to create decent work and sustainable livelihoods. 2. Massive programme to build economic and social infrastructure. 3. Comprehensive rural development strategy linked to land and agrarian reform and food security. 4. Strengthen the skills and human resource base. 5. Improve the health profile of all South Africans. 6. Intensify the fight against crime and corruption. 7. Build cohesive, caring and sustainable communities. 8. Pursuing African advancement and enhanced international cooperation. 9. Sustainable Resource Management and use. 10. Building a developmental state including improvement of public services and strengthening democratic institutions.

• A standard model of economic growth shows that as a country develops, its primary activities (agriculture included) take a lower percentage in that country’s GDP , secondary activities (e.g. manufacturing and processing) and the services sector taking an increasingly larger share. • The fact that agriculture’s share of the South African GDP is shrinking is to be expected since we have economic growth. Agriculture grows – but not at the same speed as other sectors. • Because of the linkages with other sectors (see next heading), some sources prefer to view agriculture in a wider context, referring to the “agro-food industry” instead. Viewed this way, the GDP rises to 14% and higher, depending on which sources one uses. If one includes all the forward and backward linkages (see heading 3), then the contribution grows to between 20% and 30%. • Agriculture remains a cornerstone and the country’s lifeblood, whatever its share of the GDP . On a national level we are food secure because of agriculture. It is crucial for a country to maintain its agricultural sector so that its need for basic foodstuff can be met. The First World countries know this. It is not out of spite that they hold onto those (trade-distorting) agricultural subsidies. Their farmers do more than just look after the countryside.

3. Linkages and the farm
Nothing happens in a vacuum, and agriculture is no exception. It is dependent on inputs (often referred to as what is “upsteam”) and conditions which make it possible, and agriculture in turn provides the raw material for the agro-food industries “downstream”. By looking at it in context, we see that agriculture allows for much in our world to be what it is. The Careers and Employment in Agriculture chapter recognises this in providing brief overviews of careers that ostensibly have nothing to do with farming. But look closer: • Agriculture means that there is a market for inputs, and so we have, along with the businesses that supply tractors, vehicles and equipment, various individuals who are mechanics, managers, accountants, electricians etc. • Agriculture creates a market for services. It is an economic industry, and so economists have their role to play in charting the waters and making sense of where the ship is going. Many of these human beings are involved in the trading and marketing of agricultural produce. • Financial services are required, and so the individuals who find employment as bankers and financers step up to take their place in the line. • Human beings who do social and legal work, and others whom we would designate “politicians” are also included in the picture because agriculture takes place within a social and political context. • Farmers and future farmers require skills – enter the human beings who find their living in capacity building, whether this be as extension officers (see Emerging Farmer Support chapter), teachers, AgriSETA training providers or lecturers (see Agricultural Education & Training chapter). • Because South Africa operates in a global environment, we require upto-date knowledge to be competitive, otherwise we lose our markets overseas and the local ones will be snapped up by producers from outside our country. Enter the researchers and people looking for innovative ways to produce and do things we have done in the past but to do these things more effectively (lower price, better margins/ profits, less effort etc) • Enter, too, the people working in media who keep the agricultural community informed, whether this be about research and technological outputs or agricultural news. We could continue, but having made our point we will leave this for the reader who is intrigued by the idea to explore it further. Agriculture itself is an important source of employment, especially because of the large number of dependants per farm worker (refer to the “Labour and job creation” chapter). Along with food processing, it is one of the largest suppliers of jobs. Investment in agriculture and promoting the conditions under which agriculture happens is consistent with pro-poor strategies because of agriculture’s place in the rural areas. Some 65 percent of the poor in South Africa reside here (refer to The Importance of Rural Development chapter).

2. Agriculture and the GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
• We need food to survive, and agriculture is central to the process which brings that food to our plates. • Much is linked to the spark which is agriculture, and numerous studies point to its “multiplier effect” on other sectors: a Rand spent in agriculture achieves more than a Rand spent anywhere else (see heading 3). • Agriculture provides the economic base on which most of our rural areas are based. Increasingly, it is an urban activity too (see The Urban Question chapter). • According to the Census of Commercial Agriculture 2007, the number of farming units is 39 982, as opposed to 45 818 in 2002. • GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is a measure of economic production – and often standard of living – of a country. Agriculture’s share of the GDP is placed at somewhere between 2.8 and 3 percent.


4. Websites and publications
• The reader is pointed to daily and weekly sources of information in the “ICT and agriculture media” chapter, and relevant publications and websites are listed in almost every chapter of the book. • Visit for news of government programmes and contact details for the various departments. • Find the latest Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report on South Africa. Visit southafrica. • Find the quarterly economic overviews on - take the “Publications” and then “economic analysis” menu options. The Global, Sub-Saharan African and South African economies are looked at. Find also the Trends in the Agricultural Sector documents at the same place.

5. National strategy and government contacts
Find details of the farmer unions Agri SA, the National African Farmers Union (NAFU SA) and TAU SA in the Organised Agriculture chapter. Roleplayers within the different sectors are listed in the relevant chapters, mostly under the headings “Companies Involved”, “Training and research” and “Roleplayers”. Of particular relevance to agriculture, the following changes were made to government departments after the 2009 election: • Agriculture was separated from Land Affairs whilst picking up Forestry and Fisheries. • Rural development (a new ministerial mandate) linked up with Land Reform. • The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) became the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs. • The previous Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) became simply the Department of Tourism.
Find information about and contact details for all government departments at www.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Switchboard: 012 319 6000 Agriculture is in the process of merging with Forestry and Fisheries, and names of directorates and contact details given in this directory are likely to change during 2010. The reader is encouraged to visit for information. Contact details and names of directorates are available, in January 2010, under the “Divisions” menu option.


The importance of rural development
1. Overview
• Poverty affects millions of people, with the majority of them being women and children living in rural areas. Of the 17 million poor people in South Africa, at least 11 million live in rural areas. • The rural economy is inextricably linked to agricultural production. Even if these people are not engaged in agriculture, they rely on nonfarm employment and income that depends in some way or another on agriculture • The challenge for the agricultural sector is not only to produce more food, but also to create income-generating employment for poor people inside and outside agriculture, on a sustainable basis.
Source: A paper by Meyer NG, Jooste A, Breitenbach MC and Fenyés TI The economic rationale for agricultural regeneration and rural infrastructure investment in South Africa

• South Africa’s Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) is the main framework for rural poverty reduction with a time frame of 2001-2010. The National Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs is responsible for the ISRDS, and runs a dedicated website at • The departments of Water and Environmental Affairs (DWEA); Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF); Transport; Housing; Labour; Trade and Industry (dti); and Social Development at national level all have programmes and mechanisms for rural development. Moreover, each provincial government has completed, or is completing, a rural development plan that identifies focus areas and nodes, based on structured applications of a range of criteria. • Included in Government’s Poverty Reduction Programmes and Projects are rural-based ones linked to the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP), the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP) and the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programme (ISRDP).

3. Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) and rural development
See the chapter on Black Economic Empowerment Some 85% of rural people live in the former homelands. The rest live on commercial farms and in the small towns. The Integrated and Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) policy document describes a bleak picture of the state of our rural areas: • The deepest poverty in South Africa is found in the rural areas. Women form the majority of the rural population and female-headed households are particularly disadvantaged. Three quarters of the children in the rural areas live in households with incomes below the minimum subsistence level. The poorest households also have low levels of literacy and education, difficult and time-consuming access to water, fuel and other services, and few opportunities of gainful employment. This results in high levels of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality of children. • An understanding of the sources of rural household incomes provides another perspective on the nature of rural poverty: 4.3% of rural households are totally marginalised and have no income; 11.4% are dependent only on pensions; 16.2% are dependent only on unreliable remittances; and 9.9% are dependent on reliable remittances. Women head the majority of these households. From the BEE Commission Report, earlier this decade, you could add: • Rural housing is often substandard or nonexistent, and many people are migrants working in urban areas. Many of them are still living in urban dormitories with attendant difficulties maintaining family and social ties. As a result, the rural-urban continuum takes a particular form in South Africa. The level of interdependence between rural communities and distant large cities is higher than elsewhere, but there is a less organic linkage between rural areas and the towns near them. Rural empowerment is directly relevant to the following elements of the Codes of Good Practice: • Ownership. Broad-based groupings are often rural communities or have a rural component. • Enterprise Development (ED). While ED is not explicitly directed at rural communities, it is in keeping with the spirit of the Codes to try and channel your ED spending to rural recipients. Consider that R100 of ED spending in a rural community has the potential to impact far more people than the same amount of spending in an urban community. This is because of the high ratios of bread winner to dependents in typical rural communities. • Socio-economic Investment

Being born in a rural area or the countryside should not condemn people to a life of poverty and underdevelopment, says President Jacob Zuma. “Our vision for the development of rural areas arises from the fact that people in the rural areas also have a right to basic necessities. “They have a right to electricity, water, flush toilets, roads, entertainment and sport centres. They have a right to shopping centres, good schools and other amenities like their compatriots in urban areas,” said the President. He said that people living in rural areas also have the right to be helped with farming so that they can grow vegetables and raise livestock to be able to feed their families. Achieving this is one of government’s top priorities. Speaking at the launch of the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) aimed at radically transforming rural areas, the President said government would not rest for as long as there were rural dwellers who were unable to make a decent living from the land on which they live.
Source: Buanews 17 Aug 2009

2. National strategy and government departments
• The vision of the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) is to enable rural people to play a meaningful role in the economy, thereby dealing effectively with rural poverty through the productive use and management of natural resources at their disposal. To achieve this, a three branched strategy of Agrarian Transformation, Rural Development and Land Reform is planned. DAFF will lead the Agrarian Transformation Programme of the CRDP together with the provinces and local authorities. Read about the CRDP at and find updates at


Ideas for the Urban Business Public relations value from rural BEE has a high level of credibility because of its inherent challenges, and creative thinking around your business model and strategy can reveal some excellent opportunities to grow your business and benefit rural communities at the same time. The first step lies in understanding your business strategy and seeing where a rural initiative could further your business aims and lead to empowerment with little or no additional expenditure. Take for example a footwear manufacturing company struggling in the city with high levels of competition, sophisticated consumers and high running costs. Sponsorship of a well-planned rural community upliftment project such as an Easter soccer tournament, could: • cost very little – relative to the cost of sponsoring a similar event in the city; • reach a much wider audience – many urban dwellers return to their rural homes over Easter anyway; • expose a large number of people to the brand for the first time, in a setting where there are few other brands competing for their attention; • yield great PR value through press releases and coverage of the event in the urban newspapers. The company could follow this up by building relationships with rural footwear retailers to ensure their products are stocked in anticipation of new orders, and even count some of the cost of the investment in the retailers as Enterprise Development spending (e.g. training, promotional materials, advertising costs). This could be coupled with a bursary scheme (paid for as Socio-economic Investment) that is offered as a prize in a marketing campaign to further extend brand awareness to the local community. Rural empowerment does not therefore have to mean an entirely new BEE strategy, but can be as straight-forward as looking at your current plan and working in a rural impact wherever it makes business sense.
Source: The National BEE Handbook, a piece by Michael Stuart.

See the agribusiness chapter

• Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 021 886 6826 “Rural development and food security” • Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel: 028 424 2890 / 028 425 2524 • Biogas Power Tel: 086 124 6427 • Caryki Consulting Tel: 082 456 0396 / 083 445 2662 Fax: 086 503 6166 • CASIDRA Tel: 021 863 5000 • Den Vet Tel: 033 343 1093 “Information talks and presentations done in rural areas” • Development Services • Rural Integrated Engineering Tel: 012 804 5014 / 082 469 4535 • Scientific Roets Tel: 039 727 1515 • South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 • Sustainable Villages Africa Tel: 012 361 1846 • Urban-Econ Tel: 031 202 9673 • Womiwu Rural Development Tel: 015 297 2107 “Broad-based rural and agricultural development” • Many rural areas have significant, if not an abundance of natural and other resources. The major constraints are the restrictive institutional arrangements and lack of skills that prevent the resources (both natural and other) from being mobilized and used sustainably. • By mobilising resources, creating enterprises and increasing local economic activity the taxation base for municipalities to increase revenue is also increased, helping these institutions to become more sustainable. • The government has, and continues to develop strategies and policies to address rural development. These are generally sound but many fail to impact on the ground. In our opinion it is imperative that rural development is seen as a business, in the sense that the available resources – natural, community and financial – need to be mobilised, co-ordinated and managed. To have longer term impact the intitiative must be sustainable. Sustainability is synonymous with profit, or better still with some regular perceived net benefit. • This mobilisation, co-ordination and management must be at grass roots level ie per village or area, and be the responsibility of a project champion who is tasked with making this happen.
Source: notes written to the editor by Womiwu Rural Development. Visit www. or contact Rusty at 015 297 2107.

4. Roleplayers
Agricultural Colleges
Find details of all Colleges in the Agricultural education and training chapter

Tsolo Agriculture Rural Development Institute (TARDI) Tel/fax: 047 542 0107 Cell: 083 961 3157

Economic Agencies
See also the Providers of financial services chapter

See the Banks chapter

Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 Standard Bank Tel: 011 636 6162

• AsgiSA Eastern Cape Tel: 043 735 1673 • Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 011 269 3000 www. • Invest North West Tel: 014 594 2570 • Mpumalanga Agricultural Development Corporation (MADC) Tel: 013 755 6328 • Eastern Cape Rural Finance Corporation Tel: 043 604 7000 www. • Ntinga OR Tambo Development Agency Tel: 047 531 0346 www. • Khula Enterprise Finance Tel: 012 394 5560 Regional office contacts can be found on the website.




International Roleplayers
Many of these are listed in the Africa and SADC chapters of this section. Here we will mention only eight. • Global Donor Platform for Rural Development – www.donorplatform. org • Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) – “Sharing knowledge, improving rural livelihoods” • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – Find details on the website about the “RuralInvest” toolkit comprising training courses, manuals and software. • On the FAO website, find out about the SARD initiative (Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development). • The Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship – www. • United Cities and Local Governments of Africa (UCLGA) – www. • – the “International journal for rural development” • The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) – www., “Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty”. • Rural Finance Learning Centre –

National Government Departments
Contact details for all government departments can be found at

• Environmental Monitoring Group Tel: 021 448 2881 • Free State Rural Development Association Tel: 051 448 4628 • The Growth Foundation Tel: 011 587 4000 www.thegrowthfoundation. org • Indigo Development and Change Tel: 027 218 1148 • Insika Rural Development Trust Tel: 035 772 5061 Fax: 035 792 2341 • Khanya-aicdd (African Institute for Community Driven Development) Tel: 011 642 5011 • LIMA Rural Development Foundation Tel: 033 342 9043 www.lima. • Nkuzi Development Association Tel: 012 323 6417 za Contact details for their branches (Polokwane, Elim, Acornhoek, Modimolle, Makhado and Nylstroom) are available on the website. • Promotion of Rural Livelihoods (RULIV) Tel: 043 704 8800 www.ruliv. • Rural Development Network (RUDNET) Tel: 021 880 0121 www. • Rural Education, Awareness and Community Health (REACH) Tel: 021 633 5287 • Rural Legal Trust Tel: 011 403 4426 • Social Change Assistance Trust Tel: 021 418 2575 • Surplus Peoples Project Tel: 021 448 5605 • The Rural Action Committee (TRAC) Tel: 013 755 4324 za • TechnoServe Tel: 011 482 6005
For an extensive list of NGOs, visit Find the rural development pages under the “Other” menu option.

• Department of Rural Development and Land Reform – www. • Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries – • Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs– www. • Department of Social Development – Rural development is not simply the responsibility of the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform. There is rural transport, rural education, rural health, rural job creation, rural infrastructure, and so on. One hopes that a cluster of government departments rolls up their sleeves to develop the rural areas and bring hope. Imagine if it were led by the economic powerhouse of government: Treasury, Economic Development, and the National Planning Commission! Find “Land Reform’s middle ground”, an article by Dr Ruth Hall on www., in which she analyses the challenges of rural development and suggests the above.

Rural Municipalities and Provincial Government
• Local Economic Development (LED) is a constitutional mandate of Local Municipalities. Under the Constitution, local government is tasked with facilitating local economic development, including agricultural development. • The rural municipalities and provincial government are challenged by the National Spatial Development Framework to facilitate development in line with the economic potential of its area of jurisdiction. Furthermore, the financial reality of “non-affordability” of municipal services to meet basic needs - owing to weak local economic bases - emphasizes the need for Local Municipalities to actively pursue their LED mandates. This entails creating an enabling environment, stimulating economic growth, job creation, redistribution of economic opportunities, and also, black economic empowerment. • The resource base of rural municipalities is mostly agriculture driven and in the long-term the capacity and affordability of these municipalities to improve service delivery is tied to the fortunes of the rural sector.
Source: “Growing the Rural Economy through supporting Agriculture”, a paper by Dr Nico Meyer

Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs)
The umbrella body for NGOs is the South African NGO Coalition (SANGOCO). Visit • ACAT Tel: 033 234 4223 • Afesis-corplan Tel: 043 743 3830 • Amangwane King Tel: 011 726 6529 Children of Fire is involved in this rural development initiative near Emmaus (Central Drakensberg area, KwaZulu-Natal). A jam-making cooperative business is being set up in a region suffering from 95% unemployment. The plan includes selling produce to tourists and stores in the region, and so generate revenue and work opportunities. • Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA) Tel: 033 345 7607 www. • Association for Community Rural Advancement (AnCRA) Tel: 053 712 0791 • Biowatch South Africa has rural offices in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. Read about their rural work on • Border Rural Committee Tel: 043 742 0173 • CALUSA Tel: 047 877 0204 • Centani Community District Development Institution (CCDDI) Tel: 047 492 0561 • Centre for Integrated Rural Development (CIRD) operates in Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Northern Cape provinces Tel: 021 949 4290 • Centre for Rural Legal Studies Tel: 021 883 8032 • Community Development Resource Association Tel: 021 462 3902 • Ekhozi Rural Development Services Tel: 021 853 2691

The Auditor-General South Africa (AGSA) is responsible for the auditing of provincial state departments and all municipalities – www.agsa. Local Government Business Network – visit or call Tel: 011 021 2768 Rural Doctors Association of Southern Africa – South African Local Government Association (SALGA) – www.salga. net • Eastern Cape Tel: 043 7271150 • Free State Tel: 051 447 1960 / 3426 • Gauteng Tel: 011 276 1150 • Limpopo Tel: 015 291 1400 • Mpumalanga Tel: 013 752 2366 • North West Tel: 018 462 5290 • Northern Cape Tel: 053 833 2504/5 • Western Cape Tel: 021 944 2120 • KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 761 6300/1


Links to all municipalities can be found on the website. South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) – • Eastern Cape Tel: 043 707 6460 • Free State Tel: 051 409 0809/5/6 • Gauteng Tel: 011 241 8353 • Limpopo Tel: 015 291 7400 • Mpumalanga Tel: 013 753 5400 • North West Tel: 014 592 2298 • Northern Cape Tel: 053 802 4900 • Western Cape Tel: 021 469 0200 • KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 033 846 3333 Find contact details of their district offices on the website. Over 13 million citizens received social assistance benefits in 2009, and of these beneficiaries nine million are children. SASSA’s mission is to administer quality social security services, cost effectively and timeously using appropriate best practices by: • Developing and implementing policies, programmes and procedures for effective and efficient social grants administration system; • Paying the right grant amount, to the right person at the right time, and at the most convenient place that he/she may choose; • Delivering innovative, cost effective and efficient services to individuals, their families and community groups via multi- and easy access channels using modern technology. Thusong Service Centre – • Eastern Cape Tel: 043 722 2602 • Free State Tel: 051 448 4504 • Gauteng Tel: 011 834 3560 • Limpopo Tel: 015 291 4689 • Mpumalanga Tel: 013 753 2397 • North West Tel: 018 381 7071 • Northern Cape Tel: 053 832 1378/9 • Western Cape Tel: 021 421 5070 • KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 301 6787 Services include facilities (fax, phone), training, small business advice and development and more. A 2014 business plan for the initiative seeks to establish a Thusong service Centre in each of South Africa’s 283 municipalities.

To aid government in its quest to improve the quality of drinking water served in rural communities, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has published a new set of guidelines for small water treatment plant operators. To find out more about On-site Mobile Training of Operators in Rural Water Supplies: An Illustrative Kit, call 012 330 0340 or email

Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs)
A number of the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) are involved in rural development. These include: • The Local Government SETA. Provincial contact details are available at The national office may be contacted at 011 456 8579. • The agricultural SETA 012 325 1655 Find details of accredited AgriSETA training providers in the Agricultural Education & Training chapter

Stellenbosch University Sustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 University of Fort Hare Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Tel: 040 602 2333 University of the Free State Centre for Development Support Tel: 0514012978 Centre for Rural Health Tel: 031 260 1569 University of Pretoria Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development: Tel: 012 420 3248 Post Graduate School for Agriculture and Rural Development Tel: 012 420 4833 / 3601

Science Councils of South Africa
The Science Councils of South Africa have programmes which target rural areas e.g. the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) has its Urban, Rural and Economic Development Programme. Find their details in the Science and Research chapter.

Find details of the “South African Institute for Agricultural Extension” Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and “SADC Centre for Land and Rural Development Related, Regional and Development Tel: 051 401 2163 Policy” in the Emerging Farmer Support and SADC chapters Lengau Agricultural Centre respectively. Tel: 051 443 8859 University of the Western Cape Department of Agricultural Programme for Land and Agrarian Economics Studies (PLAAS) Tel: 051 401 2250 Tel: 021 959 3733 University of KwaZulu-Natal Centre for Rural Development Systems Tel: 033 260 6802


5. Sustainability
A sustainable community ideally does not depend on externalities for its functioning and survival. It would incorporate the following:

It grows social capital.
Fosters conditions for society to thrive and enhances its capacity to meet its needs: • Level 1: Natural systems are not damaged. To do so will undermine and limit that community – sooner or later. • Level 2: This relates to conditions at the social system level: a decision made elsewhere might result in people not having access to resources, or to education. Any power that does not recognise interdependence is not sustainable. • Level 3: Successful strategies for social sustainability: participation, transparency, responsibility / accountability, honesty. Local knowledge, wisdom, culture are nurtured, tapped; this is reflected in decisions made at this level. Social and ecological implications are linked.

It is economically viable / has an economic base / has an economic reason for being (raison d’ etre).
Every location / site / social group has something which makes it unique. Its uniqueness becomes its reason for existence, its magnet for attracting investment / for creating a market. New and existing communities should have some primary activity in its economic make-up. This is important for the creation of a diverse local economy. In urban areas, suburbs should be transformed into an economy which is not dependent on the CBD or commercial/industrial areas for survival. Towns should not depend on cities for their survival.

It maintains and fosters diversity.
Biological, social and economic. The degradation of natural systems is taboo (over-harvesting, loss of biodiversity, monocultures, etc). Diversity is nature’s design framework.

It governs itself.
The smaller and more local the government, the more participation there is – and the more legitimate, accountable and effective it becomes.

It is designed with the intention to facilitate all of the above.
Design does not stop at the house, street, landscaping, cadastral subdivisions or planning regulations. It asks questions about what waste is produced, where it goes and how it is managed. It asks questions about how the community is managed and how it earns its keep. It asks questions about how the habitat is enriched by the resident community. In short, the designers (for there are many) must create frameworks which nurture communities and their habitats - not to limit or constrain through regulations, for regulation is a signal of design failure.
Adapted from Louw van Biljon’s “Sustainable Development Manifesto”(January 2006). Van Biljon can be contacted at Tel: 058 256 1195 / 082 777 2647. Our thanks to Nelson Mafulo (Department of Rural Development and Land Reform), Rusty Milne (Womiwu Rural Development) and Nico Meyer (DBSA) for feedback on the draft chapter

It does not export waste.
Limit the waste flow. Keep the biological and technological waste streams separate and upcycle it (where waste is used as resource for the next step in the community’s metabolism). This approach follows nature’s dictum of waste is food: it eliminates pollution. Create jobs from the waste!

It does not import resources.
Resources are seen as: material, energy, labour, knowledge, capital and wisdom. Anything local which can be used as catalyst / multiplier for the local economy should be developed, and regarded as a resource.


2. Members of the Executive Council (MECs)

Agriculture in the provinces
1. Overview
In terms of the Constitution of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), agricultural support to farmers is vested in the provincial governments, which provide farmers with a range of services. The national government retains the overall regulatory and policy functions and agricultural trade and marketing. • Find the links to the Provincial Departments of Agriculture websites at – take the “Strategic Partnerships” menu option. • For a list of provincial extension officers, see the Emerging Farmer Support chapter. • Find also the enormously useful provincial overviews at www.nda. Although these are reports for the AET Strategy (see “Agricultural education and training chapter), they provide their findings within the provincial context. Detail is given on types of vegetation, agricultural activities in the province and much more. • Find the details of provincial farmer unions in the Organised Agriculture chapter. • The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) provides provinces with a forum in which to engage with the national government on matters concerning areas of shared national and provincial legislative powers. The NCOP also oversees the programmes and activities of national government relating to provincial and local government matters. Find more at

Province and MEC

Contact details

Western Cape – Mr Gerrit van Tel: 021 483 4700 Rensburg Fax: 021 483 3890 Eastern Cape – Mr Mbulelo Sogoni Tel: 040 609 3472/1180 Fax: 040 636 3462

Northern Cape – Mr Norman Tel: 053 838 9165 Shushu Fax: 053 832 4328 Free State – Ms Motlagomang Qabathe Mamiki Tel: 051 861 8401 Fax: 051 861 8451

North West – Mr Boitumelo Tel: 018 389 5056 Tshwene Fax: 018 384 2679 Limpopo – Ms Dipuo Letsatsi- Tel: 015 295 7023 Duba Fax: 015 295 7046 Gauteng – Ms Nandi Mayathula- Tel: 011 355 1900 Khoza Fax: 011 333 0620 Mpumalanga Malinga – Mr Meshack Tel: 013 766 6074 Fax: 013 766 8437

KwaZulu-Natal – Ms Lydia Johnson Tel: 031 343 8240 Fax: 033 343 8255
MinMEC is a forum made up from the MECs of agriculture in the nine provinces. It meets four times a year.



3. Western Cape
Department of Agriculture: Western Cape Website: Physical Address Department of Agriculture Muldersvlei Road ELSENBURG 7607 Head of department Ms Joyene Isaacs Tel: 021 808 5004/5 Fax: 021 808 5000 Director Corporate Services Ms R Wentzel Tel: 021 808 5119 Fax: 021 808 5000 Director Technology, Research and Development Dr I Trautmann Tel: 021 808 5011 Fax: 021 808 5000 Chief Director Veterinary Services Dr G Msiza Tel: 021 808 5001 Fax: 021 808 5000 Chief Director Farmer Support and Development Mr D Adolph Tel: 021 808 5013 Fax: 021 808 525 Postal Address Department of Agriculture Private Bag X1 ELSENBURG 7607 Chief Director Structured Agricultural Training Mr M Paulse Tel: 021 808 5018 Fax: 021 808 7703 Chief Financial officer Mr F Huysamer Tel: 021 808 5007 Fax: 021 808 5000 Director Sustainable Resource Management Mr A Roux Tel: 021 808 5009 Fax: 021 808 5000 Director Agricultural Economics Ms B Matoti Tel: 021 808 5213 Fax: 021 808 5000

The Programme Structured Agricultural Training with its sub programmes: • Higher Education • Further Education & Training District Managers Cape Metropole Central Karoo Eden West Coast Overberg Boland Tel: 021 948 6966 Tel: 023 414 2126 Tel: 044 803 3710 /31 Tel: 022 433 2330 Tel: 028 424 1439 Tel: 021 883 2560

Information / Communication Services Danie Niemand (acting) Tel: 021 808 7602 / 082 934 5300 Fax: 021 808 5251 Free publications • AgriPROBE. Quarterly news and research magazine. Subscriptions: Magriet de Lange Tel: 021 808 7613 • Information sheets. Technical information sheets in Afrikaans, English & Xhosa – 100 subjects
Read about Radio Elsenburg in the Agricultural Media chapter.

4. Eastern Cape – the website of the Eastern Cape Provincial Government will give you an overview of this province. You will find Agriculture under “Departments”. Selecting this menu option will take you to www.agr.ecprov., website of the Eastern Cape Department of Agriculture.

The services rendered by this Department are aimed towards realising the vision of Global success, Competitive, Inclusive, Socially responsible and in balance with Nature. The services are divided into 6 programmes, supported by Administration (Corporate and Financial services). The Programme Veterinary Services with its sub programmes: • Veterinary Lab Services • Animal Health • Veterinary Public Health & Export Control The Programme Farmer Support and Development with its sub programmes: • • • • Farmer Settlement Food Security Farmer Support Services Farm Worker Development

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (ECDARD)
Tel: 040 609 3474 Fax: 040 636 3555 Private Bag X0040, Bisho, 5608 Head of Department Mr Glen Thomas Tel: 040 609 3471/91 Fax: 040 635 0604 A comprehensive list of contact details is available on the website The districts • Alfred Nzo – 039 727 4453 • Amathole – 043 701 4000 • Buffalo City – 043 705 2000. An extensive list of contacts is offered on for this municipality of East London, King William’s Town and Bhisho. • Cacadu – 041 402 6201. A general list of contacts can be found at • Chris Hani – 045 808 4600 • Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality – 041 506 5555 www. • OR Tambo – 047 531 0258 • Ukhahlamba – 051 611 0071

The Programme Technology, Research and Development Services with its sub programmes: • Research: plant production, animal production, resource utilisation • Infrastructure Support Services The Programme Sustainable Resource Management with its sub programmes: • Agricultural Engineering Services • LandCare The Programme Agricultural Economics with its sub programmes: • Micro-economics • Marketing • Macro-economics • Statistics


5. Mpumalamga
Mpumalanga Department of Agriculture, Rural Development and Land Administration (ARDLA)
Tel: 013 766 6067/8 Fax: 013 766 8295 Postal Address: Private Bag X 11219, Nelspruit, 1200 • Witbank Tel: 013 690 1269 Fax: 086 695 3928 • Ermelo Tel: 017 819 1155 Fax: 017 819 2828 • The office at Drumrock is moving. Phone 084 513 5612/3 to update contact details.

7. KwaZulu-Natal
KZN Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs & Rural Development
Tel: 033 355 9100 Fax: 033 355 9122 Website: Private Bag X9050, Pietermaritzburg 3200 Head of Department Dr Sizwe Mkhize Tel: 033 355 9690 Southern Region – Tel: 033 343 8300 Northern Region – Tel: 035 780 6700 A full list of contact details for all districts can be found on the website.

6. Gauteng
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD)
Tel: 011 355 1900 Fax: 011 355 1000 Postal: PO Box 8769, Johannesburg, 2000 Website: Agriculture Branch – 011 355 1968 Technology Development and Support – 011 355 1374 Agricultural Economics and Marketing – 011 355 1906 Farmer Support Services – 011 355 1447 • Farmer Settlement – 011 355 1449 • Household Food Security – 011 355 1453 • Integrated Food Security – 011 355 1720 / 1265

Department of Economic Development and Tourism
Tel: 031 310 5300 Fax: 031 310 5423 The KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Department of Economic Development (DED) is continuously developing strategies to support the growth of the agribusiness and agri-processing sector. This involves identifying and packaging agri-business and agri-processing opportunities.


8. Northern Cape
Department of Agriculture and Land Reform (DALA)
Tel: 053 838 9100 (General Switchboard) Fax: 053 832 4328 Website: Head office 162 George Street Kimberley Head of the Department: Mr MVD Mothibi Tel: 053 838 9118 Fax: 053 831 3635 The municipal districts are Frances Baard, Siyanda, Pixley-Ka-Seme, Namakwa and Kgalagadi. Find contact details on the advert opposite. Find the Telephone Directory on the website. Private Bag X5018 Kimberley 8300

10. North West
Invest North West, the province’s trade and investment promotion agency has identified seven agricultural clusters as key areas to drive the province’s economy and develop existing capacity. These clusters, offering potential investors viable business opportunities include: Renewable energy; essential oil production; goat meat processing; beef beneficiation; edible oils; indigenous medicinal plants and aquaculture. Other opportunities include fruit and vegetable canning and leather production. For additional information on any of these agricultural initiatives contact Invest North West: call 014 594 2570 or visit

North West Department of Agriculture, Conservation And Environment and Rural Development (DACERD)
Tel: 018 389 5111 Physical Address Agricentre Building, Corner Dr James Moroka Drive and Stadium Road (Opposite Convention Centre), Mafikeng Head Of The Department Tel: 018 389 5146 Fax: 018 389 5722 A list of contact details can be found in the “Directory of Services” on the website. Postal Address Private Bag X02 Bloemfontein 9300 Agricultural Support Services Tel: 051 506 1622 Fax: 051 447 1659 Postal Address Private Bag X2039 Mmabatho 2735

9. Free State
Free State Department of Agriculture
Tel: 051 506 1400 Fax: 051 448 6138 Website: Physical Address ABSA Building C/O Aliwal and Maitland Streets Bloemfontein Head of Department: Tel: 051 506 1614 Fax: 051 430 1542 District Implementation Tel: 051 506 1619 Fax: 051 447 1659 District Directors Xhariep District – 051 713 0480 Fezile Dabe – 016 976 2009 Motheo – 051 875 1161 Lejweleputsa – 057 398 1664 Thabo Mofutsanyane – 058 714 1430/0 Find the “District Profiles” on the website The “Services” menu option will give you general and/or contact information for: • • • • Agricultural economics Extension and development Research Soil Conservation and Landcare • Geographical Information Service (find overviews of weather, veld types, soil depth etc) • Veterinary Services

11. Limpopo
Limpopo Province Department of Agriculture
Tel: 015 294 3000 Fax: 015 294 4504 Website: Physical Address: 67 Biccard Street Polokwane 0700 Postal Address: Private Bag X9487 Polokwane 0700

Head of Department Prof Azwihangwisi Edward Nesamvuni Tel: 015 294 3000 / 3533 Fax: 015 294 4512 Districts • • • • • • Bohlabela – 013 773 0032 Capricorn – 015 632 6652 Mopani – 015 812 3210 Sekhukhune – 015 632 4147 Waterberg – 014 717 2523 Vhembe – 015 963 1653


The urban question
See also the Human Settlements and Food Security chapters

1. Overview
“At present we rely on a food delivery chain that is unsustainable at all points but is so remote from our awareness that we take it for granted and seldom question its ethics or environmental impact. How will cities feed themselves as Climate Change and Peak Oil begin to impact on our lives?” Prof Michael Rudolph

The rapid urbanisation that is taking place goes together with a rapid increase in urban poverty and urban food insecurity. By 2020 the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America will be home to some 75% of all urban dwellers, and to eight of the anticipated nine mega-cities with populations in excess of 20 million. It is expected that by 2020, 85% of the poor in Latin America, and about 40-45% of the poor in Africa and Asia will be concentrated in towns and cities. Most cities in developing countries have great difficulties to cope with this development and are unable to create sufficient formal employment opportunities for the poor. They also have increasing problems with the disposal of urban wastes and waste water and maintaining air and river water quality. Urban agriculture provides a complementary strategy. Next to food security, urban agriculture contributes to local economic development, poverty alleviation and social inclusion of the urban poor and women in particular, as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes. The importance of urban agriculture is increasingly being recognised by international organisations like UNCED (Agenda 21), UNCHS (Habitat), FAO (World Food and Agriculture Organisation), and CGIAR (international agricultural research centres).
Source: adapted from notes on the RUAF Foundation website,

• Urban agriculture may take place in locations inside the cities (intraurban) or in the peri-urban areas. The activities may take place on the homestead (on-plot) or on land away from the residence (off-plot), on private land (owned, leased) or on public land (parks, conservation areas, along roads, streams and railways), or semi-public land (schoolyards, grounds of schools and hospitals). • Urban agriculture includes food products, from different types of crops (grains, root crops, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits) and animals (poultry, rabbits, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, guinea pigs, fish, etc.) as well as non-food products (like aromatic and medicinal herbs, ornamental plants, tree products, etc.). or combinations of these. Often the more perishable and relatively high-valued vegetables and animal products and by-products are favoured. • In most cities in developing countries, an important part of urban agricultural production is for self-consumption, with surpluses being traded. However, the importance of the market-oriented urban agriculture, both in volume and economic value, should not be underestimated (as will be shown later). Products are sold at the farm gate, by cart in the same or other neighbourhoods, in local shops, on local (farmers) markets or to intermediaries and supermarkets. Mainly fresh products are sold, but part of it is processed for own use, cooked and sold on the streets, or processed and packaged for sale to one of the outlets mentioned above.
Urban agriculture is an integral part of the urban system. Source: adapted from notes on the RUAF Foundation website,

3. Publications and websites
• Guidelines for Urban and peri-urban animal agriculture, compiled by the Directorate Animal and Aquaculture Production. Call 012 319 7511 • Standard Bank’s AgriReviews frequently topics related to urban agriculture. One such article is referred to under the opening heading. Another article can be found in the 1st quarter of 2008, entitled “Urbanisation”. Find these at • – a website used cited as a source in the earlier AgriReview article. It contains concepts, presentations and features. • – Resource Centre on Urban Agriculture and Forestry. Find the publications, videos and other resources. • – The site of Cities Feeding People, the urban agriculture programme of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). • Find the different urban option at, website of the Global Development Research Center • – City Farmer is a non-profit society promoting urban food production and environmental conservation from a small office in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia. • – ETC International Group partners with role-players in 75 countries on development programmes • – ETC Urban Agriculture is an advisory group and resource centre in urban agriculture and food security. The “recent projects” lists work done in Turkey, Canada, South East Asia and Sub Saharan Africa. • – a North American website The chapter also serves as a corollary of the Importance of Rural Development chapter. The greater the development in the rural areas (in line with the Integrated and Sustainable Rural Development Strategy – ISRDS), the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban centres, leading to declining living conditions there. Indeed, it is significant that the government’s Urban Renewal Programme (URP) and Sustainable Rural Development Programme (ISRDP) share the same website – http://isrdp.

2. Urban agriculture
Urban agriculture can be defined shortly as the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities. The most striking feature of urban agriculture, which distinguishes it from rural agriculture, is that it is integrated into the urban economic and ecological system. Such linkages include the use of urban residents as labourers, use of typical urban resources (like organic waste as compost and urban wastewater for irrigation), direct links with urban consumers, direct impacts on urban ecology (positive and negative), being part of the urban food system, competing for land with other urban functions, being influenced by urban policies and plans, etc.


4. Roleplayers
ABALIMI BEZEKHAYA (“Planters of the Home”) Tel: 021 371 1653 equipment (e.g. tractor at the Atlantis centre). The contact person, based at the Hartebeeskraal Community Centre, Atlantis, is Karel Abels. He can be reached at 021 572 1246 and at Organic micro-farming and gardening in the townships of Cape Town, the “first city in Africa to have City of Johannesburg Metro an approved Urban Agriculture Municipality policy as of 2007”. ABALIMI Tel: 011 375 5555 directly interfaces with between 50-200 community projects every year, and up to 3000 micro-farmers City of Tshwane Metro and gardeners every year. Municipality Tel: 012 358 1373 Afesis-corplan Tel: 043 743 3830 Department of Agriculture, Afristar Foundation Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Tel: 011 706 5614 Directorate: Food Security Tel: 012 319 6736 A Permaculture NGO Creating sustainable solutions for urban development, providing training and skills in alternative energy, appropriate technology, food security, primary and preventative health care using indigenous plants and heirloom seeds for seed sovereignty. Department of Health (DoH) Community Based Nutrition Programme Tel: 012 312 0071

Planner Bee Plant Care Tel: 011 888 4215 / 083 255 5828 FERTILIS earthworm castings fertiliser (REG. NO B3664 Act 36/1947) is certified by the Organic Food Federation UK: organic certification no: 00371/01/00. RUAF Foundation Tel: +31 33 432 6055 Resource Centres on agriculture and food security

Sustainable Villages Africa (SVA) Tel: 012 361 1846 / 072 510 0187 UKUVUNA (Urban farming project cc) Tel: 011 224 0098/ 083 665 3356

Ukuvuna Permaculture is an independent private company that focuses on the development of practical skills. Its Permaculture urban training centre is well established. University of Cape Town African Centre for Cities University of the Free State Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 051 401 2250 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Tel: 051 401 2163 Lengau Agricultural centre Tel: 051 443 8859 University of KwaZulu-Natal Mike Underwood Tel: 033 260 6088

Siyakhana Food Garden Project c.o. Health Promotion Unit School of Public Health Wits Medical School Tel: 011 717 2241 The main aim of the project is to establish a site for an urban agriculture initiative that showcases a food garden system for food production, education, research, and empowerment of the community, particularly women, through training, employment and income-generating opportunities. Siyakhana conducts inter-andmultidisciplinary research and provides design, training and implementation services to private individuals and to organisations.

Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality Moses Gafane Tel: 011 861 8841 AgriPlanner – see “South African Institute for Entrepreneurship” later in this list Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is set to double the Calabash Trust number of food garden projects Tel: 041 585 9255 set up in the area to respond to the challenge of high food prices and poverty. City of Cape Town Directorate for Economic and Ethekwini Metropolitan Human Development Municipality Urban Agriculture Unit Ms Akhona Ngcobo Tel: 021 550 1201 Tel: 031 311 6278 The unit is based at the municipal building in Pienaar Road, Milnerton. The city’s Urban Agricultural Policy (a pdf document) can be found on its website – For updates on the Urban Farmers’ Association, contact Stanley Visser. There are currently two urban agriculture centres in the city – one in Atlantis and one in Phillipi. They have been established by the Provincial Department of Agriculture and supported by the City of Cape Town in terms of providing storage space and Food and Trees for Africa (FTFA) Tel: 011 784 6399 Food Gardens Foundation Tel: 011 880 5956/7 za Khula Enterprise Finance Tel: 012 394 5560 Regional office contacts can be found on the website.

University of South Africa (UNISA) Siyakhana enjoys strong links Victor Mmbengwa with local, provincial and national Tel: 011 471 2566 government initiatives and has recently been endorsed by the Gauteng Department for URBAN FARMER Agriculture, Conservation and Working in collaboration with Environment. Organic Food Gardens Tel/fax: 022 448 1106 Its primary focus is to demonstrate Lisa Perold – 082 842 1579 the close link between urban permaculture, food and health promotion. Water Research Commission Tel: 012 330 0340 South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 The SAIE develops innovative materials that utilise original, creative methodologies and trains educators, trainers and community-based organisations to convey business skills, uncover entrepreneurship qualities and ensure sustainable economic development and wealth creation.



Biosecurity has three major components: Isolation, Traffic Control, Sanitation.

National issues
1. Overview
• ‘Biosecurity’ is a relatively new word, derived from ‘biological security’. • Biosecurity covers the introduction of animal pests and diseases, zoonoses, plant pests, the introduction and release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their products, and the introduction and management of invasive alien species and genotypes. • Biosecurity is a strategic and integrated approach that encompasses the policy and regulatory frameworks (including instruments and activities) that analyse and manage risks in the sectors of food safety, animal life and health, and plant life and health, including associated environmental risk. • The information in this chapter is weighted on the part of livestock. The reader is asked to also consult other, related chapters of relevance. These include: Invasive Alien Species, Biodiversity, Biocontrol, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, as well as the obvious Livestock chapters like Animal Health. • A farmer that tries to avoid essential preventative treatment and spending is acting unwisely: animal diseases are detrimental to the economy of the country, to say nothing of human and animal health.
Source:, and Peter Oberem

• Isolation. The most important step in disease control is to minimise commingling and movement of cattle. • Traffic control includes traffic onto your operation and traffic patterns within your operation. It is important to understand traffic includes more than vehicles. All animals and people must be considered. Animals other than cattle include dogs, cats, horses, wildlife, rodents and birds. • Sanitation addresses the disinfection of materials, people and equipment entering the operation and the cleanliness of the people and equipment on the operation.
Source: adapted from Biosecurity Bascics for Cattle Operations and Good Management Practices (GMP) for Controlling Infectious Diseases, published by Institute of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Biosecurity systems on farms are to a large extent the responsibility of the individual producers and are designed to protect the producer’s own interests. Implementation of a biosecurity plan requires an understanding of the “epidemiological” principles of disease including the host species, agent (disease) and environmental factors which must be managed using objective cost effective decision making processes. For a stock farmer, the four legs of a Biosecurity Programme are: • A structured and effective immunisation programme should be in place and adhered to. • Minimise contacts with possible infectious agents or animals. Animals introduced into a herd should be certified disease and parasite free. • Eliminate sources of infection. • Control the movement of people amongst farms and farm animals.

2. Biosecurity and the livestock farmer
For detailed and specific information about applying biosecurity principles to your operation, consult your veterinarian or the relevant commodity/trade association e.g. South African Pork Producers Organisation (SAPPO) The goal of biosecurity is to stop transmission of disease causing agents by preventing, minimising or controlling cross-contamination of body fluids (feces, urine, saliva, etc.) between animals, animals to feed and animals to equipment that may directly or indirectly contact animals. Biosecurity management practices are designed to prevent the spread of disease by minimizing the movement of biologic organisms and their vectors (viruses, bacteria, rodents, flies, etc.) onto and within your operation. Biosecurity can be very difficult to maintain because the interrelationships between management, biologic organisms and biosecurity are very complex. While developing and maintaining biosecurity is difficult, it is the cheapest, most effective means of disease control available, and no disease prevention program will work without it. Infectious diseases can be spread between operations by: • the introduction of diseased cattle or healthy cattle incubating disease; • introduction of healthy cattle who have recovered from disease but are now carriers; • vehicles, equipment, clothing and shoes of visitors or employees who move between herds; • contact with inanimate objects that are contaminated with disease organisms; • carcasses of dead cattle that have not been disposed of properly; • feedstuffs, especially high risk feedstuff which could be contaminated with feces; • impure water (surface drainage water, etc.); • manure handling and aerosolized manure and dust; • nonlivestock (horses, dogs, cats, wildlife, rodents, birds and insects).

3. Roleplayers
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Find notes on all of the directorates at (take the “Divisions” menu option)

Directorate: Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6505/39 This directorate: • develops policies, promulgates legislation, sets norms and standards and guidelines to manage plant health risks; • ensures compliance with international plant health obligations and responsibilities, thereby creating an environment for safe imports and exports; • manages all risks associated with plants and plant products to protect South African agriculture from quarantine and regulated pests. The Plant Health menu option at provides information on the Agricultural Pests Act, 1983 (Act No 36 of 1983) and other regulations which are relevant to this chapter. Find the presentation “Phytosanitary requirements for imports and exports of plants, plant products and other regulated articles”, given by this Marianna Theyse of this directorate, at Directorate: Agricultural Product Inspection Serves (APIS) Tel: 012 319 6100 This directorate: conducts agricultural product inspections and audit services at official ports of entry, and plant and animal quarantine as well as diagnostic services; contributes to safe food and prevents animal and plant pests and diseases from entering the country; secures and maintains national, regional and international markets for agricultural products.


Directorate: Veterinary Services Tel: 012 319 7456 This directorate: manages animal health through the setting and analysis of essential international and national standards; controls and certifies the health status of animals/animal products for import/export, including the provision of quarantine facilities; negotiates protocols on the import and export of animal/animal products.
Provincial contacts are listed in the Animal Health chapter. Find the “Contacts” menu option at Profiles, documents (e.g. for export / import), press releases and more can be found at the “Food and Veterinary Services” pages.

Directorate: Biosafety Tel: 012 319 6199 Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7306

National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115

The statutory levies for the different sectors address, amongst Directorate: Agricultural Disaster other issues, the health and hygiene Management systems in those sectors. Tel: 012 319 7955

Agri Inspec Tel: 012 843 5630 / 082 879 3955 Akshan Consulting Tel: 011 803 7139 / 084 777 4472 Den Vet Tel: 033 343 1093 South African Animal Health Association (SAAHA) Tel: 011 805 2000 South African National Equestrian Federation (SANEF) Tel: 011 468 3236/8

Animal Health Act, 2002 (Act No.7 Of 2002)
This Act replaced the Animal Disease Act (35 of 1984). Objectives This Act provides for measures to promote animal health and to control animal diseases. It assigns executive authority with regard to certain provisions of this Act to provinces. It regulates the importation and exportation of animals and things and establishes animal health schemes. Main provisions • Control measures regarding all animal diseases proclaimed under the Act. • Owners of animals must at all times prevent the infection of his or her animals with any animal disease or parasite, the spreading of the disease or parasite and arrange for the eradication thereof. • If it has become clear or reasonably suspected that animals have become infected with a controlled animal disease, like rabies or foot and mouth, immediately report of such infection must be given to the nearest State Veterinarian. • No person may import or export any animal or animal product into or from the Republic unless the National Executive Officer has issued an import or export permit. • If owners of animals finds amongst their animals, any animal, which has strayed or has been unlawfully removed or strayed from outside the Republic of South Africa, the animal must immediately be isolated, detained and the nearest State Veterinarian informed, pending further instructions. • In case of any doubt contact the nearest State veterinarian (details in the Animal Health chapter) or in cases of extreme urgency any veterinarian or Police station. The Act is available on

South African Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC) These distributors of veterinary Tel: 044 272 3336 and associated services also give information talks and presentations in rural areas. They advise farmers, South African Pork Producers agricultural co-ops etc. Organisation (SAPPO) Tel: 012 361 3920 The Livestock Health and Production Group Tel: 012 346 1590 Southern African Poultry Association (SAPA) National Council of SPCAs Tel: 011 795 2051 Farm Animal Unit Tel: 011 907 3590/1/2 South African Veterinary Onderstepoort Biological Association Products Tel: 012 346 1150 Tel: 012 522 1500 Fax: 012 522 1591 South African Veterinary Council Red Meat Industry Forum Tel: 012 342 1612 Tel: 012 667 1189 Veterinary House Hospital Tel: 033 342 4698
Animal health companies manufacture vaccines and promotes biosecurity within the continent. Find their details in the Animal Health chapter.


4. Training and research
Afrivet Training Services Dr Danie Odendaal Tel: 082 454 0532 Three different institutions are located at Onderstepoort, and function separately:

a problem. The responsibility falls on all commercial farmers to protect their own interests through tick control at a level with which they and their advisers are comfortable. Ticks belong to reasonably distinctive “name” groups e.g. Blue tick, red legged tick, bont tick and so on but in reality, to the uninitiated, the engorged or fully fed adults of different species, which are most easily seen, are difficult to differentiate. Knowledge of the appearance distribution and life cycles of these parasites goes a long way toward identifying individual ticks and helping one select a control measure that will work in a particular circumstance. All tick’s lifecycles go through egg, larval, nymphal, and adult stages and depending on the number of hosts supplying feeds to the parasites. They can be grouped into three distinct categories namely single host, two host and three host ticks. The life cycle may be repeated every 21 to 35 days as in the single host blue tick while other species may only complete 2 or 3 life cycles per year. It is this rapid life cycle turnover of the blue tick that enables them to develop resistance to many of the available chemicals. There are essentially 5 groups of chemicals for tick control namely Pyrethroids, Amidines or formadines, organophosphates, growth regulators and Macrocytic lactones which do not hold registration for all the tick species. In a study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the Free State Province published in 2009 Tonetti N et al reported that Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the known vector of Babesia bovis (asiatic redwater) in South Africa, was found for the first time in the Free State Province. The significance of this is ominous. Livestock producers should be alert to the dangers of introducing resistant ticks and disease into their herds regardless of their geographical whereabouts and should plan and implement biosecurity principles without delay.
For more information, contact Dr Rick Mapham of Veterinary House Hospital. Call 033 342 4698 or write to

ARC – Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) Afrivet Training Services provides Tel: 012 529 8000 a structured approach to primary animal health care and thus to Onderstepoort Biological biosecurity. Products The practical course content is Tel: 012 522 1500 designed for implementation at farm level, and includes courses in early disease identification and University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science treatment, and in on-going disease Tel: 012 529 8000 prevention. For specific information pertaining to disease control, please contact the Central Reference Laboratory at 012 529 8000 or write to Private Bag X04, ONDERSTEPOORT, 0110.

5. Websites and publications
• See the websites of associations involved e.g. see the Biosecurity Plan on the SAPPO website; find the Biosecurity Guidelines for the Ostrich Industry document at; the Disease Management option at etc. • Find the links on the Food and Veterinary Services pages at www.daff. (take the Divisions option). Under “Epidemiology” find options like include Disease Maps, Disease Status, Disease Database, Disease Reporting Forms etc. • Find details of the numerous Info Paks available from DAFF in the Animal Health chapter. These can be viewed under the “Publications” option at, or obtained from either the Resource Centre (012 319 7141) or from the Supply Shop at the ARC Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. Tel: 012 529 9446. Examples of these publications are “Animal Health: Common and Important Diseases in Cattle”, “Poultry: Disease prevention in chickens” etc. • See also the other publications in the Animal Health chapter. • Find the Comprehensive Atlas at, activate the control zones under Risks and Hazards and find the Animal Disease Control Zones. • Find information on Avian Flu on the website of Birdlife International (, and the websites of associations mentioned in the Farming and Birds chapter. • Technically the Swine Flu outbreak of 2009 was a human flu and using the term “Swine Flu” is erroneous. Read more at • Find notes relevant to European Union biosecurity at http://ec.europa. eu/food/animal/bips/index_en.htm • Read about African horsesickness (AHS) in the equine chapter. • International Plant Protection Convention – • – Inter-African Phytosanitary Council

7. Zoonoses: diseases of livestock that can affect humans
The word “zoonosis” has its origins in the Greek zoon, meaning animal, and nosos meaning disease. In 1959, the World Health Organisation Expert Committee on Zoonoses, defined zoonoses as “those diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man”. Zoonotic diseases are an occupational hazard for all those who work with livestock, including farmers and their workers, veterinary staff, those in the abattoir and dairy industries and, ultimately, the consumers of animal products like meat, dairy products and eggs. Preventing the transfer of zoonotic diseases from animals to humans rests on three pillars. The first of these is keeping animals healthy through good management, vaccinations and parasite control. The second pillar is personal hygiene and attention to healthy working conditions in the livestock industry – particularly details like the provision of good ventilation and accessible ablution blocks. The third pillar is food hygiene, maintaining a cold chain and the inspection and quality control of animal products from the farm to the table. If these three pillars are kept in place, the chance or risk of catching any disease from an animal is very low – you are much more likely to catch diseases from other people! Prevention is better than cure; however, if you suspect you have a zoonotic disease, it is advisable to consult a medical practitioner as soon as possible. Further details on the symptoms and treatment of zoonotic diseases are obtainable on the World Health Organisation ( and the Contagious Diseases Centre (CDC) websites. The table following summarises the most important zoonotic diseases of livestock and gives some idea of how to prevent them being transmitted.

6. Ticks and biosecurity
Some readers may remember the days when livestock movements were strictly controlled and permits were required to transport livestock from one district to another. Much of the legislation behind this came from the late decades of the 19th century where diseases were poorly understood but it was noticed that dipping and movement controls helped to control tick born diseases such as redwater. The serious losses experienced by farmers in those days prompted what was an effective biosecurity system but which also created some controversy. Ticks and tick control will provoke heated debates even today with differing opinions on the proper levels of aggression in tick control; however, even with modern drugs and dips, ticks and the diseases they transmit remain


Disease Anthrax

How it is transmitted Contact with blood, skins or meat of diseased cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. Contact with diseased birds infected with the virulent strain. Consumption of meat or other foods contaminated with the spores or toxins of Clostridium botulinum. Inhalation of or contact with blood or birth fluids of infected cattle. Drinking unpasteurised milk.

Symptoms in humans Skin, lung and intestinal forms; may be fatal if untreated.

Prevention Vaccinate cattle every year. Notify state vet if there are sudden deaths in livestock. Do not slaughter and eat sick animals. Do not handle dead birds of any species without gloves, face-masks and protective clothing. Vaccinate cattle. Food hygiene and cooking at high temperatures.

Disease Bacterial wound infections

How it is transmitted Cuts and wounds that are exposed to animal manure, pus and would infections of animals

Symptoms in humans Abscesses, gangrene and “blood poisoning”

Prevention Wash and disinfect all wounds immediately using running water. Cover wounds if working with animals, meat or milk. Rat control. Control fleas on animals – including goats, dogs and cats. Food hygiene. Clean drinking water (prevent it being polluted by human and animal excreta). Wash hands after handling animals and before eating. Prevent water being contaminated with human or animal excreta. Wash hands after handling animals and before eating. Do not crush ticks with your fingernails. Use tick repellents when working in areas with high tick levels. Hygiene during milking. Prevent transmission between cows. Personal hygiene – wash your hands well and scrub your nails before eating.

Avian Influenza

Influenzalike symptoms; often fatal in people.

Bubonic plague

Bites by rat fleas “Bubon” forms in inguinal lymphnode, fatal pneumonia. Severe acute gastroenteritis. If caused by Ecoli serotype 0157, severe bloody gastroenteritis and organ failure. Severe chronic diarrhoea, difficult to treat.


Flaccid paralysis of muscles; it progresses until the patient cannot sit or stand, eventually unable to breathe. Acute symptoms look like malaria or influenza; Chronic intermittent fever, joint problems. Nodules on the skin and in the lymphnodes; chronic weight loss, severe cough with bloody phlegm. Chronic nervous symptoms that become worse; always fatal as it is incurable.

Colibaccilosis Consumption of food, water or other material containing the organism Escherichia coli

Bovine brucellosis

Vaccination of heifers, regular testing of cattle herd. Hygienic handling of aborted material or afterbirths. Pasteurise milk. Workers in dairies must be checked regularly for TB. Dairy cattle must be tested regularly for TB. Pasteurise milk. Prevent the disease coming into South Africa. Test cattle that die after showing nervous symptoms.


Consumption of food, water or other material containing the organism Cryptosporidium Contact with the blood of infected animals or bites by the tick Hyalomma spp., or infected people

Congo Fever

Bovine tuberculosis and human tuberculosis

Inhalation of droplets from coughing cows; drinking unpasteurised milk. Consumption of brain, lymphnodes or spinal tissue of affected cattle

Muscle pains, fever, severe haemorrhage under the skin and internally. Highly fatal.


Pseudo Cowpox (Bovine Orf) Neuro-cysticercosis

Contact with in- Red inflamed fective nodules nodule on the on cow teats. hands. Consumption of the eggs of the pig tapeworm Taenia solium. Cysts on the brain can lead to epilepsy and madness in people.


Disease Diamond skin disease (Erysipelas of pigs)

How it is transmitted Contact with the skin, meat or blood of infected or carrier pigs.

Symptoms in humans


Disease Rabies

How it is transmitted Bites by infected dogs, jackals, cattle, horses, sheep, wildlife.

Symptoms in humans


Large painful Vaccinate pigs nodule on the against Erisipelas. hands. Can also cause vegetative endocarditis (growths on the heart valves). Large cysts on the brain, lungs or in the liver of people. Kidney failure, jaundice and liver failure; responds well to antibiotic treatment. Contagious ecthyma. Red swollen areas of skin of hands or face. Swollen lymphnodes and interstitial pneumonia. Do not feed raw meat, especially cysts from sheep carcasses, to dogs. Control rats (they carry the disease). Test for the disease in livestock if there are abortions. Wash hands well and do not touch your face while working with sheep or goats. Wear masks if working in dusty kraals; protective clothing when working with aborted foetus and uterine fluids. Pasteurise milk. Food hygiene. Prevent contamination of food with animal faeces. Remember personal hygiene and wear protective clothing if working with sick animals or their faeces. Treat and control sarcoptic mange in animals.

Hydatid disease

Consumption or ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Echinococcus.

Mania and death Vaccinate all dogs. If cattle or any other animals show symptoms, call the state veterinarian URGENTLY. If bitten, go straight to a clinic or doctor and inform the state vet. Fever, retinitis with haemorrhage and edema, causing blindness. Encephalistis, liver and kidney failure. Can be fatal. Vaccinate sheep if there is an outbreak. Use protective clothing and masks if working with infected animals or carcases. Control mosquitoes. Treat animals with ringworm. Consult a physician if you become infected. Consult a physician for treatment with antibiotics.

Rift Valley Fever

Leptospirosis Contact with pigs or cattle infected with the disease. Contact with infected water. Orf Contact with sheep or goats infected with orf. Inhaling dust in the kraals, contact with aborted material from cattle, sheep and goats; drinking unpasteurised milk.

Mosquito bites during an outbreak, contact with blood or aborted material from infected sheep or cattle.


Contact with in- Round, scaley fected animals. skin lesions


Tick bite fever

Bites by ticks.

Blackened area after 10 days where bitten by a tick. Severe headaches. Granulomas in the brain of HIV positive people. Abnormalities in newborn children if mothers infected while they are pregnant.


Salmonellosis Consumption of food, water or other material containing the organism Salmonella; contact with animals infected with Salmonella.

Severe gastroenteritis which can be fatal in the very young and the elderly. Sometimes septicaemia and organ failure.

Consumption of poorly cooked mutton or pork. Ingestion of soil contaminated with cat faeces

Cook meat well. Scrub hands and nails before eating, particularly after digging in gardens.

Source: Prof CME McCrindle, Section head of Veterinary Public Health, Deptartment of Paraclinical Sciences, at the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria. Our thanks to Dr PH “Rick” Mapham of Veterinary House Hospital for feedback on the draft chapter. Contact him at 033 342 4698.

Sarcoptic mange

Contact with infected pigs, dogs and cats.

Small red itchy areas on the skin due to infection by the mite Sarcoptes scabei. Severe coughing; can result in heart failure and death if untreated.


Inhalation of the droppings or blood of infected pigeons, parrots, ducks and turkeys.

Have sufficient ventilation when working in pigeon or poultry houses. Use a face mask and gloves if doing necropsies on dead birds.


National issues
Black Economic Empowerment (BEE)
Also referred to as Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE)

a way to measure the contribution an enterprise was making towards BEE, there would be no way to manage the process. Based on these recommendations, the Government released a strategy document early in 2003. It was in this document that the notion of a BEE scorecard was introduced. For the first time there was a mechanism for measuring the progress towards BEE and so now there was a way to manage and drive that process forward. During 2004, 2005 and 2006, various draft BEE Codes and Scorecards were debated and put out for public comment. Finally, in late January 2007, Business, Government, Labour and Civil Society signed off the final BEE Codes of Good Practice which were gazetted on 9 February 2007 and thus begun at least a ten year period of measurement of Broad-Based BEE – so named because it measures a broad number of contributions by an enterprise to social upliftment – not just the transfer of ownership and management. In 2009 President Zuma appointed members to the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Council. The functions of the Council, chaired by the President, are to advise government on Black Economic Empowerment. Government plans to hold a national summit in 2010 to address challenges and gaps in the policy. Visit for updates People who use the term “Broad Based BEE (B-BBEE)” rather than “BEE” are emphasising that Empowerment benefit the many as opposed to the few. The scorecard becomes more important than straight forward ownership, because recognition is given to management control, skills development and supplier development, Employment Equity etc.

1. Overview
There has been a global move in the last few years towards requiring businesses to be more accountable for the people they employ; the communities they live in and work amongst; and the businesses with which they do business. Most developed countries and many developing nations have embraced concepts like Triple Bottom-line Accounting, which requires a business to “account” for the way they treat society (issues like Affirmative Appointments; Skills Development; Corporate Social Investment; Small Business Development and Preferential Procurement) and the way they treat the environment. Other countries make use of Social Responsibility Indexes or “Investor in People” standards to measure and report on the social responsibility of businesses. First and foremost, BEE is an attempt to encourage all businesses to measure and report on the role they are playing in uplifting the society they are in. It is about encouraging the formal upliftment of the “have-nots” or previously disadvantaged. That most of the “have-nots” in South Africa are black (African, Coloured or Indian) is a result of past disadvantage. That is why, in South Africa, our socio-economic empowerment programme is, for the foreseeable future, focused on black South Africans. South Africa is pioneering a model for socio-economic empowerment and it will have successes and failures. Time will show up the mistakes in the policy and these will hopefully be corrected. Lessons like Zimbabwe on our border show what happens when we fail to deal with social imbalances in a structured, international best-practice model. What is true is that if we can fast-track capacity building; create a more-equal sharing of wealth; and continue to grow and be more competitive, we will reap the fruits of these programmes in the years to come. This will be up to individual companies, and the individuals within those companies, as to how well we succeed or how much we fail at becoming more sustainable businesses, communities and a more socially balanced country.
Source: Adapted from an article by William Janisch, Empowerment Services

3. How BEE works
The BEE Codes set principles of how organisations are to be measured as to their social contributions as well as defining Scorecards which allocate targets for each “element” of the scorecard as well as a certain number of points for achieving that target (also known as a “weighting” for that element). There are a number of scorecards depending on the size, sector or ownership of the business (e.g. Multinationals or public organizations might have slightly amended scorecards). The Department of Trade and Industry (dti) was responsible for the development of the BEE Codes so the main Codes of Good Practice for BEE and the Scorecards resulting from that document are referred to as the dti Codes. The dti BEE scorecard looks at seven elements of transformation that an enterprise could be measured on. Below we list the points or weightings for larger businesses (those with a turnover of more than R35million per year). Scorecards for smaller businesses, the AgriBEE sector (see heading 4) or organisations with no ownership or government ownership might have different points allocations: 1) Ownership (20) – looking at the percentage Black shareholders in a company; 2) Management (10) – looking at the percentage of Black top management in a company; 3) Employment Equity (15) – looking at the percentage of Black senior, middle and junior management; technical, professional skills and academically qualified workers; 4) Skills Development (15) – looking at what is being done to train Black employees; 5) Preferential Procurement (20) – looking at how much is purchased from companies that contribute well to BEE; 6) Enterprise Development (15) – looking at what a company is doing to invest and/or develop BEE companies; 7) Socio-economic (5) – looking at what/how a company is contributing to the black community. The figures in brackets refer to the points or weighting given to the element. This then adds up to a total of 100 points – kind of like writing a test on BEE. The details of the formulae and targets are contained in a series of documents called the “Codes of Good Practice for BEE”. The BEE Codes of Good Practice were gazetted into law in February 2007 and will span at least a ten-year period.

2. Black Economic Empowerment: a history
How does one go about encouraging an economy to achieve a transformation to a more equitable distribution of wealth without destabilising it? Early attempts by corporate businesses to sell stakes to black shareholders often involved intricate mechanisms of finance that either effectively gave no control to the new shareholder or relied heavily on an increase in share price in order for them to gain any material benefit whatsoever. Many of these deals were doomed to fail. Some were successful, but have been criticized for putting much wealth in the hands of very few, while for most previously disadvantaged South Africans the struggle continues. This fact did not go unnoticed and in 1998 the black business bodies established the Black Economic Empowerment Commission, a think tank of politicians, economists and consultants who set about trying to find an answer to the problems that were holding back economic transformation. In 2001 they released a report that changed Government’s thinking on Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) and painted some broad strokes about the way forward. Firstly, they recommended that Government should get in the driving seat. Secondly, they pointed out that BEE involved more than just the transfer of assets. There were other aspects such as the development of skills, creating equitable standards in the workplace and the general upliftment of communities. Thirdly, they pointed out that unless there was


Find the latest on and the other websites mentioned under headings 7 and 8.

In order to calculate the “BEE Spend” with a company you: • multiply the actual amount spent with the company by their recognition level; • total these up to calculate the total “BEE Spend”; • divide the result into the total “Actual Spend” to get a percentage. In this case R720 / R1000 = 72%. This figure is then compared with the target on the scorecard in order to calculate the BEE points. If the target percentage was 70%; in the above case with a score of 72%, this company would get full points for the total spend target (whatever points were allocated to that target. As you can see from the above table, the more a customer spends with a supplier, the greater their influence on the customer’s score. Ideally, you would want the suppliers you spend the most with to have the best scores.
Source: Empowerment Services

What does a BEE score mean?
Getting a BEE score is voluntary. There is no legal requirement for any company to obtain one. Your company’s score will however contribute to your customers’ BEE scores and so you will probably find that they will request that you give them an official BEE Certificate in order that they can calculate their score under the Preferential Procurement element. By the same token you will need to obtain the BEE Certificates of your suppliers in order to calculate your BEE score. Other drivers behind getting a good BEE Score might include: • Those wishing to access government finance might be required to get a certain minimum BEE Score • Certain products may receive a “BEE Label” in stores depending on the score of the producer or grower • Prices paid for land under land reform may be adjusted according to BEE scores of the seller • Public perception might drive bigger brands to achieve a reasonable score so as not to fall foul of a disapproving public • The social imperative. If we do not develop our society so that the vast majority participate meaningfully in the economy as soon as possible, we could suffer social or political collapse and we will continue to suffer the economic consequences – high (and violent) crime and high social welfare costs The higher your score, the more you will count towards your customer’s score. The degree to which a score counts is illustrated on the following table. The “Recognition Level” is the factor by which a customer’s spend with you will be multiplied in order to calculate their BEE procurement spend with you. How this works is illustrated in the example below: BEE Score 100+ ≥85 < 100 ≥75 < 85 ≥65 < 75 ≥55 < 65 ≥45 < 55 ≥40 < 45 ≥30 < 40 < 30 Example: Let us say that you have four suppliers. You spend different amounts with them and they have different BEE scores as illustrated in the table below: Supplier A B (QSE) C D TOTAL Actual Spend R150 R250 R550 R50 R1 000 BEE Level Level 4 Level 7 Level 5 Level 8 Recognition BEE Spend Level 100% 50% 80% 10% R150 R125 R440 R5 R720 BEE Status Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Non-compliant Recognition Level 135% 125% 110% 100% 80% 60% 50% 10%

4. AgriBEE
AgriBEE is the transformation charter or Sector Charter for the agricultural sector. This leads one to question: “What is a Sector Charter and why do we need them?” All sectors do not use the Department of Trade & Industry’s BEE Codes (dti Codes). Some Sectors felt the need to adjust the dti Codes to make provision for specific issues facing their own sector or to reward contributions that their sector was best able to make For example: the finance sector is best able to finance empowerment or bank the un-banked so they have included these as targets in their scorecard. The IT sector can help provide Internet bandwidth and computer centres to schools and communities so they might include that as a target in their scorecard. Agriculture has a very specific contribution to make in terms of agricultural land and has historical issues to deal with including high illiteracy rates and HIV infection rates so chooses to focus attention on these issues amongst others. The dti Codes set specific rules for establishing Sector Charters or Sector Codes because the country cannot afford to have one sector “getting away with murder” while another sector has very heavy targets. Therefore, in order to keep everyone on the same general playing field, the dti Codes state the following: A Sector Charter (or Section 12 Charter as some call it) is the voluntary gathering together of a sector to set itself transformation targets, which it will attempt to keep. A sector charter can be gazetted for information purposes but has not weight when it comes to determining your BEE score. Even if your sector has a sector charter, you will still be measured on the dti Codes to determine your BEE Status. The Charter targets are more guidelines for what kinds of contributions the sector expects from its stakeholders. A Sector Code (or Section 9 Charter as some call it) replaces the dti Codes for that particular sector! There are strict rules for establishing Sector Codes. They must be significantly aligned with the dti Codes; they must include all seven elements (e.g. Ownership, Skills Development, Procurement etc.) of the dti Codes but can include additional items which will then “steal” points away from one or more of the other seven elements; the amendments to the dti Codes must be justified and approved by all major stakeholders in the sector as well as put out for general public comment so other sectors can comment on whether they feel the scorecard is fair.



Therefore, in the absence of a Sector Code, one is automatically measured on the dti Codes. The AgriBEE Charter was gazetted as a Sector Charter (Section 12 Charter) and so remains only a guideline and voluntary commitment of the sector (rather than a scorecard) which Verification Agencies will use for measurement. Businesses falling under the scope of the AgriBEE Charter are encouraged to measure their contributions against the indicative AgriBEE Scorecard as well as the dti Scorecard – unless AgriBEE were to become a Sector Code (Section 9 Charter). Readers should check the dti website ( from time to time to determine when / if the AgriBEE Charter is gazetted as a Sector Code in which case the AgriBEE Scorecard will become the official scorecard for the Agri Sector.

Some of the main differences are: • Micro businesses (those turning over less than R5million per year) do not get a blanket exemption but are rather encouraged to participate in at least two areas of the scorecard. • Qualifying Small Enterprises (QSEs) – those turning over between R5million and R35million per year need to choose 5 out of the seven elements of the scorecard – each of which is worth 20 points – whereas the dti scorecard requires QSEs to select 4 elements worth 25 points each. • Employment Equity points are reduced from 15 to 10 points and there is more emphasis on upper management. • Skills Development is raised from 15 to 20 points to encourage this element. Points are awarded for having BEE and Skills strategies. • Preferential Procurement still awards 20 points but redistributes the points to award points for overall percentage of spend spent on good BEE companies and to reward the purchase of goods and services from small and micro-enterprises. The points in the dti scorecard for purchasing from black-owned and black women-owned businesses are not in the AgriBEE scorecard • Enterprise Development is reduced from 15 points to 10 points and the target contribution from 3% Net Profit After Tax (NPAT) to 2% NPAT – but 3 bonus points are awarded for leasing productive land to black people. • The Socio-Economic Development part of the Scorecard is changed to be called Rural Development, Poverty Alleviation and CSI. It is increased from 5 points to 10 points and the contribution is increased to 1,5% of NPAT from the dti’s 1% NPAT. The alternative is to provide 10% of your productive farm land to your black workers for at least 10 years. • Land and Farming Businesses are separated and an agri-business or farmer can get points by either selling a stake in their agribusiness OR by selling some of their land OR a combination of a little bit of both. • Leasing Land or Capital Assets to BEE beneficiaries for at least 10 years can earn Enterprise Development points. • Productive Land can be made available to farm workers under the Rural Development, Poverty Alleviation and CSI section of the Scorecard.

One of the most devastating acts of economic disempowerment in South Africa’s history was the removal of its indigenous people from the land they had occupied for centuries, initially through force of arms and later through discriminatory laws and a system of taxation designed to force Africans into the industrial labour market. For these communities, loss of land amounted to a loss of economic independence and for many a loss of a viable livelihood. Formalised in the 1913 Land Act and apartheid-era forced removals, this dispossession and its after-effects persist to this day – where access to productive agricultural land remains largely the preserve of a racially defined minority. While the industrialisation process of the last century has resulted in largescale urbanisation, there remain significant numbers of South Africans living in rural areas. Land reform and rural development must therefore necessarily form part of any comprehensive BEE strategy.

5. BEE and the small business
• It is clear that AgriBEE is a process, not a once-off occurrence. • Black Economic Empowerment directly affects each business and corporate citizen. It is already the new way of doing business, and organisations that ignore it will definitely be marginalised by the rest of the economy in time and eventually be influenced negatively by the rest of the economy. • Farmers should be proactive in their environment to prevent land being repossessed for redistribution to people that have no interest or feeling for agriculture. • Producers do not have to give away anything free of charge; a business approach to BEE should be followed continuously. • It is, however, very important that everyone realises that a paradigm shift is necessary.

Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment codes apply to enterprises, defined by their turnover. Businesses turning over more than R35million annually are measured on the Indicative AgriBEE Scorecard while those with an annual turnover of between R5million and R35 million are called Qualifying Small Enterprises (QSEs) and are measured on the AgriQSE Scorecard. On the AgriQSE Scorecard, all elements are worth 20 points and a QSE need only select 5 of the 7 areas in which to comply. (Please note: This may change back to the dti model where each area is worth 25 points and only 4 elements need to be selected but at the time of going to press it was 5 elements each worth 20) Businesses with an annual turnover under R5 million a year are called Emerging Micro Enterprises (EMEs), and are automatically given a good BEE status (level 4 – see table under heading 1). EMEs are exempt from having to obtain a scorecard and do not have to comply with the codes. Please Note: The R5million threshold for EMEs is an indicative threshold, which might be changed when an Agri Sector Code is gazetted based on appropriate benchmarking studies, sub-sector inputs or other consultation. Despite the above, the AgriBEE Charter encourages the participation of EMEs in transformation in the following ways: • An EME can choose to be measured according to any two elements of the scorecard – in which case each element is worth 50 points. Those that achieve a score of between 50 and 70 on the AgriQSE Scorecard will then be given Level 3 BEE status; while those achieving 70 points or more will achieve Level 2 BEE Status. • An EME can choose to be measured on any three elements of the scorecard – in which case each element is worth 33.3 points. Those that achieve a score of between 45 and 65 on the AgriQSE Scorecard will then be given Level 3 BEE status; while those achieving 65 points or more will achieve Level 2 BEE Status. • The BEE status of an EME will be raised by one level if black people hold more than 50% economic interest and voting rights in that business (e.g. If it scores Level 3, it will be raised to level 2) All along the food chain, companies are going to be looking at the BEE credentials of their suppliers.

Who oversees the implementation, measurement and ongoing amendments to AgriBEE?
The AgriBEE Charter envisages the establishment of an AgriBEE Charter Council which will monitor, evaluate and report on BEE to the national BEE Advisory Council which is established by the president. The AgriBEE Charter Council is empowered to revise any provisions in the AgriBEE Charter in consultation with the Ministers of Agriculture,Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and Trade & Industry. The actual measurement of AgriBEE will be done by Verification Agencies who are required to become accredited by the dti to perform this task. A Verification is done annually at a time of your choosing and a certificate is issued stating your BEE Score and BEE Status Level for the year ahead.

What are the main differences between the dti Codes and AgriBEE?
The dti Codes are, needless to say, very generic. They set standards for businesses in general. The AgriBEE Charter (due to become a Code in the future) adjusts the dti scorecard to be better focused on the needs of Agriculture.


In order to determine your BEE score, your business will need to be verified. This means that you need to get an approved verification agency to go through your paperwork and give you a rating – a BEE score. The costs of verification will vary depending on the amount of work involved. The basis for charging will be similar to that of auditors and accountants. It is estimated that for a small business the cost per rating will be between R2 000 and R10 000. Having all the information readily available for verification agents when they arrives will help to keep the cost of your verification down.
Source: Empowerment Services. Find the tables showing the scorecards for large businesses and small businesses at the end of this chapter

7. Websites and publications
• The National BEE Handbook. This is a 600 page A4 book dedicated to BEE compliance and best practice published by the publishers of this National Agricultural Directory. The book contains anything and everything you could want to know about BEE – finance, verifications etc. See • Everyone’s Guide to Black Economic Empowerment by Robin Woolley. Order it from Zebra Press (visit • Visions of Black Economic Empowerment Xolela Mangcu, Gill Marcus, Khehla Shubane and Adrian Hadland (editors). • Broad Based BEE The Complete Guide Vuyo Jack ISBN 978 1920099213. • – BusinessMap Investment Strategy Advisors (Pty) Ltd. • Standard Bank has an excellent DVD presentation of AgriBEE. Call 011 636 6162. • for resources that will help you get to grips with BEE. • – Senwes provides you with information regarding AgriBEE that offers practicable solutions. Take the “Corporate Information” and “Black Economic Empowerment” options. • Find details of the latest The Way to BEE by Cliffe Dekker on www. • Family business and broad-based black economic empowerment in South Africa. Tony Balshaw. Toshkryll Publishers. Tel: 043 726 9898. Fax: 043 726 9899. Email This short and concise guide explains BEE in the family business context. • The CSI Handbook. Trialogue. Tel: 021 683 7417. www.csimatters. • – for a list of black professionals. They may be found by name or by segment (e.g. Advertising/marketing, business, government etc). • – The Skills Portal website. The BEE menu option takes the visitor to a number of useful documents and papers. • Visit for an easy-to-use computer program designed to help a business draw up its BEE scorecard.

6. National Strategy
Government is of the view that the B-BBEE framework should reinforce skills and rural development, enterprise and social development while it must also attend to issues of job creation through procurement and entrepreneurship. Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) Tel: 0861 843 384 Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Business and Entrepreneur Development Find the BEE menu option on the BEE Policy Unit website – Tel: 012 319 8145 Association of BEE Verification Agencies (ABVA) Tel: 086 111 2282 Other roleplayers are: Government (Provincial and Local), Private sector (Agri-businesses, Commercial Banks), Land Bank, Commercial Agriculture, Emerging farmers and their communities.

8. Roleplayers
AGRI LAND GROUP Tel: 012 345 3911 Tel: 031 583 6600 Tel: 011 699 2000 Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel: 028 424 2890 / 425 2524 Services to organised agriculture and commodity organisations. BEE. Accredited Training. Labour services. Agricultural Business Chamber (ABC) Tel: 012 807 6686 / 082 441 2308 Agri-Africa Tel: 021 886 6826 / 082 950 9294 AgriBEE is one of several areas where Agri-Africa fulfils a consultancy role, “reviewing and creating solutions to the challenges offered”. Empowerment Services Tel: 011 485 2036 William Janisch – 083 256 2777 william@empowermentservices.

What many do not know, as well, is that the development of the BEE Codes was one of the most participative and collaborative processes ever undertaken to develop a socio-economic measurement framework. Public submissions and representations were received from thousands of parties and interest groups; hundreds of workshops were held to debate each and every issue with those who had interesting contributions; and the Codes are the product of draft after draft. The Department of Trade & Industry (dti), which has led the process of Codes development, is also well aware of the implications of increasing the cost of doing business too much seeing that they primarily deal with international trade issues. Foreign Direct Investment would be turned away and South African products and services would become noncompetitive. So they have worked hard to strike a balance between needing South African companies to help invest in the “Have-nots” and become more socially sustainable; but at the same time, not put burdens on them which are too heavy.
Source: William Janisch, Empowerment Services

One of South Africa’s leading BEE consultancies having played a role in the development of the BEE Codes and consulted Find the “BEE & Transformation” to hundreds of organisations. ES menu option on the website has presented on BEE to farming communities across South Africa Agri SA in a fresh, thought-provoking way. Tel: 012 643 3400


Fair Trade Label SA (FTSA) Tel: 021 448 8911 Fair Trade Labelling gives BEE ventures a marketing edge. Consumers contribute directly to the soial development of producers and farm workers.

National Empowerment Fund Tel: 011 305 8000 New Generation Agri Tel: 021 863 0397

The following have corporate AND SMME client bases: • BEESA Consulting Tel: 011 726 3052 • BEE Registry Tel: 011 976 1320 • Black Business Link • Black Pride Marketing Tel: 011 420 0272 • Businessmap Investment Strategy Advisors • Cliffe Dekker Hofmeyr Tel: 011 290 7000 • EconoBEE Tel: 011 483 1190 • Empowerdex Tel: 011 783 0177 • Empowerlogic Tel: 011 612 3560 / 70 or 0861114003 www. • Ezee-dex Tel: 011 446 3600 • KPMG Tel: 011 647 7111 • Mpowerratings Tel: 011 486 4814 • NERA Tel: 011 678 1482 • SEESA Tel: 012 810 2000/ 021 919 9200 • Transcend Tel: 011 442 2433 • Verify Solutions The accreditation of the Verification Agencies has been entrusted to the South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) by the dti.

Black Empowerment and Development company, promoting and facilitating agribusiness in the Food and Allied Workers Union Emerging Farming sector. (FAWU) Tel: 021 637 9040 Phatisa Tel: 011 501 4806 Fort Hare Dairy Trust (FHDT) Jeff Every – 041 379 4800 Leonard Mavhungu – 082 795 If you are the owner of a successful 7455 agri business interested in acquiring, selling or partially realising your FHDT is a partnership between investment; plan to expand your white farmers from the business or fund an acquisition Tsitsikamma and Underberg areas, or need agricultural/agri business through their company Amadlelo advice, consider engaging Phatisa Agri; the University of Fort Hare; as your adviser. 600 workers from 70 dairy farms; and Vuwa Investments. Find the Senwes Agricultural Services archived Business Day article on this Tel: 018 464 7800 enterprise from May 2009 called “Producing the cream of the crop”. Visit Find the highly practical notes on the website. Foundation for African Business and Consumer South African Agricultural Services (FABCOS) Processors Organisation Tel: 011 333 3701 / 011 809 4900 Tel: 012 663 1660 Provincial contact details available on the website Futuregrowth Asset Management Tel: 021 659 5300 are Standard Bank General enquiries: 011 636 6162 Fax: 011 636 8218 sbsaagriculture@standardbank. This bank’s commitment to BEE is about creating an economically sustainable black business sector as the foundation to growth and profitability. They have had excellent results to date and continue to play a role in developing the sector. Read about BEE success stories in their quarterly AgriReview, available on Helmut Wolff Tel: 011 803 1287 / 082 679 8969 Womiwu Rural Development Tel: 015 297 2107

South African Fruit Exporters (SAFE), one of South Africa‘s leading global fruit exporting and logistical services providers, announced a large empowerment transaction funded by Futuregrowth Asset Management in November 2009. The deal involves the sale of 50% of the equity from existing shareholders in SAFE to the United Farmers’ Fund Trust (UFF), a broad-based BEE trust with a focus on land reform and rural development. Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 011 269 3000

Ventex Corporation Wim Venter National African Farmers Union Tel: 051 436 6453 / 079 668 5111 (NAFU SA) Tel: 082 672 2484

General BEE consultants
The following deal with mainly Corporate Client Bases: • BEE2Business Tel: 012 365 3699 • Ernst & Young Tel: 011 772 3184 • Pricewaterhouse Coopers Tel: 011 797 5641


9. A look at the commercial farmer’s BEE scorecard
Farmers in South Africa have already made great contributions with respect to the proposed Scorecard. Here is a short explanation of how progress has possibly been made already: • Direct BEE • Indirect BEE • Sectoral focus • Human Resource Development • Affirmative Action

Other mechanisms
In view of AgriBEE and the requirements that are set against the establishment of new farmers, white South African commercial farmers can make excellent contributions with regard to: • mentorship to new beginner farmers to develop technical and business skills; • supply mechanisation services for new beginner farmers on contract for compensation OR in exchange for the use of a portion of their land; • rent land from new beginner farmers in order to promote their cash flow; • donate surplus implements that can be used in a mechanisation pool for rental. To make a success of AgriBEE will require synergy and creative thoughts. The government has already realised that it has world-class expertise in the South African farmer. A team effort is essential for BEE to be successful and it is recommended that as many partners as possible with common goals are involved so as to spread the risks.

Direct BEE
• Management – Many farmers already have workers’ committees on their farms that participate in the management of farming activities. • Shareholding – Numerous workers at farm level already benefit from profit sharing and performance bonus schemes. HR Development and Affirmative Action • Affirmative action at all levels – Farm workers have already been promoted to foremen, divisional heads or managers on many farms. • Capacity building – Many farmers have provided education, bursaries, in job training in agriculture, training in crafts and handiwork, as well as all sorts of mentorship for own and other newcomers on their farms.

Indirect BEE
Preferential procurement – All sorts of services and products are already obtained from BEE companies. The supply of fuel, for instance, is mainly from such sources. Sectoral focus Social responsibility – South African farmers make great contributions at the rural level with regard to social responsibility and have excelled with respect to: • housing • clinics • recreation centres and sports grounds • transport • home industries • schools • other training such as literacy programmes • pension and medical schemes

The AgriBEE scorecard for large businesses >R35million turnover
Element Weighting Indicator Category Voting rights Ownership 20% Economic Interest Indicator Exercisable Voting Rights in the Enterprise in the hands of Black People Exercisable Voting Rights in the Enterprise in the hands of Black Women Economic Interest in the Enterprise to which Black People are entitled Economic Interest in the Enterprise to which Black Women are entitled Economic Interest in the Enterprise to which Black designated groups, deemed participants in distribution schemes, participants in co-operatives, are entitled Realisation Points Ownership fulfilment Net Equity Interest Achieved accordingly: 10% of the Target (Year 1) 20% of the Target (Year 2) 40% of the Target (Year 3-4) 60% of the Target (Year 5-6) 80% of the Target (Year 7-8) 100% of the Target (Year 9-10) Involvement in the ownership of the Enterprise of Black New Entrants; Black Disabled People, Black Youth and Black Deemed Participants of Broad-Based Ownership Schemes; or Black Participants in Cooperatives Commercial agricultural land transferred or sold to Black People Bonus Points Contribution to achieving in excess of 30% land transfer Points 3 2 4 2 1 Target 25% + 1 vote 10% 25% 10% 2,5%


No restrictions


Bonus Points


Bonus per each level of 5%

Land Ownership


20 5

30% 30% (Bonus point per each percentage of land transferred above 30% of total land) 50%

Management Control


Board Participation Percentage of exercisable Voting Rights held by Members of the Board who are Black People to the total of all Voting Rights exercised by all members of the Board Executive Members of the board who are Black People Executive Members of the board who are Black Women Top Management Percentage that Senior Top Management who are Participation Black People constitute of the total number of Senior Top Management Percentage that Senior Top Management who are Black Women constitute of the total number of Senior Top Management Percentage that Other Top Management who are Black People constitute of the total number of Other Top Management Percentage that Other Top Management who are Black Women constitute of the total number of Other Top Management Bonus Points Percentage that Black People who are Independent Non-executive Board Members constitute of the total number of Independent Non-executive Board Members


1 1 2

50% 25% 40%










Weighting 10%

Indicator Category

Indicator Black People with disabilities employed in by the Measured Enterprise as a percentage of all full-time employees Black People employed by the Measured Enterprise at Senior Management level as a percentage of employees at Senior Management level Black Women employed by the Measured Enterprise at Senior Management level as a percentage of employees at Senior Management level Black People employed by the Measured Enterprise at Professionally Qualified, Experienced Specialist and Mid-management level as a percentage of employees at Professionally Qualified, Experienced Specialist and Mid-management level Black Women employed by the Measured Enterprise at Professionally Qualified, Experienced Specialist and Mid-management level as a percentage of employees at Professionally Qualified, Experienced Specialist and Mid-management level Black People employed by the Measured Enterprise at Skilled Technical and Academically Qualified Workers, Junior Management, Supervisors, Foremen and Superintendents as a percentage of employees at Skilled Technical and Academically Qualified Workers, Junior Management, Supervisors, Foremen and Superintendents level

Points 2

Target 2%

Employment Equity











Skills Development 20%

Skills Development Skills Development spend on Black Employees as Spend a percentage of Leviable Amount; (85% of spend focused on core skills as identified by the enterprise and critical skills as identified by the relevant SETA) Skills Development spend on Black Women as a percentage of Leviable Amount; (85% of spend focused on core skills as identified by the enterprise and critical skills as identified by the relevant SETA) Spend on Black Employees with disabilities as a percentage of Leviable Amount Recognised Training Programmes Number of Black Employees participating in training programmes that lead to recognised qualifications as percentage of total employees Number of Black Women participating in training programmes that lead to recognised qualifications as percentage of total employees Number of people who are members of Black Designated Groups participating in training programmes that lead to recognised qualifications as percentage of total employees (the score in this element will be adjusted directly proportionate to the level of absorption of the participants in training programmes in the measured enterprise until a level of 80% absorption is attained) Organisational Transformation Index Existence of a comprehensive BEE strategy which is being implemented Payment of skills development levy as well as claiming levy money Existence of a policy on non-discrimination widely published within the company and ongoing facilitation of external diversity management training Compliance with relevant employment related legislation Implementation of an effective human resource management plan Existence of a programme designed to give practical effect to the stated policies and programmes Bonus Points Percentage of employees at ABET level 3





1 2

0.2% 5%





Yes Yes Yes

1% 1% 1%

Yes Yes Yes 2

1% 1% 1% 70%

Element Preferential Procurement

Weighting 20%

Indicator Category Preferential Procurement Spend

Indicator BEE procurement spend from Suppliers based on the BEE procurement recognition system contained in section 5.5 of the Charter BEE procurement spend from Qualifying Small Enterprises in accordance with the BEE procurement recognition system contained in section 5.5 of the Charter BEE procurement spend from Exempted Micro Enterprises in accordance with the BEE procurement recognition system contained in section 5.5 of the Charter

Points 15








Enterprise Development


Enterprise Development Spend

Cumulative contributions made by the Measured Entity to enterprise Development as a percentage of cumulative net profit after tax measured from the commencement / Inception Date to the date of measurement Enterprise development contributions that directly increase employment levels in preceding year Lease of 20% of land or capital assets on a long term basis to black persons which meets the criteria of a qualifying transaction as outlined in paragraph



Bonus Points

1 2 Lease longer than 10 years 1.5% CSI 10% Land

Rural Development, Poverty Alleviation & CSI


Corporate Social Investment Spend and/or Land available to farm workers Bonus Point

Cumulative Rand value of corporate social investment contributions as a percentage of net profit after tax over five years measured from the commencement date of this Charter or the Inception Date over 10 years of the Charter period and/or Land made available to farm workers measured from the commencement date of this Charter or the Inception Date over 10 years of the Charter period Corporate social investment contributions benefiting Black People in rural communities or geographic areas identified in government’s integrated sustainable development programme and urban renewal programme



The AgriQSE scorecard for small businesses >R5million to <R35million turnover
Element Weighting Indicator Category Voting rights Ownership 20% Economic Interest Realisation Points Indicator Exercisable Voting Rights in the Enterprise in the hands of Black People Economic Interest in the Enterprise to which Black People are entitled Ownership fulfilment Net equity interest 10% of the Target (Year 1) 20% of the Target (Year 2) 40% of the Target (Year 3,4) 60% of the Target (Year 5,6) 80% of the Target (Year 7,8) 100% of the Target (Year 9,10) Bonus Points Involvement in the ownership of the Enterprise of: Black Disabled People Black Youth Black Women and/or Broad-based Ownership Schemes Commercial agricultural land transferred or sold to Black People Bonus Points Contribution to achieving in excess of 30% land transfer Points 5 7 1 7 Target 25% 25% Yes 25%


Bonus per each level of 5%

Land Owners


20 5

30% 30% (Bonus point per each percentage of land transferred above 30% of total land) 25.1%



Owner Management Participation Bonus Points

Black representation at Owner-manager level


Black Women representation at Owner-manager level Black representation at Manager-Controller level 6 Black Women representation at Manager-Controller 6 level Black Employees as percentage of total employees Black Women as percentage of total employees 4 4


10% 40% 20% 70% 35% Yes 1%

Employment Equity


Skills Development 20%

Employee enrolment / involvement in Recognised 5 Training Programmes Skills Development spend on Black Employees in 15 addition to Skills Development Levy (except where the enterprise is exempted from payment of the skills development levy) as a percentage of the Leviable Amount (or as a percentage of total annual payroll, for entities exempted from the skills development levy); (85% of spend focused on core skills as identified by the enterprise and critical skills as identified by the relevant SETA). Bonus Points Percentage of employees at ABET level 3 2

70% 50%

Preferential Procurement Enterprise Development


BEE procurement spend from suppliers in accordance 20 with the BEE procurement recognition system contained in section 5.5 of the Charter Cumulative contribution to enterprise development 20 as a percentage of cumulative net profit after tax measured from the Commencement / Inception Date to the date of measurement Bonus Points Lease of 20% land or capital assets on a long term 3 basis to black persons which meets the criteria of a qualifying transaction as outlined in paragraph Cumulative Rand value of corporate social investment 20 contributions as a percentage of net profit after tax over five years and/or Land made available to farm workers measured from the commencement date of this Charter or the Inception Date over 10 years of the Charter period



Lease longer than 10 years 1% CSI 10% (land for farm workers)

Rural Development, Poverty Alleviation & CSI


Corporate Social Investment Spend and/or Land available to farm workers


National issues
Climate change and global warming
1. Overview
Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) compiles and distributes a weekly digest of news articles relating to agriculture and climate change in Africa. Find out about the Africa-wide Civil Society Climate Change Initiative for Policy Dialogues (ACCID) at www. and What is climate change? There is a natural cycle through which the earth and its atmosphere go to accommodate the change in the amount of energy received from the sun. The climate goes through warm and cold periods, taking hundreds of years to complete one cycle. Changes in temperature also influence the rainfall, but the biosphere is able to adapt to a changing climate if these changes take place over centuries. Unfortunately, human intervention is currently causing the climate to change too fast. Plants and animals may not be able to adapt as quickly to this “rapid” climate change as humans can, and therefore the whole ecosystem is in danger. What causes climate change? The global climate system is driven by energy from the sun. Several gases in the atmosphere act to trap the energy from the sun, thus warming the earth. These gases are called greenhouse gases and the process is the greenhouse effect. Without this there would be no life on earth. Human activities over the last 200 years, particularly the burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) and the clearing of forests, have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This is likely to lead to more solar radiation being trapped, which in turn will lead to the earth’s surface warming up – called the enhanced greenhouse effect.

• Limit the availability of water. It is expected that there will be less water available in most parts of Africa. Particularly, there will be a severe down trend in the rainfall in Southern African countries and in the dry areas of countries around the Mediterranean Sea. • Exacerbation of drought periods. An increase in temperature and a change in the climate throughout the continent are predicted to cause recurrent droughts in most of the region. • Reduction in soil fertility. An increase in temperature is likely to reduce soil moisture, moisture storage capacity and the quality of the soil, which are vital nutrient for agricultural crops. • Low livestock productivity and high production cost. Climate change will affect livestock productivity directly by influencing the balance between heat dissipation and heat production and indirectly through its effect on the availability of feed and fodder. • Availability of human resource. Climate change is likely to cause the manifestation of vector and vector born diseases, where an increase in temperature and humidity will create ideal conditions for malaria, sleeping sickness and other infectious diseases that will directly affect the availability of human resources for the agriculture sector. The impact of these adverse climate changes on agriculture is exacerbated in Africa by the lack of adapting strategies, which are increasingly limited owing to the lack of institutional, economic and financial capacity to support such actions. Africa’s vulnerability to climate change and its inability to adapt to these changes may be devastating to the agriculture sector, the main source of livelihood to the majority of the population. The utmost concern should therefore be a better understanding of the potential impact of the current and projected climate changes on African agriculture and to identify ways and means to adapt and mitigate its detrimental impact.

Global warming scenarios strongly suggest that in future southern Africa is likely to be drier than it is now. At present, about half our country’s agricultural production is animal-based, and half of it is crop-based. The crop-based segment accounts for about 70% of water usage, and the animal segment, around 4%. There is also a growing water-resource problem and the implication is that crop production is close to its limit. Indications are that South Africa’s future agricultural endeavours may increasingly have to rely on animal-based farming. Read more at www.

2. Africa
Relevant links about African agriculture, climate, relevant links and literature on climate change impacts of African agriculture may be found on The information below is taken from this website.

3. South Africa
More information on climatic and atmospheric change in South Africa is provided within the National State of Environment Report – see www. South Africa is already a climatically sensitive and water-stressed country. Much of the country is arid or semi-arid and the whole country is subject to droughts and floods. Any variation in the rainfall or temperatures would thus exacerbate the already stressed environment. Most South African crops are grown in areas that are only just climatically suitable and with limited water supplies. The impacts of climate change will thus worsen the serious lack of surface and ground water resources, exacerbate desertification and may well alter the magnitude, timing and distribution of storms that produce floods. The combination of the impacts of climate change on the environment as well as South Africa’s large GHG emissions have been a key stimulus to the detailed studies and documents on the impacts of climate change produced by the South African government. The intention of many of these studies is to establish mitigation measures that would reduce the countries emissions.

Climate change, especially indicated by prolonged drought, is one of the most serious climatic hazards affecting the agricultural sector of the continent. As most of the agriculture activities in African countries hinges on rain fed, any adverse changes in the climate would likely have a devastating effect on the sector in the region, and the livelihood of the majority of the population. Five main climate change related drivers: temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, atmospheric carbon dioxide content and incidence of extreme events, may affect the agriculture sector in the following ways: • Reduction in crop yields and agriculture productivity. There is growing evidence that in the tropics and subtropics, where crops have reached their maximum tolerance, crop yields are likely to decrease due to an increase in the temperature. • Increased incidence of pest attacks. An increase in temperature is also likely to be conducive for a proliferation of pests that are detrimental to crop production.


On the African continent only South Africa has emissions of greenhouse gases to an extent that can justify a general strategy on CO2 mitigation. South Africa produces 1.4 % of the world’s total CO2. However, our CO2 emissions per person are more than double the world average. This is mainly because we have cheap energy, and so we use it inefficiently. Burning coal is the main source of CO2 (through burning it to generate electricity, or burning it directly for heating, cooking etc.) What are the annual CO2 emissions per person? World: 4 tons Africa (excl. SA): 2,5 tons South Africa: 10 tons! Typical household contributions to CO2 emissions come from the sources listed below: • Every unit (kWh) of electricity used produces 0.5 kg of CO2. • Every litre of petrol burnt contributes 3kg of CO2 (~0.3 kg / km). • Everyday consumer goods production and distribution results in substantial CO2 output. What can we do to slow the process down? The enhanced greenhouse effect can be slowed down by following two guidelines: (1) increase sinks; and (2) decrease sources of greenhouse gases. A sink is a process which removes greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. For example: growing a tree where one did not previously exist provides a sink for carbon dioxide, because the tree “extracts” carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. A source is a place or activity from which greenhouse gases are emitted e.g. a process such as coal burning.
Source: Earthlife; Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), Directorate: Agricultural Risk and Disaster Management (ARDM), Early Warning Unit;

5. Mitigation
Mitigation entails all human interventions that reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (adapted from the IPCC definition). The energy sector is the largest single source of greenhouse gases in South Africa. Integrated energy planning at the national level should ensure the optimum overall mix of energy sources, with clean coal technologies expected to be part of such a mix for the medium-term future. Technologies currently being investigated include: • Renewable energy sources (such as hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power and biomass); • Non-greenhouse gas emitting energy sources – such as nuclear power; • Technologies are also being investigated and developed to make coal power stations less polluting and more efficient; • Peaks in electricity demand can also be reduced by management of the demand for energy and providing electricity more efficiently – by introducing new supply technologies and adjusting pricing policies. There is also potential for importing energy, such as gas and hydroelectricity, from other countries in the region.

6. Livestock and agriculture
While demand for meat increases, the contribution of livestock farming to climate change has been under the spotlight. As cattle chew and re-chew their food, their gastric eruptions produce methane, a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide. This has led to UN estimates that the world’s livestock system is a bigger part of the problem than transportation. This issue is covered at the annual World Meat Congresses, and by the organisers, the International Meat Secretariat. Visit Clearing forests to make space for livestock and crops, and the fossil fuels required for tillage and transport are issues related to agriculture. “Food miles”, the distance from the gate to plate, has become a consideration with a growing movement in the Developed World to “eat local”. Mitigation related to agriculture and rural areas includes: • • • • • • • • less deforestation and the planting of more trees the reduction of tillage to increase soil cover to improve grassland management (we need thicker savannah) better manure management to optimise herd composition and feed intake. to reduce the burning of agricultural residues to reduce the frequency of fires

4. The Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen (COP15)
Information on the Kyoto Protocol can be found on its official website Kyoto Protocol and on the UNFCCC Climate Change Information Kit Kyoto Protocol Fact Sheet – visit

The Kyoto Protocol is an extension of the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the world’s first treaty to attempt to address global warming by limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The Protocol deals in detail with its first “commitment period”, by the end of which most developed countries pledged to reduce their emissions by agreed amounts. This period is due to expire at the end of 2012. The treaty came into force on February 16, 2005. Discussions on how to proceed beyond Kyoto’s first period have been ongoing as part of the UNFCCC process. In December 2009, the scheduled conference happened in Copenhagen, Denmark, to work out an action plan for when the Kyoto protocol expires in 2012. The conference was the 15th in a series of the UN meetings that stem from the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, and so is known as COP15. The talks secured bare-minimum agreements that fell well short of original goals to reduce carbon emissions and stem global warming, after lengthy negotiations failed to paper over differences between rich nations and developing economies.
Source: Reuters

Agriculture employs more people and uses more land and water than any other human activity. It has the potential to degrade the earth’s land, water, atmosphere and biological resources - or to enhance them - depending on the decisions made by the more than 2 billion people whose livelihoods depend directly on crops, livestock, fisheries or forests. Ensuring appropriate incentives for these people is essential.
Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s 2007 annual report, The State of Food and Agriculture

For those who are interested in finding out how much their favourite meal contributes to global warming, visit


7. Government roleplayers
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Agricultural Risk & Disaster Management (ARDM) Assistant Manager (Agro-Meteorologist): Early Warning Unit, Tel: 012 319 6768 Mr Matiga Motsepe is involved in many projects related to Climate Change including the 1st sectoral GHG inventory. Directorate: Land Use and Soil Management (LUSM) Tel: 012 319 7686 Department of Water and Environmental Affairs (DWEA) Chief Directorate: Air Quality Management and Climate Change Tel: 012 310 3710 On the website, find the response to Copenhagen (COP15) as well as information and various documents on climate change. Department of Energy Tel: 012 317 8000 The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the two projectbased flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (see heading 4). Under the rules of the CDM, each host country must establish a Designated National Authority (DNA). The DAN for the CDM in South Africa is located in the Department of Energy, and its webpages may be found on the department’s website. The National Treasury is considering the following economic instruments to address Climate Change: • • • • emission charges tradeable permits tax incentives for cleaner production technologies reform of vehicle taxes to encourage fuel efficiency

The Central Energy Fund (CEF) seeks to diversify the country’s energy inputs, drive increases in energy efficiency, invest in new technologies e.g. solar and promote alternatives as part of a general move to a more rational energy strategy. It has also set up its own carbon trading operation in London to ensure that South Africa benefits from the carbon trading trade. Visit Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Based at the University of Pretoria Tel: 012 420 5228 Regional Climate, Water and Agriculture: Impacts on and Adaptation of Agro-ecological Systems in Africa, are found on CEEPA e-Library at its website link ( discussionp2006.html) and can also be accessed directly through the project link ( Climange_Change/project.html).

trading carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism or Voluntary Carbon Markets and offers two broad ranges of services: Climate Change Advisory and Carbon Trading Advisory services. National Business Initiative Sustainable Futures Tel: 011 544 6017 Palmer Development Group Tel: 011 484 9992 SRK Consulting Tel: 012 361 9821 A consultancy at the forefront of a government-commissioned South Africa Environment Outlook report in 2007. They have 12 offices in Southern Africa – contact details can be found on the website. South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) Guy Midgley

The Minister also announced that R2 billion would be set aside over the period 2008 – 2011 to support programmes aimed at: • encouraging more efficient use of electricity; • generation from renewable sources; • installation of electricity saving devices.

8. Roleplayers
ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate BUSA calls on its membership to: And Water (ISCW) Tel: 012 310 2500 • participate vigorously in debate around instruments which promote cost effective carbon reduction; Research is done on the sustainable • develop company and use and management of the natural sector level greenhouse gas resources. Drought monitoring is inventories for inclusion in the included. national inventory; • explore every avenue of Business Unity South Africa energy efficiency in the (BUSA) workplace. Tel: 011 784 8000

Midgley can also provide Council for Scientific and information on the activities of the Industrial Research (CSIR) South African Scientific Committee Natural Resources and the on Global Change (SASCGC). Environment Tel: 012 841 4425 South-South-North Tel: 021 425 1464/5 Earthlife Africa Sustainable Energy & Climate They seek to place poverty Change Project reduction efforts at the centre of all Tel: 011 339 3662 climate change issues. We pursue direct structural poverty reduction and the sustainable development The Sustainable Energy and of poor communities of the South Climate Change Project seek a just who suffer the most from the transition to renewable energy and impacts of climate change. a low-carbon economy. University of the Free State Energy Research Centre Prof JG van As Tel: 021 650 3230 Department Zoology and Entomology Tel: 051 401 2427 Imbewu Enviro-Legal Specialists University of Pretoria – see Tel: 011 214 0660 Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Mechantec Capital Carbon Advisory/Trading Water Research Commission Tel: 083 751 4345 Tel: 012 330 0340 Merchantec has expertise across the full project lifecycle, from identifying and quantifying greenhouse gas emissions to


9. International business environment
• Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee – www. On this website you can access all the IPACC’s materials for COP15. This includes the Marrakech conference report on adaptation and mitigation, and the Bujumbura joint statement from East and Central Africa. • For reports, views and the latest on Africa’s role in international climate policy, view • Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – www.ohchr. org – passed a resolution in 2008 recognising that the world’s poor were particularly vulnerable and gave the go-ahead to a study into the impact of climate change on human rights. • The Carbon Trust – – is a UK-based company working to accelerate the move to a low carbon economy. Included in its strategy is a Carbon Reduction Label, displayed on products, which measures the carbon footprint of a product from source to store and product disposal. The measuring of distance from source to store has the potential to work against imports from countries like South Africa. • Recognising the problem of potential global climate change, the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. The IPCC assesses scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. It is open to all Members of the UN and of WMO. • The IPCC consists of thousands of leading scientists, nominated by their governments, who collate, sift and assess the tens of thousands of peer-reviewed papers and evidence relating to climate change. Roughly every five years the IPCC brings out an authoritative report following an exhaustive process, a report that is further reviewed by experts in every country in the world. Guy Midgeley (SANBI), Dr Bob Scholes (CSIR), Prof Bruce Hewitson (UCT) and Prof Roland Schulze (UKZN) have all been members. Visit for updates on Climate Change. • World Business Council For Sustainable Development – www. (find the “Energy & Climate” menu option). The WBCSD is expecting agricultural production in Africa to halve over the next years as a result of climate change. • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – • IUCN-The World Conservation Union – • The Energy and Resources Institute – • The Working Group on Climate Change and Development. This is a coalition of 17 environmental and aid agencies e.g. ActionAid, Christian Aid, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and Oxfam. In a report entitled “Up in Smoke? Threats from, and Responses to, the Impact of Global Warming on Human Development”, the coalition called for urgent action to avert the threat. The effects of climate change due to global warming have already taken a toll on poor communities, jeopardising efforts to reduce poverty. • As a reaction to the on-going COP-15 Climate Summit in Copenhagen, a coalition of German organisations interested in agrobiodiversity and agriculture have written a position paper on agriculture and climate change. For details refer to their website - or e-mail: • For information on Global Research Groups, go to the Climate Change pages on • For IPCC Special Reports on Climate Change – ipcc/index.htm • N/C Quest Inc (NCQ) Emissions Technology recycles machinery exhaust fumes into fertiliser! –

• • Find the “environment” menu option at, the SA Civil Society Information Service • Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter – In particular, look out for “Climate in peril: a popular guide to the latest IPCC reports” and “Closing the gaps: disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change in developing countries”. • Find the climate scorecards (amongst other information) on www. e.g. what grades do the G8 countries get on climate performance? • Find the poster on water, wetlands, biodiversity and climate change at • Agriculture maps of SA – gallery/volume19/agriculture3.html. • African Drylands Commodity Atlas – Atlas%20web.pdf • Africa-wide Database links – • For agro-climate information – • Find the African Carbon Trust on • Climate Change and African Agriculture. Value of agricultural land and climate change in Africa. • The IMBEWU Sustainability Legal Newsletter and Legislation Update frequently covers climate change. Write to Some publications: • • • • Scorched: South Africa’s Changing Climate by Leonie S. Joubert Boiling Point: People In A Changing Climate by Leonie Joubert Cleaner Energy Cooler Climate by Harald Winkler Various publications are available from the Energy and Development and Research Centre. Visit or call 012 650 3230. A climate change atlas The South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas (SARVA) was released in 2010 by the CSIR in electronic and hard-copy format. Dr Bob Scholes, CSIR systems ecologist and principal investigator in the Southern African Millennium Assessment considers risk and vulnerability to represent a “common currency” between the researchers and decision-makers from various government sectors concerned with global and climate change. The atlas not only contains updated maps, but is an easy-to-navigate, interactive spatial product and includes case studies and other narratives to inform global change adaptation responses and planning. The end product is a widely encompassing storehouse of information about global change. Further enquiries – Wida Basson at 012 841 4652. Collette Vosloo is another contact – Tel 012 841 4652; email:

11. Climate Change and South African agriculture: impacts and adaption options
Contact CEEPA (details under heading 8) for the full James KA Benhin report.

Included in the paper is an analysis of farmers’ perceptions, following a questionnaire. The responses showed that most farmers across the country are aware of a change in the climate. Below is an excerpt from the report, showing what strategies farmers are using to deal with these changes.

10. Websites and publications
Visit websites mentioned earlier in this chapter e.g. visit www.environment.,, etc. Other relevant websites include: • Website of the Carbon Neutral Company (UK) – www.carbonneutral. com • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) – •, the Inconvenient Truth website. October 2007 saw both Al Gore and the IPCC, comprising about 3 000 experts, jointly win a Nobel prize for their roles in highlighting climate change. •

(a) Adjustments in farming operations
Some of the adjustments made by farmers in their operations include changes in the planting dates of some crops, planting crops with a shorter growing period such as cabbage, and planting short season maize (120 days – 140 days). Others include the increased use of crop rotation and the early harvesting of some crops. In KwaZulu-Natal for example, farmers prefer to cut their sugarcane at an early stage to avoid the loss of production due to the dryness of the cane (as a result of increased temperature) if they have to wait for the cane to mature in the field. With the current situation of heavier rainfall, concentrated in shorter periods and starting earlier (previously early September and now late October in


some provinces), farmers have responded by (i) delaying the start of the planting period, (ii) increased use of modern machinery to take advantage of the shorter planting period, (iii) collection of rain water by making furrows near the plants, and (iv) increased use of irrigation. In response to higher temperatures, farmers have resorted to using (i) heat tolerant crop varieties, (ii) crop varieties with high water use efficiency, (iii) early maturing crop varieties, and increased crop and livestock farming (mixed farming). For example, because of the high temperatures, sugarcane farmers have shifted to producing macadamia nuts and tea, which they consider easier to irrigate than sugarcane. Livestock farmers have also adopted numerous practices aimed at efficient use of water and scarce fodder. There is a general tendency to resort to more heat tolerant breeds rather than the traditional ones, and most livestock farmers now also produce their own fodder, such as lucerne or maize, and stock it for use during the long dry seasons. In response to the long drought periods, farmers have adjusted the stocking intensity of their livestock by selling their animals at younger ages. Another practice is to change the timing, duration and location of grazing.

built their own boreholes to make effective use of underground water. There has also been increased use of wetlands for agricultural production.

(d) Shade and shelter
When it is hot, livestock farmers plant trees to provide natural shades for their livestock or as a wind or hail storm break. In South Africa, farmers generally plant pine trees and Acacia karoo and Celtis africana trees for this purpose. In some instances, farmers use fishnets, grass, and plastics as coverings to protect their plants against dryness and heat, and cold and frost. Heating provided by firewood and paraffin heaters is also used by livestock farmers to protect their animals against the cold.

(e) Conservation practices
In response to the increased occurrence of droughts farmers have adopted various soil conservation practices in order to maintain or improve soil moisture and fertility. Principally to fight erosion, farmers have built many small dams or planted trees around their farms. Farmers have also increased their fallow periods by as much as one to two agricultural seasons (instead of continuous cropping), to allow the land to restore its nutrients. Another conservation technique farmers use to protect the soil against erosion is to keep the crop residues of the previous harvest on the land. To preserve soil moisture, cool the soil surface and stabilize soil temperature, they used mulching (layers of muck, peat, compost and plastics) to cover the land. To avoid excessive extraction of nutrients in the soil of their farms, farmers have also reduced the density of crops or livestock on their land.

(b) Increased chemical application
With higher temperature and increased evapotranspiration, farmers have resorted to increased application of chemicals such as Erian to slow down evapotranspiration. They also apply more farm manure to keep the moisture content of the soil higher and retain the soil fertility. More lime is also applied to maintain the soil’s correct pH balance.

(c) Increased use of irrigation
With water being the most important factor limiting agriculture in South Africa, irrigation appears to be the most appropriate adaptive strategy. Hence 65% of the respondents choose irrigation as an option to adjust to climatic changes. Farmers have also shifted from flood irrigation to sprinkler irrigation for an efficient use of the limited water. Several farms have also

(f) Other practices
To reduce the risk of losing income when farm produce decreases as a result of the increased variability in the climate, some (especially largescale farmers) have insured their farms, while others (especially smallscale farmers) are increasing their involvement in non-farm activities. Most large-scale farmers have also opted to taking lower risks by reducing their cropping areas to manageable sizes.



National issues
Emerging farmer support
1. Overview
After 1994, the government set as its target the transferal of 30% of agricultural land to formerly disadvantaged South Africans by 2015. The challenge for agriculture has been to support the emerging Black commercial farmer in such a way that such a farmer becomes an active participant in the commercial farming sector. The transferal of land alone (without the skills to farm being imparted) will make a mockery of the goodwill which exists in the country. Support for our Emerging Farmers is a national issue.

DAFF devised several agriculture-related development programmes to respond to urgent priority issues such as food security, poverty alleviation, food safety, economic growth and environmental conservation. These issues are captured under the following strategic programmes, which form the focus areas of extension:

Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP)
The aim of this programme is to provide post-settlement support to the targeted beneficiaries of land reform and to other producers who have acquired land through private means and are, for example, engaged in value-adding enterprises domestically or involved in export. The programme is a core focus for the department and makes interventions in six priority areas: • • • • • • Information and technology management Technical and advisory assistance, and regulatory services Marketing and business development Training and capacity building On/off farm infrastructure and product inputs Financial support

2. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Moving black farmers from the second to the first economy fulfills the vision of the Accelerated Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa (AsgiSA).

Land and Agrarian Reform Programme (LARP)
The Land and Agrarian Reform Project (LARP) provides a new Framework for delivery and collaboration on land reform and agricultural support to accelerate the rate and sustainability of transformation through aligned and joint action by all involved stakeholders. It creates a delivery paradigm for agricultural and other support services based upon the concept of “One-Stop Shop” service centres located close to farming and rural beneficiaries. LARP was pronounced by the President during his State of the Nation Address (SONA) of February 2008 as Apex Priority 7 of 24 Presidential priorities. By redistributing land, increasing tenure security and black entrepreneurship, improving access to support services, and increasing production and trade, LARP will directly contribute to the overall goals of the Agricultural Sector Plan, and to the White Paper on South African Land Policy.

Owing to the merging of Forestry and Fisheries with Agriculture, the names and contact details of some directorates are due to change. Please consult should you find that the information below is no longer valid.

Directorate: Education, Training projects in support of land and and Extension Services agrarian reform programmes, and Tel: 012 319 7028 evaluates the land and agrarian reform programme. Facilitates and supports education and skills training in the sector. Directorate: Food Security Tel: 012 319 6736 Directorate: Research and Technology Development Tel: 012 319 6078 Facilitates departmental and sectoral contributions to the Develops and monitors the Integrated Sustainable Rural implementation of suitable policies Development Programme (ISRDP) and strategies for research and and Urban renewal Programme development, technology transfer (URP). in the agricultural sector. Directorate: Agricultural Directorate: Land Settlement Development Finance Tel: 012 319 8496 Tel: 012 319 7295 The Directorate provides a national policy framework for the settlement of new farmers. It facilitates the planning and implementation of Determines and formulates policies, strategies and programmes on agriculture/rural finance and cooperative development in the sector.

Other programmes
These include: • • • • Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) Integrated Food Security Nutrition Programme (IFSNP) National Land Care Programme Marketing and Entrepreneurship Development

Find more at (take the Key Programmes menu option) or call 012 319 7553

The offices whose contact details we were not able to confirm are marked with a ‡. Where a head office contact detail is not given, please find relevant contact details in the Agriculture in the Provinces chapter.

Eastern Cape
Head Office Tel: 040 609 3490/1 Fax: 040 635 1222

• Alexandria Tel: 046 653 0249 Fax: 046 653 0796 • Alice Tel: 040 653 1153 Fax: 040 653 1930 • Aliwal North Tel: 051 633 3011 Fax: 051 633 3324


• Barkly East Tel: 045 971 0039 Fax 045 971 0978 • Bathurst Tel: 046 625 0601 Fax: 046 625 0883 • Burgersdorp Tel: 051 653 1846 Fax: 051 653 1846 • Butterworth Sub region Tel: 047 491 3615 Fax: 047 491 3608 • Butterworth Tel: 047 491 3742 Fax: 047 491 0029 • Cala Tel: 047 877 0045 Fax: 047 877 0304/0045 • Comfimvaba ‡ Tel: 047 874 0026 • Cradock Tel: 048 881 1211 Fax: 048 881 1238 • East London ‡ Tel: 043 706 8700 Fax: 722 0914 • Elliot ‡ Tel: 045 931 1054 Fax: 045 931 2087 • Graaff-Reinet Tel: 049 891 0132 Fax: 049 891 0152 • Humansdorp Tel: 042 291 0596 Fax: 042 291 0603/049 836 0344 • Jansenville Tel: 049 836 0084 Fax: 049 836 0162 • Joubertina Tel: 042 273 1342 Fax: 042 773 2657 / 273 2657 • Keiskammahoek Tel: 040 658 0051 Fax: 040 658 0474 • KirkwoodTel: 042 230 0174 Fax: 042 230 0509 • Lady FrereTel: 047 878 0074 Fax 047 878 0073 • Libode Tel: 047 555 0037 • Mdantsane ‡ Tel: 043 761 2167 • Mqanduli ‡ Tel: 047 573 0033 Fax: 047 573 0203 • Port Elizabeth ‡ Tel: 041 402 6200 • Port St Johns ‡ Tel: 047 564 1178/9 • Queenstown ‡ Tel: 045 839 5211 Fax: 045 807 7083 • Qumbu ‡ Tel: 047 553 0080 Fax: 047 553 0429 • Somerset East Tel: 042 243 1149 Fax: 042 243 3320 • Sterkspruit Tel: 051 611 0071 Fax: 051 611 0568 • Stutterheim Tel: 043 683 1323 Fax: 043 683 1323 • Uitenhage ‡ Tel: 041 992 4818 Fax: 041 992 4461 • Umtata ‡ Tel: 047 531 0258 • Whittlesea Tel: 040 842 2313 Fax: 040 842 2 969 • Zwelitsha Tel: 040 654 2219 Fax: 040 654 2214 Extension offices also exist at Dordrecht, Elliot Dale, Engcobo, Idutywa, Kentani, Middelburg, Nqamakwe, Ngqeleni, Peddie, Seymour, Grahamstown, Tsolo and Tsomo.

• Mahlabathini Tel: 035 873 0322 Fax: 035 873 0096 • Maphumulo Tel: 032 481 2008 Fax: 032 481 2232 • Ndwedwe ‡ Tel: 032 533 4018 Fax: 032 532 3406 • Nkandla Tel: 035 833 0068 • Nongoma Tel: 035 831 0051 Fax: 035 831 0941 • Nongoma Tel: 035 831 0326 Fax: 035 831 0844 • Nyangwini Training Centre Tel: 039 699 1773 Fax: 039 699 1786 • Pongola Tel: 034 413 1370 Fax: 0866714183 • Port Shepstone Tel: 039 682 2045 Fax: 039 682 3325/039 682 2089 • Stanger Tel: 032 552 5302 Fax: 032 551 5788 • Umzumbe Tel: 039 699 1761 Fax: 039 699 1786 • Underberg ‡ Tel: 039 834 1022 Fax: 039 834 1352 • Vryheid Tel: 034 980 9098 Fax: 034 981 5242 Extension offices also exist at Bergville, Durban, Howick, Ingwavuma, Inkanyezi, at the Kwa Gubeshe Training Centre, Kokstad, Ladysmith, Mpumalanga, Ongoye (Mthunzini District), Simdlangentshe, Ubombo, Pietermaritzburg, at the Msunduzi Training Centre, Pinetown, Umbumbulu, Umzinto, Hilton, Essex Farm, Greytown, Osizweni, Mnambithi, Thukela Estates, Verulam, Vulamehlo and Vulindela

North West
• Lichtenburg Tel: 018 632 7400/1 Fax: 018 632 6171 • Vryburg ‡ Tel: 053 927 0435 Fax: 053 927 0436 • Mafikeng Tel: 018 381 1392/4 Fax: 018 381 2525 • Wolmaransstad c/o Tel: 018 389 5441

Head Office Tel: 011 355 1447 Fax: 011 337 2292

• Germiston Tel: 011 821 7700 Fax: 011 821 7759 • Randfontein Tel: 011 411 4300 Fax: 011 412 4013

Free State
Head Office Tel: 051 506 1622 and 051 448 5008

• Chuenespoort Tel: 015 632 4145 Fax: 015 632 4387 • Polokwane Tel: 015 287 9940 • Thulamahashi ‡ Tel: 013 773 0333 Fax: 013 773 1632/ 773 0332 There are also offices at Giyani and Sibasa.

• Bethlehem Tel: 058 303 5579 Fax: 058 303 7669 • Bloemfontein Tel: 051 409 2600 Fax 051 409 2650/29 • Brandfort Tel/fax: 051 821 1023 • Ficksburg Tel: 051 933 2109 Fax: 051 933 6523 • Harrismith c/o Tel: 058 714 1430; 622 2150/1009 Fax: 058 714 1447 • Heilbron ‡ c/o Tel: 056 212 3126 Fax: 056 215 1903 • Koffiefontein Tel: 053 205 0030 Fax: 053 205 0033 • Kroonstad Tel: 056 212 3126 Fax: 056 212 7296 • Ladybrand ‡ c/o Tel: 051 875 1160/1 Fax: 051 875 2271 • Odendaalsrus ‡ Tel: 057 398 1664 Fax: 057 398 1666 • Parys Tel: 056 817 1095 Fax: 056 817 1095 • Petrusburg Tel: 053 574 0108 Fax: 053 574 0214 • Qwaqwa (Witsieshoek) ‡ Tel: 058 714 1430 Fax: 058 714 1446 • Reitz ‡ Tel: 058 863 2591 Fax: 058 863 3319 • Vrede Tel: 058 913 1467 Fax: 058 913 29063 • Zastron Tel: 051 673 1100 Fax: 051 673 1299

Head Office ‡ Tel/fax: 013 947 2551

• Nelspruit, Lydenburg Tel: 013 235 2073 Fax: 013 235 2078 • Nelspruit, Hazyview Tel: 013 737 6408 Fax: 013 737 6408 There are also offices at Kabokweni and Kwalugedlane.

Northern Cape
• Calvinia Tel: 027 341 1083 Fax: 027 341 1720 • Fraserburg Tel: 023 741 1116 Fax: 023 741 1244 • Upington Tel: 054 337 8000 Fax: 054 337 8001 • Springbok Tel: 027 712 1315 Fax: 027 712 2270 There is also an office at Keimoes.

Also find a list of extension officers in the sugar cane chapter

• Babanango ‡ Tel: 035 835 0027 • Dundee Tel: 034 212 1108 • Enseleni (Lower Umfolosi) Tel: 035 794 2381 Fax: 035 794 3605 • Eshowe Tel: 035 474 2163 Fax: 035 474 4917 • Estcourt Tel: 036 352 3033 Fax: 036 352 5487 • Hlabisa Tel: 035 838 1044 Fax: 035 838 1027 • Hlanganani Tel: 039 832 0022 Fax: 039 832 0038 • Izingolweni ‡ Tel: 039 433 0110 Fax: 039 433 0110 • Ixopo ‡ Tel: 039 834 1032 Fax: 039 834 1412 • Jozini Tel: 035 572 1280 Fax: 035 572 1236 • Loskop ‡ Tel: 036 431 8134 Fax: 036 431 8134

Western Cape
Elsenburg Tel: 021 808 5100 Fax: 021 808 5251

Swartland Region • Piketberg Tel: 022 913 1112 Fax: 022 913 2193 • Malmesbury Tel: 022 482 2265 Fax: 022 487 2331 • Worcester Tel: 023 347 1121 Fax: 023 342 6779 An office also exists at Moorreesburg




North West Region • Vredendal Tel: 027 213 2000 Fax: 027 213 2712 Klein-Karoo Region • Laingsburg Tel: 023 551 1034 Fax: 023 551 1637 • Beaufort West Tel: 023 414 2126 Fax: 023 414 4386 • Oudtshoorn Tel: 044 272 6077 Fax: 044 279 1910 • Ladismith Tel: 028 551 1017 Fax: 028 551 1332 South Coast Region • Caledon Tel: 028 212 1158 Fax: 028 212 1878 • Swellendam Tel: 028 514 1196 Fax: 028 514 1342 • Riversdale Tel: 028 713 2442 Fax: 028 713 2442 An office also exists at George.

• The South African Journal of Agricultural Extension is published annually by the South African Society for Agricultural Extension (SASAE). The Journal appears on AJOL at The contact number for the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development is 012 420 3246. All contributions and correspondence should be directed to: The Editor: SASAE Publications Dept. of Agric. Economics, Extension and Rural Development University of Pretoria PRETORIA 0002 • Find the regular articles in the Farmer’s Weekly, in particular the “New on the land” pages. Visit for archived articles like “Going commercial with Grain SA”. • The ARC has leaflets and booklets too. For the complete list, visit • The Infotoons, colourful, simply laid-out, may be viewed at www.agis. – take the AGIS and Skills Development options. • Companies and associations involved often have useful material e.g. SAKATA Seeds have grower guidelines for those wishing to plant vegetable crops. • – “Business Solutions to Rural Poverty”. An international organisation which has many small-scale farmer initiatives. • South Africa’s Agricultural Commodity Markets: understanding the rules of the game in five commodity markets with the intention of creating opportunities for emerging farmers by Nomonde Qeqe and Anton Cartwright of the Surplus People’s Project. Find the document at • The Leisa newsletters frequently cover small-scale farming issues throughout Africa and the world. View these at • It can be revealing to find out what is happening in the rest of Africa. Take a look at, Kenya’s National Agricultural Advisory Services. See also the websites of international groupings mentioned in the Science and research chapter e.g. RUFORUM and the African Highlands Initiative. • Access different papers at Two examples are Bridging the gap between scientific theory and the diverse farming practices of smallholders (Willem A. Stoop and Tim Hart), and Across the divide: the impact of farmer-to-farmer linkages in the absence of extension services (Tim Hart & Roberta Burgess).

Research and Development (R & D) and Extension
A strong extension and advisory service is important in linking research outputs with the farming community. DAFF has developed norms and standards for the extension and advisory services of South Africa, to address constraints including the insufficient numbers of frontline extension workers, which hinders the efficient transfer of technology to farmers by means of well planned (in collaboration with the farmers) extension programmes at provincial level. Other targets include: • promoting collaboration between stakeholders (the ARC, University faculties of Agriculture, Provincial Departments of Agriculture etc); • improving the linkage between R&D and extension; • strengthening mechanisms for making R&D outputs easily accessible by the client base, especially those in the second economy. Best Practice In Research and Development and Extension in the provinces: Technical assistance, advisory service, knowledge transfer through various modes including: • demonstrations that involve interaction with farmers on a participatory basis i.e. practical, face-to-face; • the taking of farmers to centres of excellence to learn about farming methods/technologies; • farmers’ days and/or information days where farmers interact with researchers.

4. Training
Also consult the chapter on Agricultural Education and Training • The Provincial Departments of Agriculture work closely with the Agricultural Colleges to provide training for emerging and smallscale farmers. Here short courses (FET – Further Education and Training) on crop, goat and dairy production, map reading, farming systems approach, entrepreneurial training, irrigation as well as health and food safety are provided. • Commodity Associations (these are mentioned in the relevant chapters e.g. Cotton, Dairy etc) are involved with capacity building programmes, as do district farmer unions affiliated to organised agriculture. Find out if there is a district study group in your area e.g. The Kopanang Study Group is a group for Emerging Farmers in the Kroonstad, Steynsrus and Edenville areas. The study group gathers six times annually. Courses include veld management, herd management, establishment and management of pastures and more. • AgriSETA accredited training providers – find the complete list in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter. Some of these are mentioned here. • Universities run a number of short courses designed for the Emerging Farmer. • The method of studying at UNISA – distance learning along with practical modules at a centre near you – makes this an ideal method of studying or upgrading your qualifications if you are an extension officer, potential farmer or entrepreneur. • The various agribusinesses are involved in training. Find details under heading 5. • The Science Councils e.g. the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) offer training. Find details in the Science and Research chapter.

3. Websites and publications
• NuFarmer & African Entrepreneur is a free monthly publication which won the 2005 “Africa Economic Developer” award. Contact Johan Swiegers at 012 804 5854, 082 882 7023, • Pula Imvula is the Grain SA magazine for developing producers. Contact Grain SA at 056 515 2145 or visit • Farming SA is “Southern Africa’s first mainstream magazine for smallscale farmers”. Visit or contact the editor at 012 424 6381/2. • Ubisi Mail is a magazine for emerging farmers and farm workers, in which technical agricultural information transfer takes place by way of user-friendly articles and illustrations with instructions in five languages. Call 012 843 5702 or visit • The BuaNews newsletters frequently give reports of agricultural developments – details of land settlement and emerging farmer news. Subscribe to the newsletters at • People’s Farming Handbook 2nd edition David Phillip IBSN0 86486 2310. Technical information for the farmer. • Small-scale livestock farming Carol Ekarius Storey Publishing • Find the Agricultural Marketing Extension training papers on www. (take the Publications and then General Publications menu option). Also find the Info Paks (booklets of several pages, written simply), which are also available from the Resource Centre at 012 319 7141.


Buhle Farmer’s Academy Tel: 013 665 4001 Elgin Community College Tel: 021 848 9413 Grain SA Tel: 056 515 2145 / 082 854 7171 See green block to the right.

The University of Fort Hare establishes development projects with local communities as partners through University and external funding. The products we provide/ develop are agribusiness related i.e. Nguni Cattle, dairy farming, dried soups, fresh vegetable production, animal traction, etc. We provide technical services related to agriculture and human development skills required.

Grain SA has a Farmer Development Programme that is funded by the grain trusts – Maize, Sorghum, Winter Cereals and Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust. The programmes include the formation of and service to study groups, planting of best practice demonstration trials, farmers days, Farmer of the Year Competition, individual support to advanced (semi-commercial) farmers, training courses, radio broadcasts and a monthly newsletter. Various week long training courses are presented, at various suitable venues: • Introduction to the Production of Maize / Sorghum / Wheat / Sunflowers / Groundnuts • Advanced Maize Production and Marketing • Course for Agricultural Contractors • Tractor and Farm Implement Maintenance Course • Basic Engine Repair Course • Resource Assessment and Farm Planning • Skills Development Course (planter and sprayer calibration) • Farm Management for Profits • Maize Production under Irrigation • Barley Production under Irrigation • Maintenance on High Application Tractors Contact persons: • • • • • • • • Dr Willie Kotze, Specialist : Training – 082 535 5250 Danie van den Berg, Specialist Field Services – 071 675 5497 Johan Kriel – Free State: 079 497 4294 Amos Njoro – Gauteng: 072 640 6561 Tonie Loots – North West: 083 702 1265 Jerry Mthombothi – Mpumalanga: 084 604 0549 Lawrence luthango – Eastern Cape: 083 389 7308 Jurie Mentz – KZN: 082 354 5749

Agricultural Information Centre Koue Bokkeveld Training Centre Tel: 040 602 2432 Tel: 023 317 0983 Mr PM Mbokodi – 082 200 3550 Fax: 023 317 0597 University of the Free State Mpofu Training Centre Centre for Sustainable Agriculture Tel: 040 664 9064 and Rural Development Fax: 040 664 9051 Tel: 051 401 2163 Mthonyama Tel: 043 643 3429 Fax: 043 643 5376 Lengua Agricultural Centre Tel: 051 401 2163 North West Agricultural Development Institute Tel: 018 299 6500 / 32 Tsolo Agricultural Rural Development Institute (TARDI) Skills for Africa Tel: 047 542 0025 Tel: 012 379 4920 Mr Ntsabo – 082 301 9829 Crop production, animal SA Agri Academy (SAAA) production, food and catering Tel: 021 880 1276 entrepreneurship training. University of KwaZulu-Natal South African Institute for Farmer Support Group Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Dr Maxwell Mudhara Tel: 021 447 2023 Tel: 033 260 6275 Find details of agri projects countrywide on the website Stellenbosch University Sustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 University of Fort Hare Tel: 040 602 2126 African Centre for Food Security Tel: 033 260 5708 University of Pretoria Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Tel: 012 420 3248 / 51 Continuing Education Tel: 012 420 5051

5. Roleplayers
“Agriculture is a tool for political change, to raise consciousness and the reducing of socio-economic equalities and this road one cannot travel alone. No single organisation or individual can on its own reverse the legacy of our past without assistance and partnerships.” Motsepe Matlala, previous President of NAFU SA

Ackerman Pick ‘n Pay Foundation Tel: 021 658 1561

where five experienced farmers train emerging farmers on how to produce vegetables. The vegetables are sold to the supermarket.

Pick ‘n Pay is the main funder of the AFGRI Farming is a new division African Farming Franchise project within AFGRI. Contact 011 706 in the North West province, 7897 or visit


Afrivet Training Services Tel: 082 454 0532

Agri Start Tel: 018 642 1596 / 083 265 6210

Provides the skills and tools needed Identifies and develops farmers against livestock disease and who have the potential to become production loss. commercial farmers. Find the archived article “Kick-starting new AGRI LAND GROUP farmers” on www.farmersweekly. Tel: 012 345 3911 which reviews his project. Fax: 012 345 3949 Agricultural Business Chamber Tel: 012 807 6686 / 082 441 2308 Services include: • Agricultural Risk Analysis Reports – Interventions and The Agricultural Research affirmations Council (ARC) has a mandate to • Agricultural Development support resource poor farmers. Project and Business Plans Find details of the different • Comprehensive Benchmarked Agricultural Land Guideline research institutes in the Science and Research chapter, or visit Values Nationally • Land Reform Process Management • Agricultural Risk Analysis ANTSWISA and Valuation Methodology Tel: 079 230 4999 workshop facilitation and Training Business development and They assist emerging farmers to incubation of SMMEs prepare necessary documents to access Government Funding Asgisa Eastern Cape Tel: 043 735 1673 programmess as well as accessing private sector finance. Agriculture and agro-processing Agri Mega Empowerment have been identified as one of six Solutions (AgriMES) key programmes based on land Tel 028 424 2890 / 028 425 2524 transformation that hold the key to a vibrant and sustainable rural economy focused on food security. Services to organised agriculture As such, AsgiSA EC aims not only and commodity organisations. to exploit the Eastern Cape’s BEE. Accredited Training. Labour agricultural potential, but to ensure that beneficiation or value adding services. activities through the processing of agricultural produce of the rural Agri SA communities is established. Read Tel: 012 643 3400 more on the website. Agri SA is involved through BALIMI BONKE its provincial affiliates. See the Tel: 082 736 2638 Organised agriculture chapter.

BALIMI BONKE helps with the refurbishment of dairy parlours; infrastructure establishment – feedlot, dairy, small stock; project coordination; emerging farmer training. Bethlehem Farmers Trust Tel: 058 303 0560 Biowatch Tel: 082 435 5812 Read about Biowatch’s work with the Phadima Agricultural Association and the KwaNgwanase Farmers’ Organisation on the website. Bushveld Eco Services Tel: 014 717 3819 Short courses presented on topics such as Farm planning, Veld management, Veld condition and grazing capacity assessment, Grass identification and more. Cactis Agencies Tel: 083 407 7060 CASIDRA Tel: 044 871 0134 Commodity associations are listed in the relevant chapter e.g. find Cotton SA’s details in the cotton chapter, the National Wool Growers Association of South Africa (NWGA) in the wool chapter etc. DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154

ECI Promoting Agribusiness Linkages (PAL) Tel: 011 602 1200 EPA Tel: 011 315 8255 Infrastructure development, business planning, programme management, project-revival interventions, training for emerging farmers. Farmers Support Group (FSG) – See University of KwaZulu-Natal under heading 4 Fresh Produce Exporters Forum Tel: 021 526 0474 The Grain Farmer Development Association (GFDA) is a body to support new entrants into the grain industry and to help them become independent grain farmers. The GFDA was launched by the Agricultural Business Chamber, the Maize Trust, the Sorghum Trust, Grain SA, Omnia fertiliser, Pannar Seed, L&L Agricultural Services, Syngenta SA, Tongaat Hulett Starch, the National Chamber of Milling, the SA Chamber of Baking and the Winter Cereal Trust. Find the GFDA menu option at www. Grain SA Tel: 056 515 2145 Find the “Developing Agriculture” option on the website. See also the notes under the previous heading. GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8267

DFM supplies its Farm Management software to BEE farms free of Kaap Agri charge with only a small license fee Barend Sulvester Tel: 022 482 8000 / 109 payable per year.


Kaap Agri offers better prices on production inputs, advice and information on production and marketing, as well as liaison with organisations providing other services. It also provides training to emerging farmers and farm workers on an ongoing basis through its training academy in Porterville as well as on site. In addition, Kaap Agri also provides financing for the production needs of emerging farmers. This programme is open to all indiviuals or groups within the service areas of Kaap Agri. Kei Farmers Support Centre Association (KFSCA) Tel: 047 532 4343 Fax: 047 532 2580 Khula Enterprise Finance Tel: 012 394 5560 Provincial and regional office contacts can be found on the website and in the co-operatives chapter of this directory. The Maize Trust Tel: 012 807 3958 The Maize Trust has expanded its pilot project to assist emerging farmers with the cost of initial soil correction (the costs of a soil analysis and lime) and production risk (Crop insurance premiums). The Trust makes use of agribusineses to mentor the farmers. MGK Group Tel: 012 381 2922 The Magaliesburg Grain Cooperative has a division, Temo, which focus its attention on the development of new farmers who are engaging in grain farming

(maize, sorghum or sunflowers) in mainly the North West Province. Whilst MGK’s core business is in secondary agriculture, Temo renders a continued service to new farmers in the primary agricultural sector. Magidi Agri Development Tel: 016 422 7342 National African Farmers’ Union of South Africa (NAFU SA) Tel: 082 672 2484 NAFU SA and DAFF launched NAFU’s electronic membership registration system in August 2007. The electronic membership registration system will operate in the form of a database. This will enable the administrators to: • quantify black farmers; • compile reliable data that can be used to address the specific needs of the developing sector; • plan development programmes and services; • communicate with these farmers; • negotiate loyalty rewards from input suppliers on behalf of NAFU members. Read more about NAFU SA in the Organised Agriculture chapter. National Emergent Red Meat Producers’ Organisation (NERPO) Tel: 012 361 9127 New Generation Agri Tel 021 863 0397 Black Empowerment and Development company, promoting and facilitating agribusiness in the Emerging Farming sector.

NWK Ltd Tel: 018 633 1000 In 2008 the Provincial Department of Agriculture entered into a Public Private Partnership with NWK which has benefited 92 farmers in the Ngaka Modiri Molema communities. The project is mentored by Cois Harman of Agristart. Oos Vrystaat Kaap Tel: 051 923 4500 Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 The PPECB runs the South African Pesticide Initiative Program (SA PIP), a database of emerging horticultural export producers and those producing exportable fruit and vegetables. These are placed in contact with existing well organised commercial producer associations, namely the Citrus Growers Association, Deciduous Fruit Producers Trust and Subtropical Fruit Producers Association. Planner Bee Plant care Tel: 011 888 4215 / 083 255 5828

Rainman Landcare Foundation Tel: 031 783 4412 A huge number of small farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa implement farming practices that are close to organic practices. Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) serve small producers and contribute effectively to the development of a local market by linking producers and consumers and educating consumers about organic farming by encouraging them to participate in the guarantee system of the organic products they purchase. Find out more by contacting either Dr Auerbach of Rainman, or Joelle Katto-Andrighetto at Santam Agriculture Tel: 012 369 1202 Santam is involved with different co-ops and agribusinesses in their emerging farmer crop insurance programmes. Find details of the Senwes AgriBEE and Developing Agriculture programmes at www.senwes.

Small-Scale Farmers Networking Forum Organic fertiliser for vegetables Tel: 015 268 4907 and crops Programme for Agricultural Information Services (PRAIS) Tel: 051 401 2739 / 225 PRAIS is a partnership between the University of the Free State and the CTA (Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Co-operation – based in the Netherlands. See PRAIS provides information services on demand. South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 Find details of their agri projects on the website. South African Society for Agricultural Extension (SASAE)


South African International University of the Free State Business Linkages (SAIBL) – see – find details under heading 4. ECI Africa Umnga Farmers Development Surplus Peoples Project Company (Ltd) Tel: 021 448 5605 Tel: 045 933 1318 Vrystaat Koöperasie Bpk Terratek Piet Potgieter and Moses Maine Tel: 018 581 1000 Tel: 058 863 8111 Toyota runs the Toyota New Harvest of the Year Award competition to recognise historically disadvantaged farmers who have “triumphed over adversity to grow successful, competitive farming enterprises”. Details on Umlimi Tel: 021 888 9100 Water Research Commission Tel: 012 330 0340 Wesmeg Tel: 018 581 1000 Womiwu Rural Development Tel: 015 297 2107

needed to promote market-led agriculture. It is now widely believed that, if well-managed, contract farming offers a potential solution to some of the development problems of the agriculture sector in Africa. The Food and Agriculture Organisation recommends that no contract farming venture should be initiated unless there is a market that is profitable for all and can sustain both the demand and supply on a longterm basis. In addition, contract farming must be backed by suitable laws to support the contract as well as an efficient legal system for enforcing the laws. African Governments need to facilitate the development of dependable institutions to provide efficient market information and intelligence that would enhance contract farming activities. Information is also needed on the opportunities for contract farming, the potential investors, production and marketing trends of major products, etc. The Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) implementation consultations with stakeholders and the relevant literature agree that contract farming is one way to facilitate the commercialisation of agriculture production among smallholder farmers in Africa. The challenge ahead is how to define and implement strategies that minimise the negative effects and address the challenges to the promotion of contract farming.
Source: NEPAD Dialogue – Focus on Africa; Issue 113 – 20 October 2005

Womiwu Rural Development does investigations, feasibility/ viability studies, business plans, proposals, farm planning and resource conservation, project United South African implementation, turnkey Agricultural Association management and BEE ventures/ (USAAA) initiatives. Where necessary they Tel 028 424 2890 / 028 425 2524 determine training programmes and use local accredited trainers Home to emerging farmers in the – in general management and fields Western Cape. related to agricultural production. Umtiza Farmers’ Co-op Tel: 043 722 4215 “Support packages may pump out money, inputs and implements, but all this is futile if you don’t develop people.” Jane McPherson, Programme coordinator of Grain SA’s farmer development programme

7. Commercial farmer points of interest
The perspective of Commercial Agriculture is to link the success of Farmer Support Programmes to agriculture as a whole. It is vital to have a favourable policy climate for the industry as a whole. In view of AgriBEE and the requirements that are set against the establishment of new farmers, white South African commercial farmers can make excellent contributions with regard to: • mentorship to new beginner farmers to develop technical and business skills; • supply mechanisation services for new beginner farmers on contract for compensation OR in exchange for the use of a portion of their land; • rent land from new beginner farmers in order to promote their cash flow; • donate surplus implements that can be used in a mechanisation pool for rental. To make a success of AgriBEE will require synergy and creative thoughts. The government has already realised that it has world-class expertise in the South African farmer. A team effort is essential for BEE to be successful and it is recommended that as many partners as possible with common goals are involved so as to spread the risks.
Source: (adapted)

6. Two strategies
Owing to economic pressure from declining profit margins, farmers have resorted to diversifying their operations (to spread the risk) and value adding. Strategies have often led to larger operations to reach economies of scale. Does this changing face of agriculture mean that there is an implicit barrier to many potential new entrants? Agricultural co-operatives in South Africa are an important structure for supporting new farmers (find the chapter on co-operatives). Collective action is in many respects logical to empowering farmers. By working together, farmers identify members’ needs and consolidate their demands, aggregate their economic power and address market failures. Existing co-operatives can play an important role, and the establishment of cooperatives in poor rural communities should also be encouraged. Contract farming has been identified as one of the priority investments that could quickly contribute to increased agriculture sector growth, farmer incomes, and agribusiness profit. Contract farming, sometimes referred to as out grower schemes, is a type of farming with agreed upon terms between farmers and an investor, for example, a processing and/or marketing firm, to produce and supply agricultural products with specific characteristics at predetermined prices. It is fundamentally a way of allocating risk between producer and contractor in that the farmer takes the risk of production and the contractor the risk of marketing. One of the major strengths of contract farming is that it provides backward and forward market linkages that are

Mechanised, commercial agriculture is a bonus to any country, because that will allow for significant production at low cost. What is important is that we don’t forget the duality of agriculture in the region, where we have a group of farmers who through no fault of their own are marginal and communal … The message is, we need to balance the two. Source: Ajay Vashee, Vice-President of the International Federation of Agriculture Producers
Our thanks to Professor Fanie Terblanche at the University of Pretoria for feedback on the draft chapter.


National issues
See the separate Renewable Energy, Biofuels, and Fuels and Lubricants chapters

Department of Energy

Department of Public Enterprises Tel: 012 431 1000 / 21 The Department has developed a programme addressing energy poverty – Integrated Energy Department of Science and Centres (IeCs) – which is a Technology community driven institution which Tel: 012 843 6300 delivers not only energy products, but also provides information and capacity building services.

3. Roleplayers 1. Overview
Overviews of the different sources of energy can be found on the internet e.g. www. and

Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) Tel: 011 784 8000 Agriculture (Agri SA) is represented on the National Electricity Response Team (NERT) through BUSA, who advocated that agriculture requires special consideration as electricity consumption is seasonal and cuts during some parts of the harvesting processing can result in a year’s production being lost. CSIR Energy Business Area Tel: 012 841 2911 / 317 9225 Rural Energy for Economic Development (REED) is a longterm CSIR research project to improve the understanding of linkages between poverty alleviation and the provision of energy. It includes researching how rural communities can add value to natural or renewable energy resources. Solving energy problems in a rural community leads to a host of economic development spin-offs such as higher paying employment opportunities that are also more productive, and the ability for rural communities to add more value to raw materials and natural resources for export. Write to Steve Szewczuk (Project Leader) at Electricity Monitor Tel: 087 550 0870 Electro Mechanica Tel: 011 249 5000 Energizer Tel: 011 802 2424 Tel: 031 303 9540 Tel: 021 531 4436

Energy Research Centre University of Cape Town Tel: 021 650 3230 ESETA – Energy Sector & Training Authority Gauteng: 011 689 5300 Eastern Cape: 041 363 8279 ESI-AFRICA.COM, the “online power journal of Africa” Eskom Tel: 086 003 7566 The website provides contact details for Eskom power stations and visitor centres. Fax numbers, email addresses and numbers to which smses can be sent are provided for the Central Region (Gauteng), Eastern Region (KwaZulu-Natal), Northern Region (Limpopo), North West Region (North West, Free State, Northern Cape), Southern Region (Eastern Cape) and Western Region (Western Cape). Under its Medium-Term Power Purchase Programme (MTPPP), Pilot National Cogeneration Programme (PNCP) and the Multisite Base Load Independent Power Producer Programme (Base Load IPP Programme), Eskom will consider buying power from you (if you are generating power with a biodigester, a sugar mill etc). A range of value-adding and agroprocessing options is available from Eskom. A visit to their website (take the “Customer Services” menu option) or a read through inserts which appear periodically in agricultural magazines will give an indication of some possibilities. ETA Awards, “turning ideas into energy” – visit www.eta-awards.

Energy is a central element to the economy and life as we know it. Rich in coal resources, South Africa’s total electricity generating fleet is 80% coal-based, which itself poses major climate change challenges. Increased prices of electricity will be an incentive to reduce consumption and to use energy more efficiently (the last heading of this chapter consists of tips to farmers on how to do this). It is also an incentive to independent power producers, especially with renewable energy sources, to generate power. One of the draw cards when attracting investment in the past was the price of electricity. In the future it will be having the capacity from which a sufficient supply of energy can be guaranteed. The agro-food industry not only consumes and uses electricity in significant quantities, but is also extremely dependent on a continuous and uninterrupted supply right through the year in order to ensure that, among others, the so-called cold chain in handling especially fruit and other perishable products is not broken. It is in other words an electricity-sensitive industry that is also responsible for ensuring national food security. As such, issues around electricity supply and costs have a profound and fundamental impact on the competitiveness and sustainability of the agro-food industry.
Source: Agricultural Business Chamber letter to the National Energy Regulator of South Africa, 27 Nov 2009. Find it on

2. National Strategy and government contacts
Electricity falls under the second priority identified in the Medium Term Strategic Framework, issued by government in July 2009 i.e. the massive programme to build economic and social infrastructure. The country’s Power Conservation Programme (PCP) seeks to ensure that South Africa reduces its electricity consumption by at least 10% in the next three years. The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) is to be a guide to government on how it will meet the country’s electricity demands. The Multi-Year Price Determination (MYPD) refers to the planned way in which the price is to be increased. Energy plays a vital role in health and social welfare, quality of life, economic development and environmental sustainability, so it is not surprising that extending the supply of electricity to the poor has been one of government’s priorities. The progress made in this country features in the 2009 World Energy and Climate Policy Assessment (find this report under the “Publications” option at The report mentions that electrification in urban areas in South Africa has risen from 36% in 1994 to 90% at present. The number or rural households with electricity has risen from 12% in 1994 to 52% in 2005.

Maiden Electronics Tel: 011 468 1619 Batteries are an essential part of life, and Energizer is “a world leader in battery technology”. “Power solutions for Africa”



National Electricity Regulator South African Pipeline Gas (NERSA) Association (SAPGA) Tel: 012 401 4600 Tel: 011 431 2016 The National Emergency Response Team (NERT) is a partnership between government, business, labour and civil society to address the power shortages. Agriculture is represented here through BUSA. VOLTEX Tel: 011 879 2000

4. Renewable Energy
Find the separate Renewable Energy chapter.

The Department of Energy has set a target of 10 000 GWh of renewable energy (RE) to be produced by 2013. Currently, this is being modelled on a mix of wind, solar, small-scale hydro and landfill gas. The Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (Refit) guidelines are an incentive structure aimed at encouraging the adoption of renewable energy through government legislation, and are expected to stimulate large-scale investment in the sector. These will enable renewable energy to play a significant role in South African power supply, while also reducing harmful emissions that contribute to global warming. This is expected to increase the opportunities for private entities (e.g. farmers) to supply the national grid with power). Find out more in the Renewable Energy chapter. • Optimal use of farm-level generated byproducts as accomplished with bio-digesters will not only facilitate a reduced carbon footprint, but may also offer reduced costs and possible additional income streams. In the current inflationary environment, with pressing costs and increases of up to 30% in the price of electricity, these savings will be welcomed. • A lot of these new technologies or changes in current practices will require an initial capital outlay, and individuals will need to do their own cost-benefit analysis to determine the viability of the various options.
Source: AgriReview 3rd quarter 2009, available on

The contract for the Medupi Power Station (at Lephalale in Limpopo) Nuclear Industry Association of was awarded to the Medupi Power Station joint venture, a consortium South Africa (NIASA) made up of Murray and Roberts, Tel: 012 641 1071 Grinaker-LTA Civil Engineering and Concor. Pebble Bed Modular Reactor The first unit is scheduled for (PBMR) completion in 2012 with the Tel: 011 680 1553 entire station completed by 2015. It will be the biggest dry-cooled Siyenza is the organiser of the power station in the world with an annual Energy Indaba. Visit www. installed capacity of approximately or call 011 4 800 Megawatts. 463 9184. South Africa National Energy Association (SANEA) Tel: 012 346 6004


5. Nuclear
For information on nuclear energy, find the links at

7. International business environment
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has joined hands to ensure that South Africa has enough electricity during the 2010 Soccer World Cup. Under the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) banner, the countries have pledged to support South Africa in areas of power generation, transmission, customer contributions and demand side management. The SAPP members include: • • • • • • • • • • • Empresa National de Electricidade (Angola) Botswana Power Cooperation Societe National d’Electricite (Democratic Republic of Congo) Electricity Supply Commission of Malawi Electricidade de Mozambique, Hydro Cahora Bassa and Mozambique Transmission Company (Mozambique) Copperbelt Energy Corporation and Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation Limited NamPower (Namibia) Swaziland Electricity Company Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority Eskom

Nuclear energy already provides the world with 17% of its electricity, and South Africa will probably be going ahead with building its second nuclear power station.The United States and South Africa signed a bilateral agreement in September 2009, the Agreement on Co-operation in Research and Development of Nuclear Energy being signed by South African Minister of Energy, Dipuo Peters, and US Secretary of Energy, Steven Chu. A specific area of cooperation is expected to be research in the South African Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) as part of the multilateral Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Very High Temperature Gas Reactor programmes. Pro-nuclear arguments include the points that nuclear energy: • has a low contribution to global warming, as there is little greenhousegas emission; • could reduce the dependence on fossil fuels; • could generate a high amount of energy from a single plant; and • is available and not subject to fluctuations in energy production experienced with solar or wind energy. The case against nuclear energy includes: • We have not found a way to deal with radioactive waste. Even with the best security and safety standards, accidents can still happen. • It is foolish to compare nuclear waste to other chemicals. Unlike other substances, the waste from nuclear energy has to be looked after for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. So we may not give the Earth a death sentence by the climate-change noose, but by a lethal injection of nuclear waste instead. • Nuclear power is just not sustainable. Not only does it take many years to develop a nuclear power station, but uranium (the energy source for nuclear power) is also in short supply. It is believed that the supply of uranium is estimated to last for only 30 to 60 years, depending on the demand. So in the short term the technology may be available, but in the long term it will also be subject to fluctuations. It just does not make business sense to invest billions in something that has such a short life span and that will be such a liability to the environment.
Source: Ferrial Adam on (adapted)

The big players in the coal industry are China, with 42.5% of world production, the USA (18%) and Australia (6%). Turning to electricity, the big nuclear players are the USA (31% of world nuclear generation), France (18%), Japan (9%) and Russia (6%); China, Canada and Brazil together produce more than 50% of the world’s hydropower; and world electricity generation from all sources in 2007 was up 1.3%.
Source: BP’s annual Statistical Review of World Energy (2009). Find it on www., along with an analysis of where Africa fits into the mix.

• World Energy Council – • International Energy Agency – • International Atomic Energy Agency – • - the African Development Bank (AFDB) has approved the funding of 16 projects in South Africa. The Eskom loan is the biggest ever approved by the AFDB. • Energy Watch Group – • Find the Energy Access Situation of Developing Countries report from the United Nations Development Programme and World Health Organisation at • Find the energy menu option on (click on “explore themes”)

6. Hydrogen
Water is split into oxygen and hydrogen. Their later recombination releases energy. Hydrogen and fuel cell technology promises a cleaner, more environment-friendly, oil-independent future. South Africa has a significant competitive advantage in developing hydrogen and fuel cell technologies since it has considerable deposits of platinum which is a key catalytic material used in fuel cell and reformation technologies for the production of electricity and hydrogen, respectively. The Department of Science and Technology has launched the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Research, Development and Innovation Strategy (HFCT and RDI), which aims to build sufficient capacity in research, development and innovation to supply 25 percent of the global hydrogen and fuel cell market’s platinum group metals catalyst demand by 2020. The country looks to position itself as a significant player in the development of HFCT, which is part of the global agenda to integrate energy systems. Still in the experimental stage is a hydrogen-powered tractor range from New Holland. These form part of New Holland’s energy-independent farm concept.

8. Energy-smart farming
As a farmer you are also a businessman, someone who is just as concerned about keeping operational costs under control as you are about your fields, crops and cattle. As a farmer, you also know that energy costs are rising and adding significantly to operating costs. Controlling these costs means becoming more aware of energy and the ways you can use electricity more effectively without compromising your farm’s productivity. By making small changes to the way you use power, you can ensure that you get the best value for your “energy rand” and also play a part in reducing the demand for power – especially in peak periods when the possibility of load shedding is always present. You can make a start on effective power saving by looking at your operation and assessing the equipment you use and the tasks you use it for.

Getting optimum performance from dryers
• If you use dryers on your farm, remember that they can be shut down during the drying process, or can even be switched off completely. Alternatively, heating elements can be switched off and only the fans left running. Fans can be switched off for short periods without causing damage to produce such as grains, oil seeds and lucerne in the dryer. Only use the heating elements in the case of emergencies, for example during continuously rainy days and at night during the off-peak hours. When using heat, it is essential to recirculate the heated air to the inlet of the fan as this will save energy and costs. • When heating elements are used, it is advisable to insulate the ducting to minimise heat loss through the sides. It is vital that there should be no leaks in the ducting.


• Making it less costly means that you should match the pipe and nozzle sizes. You should also remember that pipes with a small diameter operate at higher friction levels. More electricity is therefore needed to increase the rate of water delivery and overcome the friction. • The nozzle sizes of sprayers should be checked on a regular basis. If you reduce the wear and tear, you reduce water losses due to leaking pipes. Leaking pipes mean that pumps have to deliver more water and this increases the electricity consumption. By carrying out regular maintenance, you benefit from reduced power costs and water savings. • Did you know that using cellphone and computer technology could result in major savings? It’s a fact that if you use these methods to schedule irrigation, you can save up to 30% of the energy you generally use. Making sure that water is pumped to storage dams above irrigated areas means that you can use gravity flow, even when power is not available.

Insulation of greenhouses
• When you build greenhouses, bear in mind that a double-insulated plastic cover retains more heat and warmth in greenhouses. Keeping air and soil temperatures constant through insulation means that less energy has to be used to create warmth in the greenhouse environment.

Farming using alternative energy sources
• As a farmer you can take steps to utilise the waste generated through normal farming operations to create energy. Harnessing the power of the sun can also save energy costs - over the years, these can add up to considerable savings and transform the way you do business. • Where considerable amounts of animal waste are present, you could investigate the possibility of using biogas installations to generate heat and electricity. These installations take the heat generated by animal waste and enable it to be piped into feedlots and piggeries for use as heating, or used for the production of cheap electricity.

Electric motors
• Electric motors consume vast amounts of power. The older your motors are, the higher the chances are that they use more electricity than they should. You can reduce your bills significantly by replacing these motors with new generation “high efficiency” electric motors (Eff 1). Make sure that the motors you install can run at 3/4 of their capacity to perform everyday jobs. Running at full load for long periods requires much more power.

Generating power
• If you wish to generate emergency power for short periods, consider purchasing a standby generator. Running off petrol or diesel, these generators are custom-made for various outputs. You should consider the amount of energy you will need and seek advice from an expert when considering an installation. Keep in mind that generators should only be used in well-ventilated spaces (be careful of the carbon monoxide build-up!) and should be far enough away from buildings so that their noise does not disturb people or animals.

Dairy parlours
• Saving power in the dairy parlour means rinsing the milking machines with cold water directly after milking. A complete washing cycle should take place outside Eskom’s peak hours. • Ice bank cool tanks can be used to build the ice bank during off-peak hours to pre-cool and cool milk during Eskom’s peak hours.

Energy from the sun, wind and water
• There are a number of options available to utilise solar power. You should investigate which of the various options available would suit you best. Solar panels can be used to supply electricity for pumping, charging batteries for lights and any other low wattage use. However, they can be expensive, have a lifespan of approximately ten years and are vulnerable to hail and theft. They also need to be cleaned regularly as dust can reduce their efficiency. • Effective water heating can be provided through a network of black polythene and copper piping through which water is pumped. This can be installed on a roof and used to heat water for the house and/or swimming pool. • Wind energy can be used to charge batteries that can supply power to low wattage equipment in households. Where water flows constantly from a high point, the water flow can be used to generate electricity.

• Coldrooms are major users of electricity. If you take several simple steps, however, cold losses can be minimised and you will benefit from lower electricity costs. • You save electricity by keeping the doors to cold rooms properly sealed. Opening doors only when required cuts down on cold air being “leaked” into neighbouring areas. You should always also remember that overfilled coldrooms actually have a lower cooling efficiency. Air does not flow as easily between and under produce in overfilled rooms. This means that it takes longer to cool down your produce and that more electricity is needed to reach the storage temperature. • Condensers should be well ventilated to deliver the best performance. For greatest effectiveness, compressor rooms and condensers should be installed on the southern side of a building, where they are not affected by direct sunlight. You should check filters and coils regularly and see that they are always clean, and also make sure that there is enough gas in the air conditioning plant. The proper use of air curtains will also reduce the loss of conditioned air.

Using dual fuel systems for efficiency
• Dual fuel systems are generally used for heating air or water in a heating system. They are frequently used for drying and intensive animalhousing operations. • The working principle is based on using heating elements during Eskom’s off-peak hours and alternative fuel during Eskom’s peak hours. Alternative fuel options are coal, gas, diesel, oil, paraffin, wood, stalks or any other medium that is readily available in the area. • The bottom line for energy efficiency is that we all bear the responsibility of doing what we can to save power. As a farmer, you have a significant role to play. You will also benefit by making your operations more cost-effective and energy-efficient - saving money while you help our country.
Source: Our thanks to Eskom for feedback on the draft chapter

Reducing the energy needs of animal housing
• Reducing the cost of animal housing begins with the building itself. Proper roof insulation ensures a cool environment throughout the year and means that less money has to be spent on additional energy to regulate temperatures. Painting a roof silver will also reflect more heat off the structure. • When using natural ventilation for animal housing, buildings should not be wider than 12 metres for optimum utilisation of wind cooling. • If you are building animal housing, remember that the long walls of the building should face north and south and the short walls should face west and east. This will help to dispel the heat that builds up inside buildings during the day.

Increasing the energy efficiency of animal feed processing plants
• Animal feed processing plants usually have large numbers of electric motors. By installing a capacitor bank you can generally improve the electrical efficiency of a plant. A plant can be managed so that cleaning and operations requiring low electricity can be done during peak hours, and scheduling the actual operations outside Eskom’s peak hours.



National issues
Food security
There are many other relevant chapters in this publication!

“In the longer term, the international community, particularly the leaders of the international community, should sit down together on an urgent basis and address how we can, first of all, improve these economic systems, distributions systems, as well as how we can promote the improved production of agricultural products,” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Read what Jacques Diouf, director general of the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), had to say at the World Grain Forum of 2009. The article “World needs better food plan, says FAO chief” can be found in the archives at Affordable food in the long term depends on viable local agricultural sectors which receive fair prices for their products and are able to pay fair prices for farm requisites. The long-term survival of local agriculture is endangered by subsidies paid to producers in developed countries. The recent reintroduction of export subsidies in the EU and USA clearly show developed countries only pay lip service to trade liberalistion. While South Africa’s strong stand against export subsidies as a member of the Group of 20 is commendable, we also need national protection against the effect of export subsidies on import prices.
Source: Dr Koos Coetzee writing in Farmer’s Weekly, 3 July 2009. Find the article “What can we do about high food prices” at

1. Overview
All life – economic, political, cultural – depends on food security as a starting point. • Food security is the assurance that individuals, households, communities and nations have access to enough safe, quality food at all times. It goes without saying that food security is covered in the Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF), the guide for government programmes for 2009 – 2014. • Food insecurity is the absence of food security and is characterised by the presence of hunger, starvation, malnutrition and/or the fear of facing food shortages. In South Africa, 2.2 million households are regarded as food insecure and vulnerable, utilising more than 60% of their income on purchasing food. • The UN’s Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) says that there are one billion hungry people in the world. That another 100 million were expected to fall into this category by the end of 2009 cannot bode well for international peace.
Source: African Centre for Food Security (ACFS); Rob Small in an article “Can community-based organic micro-farming create food security?”; http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/World_Summit_on_Food_Security_2009; Buanews 16 November 2009 World overviews of food insecurity are given by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-NET) – visit

High-tech agriculture is not readily taken up at community level as it is capital intensive and requires a high level of skill. Based on supertechnology, huge crops can be grown quickly. Food Aid organisations can channel market surplus to ensure food security. This works if there is enough ‘free’ money to buy or subsidise massive amounts of food on a regular basis. In theory, high tech agriculture can meet food security needs. Recent years do expose weaknesses, though. What happens when there is not enough ‘free’ money to channel market surplus to the hungry?
Source: Rob Small of Abalimi, writing for a Trialogue publication on CSI projects

2. Food Prices
“This is a new face of hunger. There is food on shelves but people are priced out of the market”. Josette Sheeran, the head of the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) Reasons attributed for the global increase in the price of basic foods include: • The booming Asian economy has driven up prices for most food commodities. • Protein consumption in increasingly prosperous countries has soared, pushing up demand for the grain needed by cattle, pigs and poultry. • The use of more land and agricultural produce for biofuels (in 2008, onethird of the US maize crop was earmarked for biofuels) and demand for food crops such as maize for biofuels has increased demand. • High oil prices pushed up the price of fuel and fertiliser. For example, about 36% of the cost of producing a loaf of bread is driven by the price of fuel (petrol, diesel and electricity). • The gradual reform and liberalisation of agricultural subsidy programmes in the US and Europe have reduced the butter and grain mountains of yesteryear by eliminating overproduction but reducing strategic global reserves to the lowest in 25 years. • Agricultural subsidies in developed countries have kept prices low, forcing many people especially in Africa to stop producing food. This practice has damaged the food supply chain. • Partly due to erratic weather patterns attributed to global climate change, some key food producing regions and nations (notably Asia, Australia and New Zealand) are suffering from severe droughts. • Over-confident speculation added to the volatility of prices. • The global financial crisis has had many effects internationally especially regarding the capacity of international aid agencies to respond (through cash and/or food) to countries in crisis.

[Commercial farmers have the know-how and technology to produce food on the required scale] ... consumer resistance to genetically modified (GM) crops is limiting food production. Hungry people don’t have the luxury of choosing non-GM foods and those opposed to it must realise that their stance contributes to famine in African countries.
Source: Dr Koos Coetzee in the article “Urbanisation poses challenges for agriculture” at

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find the Food Security Statistics and information on Integrated Food Security and Nutrition Programme (IFSNP) and other DAFF interventions at www. Directorate: Food Security Tel: 012 319 6736 • The Policy Analysis and Development Unit develops and promotes national policy for food security • The Food Security Programmes Unit co-ordinates the design, planning and implementation of food security programmes • The Food Security Information Unit monitors food security programmes and facilitates agricultural (rural/urban) development. Find the Food Security Atlas (Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information Mapping System – FIVMS) on the Agricultural Geo-Referenced Information System website – FIVIMS is a system, tool and


information source that assists government in designing national and subnational food security interventions and targeting of the right beneficiaries through collection, analysis and dissemination of information on people who are food insecure and vulnerable. The target goal of the Integrated Food Security Strategy (IFSS) is to reduce the number of food-insecure households by half by 2015 (also an MDG goal). One of the strategic objectives to reach this target is “to increase domestic food production by providing support services to farmers”. The Illima/Letsema campaign distributed agricultural starter packs to poor households and mobilised communities to utilise all land available to ensure food security.

qualifications in food security. ACFS is the African Union Commission/ New Partnership for Africa’s Development Food Security Lead Institution and a SADC Centre of Excellence. The centre offers degree qualifications, capacity development, policy advice and conducts evidence-based research to solve food insecurity in South Africa and the continent. African Micro Mills Tel: 031 584 6250

Children’s Feeding Trust (CFT) Tel: 041 581 4371 Disaster Management, Training and Education Centre for Africa (Dimtec) Tel: 051 401 2721 Economic Justice Network is a faith-based network on inter alia food security. Visit

Other government departments are involved in the area of food security. Some examples: Department of Science and Technology Under The Poverty Relief Programme of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) rural communities are guided in the production of oyster mushrooms to diversify and add to their food base. Through further funding by DST to the ARC-PPRI, beekeepers from 40 rural communities from all over South Africa are trained in the basics of beekeeping and related industries. Honeybees provide a direct source of food (honey) and have a major impact on crop production through pollination. Department of Social Development This is the department in charge of social grants (find details of the South African Social Security Agency – SASSA – in the Importance of Rural Development chapter or at Over 13 million citizens are currently receiving social assistance benefits and of these beneficiaries, nine million are children. Government has recognised social grants remain the most effective form of poverty alleviation, especially during the current financial downturn. Competition Commission Tel: 012 394 3332 Theoretically, competition keeps prices down (because the client can go elsewhere if she or he does not like your prices). Price fixing between players in the food industry is bad news for food security. The Competition Amendment Act holds major implications for directors and senior management. The Act introduces provisions to hold personally accountable, and criminally liable, individuals who cause firms to engage in cartel activity. Find the document on and www.

F & G Trust (Farm and Garden national trust) “Driving profitable grain milling and Tel: 021 801 9677 basic food production in SADC” The African Organic Farming Food, Agriculture and Natural Foundation (AOFF) Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) Tel: 012 804 2966 / 3186 AOFF’s mission is to reduce poverty among Southern Africa’s FANRPAN’s vision is “A food secure rural communities through the southern Africa free from hunger introduction of organic farming, and poverty”. Find the “Food better nutrition, agro-enterprise systems” option under “Thematic development and management of thrusts”. natural resources. Food and Agriculture Agri Iphepeng Organisation (FAO) Tel: 018 642 1596 / 083 265 6210 Tel: 012 354 8000 Trains people to establish vegetable The Food and Agriculture gardens and produce their own Organisation of the United Nations basic food at home. leads international efforts to defeat hunger. The FAO celebrates World Agricultural Business Chamber Food Day each year on 16 October, Tel: 012 807 6686 / 082 441 2308 the day on which the organisation was founded in 1945. Find details of other United Nations initiatives Find the latest “Southern African – e.g. its World Food Programme food security outlook” under the “Trade intelligence” option at (WFP) – at Also see “The Farms Race: The rush for food FoodBank South Africa Tel: 021 447 8150 security in Africa”. Agricultural Colleges working with the Provincial Departments of Agriculture offer basic training Foodgardens Foundation courses in food security. Find their Tel: 011 880 5956/7 details in the Agricultural Education za and Training chapter. Agricultural Research Council (ARC) The need for “sufficient, safe and nutritious food” permeates the strategic imperatives of government and therefore the goals of the ARC. Its core activities are all related to food security in some way. Bessemer Tel: 011 762 5341/2/3/4 Grain storage Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Tel: 012 420 4583 / 021 808 7725 Food & Trees for Africa Tel: 011 803 9750 The GSI Group Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 794 4455 Grain storage Heifer International Tel: 031 777 1374/5 Heifer International-South Africa is a development organisation with the mission of alleviating hunger, poverty and environmental degradation through the provision of food producing animals to families in need.

4. Roleplayers
Abalimi Tel: 021 371 1653 ABALIMI is a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) working to empower the disadvantaged through urban agriculture and environmental programmes and projects. ABC Hansen Tel: 012 803 0036 Grain storage ACAT Tel: 033 234 4223 Help rural farmers and families to improve their quality of life – beginning with low cost food. African Centre for Food Security (ACFS) Tel: 033 260 5855 The ACFS is a Centre of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. It offers accredited transdisciplinary



Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) Centre for Poverty, Employment and Growth Tel: 012 302 2721 International Water Management Institute Tel: 012 845 9100/32

Provincial Departments of Agriculture – details in the “Agriculture in the Provinces” chapter – have on-going Food Security Projects aimed at providing livelihood means to vulnerable communities particularly in the rural areas. These projects are also aimed at creating sustainable agricultural small-macro-medium enterprises (SMME).

Umthati Training Project Tel: 046 622 4450 University of the Free State (UFS) Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 051 401 2250 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Tel: 051 401 2163

URBAN FARMER Tel/fax: 022 448 1106 Lisa Perold – 082 842 1579 We consult around Food Security in rural communities, and engage in training where invited to do so. Wizzard Worms Tel: 033 413 1837

“Improving water and land Reach Out Vegetable resources management for food, Production livelihoods and the environment” Tel: 072 624 9498 Kalahari Kid Corporation Tel: 011 807 5624/5 (JHB office) Food security training in the Western Cape

Wizzard Worms supplies an innovative, simple system to “Food Garden Management” is a convert vegetable and organic training video available from the waste into products that will UFS. Call 051 401 2557. essentially sustain a vegetable growing operation.

South African New Economics National Agricultural Marketing Network (SANE) Council (NAMC) Tel: 021 762 5933 Tel: 012 341 1115 South African Institute for Find the Quarterly Food Price Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Trends reports on the website Tel: 021 447 2023 North West University Morogo Research Programme The AgriPlanner programme (MRP) contributes to Government’s Tel: 018 299 2319 overall objective of ensuring sustainable food availability for all through schools and communities Strategies to reduce food-insecurity growing food naturally. The in rural settings should acknowledge further development of vegetable Africa’s indigenous food culture gardens builds income generation which is based on the utilisation of capabilities. naturally-occurring food-plants and subsistence cropping of traditional Southern African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN) vegetables. According to the International Fund for Agricultural Development “Connecting people, ideas and (IFAD), household food-security information to fight poverty”. comprises not only food adequacy, but should also comply with nutrient Find details of the South African and safety requirements as well as Social Security Agency cultural preferences. Enquire from (SASSA) in the Importance of the MRP how African vegetables Rural Development chapter or at are nutritionally superior to their Western counterparts. Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Operation Hunger Ecology and Entomology Tel: 011 902 4000/865 5203 Tel 021 808 3728 Operation Hunger concentrates its efforts on “the poorest of the Department of Horticultural Science poor”. Tel 021 808 4900 Planner Bee Plant Care Tel/fax: 011 888 4215 Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 Fertilis earthworm castings is used as a fertiliser for ALL soils and is Sustainability Institute ideal for food gardens. Tel: 021 881 3196

5. International business environment
• Article 25.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of him and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care.” • The first of the Millennium Development Goal is to halve poverty and hunger by 2015.

• – African Union (AU). Twenty of the thirty-one countries in food crisis in May 2009 were in Africa. The AU/NEPAD Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Plan (CAADP) sets out Africa’s plan of action to attain food security. • Africare – • The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) is endorsed by African Heads of State and Government as a vision for the restoration of agricultural growth, food and nutrition security, and rural development in Africa. A specific goal of CAADP is to attain an average annual growth rate of 6 percent in agriculture. To achieve this goal, CAADP directs investment to four mutually reinforcing “pillars”. The third pillar is “increasing food supply, reducing hunger, and improving responses to food emergency crises”. Visit for more information. • The Framework for African Food Security (FAFS) addresses the challenges of CAADP Pillar 3, which specifically targets the chronically food insecure – the people with inadequate access to food or the means to purchase or acquire nutritious food. For more information, contact the Director of the African Centre for Food Security (see heading 4). • Comite Permanent Inter Stat de Lutte Contre la Secheresse au Sahel (Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel - CILSS) – • Visit, website of the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). • Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-NET) – - provides world overviews. Find the food security status reports. • Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) – • Food First Institute for Food & Development Policy – www.foodfirst. org - rejects the “Green revolution”. Read more on their website. • Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping Systems (FIVIMS) – • Fortifying Africa’s Future (FORTAF) – Find practical information on fortifying basic foods (i.e. addressing mineral and vitamin deficiencies) in Africa. • – the Hunger Site is “online activism” • International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) – Reports like


“Agriculture at a Crossroads” are available for sale at com • International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) – – responds to food crises as well as to other disasters. • International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA) – – “Your Global Food System Network” • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – • International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) – Included amongst their publications is Towards Food Sovereignty, a book that looks at the concept of food sovereignty, the growing movement behind it and the transformation necessary to regenerate a network of diverse local food systems. • International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) – www.iisd. org • International Ocean Institute – • The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) – www. – was designed to address the current challenges facing the African continent. • Oxfam GB is a development, relief, and campaigning organisation that works with others to find lasting solutions to poverty and suffering around the world. An Oxfam electronic newsletter is available. Find details on the website. Visit • Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme (RHVP) – www. • ReliefWeb – – is the global hub for time-critical humanitarian information on Complex Emergencies and Natural Disasters. Updated reports on Food Security issues are included. • Southern African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN) – www.sarpn.

• There are regular features on food security (and food prices) at www., website of the World Bank. • The UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) – – feeds 73 million people in 78 countries, less than a tenth of the total number of the world’s undernourished. • Worldwide AgriCultures Network supports efforts to build up knowledge on small-scale family farming. It puts out one global publication and seven regional editions. Visit
A thank-you to the African Centre for Food Security for feedback on the draft chapter


National issues
HIV and Aids
1. Overview
• There were an estimated 5.2 million people living with HIV in South Africa in 2008, according to the National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Communication Survey conducted by the Human Science Research Council from June 2008 to March 2009. The survey says that South Africa’s HIV/Aids epidemic has stabilised and there are signs of a declining prevalence among children and teenagers. It is the third in a series of national population based surveys conducted to help monitor the country’s response as a nation to the HIV/Aids epidemic. • Currently some 700 000 people are on government’s antiretroviral (ARV) programme, and the Medium Term Expenditure Framework provides for an increase to 1.4 million by 2011/12. South Africa is currently implementing the largest ARV treatment programme in the world. • South Africa ranked second in the world in terms of domestic spending on Aids programmes. • Each individual had a responsibility to help achieve the goals of the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for HIV/Aids. South Africans must get involved in the national plan on HIV/Aids by talking openly about the disease and getting tested regularly. • The HIV epidemic is more than a social or humanitarian issue, because it also presents one of the most significant threats to Africa’s ongoing economic growth and development. HIV/Aids affect business and enterprise at every level, from increased absenteeism, reduced productivity through to the loss of knowledge and essential skills. • HIV is everyone’s business. That’s why public-private partnerships have become so central to mounting an effective response to the disease. This epidemic is a priority business issue for many companies and the workplace is a key environment in which to tackle it.
Source: Various Buanews newsletters (find these at; Business Action For Africa report on the Millenium Development Goals (adapted). Visit www.

• Farmers have not yet realised the cost of the pandemic. Training people is expensive and there is a significant impact on productivity. Many farmers still believe that replacement workers keep queuing up around the corner for jobs. • Life in the farms is very cloistered. People live near each other. Lack of awareness and high levels of stigma are problems. One of the most important questions of farm workers is the fear to be fired if tested positive. Another concern is confidentiality, notably related to the stigma. Farm workers don’t want the farmer or their peers to know their status. Before starting awareness sessions for the farm workers in our programmes, the farmer will speak to his workers, indicating his commitment and stipulating his assurance that people will not be fired. By implementing an HIV programme he hopes that his workers are more knowledgeable about the importance of a healthy life style. The stigma, different misconceptions and the fear to die alone if diagnosed with HIV, especially in rural settings, necessitate that a HIV/ Aids policy needs to be built upon trust and confidence amongst all the players/stakeholders. Involvement of all stakeholders in an early stage helps building the necessary team approach.
Source: Gretha Kostwinder. Contact her at 012 343 5117 or visit www.agriaids.

3. The Subsistence Farmer
HIV/Aids accelerates rural impoverishment and the breakdown of extended family relations that have over many years been the foundation of traditional safety-net mechanisms. Subsistence agriculture makes for a hard life, particularly in areas that are badly hit by HIV. Put farming and Aids together, add drought or disease, and you have a diabolical mixture of circumstances. Subsistence farmers typically work in remote areas with poor access to markets and agricultural services. Poverty is widespread. The burden of tending to family members with Aids-related diseases – and the frequent death of these persons – leads to a decline in production among subsistence households, as human and financial resources are invested in taking care of people rather than crops and animals. Lower production, in turn, causes food insecurity that exacerbates the effects of Aids – and heightens the likelihood of HIV exposure and infection. A vicious cycle is set in motion. Because HIV largely affects the population group aged between 15 and 49 years, it is often parents that are lost to the pandemic. As a result, farming skills that would normally be passed from mothers and fathers to their children tend to be lost, with the new generation left ill-equipped to continue with agriculture. Advice to subsistence or small-scale farmers would include: • Grow millet and sorghum. These crops can grow without irrigation – no small matter in an aids-affected household – with little labour or money to spare. • Invest more in the farming of indigenous livestock e.g. Nguni cattle. A local breed that copes better with dry African weather than other breeds and which has greater resistance to ticks and diseases. European breeds need expensive medication and vaccinations, and that they are sometimes unable to survive the South African climate. • Chicken farming, which requires less expertise than cattle breeding, could also prove useful for families struggling to cope with aids. In addition, poultry is a cheap source of the protein that is vital in maintaining the immune system of HIV-positive persons for as long as possible.
Adapted from an article in the Mail & Guardian, 7 June 2005

An important message to the person finding out that they are infected is that continued life is possible (don’t give up!) ARV medication holds out a lifeline, and studies point to the importance of nutrition, basic food safety and attitude.

2. HIV/Aids and the farmer
Farm workers are the most under-serviced labourers in South Africa. Poor access to health care and health related information is partly due to their remote location of work. The high incidence of poverty and low level of education makes the farm worker even more vulnerable to the impact of HIV/Aids. Estimates from the International Labour Organisation suggest that South Africa’s agricultural workforce could decline by more than 15% by 2020 due to HIV/Aids. Gretha Kostwinder, director of AgriAids and former agricultural counsellor at the Dutch embassy, says more can be done on South African farms to tackle HIV/Aids. She makes two observations:


4. National strategy
• Find the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for HIV/Aids and Sexually Transmitted Infections, adopted by Cabinet in 2007, on the websites of roleplayers e.g. and • The Comprehensive Plan for the Treatment, Management and Care of HIV/Aids aims to reduce the rate of new HIV infections by 50 percent by the year 2011. • The Maseru Declaration on HIV/Aids was signed by SADC heads of state in 2003. Department of Health Aids Toll free Helpline: 0800-012322 The National Health Council (NHC) is made up of the Minister of Health, the MECs for Health from all provinces, the South African Local Government A list of the different responsibilities Association (SALGA) and South and contacts at national level, as African Military Health Services. well as contact details for provincial contacts are available on the website. South African Medical Association (Sama) Department of Science and Technology (DST) Tel: 012 843 6300 South African National Aids Council (SANAC) Tel: 012 312 0131 Department of Social Development Tel: 012 312 7500 SANAC officially brings together the government and civil society in the fight against HIV and aids. A Medicines Control Council National Strategic Plan on HIV/Aids (MCC) exists, which should see the halving of new infections by 2011. The MCC co-ordinates grants from the United Nations Global Fund to fight Aids, tuberculosis and malaria. HIV positive people with TB will get ARV medication when their CD4 (indication for the strength of your immune system) is 350 instead of 200 as it used to be. This could save the lives of many people because a weak immune system makes you vulnerable for all kind of illnesses, including TB. The same regime will be applicable for pregnant woman. This change of national policy responds to the needs activists all experience and see on a daily base working with HIV/Aids patients, especially in the rural areas the need for earlier access to treatment and support is obvious. Hopefully it will be applicable to ALL HIV-positive people in the near future with a CD4 count of 350 or less, as it is a worldwide standard.
Source: December 2009 AgriAids newsletter

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Cotlands

Lifesense Disease Management Tel: 0860 506 080 Medical cover for HIV/Aids

National Institute for Communicable Diseases The Philagogo project provides Tel: 011 386 6000 income generating opportunities to home-based care givers in rural areas. Many of these are A division of the National Health grandmothers who use their small Laboratory Service pensions to care for HIV children and grandchildren. There are South African Business Coalition branches in Gauteng, the Western on HIV/Aids (SABCOHA) Cape, the Eastern Cape and in Tel: 011 880 4821 KwaZulu-Natal. e’Pap Tel: 011 726 5634 Good nutrition is of enormous importance to HIV-positive people. e’Pap is more than 29 times more nutritionally dense than refined maize and is packed with 28 micro and macro nutrients. Over 2 million portions of e’Pap are distributed into 12 African countries every month. A toolkit helps a business owner to train “Aids champions” in the company. South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SACCI) Tel: 011 446 3800 Workshops and guidance on implementing HIV/Aids policies

5. Roleplayers
• The UNaids Directory of UN Regional Responses to HIV and aids in Eastern and Southern Africa presents succinct information on the regional work of UN entities which provide technical assistance or other services on HIV and aids in the region. Visit • Find contact details of over 170 organisations when you do an HIV/aids search on ACAT Tel: 033 234 4223 AgriAids Tel: 012 460 3762 Aids Law Project Tel: 011 356 4100 Legal issues regarding HIV/Aids CareCross Involved in programmes at several farms in the Eastern Cape. Centre for HIV/AIDS Networking (HIVAN) Tel: 031 260 3331

South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) Health Professions Council of Tel: 021 938 0826 South Africa (HPCSA) Tel: 012 338 9301 The South African HIV/Aids Research and Innovation Platform International Organisation for (SHARP) is aimed at increasing Migration (IOM) quality products to diagnose HIV/ Tel: 012 342 2789 Aids. The platform will be based and managed at LIFElab, one of the three Biotechnology Regional In particular IOM works with Innovation Centres (BRICs). It sectors that traditionally employs a will be funded by the Department relatively large number of migrant of Science and Techology. A pdf workers including the commercial on SHARP can be downloaded at agriculture sector. Within the sector IOM has: Southern Africa AidsTrust • undertaken behavioural surveillance study among farm workers living and working Find details of country programmes in the South African border on the website. region with Mozambique; • developed on behalf of Southern African HIV SADC Regional Guidelines on Clinicians Society HIV/Aids in the Commercial Tel: 011 341 0162 Agriculture sector; • facilitated and co-ordinated an on-the-ground pilot Southern Africa Trust project aimed at reducing HIV vulnerability amongst farm Tel: 011 318 1012 workers in the Hoedspruit area in the Limpopo Province. Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) Khululeka Tel: 021 447 2593 Tel: 021 633 5287 Provides training, materials and USAid support for pre-schools and care- HIV Prevention Adviser givers across a wide region. USAids through PEPFAR has subsidised NPOs who do HIV testing, and many of these offer Voluntary Details of offices and crisis lines Counseling and Testing (VCT) across the country are available on free-of-charge in the rural areas. the website. Lifeline (HIV/Aids)


Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Numerous clinics and hospitals around the nine provinces do VCT. Lists of these are available on You can also call the National Aids Helpline and ask for the nearest voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) centre. The number is 0800-012-322.

7. Websites and publications
The following Info Paks are available at, website of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Alternatively, contact their Resource Centre at 012 319 7141. • HIV/Aids and nutrition [Eating the right food can help your immune system to fight infection] • HIV/Aids and the farm worker [Basic information on HIV and aids] • HIV/Aids: Caring for people with Aids [Basic guidelines to caring for people with HIV and aids] • HIV/Aids: Know your rights [The rights of a person suffering from HIV and aids] • HIV/Aids: Staying healthy [Basic guidelines on how to stay healthy when you are HIV positive] • HIV/Aids: What women should know [Information for women about HIV and Aids] Find the Training Manual – Operational plan for comprehensive HIV and Aids care, management and treatment for South Africa on the Department of Health’s website. Other HIV/Aids documents are also available here. Visit Have you wondered about how the recession has affected the progress on fighting HIV? Find the June 2009 report The Global Economic Crisis and HIV Prevention and Treatment Programmes: Vulnerabilities and Impact on www. Numerous other reports can also be accessed here e.g. HIV/ Aids, Security and Conflict: New Realities, New Responses – a report on the links between security, conflict, peacebuilding and HIV/Aids. Find the journals at the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society website, Business-specific HIV/Aids prevention plus posters and tool-kits: Health Economics and HIV aids Research Division (HEARD), University of KwaZulu-Natal, 031 260 2592 or The HIV/Aids Emergency – A Guideline for Educators available in four languages (English, Afrikaans, Sesotho, isiXhosa). This is available from the Department of Basic Education. The Invisible Cure: Africa, the West and the Fight against Aids Helen Epstein’s Viking/Penguin Silent Hunger: Policy Options for Effective Responses to the Impact of HIV and Aids on Agricultural and Food Security in the SADC Region is a book based on a study commissioned by the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) on the impact of HIV/Aids in the seven most affected countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It can be found at ‘HIV Prevention: Community Responses to Immediate Drivers of HIV’ is one of the latest publications from Southern African AIDS Trust (SAT) on HIV prevention. Find it at Released in May 2009 is the third in a series of population-based studies on HIV/Aids by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). Find South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2008 amongst the free downloads on – the Maruva Trust works with HIV positive children and adolescents in Zimbabwe. The World Development Reports reveal that most people affected by the HIV/ Aids pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa depend on agriculture, and that up to 26 percent of the agricultural labour force in east and southern Africa be lost within two decades. Find these annual reports at Find the HIV/Aids option at the website of Consultancy Africa Intelligence, • LoveLife – • The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and aids (UNAids) – • World Health Organisation – • The Global Fund to fight aids – and www. • International Aids Society – • The Student Global Aids Campaign –

6. Training and research
Africa Centre for HIV/Aids Management Tel: 021 808 3002/6 Based at Stellenbosch University AgriSETA accredited training providers cover HIV/Aids Awareness. Find their details in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter. An Amnesty International study showed that poor, rural women bear the brunt of South Africa’s HIV pandemic. Visit www.amnesty. org Call the Rain Tel: 021 919 4365 /082 228 7355 Foundation for Professional Development Tel: 012 481 2193 HEARD has developed a toolkit to assist local governments to deal with the challenges of the HIV/Aids pandemic. Find details under the Publications and Websites heading. Medical Research Council National Programme: Infection & Immunity HIV Prevention Research Unit Tel: 021 938 0911 Project Literacy Tel: 012 323 3447 asp Project Literacy operates countrywide. Find contact details on the website. Right to Care Tel: 011 276 8850

Stellenbosch University Bureau for Economic Research The HIV/Aids Clinical Management Tel: 021 887 2810 Course supports the professional growth of physicians, nurses and University of the Free State health care workers. AgriAids and Department of Agricultural FPD work together to provide VCT Economics (Voluntary Counselling and Testing) Tel: 051 401 2250 on farms with mobile units. The Valley Trust Health Economics and HIV/Aids Tel: 031 716 6800 Research Division (HEARD) Tel: 031 260 2592

Other training providers
• Aids Consortium Tel: 011 403 0265 • Education, Training and Counselling Tel: 011 640 7410 www.edutc. • Free to Grow Tel: 021 852 4445 • HIV/aids Workplace Programme Tel: 021 400 2630/021 424 7715 • Imfundo Ngengculaza Nezocanci Tel: 011 673 0263 • Learn Scape Tel: 011 475 4777 • Tilly’s Tavern \ Aids at Work Tel: 011 476 7442 • Wellness in Business Tel: 072 621 5976 What we should say in a campaign about Aids and HIV should be clear and factually based. • You can contract HIV through unprotected sex. • You and your partner should get tested before having sex and this should be very early on in your relationship. HIV has a window period and this means it may not show up on the first test. • You must talk with your partner about sex, condom use and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). • If you are HIV positive there is support for you. Do not feel alone, seek help and medical treatment.
Source: Jennifer Thorpe on


• – the “one-stop web portal” focusing on HIV and Aids in Southern Africa • – “to facilitate networking and referral as key components of the national response to HIV/Aids” • is supported through a global network. Subscribe to their newsletter. • Regional Aids Training Network (RATN) – • – Botswana’s African Comprehensive HIV/Aids Partnership • Children in Distress Network (CINDI), a multi-sectoral network of civil society and government agencies collaborating in the interests of children affected by HIV/Aids in KwaZulu-Natal – • Also helping to support the “ordinary” lives of Aids orphans: www.,, www.noahorphans. and

National issues
Human settlements
See also the Importance of Rural Development and other relevant chapters.

1. Overview
“Human settlements is not just about building houses. It is about transforming our cities and towns and building cohesive, sustainable and caring communities with closer access to work and social amenities, including sports and recreation facilities” President Jacob Zuma There were many reasons for the migration of people to the cities, which began decades ago: • Pull factors included the rush to work on the diamond and gold mines, access to jobs and work opportunities, access to urban facilities, the attraction of the bright lights, to be closer to loved ones. • Landlessness, joblessness, poverty and the imposition of unfair taxes on rural people were push factors. • These have been augmented lately by the global economic meltdown, the local recession and concomitant job losses, and the movement across our border of human beings looking for a better life in this country. The government has, since 1994, provided 2.8 million housing units to 13 million families, and the Human Settlements Department will have had nearly R15 billion to spend in the 2009/2010 financial year, but the problem of informal settlements will be with us for some time. The reality is that these informal settlements are essentially internal economic refugee zones. This situation is a potential human calamity. Delivering on the mandate of human settlements will require a paradigm shift, and a new spirit among all of us.
Source: Minister Tokyo Sexwale, writing in The Star newspaper, August 14, 2009.

8. Stages of HIV infection and disease
It is now recognised that it may take between 7 and 10 years – and possibly longer – for Aids to develop after infection. There are four stages: acute infection, the silent phase, early symptomatic disease, and finally Aids. Details of these stages are available on

9. Nutrition and food safety
No specific food or nutrient can destroy the virus, but a healthy eating pattern and life style will strengthen the immune system. Good nutrition will help you to fight infections and delay the development of full-blown Aids. This will improve well being and prolong life. It seems prudent for all HIV infected individuals to consume an adequate vitamin intake from food, but in those with a poor dietary intake, a multivitamin and mineral supplement should be used. Food hygiene is important in HIV-positive individuals with poor immune function as they are at an increased risk of food poisoning. Special care should be taken with uncooked products such as eggs, fish, meat and milk products. Food Safety Precautions • Wash hands thoroughly before handling or eating food. Avoid raw/ unpasteurised milk. • Meat, fish or chicken should always be well cooked. • Avoid raw eggs in uncooked foods e.g. drinks, mayonnaise, etc. • Discard cracked eggs. • Do not buy prepared salads with chicken, fish, meat, egg or mayonnaise from the supermarket. • Leftover food should be refrigerated as soon as it has cooled. • It should be reheated once and should be hot all the way through. • Wash all fruit and vegetables well. • Store food in a cool, dry place. • Moderate exercise should be encouraged and will assist in the toning or development of muscle.
Source: Marianne E.Visser, Nutrition and Dietetics Unit, University of Cape Town. Our gratitude goes to Gretha Kostwinder of AgriAids for feedback on the draft chapter

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-HABITAT, is the United Nations agency for human settlements. It is mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all (see South Africa has international commitments under Agenda 21 and the Habitat Agenda to meet.

2. National strategy
Department of Human Settlements Tel: 012 421 1311 “Breaking New Ground in Housing Delivery” In terms of section 26 of the Constitution everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing [Section 26(1)]. The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right [Section 26(2)]. The legislation that the Department of housing has promulgated and implemented falls squarely within this Constitutional imperative. Section 2 of the Housing Act, 1997 (Act No. 107 of 1997) compels all three spheres of government to give priority to the needs of the poor in respect of housing development [Section 2(1)(a)].


In addition all three spheres of government must ensure that housing development: • provides as wide a choice of housing and tenure options as is reasonably possible; • is economically, fiscally, socially and financially affordable and sustainable. • is based on integrated development planning; and • is administered in a transparent, accountable and equitable manner, and upholds the practice of good governance [Section 2(1)(c)]. Though its legislation, existing and future, and the Housing Code, the Department of Housing is carrying out its legislative imperative as set out in the Housing Act, 1997. Find Act No. 107 of 1997 and the Housing Code at Also find the subsidy information, documents, delivery statistics, details of housing programmes etc on the website.

Contact details for branches in the Free State, Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal, as well as a list of training providers may be found on CETA’s website. Take the “Training Provider” menu option. Consulting Engineers South Africa Council for the Built Environment Tel: 012 346 3985 CSIR – Built Environment Tel: 012 841 2034

Master Builders South Africa (MBSA) Formerly Building Industries Federation of South Africa (BIFSA) Tel: 011 205 9000 Moladi Tel: 041 372 2152 Low cost housing National Home Builders Registration Council (NHBRC) Tel: 011 317 0000

Also involved:
Department of Co-operative Governance & Traditional Affairs Tel: 012 334 0600 Previous Department of Provincial and Local Government. Contact details of provincial offices are available on the website. Department of Public Works Tel: 012 337 2000 Under “Key Issues” on the South African Government Information website, the following infrastructure programmes are listed: • National Urban Reconstruction and Housing Agency • People’s Housing Partnership Trust • National Home Builders Registration Council • Rural Housing Loan Fund • Social Housing Foundation • National Housing Finance Corporation

3. Roleplayers
AGAMA Energy (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 701 3364 AGAMA Energy delivers green energy services and projects which satisfy the need for more sustainable social and economic development e.g. the supply and installation of insulated ceilings, energy efficient lighting and solar water heating for existing low-income homes in Khayelitsha (a baseline study for a larger project). Agrément South Africa Tel: 012 841 3708 Alternative African Energy Tel: 084 941 3993 Association of South African Quantity Surveyors Bembani Sustainability Training Tel: 011 312 1480/7 Breathecoat Paints Tel: 0861 000 435 Clay Brick Association Tel: 011 805 4206 “Natural tones and textures of the earth” CASIDRA Tel: 021 863 5000

National Housing Finance Corporation (NHFC) The CSIR offers expertise in Tel: 011 644 9800 sustainable human settlements. Find the article “CSIR develops National Urban and improved low-income house” at Reconstruction Agency (NURCHA) Tel: 011 214 8700 Development Action Group Tel: 021 448 7886 Niall Mellon Townships Initiative Enviro Options Tel: 021 426 2540 Tel: 011 762 1624 Planact Tel: 011 403 6291 “Effective sanitation solutions” FinnBUILDER Rural Housing Loan Fund Tel: 011 705 1897 (RHLF) Tel: 011 621 2500/17 Habitat for Humanity Tel: 011 836 0710 SANGONET is the “development information portal for NGOs in A non-profit housing organisation South Africa”. Find the listings of dedicated to the elimination of NGOs at The poverty housing in South Africa report Success at a Price: How and committed to making decent NGO advocacy led to changes in shelter a matter of conscience and South Africa’s People’s Housing Process can be found on the action. website too. Harding Treated Timbers SERVCON Tel: 039 433 1805 Tel: 011 689 1800 Suppliers of building, fencing, Simply Sustainable telephone, transmission and boma Tel: 072 487 1733 poles. CCA and Creosote treated. Housing Development Agency Tel: 021 487 9211 Social Housing Foundation (SHF) Tel: 011 274 6200 The agency is to work with municipalities, private sector developers and provinces to ensure South African Civil Society government reaches its target to Information Service double the current delivery rate of over 250 000 houses to over 500 000 units per year. South African Federation of Independent Development Civil Engineer Contractors Trust (SAFCEC) Tel: 012 845 2000 Tel: 011 409 0900 Jabulani Emvelo Eco Projects Nico Venter – 073 973 4342 Pancho Ndebele – 083 707 3410 South African Institute of Architects

Ecovillage development, alternative Cement and Concrete Institute design and construction. Aluminium Federation of Southern Africa (AFSA) Tel: 011 455 5553 Construction Education & Training Authority (CETA) Tel: 011 265 5900


SPATIUM Environmental Design Louw van Biljon Tel: 058 256 1195 / 082 777 2647

University of the Free State Department of Quantity Surveying and Construction Management Tel: 051 401 3322

For further information refer to: • Straw Bale Construction Basics – and • The International Journal of Straw Bale and Natural Building – www. Earth construction Houses built with traditional earth technologies using indigenous knowledge make up the largest number of houses in the informal housing sector in South Africa. The following materials are looked at on Living roof; Natural Plasters and Finishes; Paper Blocks; Rammed Earth; Recycled Building Materials; Straw Bale Construction; Thatch; Wattle and Daub; Wood; Adobe; Bamboo; Cob; Compressed Earth Blocks; Earthbags; Earthen Floors; Earthships; Hybrid Structures; Light Straw-Clay (Leichtlehm); Hemp and other Fibres. General • Shelter Online illustrates even more imaginative ways to put a roof over one’s head. • – building with Cob. Beyond this Of value would be the inclusion and pursuit of: • • • • passive architecture alternative energy systems ecosanitation waterwise gardening

Housing and ISO 14001 environment Women for Housing management systems are included Tel: 011 275 0268 in his area of expertise. Stellenbosch University Department of Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Prof Michael Samways Tel: 021 808 3728 Sustainable Energy Africa Tel: 021 702 3622 Women for Housing facilitates opportunities for women within the housing sector. They aim to provide women with both the tools and the ongoing support they need to become successful economic participants, decision makers, and housing consumers.


An energy efficient house will help UN-HABITAT you save money, be healthy and safe. The United Nations Human Sustainability Institute Settlements Programme, UNTel: 021 881 3196 HABITAT, is the United Nations agency for human settlements. It is mandated by the UN General A one-week course – Ecological Assembly to promote socially Design for Community Buildings and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of Sustainable Living Centre providing adequate shelter for all. The main documents outlining The “No. 1 site for sustainable the mandate of the organisation are the Vancouver Declaration living info and products” on Human Settlements, Habitat Istanbul Declaration Sustainable Villages Africa (SVA) Agenda, Tel: 012 361 1846 / 072 510 0187 on Human Settlements, the Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Thubelisha Homes – see Social Millennium, and Resolution 56/206 Housing Foundation

Take a look at what is happening in China, Japan, India and elsewhere on The Jabulani Eco Home is a spacious 54 m2, 2-3 bedroom affordable home, with a kitchen, a lounge, a bathroom with a shower and toilet. The house is energy independent, energy efficient and has a low carbon footprint. The Jabulani Eco Homes is manufactured in a factory and delivered to the building site for assembly. Once the foundations have been prepared it will take a day to assembly up to 6 homes. This approach can accelerate the delivery of green affordable homes and has the potential to contribute to the government’s Breaking New Ground housing settlements programme for urban, peri-urban and rural communities. Find contact details for Jabulani Eco Home under heading 3.

4. The case for natural building
• Find the Construction subheading in the Permaculture chapter • is an online data base of more than 1 000 lifecycle-assessed ecological- and health-preferable products, materials and technologies for the built environment. Natural building is any building system which places the highest value on social and environmental sustainability. It assumes the need to minimise the environmental impact of our housing and other building needs while providing healthy, beautiful, comfortable and spiritually-uplifting homes. Natural materials like stone, wood, straw and earth, on the other hand, are not only non-toxic, they are life-enhancing. Clay, one of the most useful natural building materials, is also prized for its ability to absorb toxins and restore health. There is a good feeling we get from natural buildings which is difficult to describe. Even though conditioned to prefer the new, the shiny, and the precise, we respond at a deep level to unprocessed materials, to idiosyncrasy, and to the personal thought and care expressed in craftsmanship.
Source: Adapted from and

Alternative Construction Materials:
Straw bale construction Cape Town architect Etienne Bruwer has pioneered the use of this material in South Africa, using it to build his office in Constantia, Cape Town. Since then a number of projects have been built in the country, including a guesthouse in the Cederberg. Visit for a photo album and project description.


National issues
Labour and job creation
Also find the Legal Aid and Legislation chapter

• Legislation regarding minimum wages and security of tenure has been introduced to protect poor and illiterate individuals from being exploited. Unfortunately these measures are also unintended disincentives for hiring permanent workers and accommodating them on farms in terms of housing. The number of seasonal workers has increased at the expense of permanent positions. • The average number of farm labourers per farming unit is 20, according to the latest Census of Commercial Agriculture (2007). Although this is an increase from 1993, there are fewer farming units. Farming units have grown in size and mechanisation has increased. To be able to survive economically in a highly competitive environment, farm management must be of the highest order. This includes the need to manage the labour force professionally and with the necessary sensitivity. A farmer is often employer, human resource manager, social worker and even mentor – all roles originating from a close relationship and involvement in the lives of labourers and their families. As dairy farmer Steve Roberts has written (see heading 4), when we focus exclusively on the share price (and our own bottom line), we don’t value people, which means we don’t value much.
Sources: Adapted from AgriReview 2nd quarter 2009, 2nd and 3rd quarters 2008 (find these at; Mr Lourie Bosman, previous Agri SA President; Steve Roberts in the article “Corporate greed inflates food prices, not minimum wages” at

1. Overview
The first of the ten Strategic Priorities of the Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF), the framework to guide government’s programme in the electoral mandate period (2009 – 2014), is “Speeding up growth and transforming the economy to create decent work and sustainable livelihoods”. The government has taken various steps to support the economy emerge from the recession. These include sustaining public spending and government employment programmes; helping state-owned enterprises to increase their investments; bolstering municipal capital spending through development finance institutions; maintaining expansionary fiscal and monetary policies for only as long as necessary and reinforcing the social-security net. Yet the country’s biggest challenge remains job creation, and the Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan is on record as saying that if the country does not find a way to resolve this problem, there will be “catastrophic implications for social stability and future growth.” Only 42 percent of the population between the 15 and 64-years-old are in some form of employment. In the former homelands only 30 percent of adults have jobs. This compares unfavourably with fellow emerging economies, Brazil and China, where about two thirds of the adult population have work. The country’s labour absorption rate is also lower than Ghana, South Korea, Brazil, China and India.
Source: Buanews 27 October 2009

3. Roleplayers
Companies involved
Afriklok Tel: 012 654 5804 Labour-Related Software Agri Mega Empowerment Solutions (AgriMES) Tel 028 424 2890 / 028 425 2524 The Donish Group Tel: 032 945 3368 Essential First Aid Kits Donkerhoek Data Tel: 021 874 1047 Payroll software

Perspectives Jobs provide self-respect, independence and fulfilment. Productive work is the bedrock of democracy and human development. South Africa needs jobs: it needs them more urgently than ever, and it needs them in the kind of numbers we have never created before.
From the report “Five million jobs: how to add five million jobs to the South African economy over the next five years”. Find it on the Centre for Development and Enterprise website,

Studies conducted show that on average every worker in South Africa supports a minimum of five dependents on their meagre wages. This means every time a single worker losses a job, five or more persons who are plunged into crises of poverty, loses their dignity and a sense of belonging. Social cohesion of communities in the process is destroyed.
Source: Joint statement by Zwelimzima Vavi and Bobby Godsell, Co-Chairs of the Millennium Labour Council, on preserving current jobs and avoiding retrenchments (08/12/2009)

Services to organised agriculture Maxi Control and commodity organisations. Tel: 021 762 7576 BEE. Accredited Training. Labour services. “Labour productivity systems” ALCO-Safe Tel: 012 342 1020/3/4 NOSA Tel: 012 683 0200 BANBRIC BUILDING Cell. 072 242 9129 A global supplier of occupational risk management services and products, NOSA has offices Labour compounds countrywide. DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Payroll software Plan-A-Head Software Tel: 033 342 7888 Payroll software

2. Labour in agriculture
Difficult farming conditions and the absence of subsidies have led the farmer to weigh every worker’s productivity carefully. • Producer prices in the agricultural sector have not kept pace with farming requisites. • Commercial agriculture has become more concentrated, and the increased use of technology has led to reduced employment opportunities. These changes were necessary for farmers to remain competitive and profitable in the global environment.

Legal aid
See the legal aid chapter

Agricultural Employers Organisation (AEO) Tel: 0861 10 18 28


The AEO was founded in 1990 as a non-profit labour organisation and represents some 5 000 farmers, as well as employers of all other sectors, countrywide. It offers specialised benefits and services to all employers of South Africa, but specifically to agricultural employers.

Training and research
Agricultural Employers Organisation (AEO) – details above AstroTech Tel: 0861 ASTROT (0861 278768) Training in labour legislation COIDAtrain Tel: 012 333 7880 The HSRC also has offices in Cape Town and Durban. Research areas include labour markets and social policy, employment monitoring and employment-orientated industry studies

The Food and Alied Workers’ Union (FAWU) is a section 21 company (non-profit organisation) registered at the Department of Labour. It is also an affiliate of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU).

National Economic Development & Labour Council (NEDLAC) Tel: 011 328 4200

University of the Free State Department of Agricultural Economics Training for businesses in CIODA Tel: 051 401 2250 (Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 Urban-Econ of 1993). Tel: 031 202 9673 Human Science Research Council (HSRC) Tel: 012 302 2000 The courses presented by companies like Protea Training Centre (on your premises) include training in labour relations for your supervisors. Call 021 948 1275 / 082 670 1636 or write to
Take a look at the Agricultural Education and Training chapter for a full list of training providers.

At Nedlac, Government comes together with organised business, FAWU organises workers in organised labour and organised all sectors of the food industry, community groupings on a national level to reach consensus on issues including the fishing, beverage, of social and economic policy. tobacco and hotel and catering industries. Subsequent to its merger NUFBWSAW – National Union with the South African Agriculture, Food Beverage Wine Spirits Plantation and Allied Workers’ and Allied Workers Union Union (SAAPAWU), it also recruits in the primary agriculture sector Parliamentary Monitoring amongst farm workers and workers Group (PMG) in the forest industry. Tel: 021 465 8885 Federation of Trade Unions of South Africa (FEDUSA) SAFATU – South African Food Tel: 011 279 1800 and Allied Trade Union Solidarity Together with NACTU they form Tel: 0861 25 24 23 SACOTU International Labour Organisation (ILO) International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC-Africa) South African Confederation of Trade Unions (SACOTU) is a confederation consisting of FEDUSA and NACTU South African Farm Workers Association (SAFWA) Tel: 084 739 4401

Unions, business and government roleplayers
Find details for all government departments at

The South African government is to extend its Expanded Public Works programme fourfold in the next five years, spending R4 billion (US$440 million) to create 4.5 million job opportunities by 2014. If successful, this will give work to roughly 10% of the country’s population. The EPWP uses public funds to boost job creation and skills development. It puts the unemployed to work on labour-intensive public projects such as road building, thereby not only providing them with short-term jobs but also helping them learn the skills they need for more permanent employment.
Source: new report on 8 April 2009

Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) Tel: 011 784 8000 BUSA brings together the Black Business Council (BBC), and Business South Africa (BSA). The members of the BBC and BSA are all founder members of BUSA. Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA) Tel: 0861 16 16 16

Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) Tel: 011 339 4911 Fax: 011 339 5080/6940 Department of Labour (DoL) Tel: 012 309 4262 The Food and Alied Workers’ Union (FAWU) Tel: 021 637 9040 / 4 Fax: 021 637 6164

Millenium Labour Council (MLC) South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) A body set up in 2 000 to Tel: 011 484 8300 analyse and tackle the causes of unemployment. South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) National Council of Trade Unions (NACTU) Tel: 011 833 1040-3 Contact details for provincial and district offices can be found on the Together with FEDUSA they form website. the SACOTU Sugar Manufacturing and Refining Employment National Education Health Association & Allied Workers Union Tel: 031 508 7300 (NEHAWU) Tel: 011 833 2902 Towards the Elimination of Child Labour (TECL) National Bargaining Council for Tel: 012 431 8829/7/6 the Sugar Manufacturing and Refining Industry United Association of South Tel: 031 508 7331/2 Africa trade union (UASA) Tel: 0861 00 8272

4. Publications
See also the legal aid chapter • The Farmworker magazine, published by Agri Promo, is a magazine for the farm worker community. Contact 028 424 2890 / 028 425 2524 or visit


• If you produce for export, you will need to be familiar with the GlobalGAP Risk-Assessment on Social Practices (GRASP) checklist. These involve the conditions of labour on the farm. Find these at www. • Google for “Arbeid” (labour) on, the electronic arm of the Afrikaans agricultural weekly Landbouweekblad. • Find the article “Corporate greed inflates food prices, not minimum wages”, an archived article by dairy farmer Steve Roberts on www. • Find World of Work Report 2009: The Global Jobs Crisis and Beyond on, website of the International Labour Organisation. • The Standard Bank publication Finance and Farmers speaks of a “new agriculture” emerging where farmers, as opposed to being productionorientated (as in the past), need to produce what the market demands. It speaks of the need to know more about the global picture and consumer preferences, developing marketing intelligence, financial management etc. One of the issues where a new perspective is called for is labour. “Old agriculture” saw labour as a cost, and equipment as an investment; “New agriculture” sees labour as an investment and equipment as a cost. • For updates on the Census of Commercial Agriculture 2007, visit www. • Statistics can be found at, website of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Look under “Publications”. Included are: Number of farm employees and domestic servants on farms; Employment in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing. • Agricultural Workers and their Contribution to Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development. Written by Peter Hurst in collaboration with Paola Termine and Marilee Karl. Produced by the FAO, ILO and IUF. Illuminating book on farm workers available Going for broke: The fate of farm workers in arid South Africa is published by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). The book is on sale at R260.00 or can be accessed on the Internet at The book offers a comprehensive overview on the fate of farm workers. It goes back to the early Cape history of the master-servant relationship to a discussion of the professionalisation of farm workers, which has gained momentum over some time. Chapters are devoted to important issues like the extension of labour laws to farm workers and the introduction of a minimum wage, life on the farm, service delivery in the rural areas and concludes with the question “A journey to somewhere?” The book is a most useful source of information and offers wellconsidered opinions on a number of issues and deserves a place on all farmers’ bookshelves. Trade unions and NGO’s will certainly also benefit from reading the book.
Source: Kobus Kleynhans, Agri SA

Application for financial assistance for electrification of worker houses • This is for Eskom customers extending an existing supply point, or making a new supply point to supply electricity to worker house. Eskom will assist financially by paying an incentive towards the costs of electrification for each worker house electrified. Find details of Eskom branches in the Energy chapter, or visit Agricultural Villages (Agri Villages) • The development of agri-villages is a partnership between the farmer, the farm worker and the state. It is pointed to in the government’s LARP document (the Land and Agrarian Reform Project – find it on under the “Key Programmes” menu option) and in Agri SA’s proposals regarding permanent off-farm housing and economic opportunities for farm workers. • The economic, financial and political context of the agricultural sector will determine what government and farmers are able to invest in the development of agri-villages. An agri-village is considered a private settlement of restricted size, established and managed by a legal institution situated within and/or near an agricultural area and where residence is restricted to bona fide farm workers and their dependants on the farms involved in the development. Under these arrangements, security of tenure does not include right of ownership, but can include trust, communal property association or sectional title. Housing subsidies • The institutional subsidy under the Department of Housing can help to raise the standard of farm worker housing. Details of housing subsidies can be found on the Department of Housing’s website www.housing. - look for the “Subsidy Info” menu option. • The Government Gazette of 8 January 2009 published amendments to the Income Tax Act, allowing for better tax deduction on farmworker housing.Find out more from your bookkeeper or from Mr Johan Pienaar at Agri SA. • Find out about the Settlement and Production Land Acquisitions Grant (SPLAG). This grant is worth R111 125 per individual, and aims to help farm dwellers and workers own their own homes. Government buys houses or land and provides the beneficiaries with the title deeds. • Other programmes like the People’s Housing Project (PHP) also offer financial support. Find the story “Farm workers get roofs over their heads” on in which 118 houses had been transferred to farm workers. Farmer Carl Henning of Mununzwu Newco helped the Limpopo Department of Local Government and Housing to build the houses. Sixty people were employed during the construction at a cost of R4 million to the department. Deducting housing from a farm worker’s salary Legally this can be done when the farm worker’s house meets the following requirements (and not before): • the house has a roof that is durable and waterproof; • the house has glass windows that can be opened; • electricity is available inside the house if the infrastructure exists on the farm; • safe water is available inside the house or in close proximity, which is not more than 100m, from the house; • a flush toilet or pit latrine is available in, or in close proximity, to the house; and • the house is not less than 30 square meters in size.

5. Staff training
Read about the AgriSETA involvement in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter or at In accordance with laid-down rules, they will fund certain training. Learnerships offer you, the employer, certain tax breaks – and a labour force which is more skilled. Also find details of the AgriSETA accredited training providers in the chapter, as well as some notes on Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET).

6. Farm worker housing
Read about the Extension of Security of Tenure Act [ESTA] in the Land Reform chapter, and also under the last heading in the Legal Aid chapter. Housing for farm workers is an integral part of many farming operations in South Africa, farmers usually providing on-farm housing for their workers. This housing is part of the terms of the employment contract. The housing ranges from mud huts to conventional brick houses. Housing is often overcrowded and unhygienic, and services (electricity, running water) poor

7. Labour-related legal legislation
Consult the separate legal chapter for a full list of roleplayers, including groups which provide legal aid for farm workers and farm dwellers. Labour Acts • Occupational Health & Safety Act (1993) • Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act (No. 130 of 1993) • Labour Relations Act (No. 66 of 1995 and No. 42 of 1996) • Unemployment Insurance Act (1996) • Basic Conditions of Employment Act (No. 75 of 1997) • Employment Equity Act (No. 55 of 1998) • Skills Development Act (No. 97 of 1998)


Land Acts • Land Reform Act (No. 3 of 1996) • Extension of Security of Tenure Act (ESTA) (No. 62 of 1997) • Prevention of Illegal Eviction and Unlawful Occupation of Land Act (PIE) (No. 19 of 1998) The Agricultural Employers’ Organisation conducts short courses for you, the employer, on what the law expects of you. Find details on their website – – or contact them at 0861 101 828. The courses presented by companies like Protea Training Centre (on your premises) include training in the Occupational Health & Safety Act (1993). Call 021 948 1275 / 082 670 1636 or write to protea@kingsley.

(Find out about Prior Learning Assessments from AgriSETA in which a worker can receive recognition for what he already knows). In the same way, if people have been trained for First-aid, they should be certified. Other areas of non-compliance include failure to pay minimum wages, not issuing payslips, making deductions for accommodation, failure to record workers’ particulars properly and failing to pay overtime work on Sundays. Farmers who do not comply with the Act are given notices and after 21 days inspectors return to check for compliance. Generally speaking, the Department of Labour has found farmers to be very co-operative in the matter of inspections. Find the Checklist for Inspections form on (take the documents menu option) Health and safety issues in the South African agricultural sector are becoming increasingly important, following an international trend that focuses on this field. The health and safety of workers is also important in terms of compliance with labour law and for the prevention of occupational injuries. Measures to improve health and safety on site include enforcing workers to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), for example: • hard hats to be worn by all persons within 10 m of areas where lifting or hoisting equipment is being used, or where head injury is possible; • protective gloves to be worn by all persons engaging in handling of heavy or sharp edged materials, welding or gas cutting activities, and handling of corrosive chemicals; • safety boots to be worn by all persons in the active working area; and • safety goggles to be worn when operating equipment under dusty conditions, when cutting, welding or grinding, and when handling hazardous chemicals. Effective use of signage also contributes to compliance with health and safety standards and should be easily visible to all active working areas. Signage should be diagrammatic in nature, so that its meaning is easily understood by people of different education levels / home languages. Signs can be used for a number of different purposes, such as: • to designate specific areas for specific uses e.g. chemical storage area, vehicle parking area, fire escape routes; • to indicate requirements of specific areas e.g. hard hats / gloves / goggles required; • to indicate danger e.g. presence of corrosive materials, overhead danger or slippery surfaces; and • to indicate restrictions e.g. no smoking, no use of cell phones, no eating or drinking. Effective health and safety on site also requires the designation of responsible persons for a specific task, e.g. fire marshal in charge of a fire evacuation exercise. In this way, management of specific events can be controlled more efficiently.
Source: Janet Edmonds Consulting. Call 082 828 7953.

8. Skeleton of Sectoral Determination 13: Farm Worker Sector
Find the notes on this, set out in a user-friendly manner, at (take the documents menu option). Find a Contract of Employment too. This is part of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 1997, and it deals specifically with Farm Workers in all farming activities in the Republic of South Africa. It is available on Every employer on whom this sectoral determination is binding must keep a copy of the sectoral determination or a summary, available in the workplace in a place to which the farm worker has access. Minimum wages for farm workers 1 March 2009 to 28 1 March 2010 to 28 1 March 2011 to 29 February 2010 February 2011 February 2011 Hourly rate (R) 6.31 Hourly rate (R) Previous year’s wage + CPIX + 1% Previous year’s wage + CPIX + 1% Hourly rate (R) Previous year’s wage + CPIX + 1% Previous year’s wage + CPIX + 1%

Weekly rate (R)


Weekly rate (R)

Weekly rate (R)

Monthly 1231.70 rate (R)

Monthly Previous rate (R) year’s wage + CPIX + 1%

Monthly Previous rate (R) year’s wage + CPIX + 1%

Find the reference to SASSA under heading 3. Farm workers are eligible for social grants from the government e.g. child support and disability. Most workers work on either formal or informal farms and earn less than R1 500 a month. Their low wages automatically qualify them for government assistance.

9. Inspections: Occupational Health and Safety Act
• It is important for farmers to maintain certain standards with regard to labour regulations – not only to protect farm workers, but also themselves. • Where the risk cannot be removed, it certainly can be minimised. • Occupational safety and the use of child labour on farms are very much the focus of the labour world, not only in South Africa, but also Internationally through the International Labour Organisation. Farmers should take particular care in this regard. Specific concerns in the past have been around administration, safety regulations and training. Although farmers spend substantial time on on-thejob training for their workers, there is a general lack of formal training. Farm workers should be able to obtain formal certificates. Farm workers often illegally work with electricity without having the necessary qualifications.

10. The Unemployment Insurance Fund (UIF)
What is the Unemployment Insurance Fund? The UIF has been established to provide short-term relief to workers, subject to certain conditions, when they become unemployed, or are unable to work because of illness, maternity leave and also to provide relief to the dependants of deceased contributors. How is the money obtained to operate the Fund and pay benefits? The Fund is being financed through the monthly contributions of employers of workers. Government is the underwriter of the Fund and is expected to provide financial assistance to meet shortfalls experienced during times of high unemployment.


Should all workers contribute to the UIF? The following categories of workers are excluded from contributing to the Fund: • workers who work less than 24 hours a month; • Public Servants as defined under Section 1 (1) of the Public Servants Act, 1994; • workers in receipt of a monthly State Social Pension (old age) pension, but excluding a disability or maintenance grant; • a worker who enters into an employment contract with an employer for the sole purpose of entering a learner ship agreement as contemplated in Section 18 (2) of the Skills development Act of 1998; • people who enter the Republic of South Africa for the purpose of carrying out a Contract of Service, Apprenticeship or Learner ship within the Republic if upon termination thereof the employer is required by law or by the Contract of Service, Apprenticeship or Learner ship, or by any other agreement or undertaking, to repatriate that person, or that person is so required to the leave the Republic, and his/her employer; • workers who are remunerated solely on a commission basis. Do you have to contribute to the Fund if you earn a high salary? Yes, all workers, except those mentioned under point 3.3 above must contribute to the Fund. The Fund on an annual basis sets maximum earnings levels for contributions. All those workers who earn above the maximum level will only contribute up to the maximum and when they become unemployed will then receive benefits at the rate of their income. This means that every worker, from the lowest level to the company director, must contribute to the Fund. Must all employers contribute to the fund? All employers who employ any person and in return provide them with remuneration in either cash or in kind must register with the Fund as soon as they commence activities as an employer. It is the responsibility of the employer to register the business and make the necessary deductions from the remuneration of the workers. If the employer fails to do this there are severe penalties that will be applied in terms of the Unemployment Insurance Contributions Act, 2002. If any employer refuse to register with the Fund and does not want to make the deductions, workers are advised to contact the nearest office of the Labour Department. Employers are urged to comply with the provisions of the Act, as the Fund provides relief to their ex-workers who are left with limited means or no means of support due to their services being terminated. What is regarded as remuneration? All monies received from the employer, whether in cash or in kind. This includes overtime and bonuses and contributions must be based on this. In addition, all allowances that are received are regarded as remuneration e.g. entertainment allowances, food and accommodation allowances. More information on remuneration can be found in the EMP10 guidelines for employers obtainable from the South African Revenue Services (SARS). How much should be contributed to the Fund? A worker should contribute 1% of his/her monthly remuneration. In addition to the 1% that is paid by the worker, the employer also contributes 1% in respect of each worker in his/her employment. The total contribution that is paid is therefore 2%. For instance, if a worker earns R1000 per month, the employer must deduct 1% of the R 1000 which is R10. In addition, the employer must pay R10 in respect of the worker who is in his/her employment. The total of R20 must therefore be forwarded to the UIF or SARS whichever is applicable. Contributions must be deducted for the current month only and the employer is not allowed to deduct more than one month’s contributions. If the employer failed in the past to deduct monthly contributions, then 2% for arrear contributions is due by the employer and the worker is not suppose to contribute.
Source: Agricultural Employers Organisation. Call 0861 10 18 28

11. Occupational Injuries
Important Notice:
Please note that a certified copy of an employee’s identity document was required as from 1 January 2004 in order to register a claim with the Compensation Fund. If a copy of the identity document is not submitted the claim will not be registered but will be returned to you to attach a certified copy of the employee’s identity document. Furthermore, all supporting documentation sent to this office must reflect the identity number as well. If it is not reflected the documents will not be processed but will be returned to the sender to add the ID number. All persons, who employ one or more persons in connection with their business or farming activities, are required to register and to pay annual assessments to the Compensation Fund. These amounts may not be recovered from employees. A separate registration is necessary for each separate branch of a business unless an arrangement for combined registration has been made.

Who is an employee? Any person who has entered into a contract of service with an employer. The service contract can be in writing, expressed or implied and applies to temporary, permanent and under aged workers and is defined in section 1 of the Act. This Act is not applicable to domestic employees employed as such in a private household. Who is an employer? Any person including the State, who employs an employee. What is an Occupational Injury (ACCIDENT) It is an occurrence of which a date, time and place can be determined that arises out of and in the course of an employee’s employment and resulting in personal injury. Which Occupational Injuries (ACCIDENTS) must be reported? All occupational injuries or alleged occupational injuries that entail medical expenses and/or absence from work for more than three days must be reported within seven days in the prescribed manner. The delay to report an accident or alleged accident is a criminal offence. The Commissioner may also impose a penalty on the employer which could be the full amount of the claim. Procedure when reporting an Occupational Injury (ACCIDENT): • Step 1: Complete “PART A” of form W.Cl.2 “Employer’s report of an Occupational Injury”, sign it and provide date where indicated. • Step 2: Detach “PART B” where perforated and forward it without delay to the doctor or hospital concerned. In minor cases, “PART B” must accompany the employee. • Step 3: Complete “PART A”, page 2, in full. • Step 4: Forward the completed form W.Cl.2 “PART A”, pages 1 and 2 without delay to: Compensation Commissioner PO Box 955 Pretoria 0001 The employer is liable for the payment of compensation for the first three months from the date of the occupational injury. The compensation paid by the employer shall be reimbursed by the Commissioner.


National issues
Land reform
See also the Importance of Rural Development, Emerging Farmer Support, Black Economic Empowerment, and Agricultural Land Valuation chapters

Land reform cannot benefit the country if poor people have to buy land on the open market without assistance. To achieve this, government assists the needy to purchase and develop land and provides services. Government acknowledges the need to maintain public confidence in the land market while redistributing land to the poor. The redistribution programme has depended largely on transactions between willing buyers and willing sellers. People who qualify for the land redistribution programme include: • labour tenants • women • farm workers • emerging farmers • the urban and rural landless poor

1. Overview
In 1994, the new democratic Government of South Africa inherited a racially highly skewed land distribution: whites owned 87 and blacks 13 percent of agricultural land. Undoing the legacy of apartheid’s unequal land distribution and ensuring the continued productive use of agricultural land transferred to Black ownership is a national priority. The third priority of the Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) is “Comprehensive rural development strategy linked to land and agrarian reform and food security”. It is an imperative that the pace of land reform be accelerated and the sustainability of individual emerging farming enterprises dramatically improved.

The Redistribution Programme has different components or subprogrammes, namely: • Agricultural development – to make land available to people for agricultural purposes; • Settlement – to provide people with land for settlement purposes; • Non-agricultural enterprises – to provide people with land for enterprises such as eco-tourism projects.

Land Tenure
Land tenure describes the way in which people own or occupy land. In South Africa, registered ownership is more secure than other ways of holding land. Apartheid laws made it impossible for black people to get registered ownership rights, or any other rights to land in most parts of the country. This created a severe land shortage for black people and many people established homes in areas where they had no legal rights. Tenure reform must: • resolve problems of insecurity, inequality and lawlessness; • remove development bottlenecks; • resolve tenure disputes, overlapping tenure rights and conflicting claims; • balance systems of group rights with individual rights; • give all rights holders under communal ownership systems, including women, adequate representation in decision-making processes; • put in place an adequate system of land administration to support individual and communal land tenure; • provide for law enforcement agencies to intervene in land rights’ disputes in order to be flexible and allow for change and adaptation. Fundamental Principles of Land Tenure Reform The property clause in the Constitution also applies to tenure reform. This states: a person or community whose tenure of land is legally insecure as the result of past racially discriminatory laws or practices is entitled, to the extent provided by an Act of Parliament, either to tenure which is legally secure, or to comparable redress. Who qualifies for tenure reform? All people who hold land under forms of tenure that do not give them the same level of security as registered ownership, in particular this includes: • farm workers • labour tenants • people living in informal settlements
More information is available at Find updates (e.g. the anticipated Green Paper on land reform) here and on other roleplayer websites.

2. The three Land Reform programmes
The three comprehensive and far-reaching land reform programmes are: • Land Restitution • Land Redistribution • Tenure Reform

Land Restitution
Parliament passed The Restitution of Land Rights Act, No. 22 of 1994, to restore or compensate people for land rights they lost because of socially discriminatory laws passed since 19 June 1913. Restitution can mean restoring the land itself or providing alternative land or monetary compensation or other relief. The form restitution takes depends on the circumstances of each claim. Alternative compensation applies if the claimant prefers it, or if it is no longer feasible to restore the actual land. The claimants are always involved in negotiating the settlement. Individuals, communities or their descendants who lost land rights due to racially discriminatory laws or practices on or after 19 June, 1913 qualify for restitution in terms of the Act. Examples of racially discriminatory laws include the Native Land Act of 1913, the Native Administration Act of 1927, the Development Trust and Land Act of 1936, the Asiatic Land Tenure Act of 1946, the Group Areas Acts of 1950 and 1966, the Rural Coloured Areas Act of 1963 and the Community Development Act of 1966.

Land Redistribution
The purpose of the land redistribution programme is to provide the poor with access to land for residential and productive use to improve their livelihoods.


Extension of Security of Tenure Act, no 62 of 1997 – better known as ESTA ESTA aims to realise the following objectives: • Protect people who live on rural or peri-urban land with the permission of the owner or person in charge of that land. The ESTA gives them a secure legal right to live on and use the land. • Protect the owners by spelling out the responsibilities of occupiers. • Stabilise and improve relationships between owners and occupiers by creating fair procedures for evictions. • Create procedures for occupiers to attain land ownership through the assistance of owners and government. Communal Land Rights Act (CLARA), no 11 of 2004 Included in CLARA’s aims are: • to provide for legal security of tenure by transferring communal land, including KwaZulu-Natal Ingonyama land, to communities, or by awarding comparable redress; • to provide for the conduct of a land rights enquiry to determine the transition from old order rights to new order rights; • to provide for the democratic administration of communal land by communities; • to provide for Land Rights Boards; • to provide for the co-operative performance of municipal functions on communal land.

Other programmes include: • Proactive Land Acquisition Strategy (Plas) – the thinking here is for it to be state driven (as opposed to beneficiary driven). The state targets land, acquires it and matches it with the demand/need for land. Black people are the beneficiaries, and while PLAS is pro-poor, it also caters for emergent and commercial farmers. Land is leased from the state. • The Settlement and Implementation Support (SIS) Strategy places land and agrarian reform at the centre of local government, ensuring that all projects are located in the Integrated Development Plans, in the Local Economic Development Plans and in the Provincial Growth Development Strategies.

5. Department of Rural Development and Land Reform
“Vibrant, Equitable and Sustainable Rural Communities” Tel: 012 312 8911 Chief Land Claims Commissioner Tel: 012 312 9244 The postal and physical addresses of all offices – national, provincial and district – are available on the website. REGION OFFICE Pretoria East London CONTACT DETAILS Tel: 012 310 6500 Fax: 012 328 3127 Tel: 043 743 4689 Tel: 043 743 3824 Fax: 043 743 4786 Tel: 041 363 7888 Fax: 041 363 8588 Tel: 047 532 5959 Fax: 047 532 5968 Tel: 045 839 2296 Fax: 045 838 6066 Tel: 051 400 4200 Fax: 051 430 2392 Tel: 051 400 4270 Fax: 051 430 2392 Tel: 058 303 3021 Fax: 058 303 3055 Tel: 057 357 1734 Fax: 057 357 1806 Tel: 033 355 4300 Fax: 033 394 3753 Tel: 036 631 2741 Fax: 036 638 9406 Tel: 039 682 2295 Fax: 039 682 0004 Tel: 035 789 1035 Fax: 035 789 1092 Tel: 034 980 9469 Fax: 034 980 9454 Tel: 053 927 4128 Fax: 053 927 4174 Tel: 053 831 4090 Fax: 053 831 4095 Tel: 013 755 3499 Fax: 013 755 3529 Tel: 013 752 2064/9 Fax: 013 752 2079

3. Commonages
Municipalities throughout the country are empowered to set aside land they own for the pasturage of stock and for the purposes of establishing garden allotments. A municipality may make by-laws to regulate and control the use and protection of commonage land and the kinds of stock which may be depastured, restrict the number of stock per householder, restrict or prohibit the use of certain of the council’s lands for pasturage, and prescribe appropriate charges for use of lands. Municipal legislation both empowers local authorities to act as agents of development and ensures that management is devolved to the lowest possible level. The municipality as the land holding entity is not a topdown, absentee landlord, but a key agent of local economic development. Ongoing demand for commonage, and the relatively few step up cases from commonage into LRAD projects indicate that there is substantial demand for land for non-commercial purposes. These include the safety net purposes of fuel collection, income supplementing through running stock, depasturing stock for sale for weddings and funerals, holding stock for sons’ bridewealth, and vegetable production for food security and additional income. Noncommercial purposes does not mean non-economic. A commonage is critical for relieving poverty, particularly in areas where there are no other livelihood options. For all of these reasons it is important that commonage be considered, not as a nursery for commercial farming and freehold tenure, but as a form of tenure and resource for production in its own right. Municipal commonage is clearly not the mainspring for addressing major inequities in land holding in South Africa, but it has a critical and dynamic role to play in any land tenure system in South Africa. Adapted from Evaluating land and agrarian reform in South Africa: municipal commonage, by Megan Anderson and Kobus Pienaar of PLAAS. The full paper can be found on

Gauteng Eastern Cape

District Office District Office District Office Free State District Office District Office District Office KwaZuluNatal District Office District Office District Office District Office Northern Cape District Office Mpumalanga District Office

Port Elizabeth Umtata Queenstown Bloemfontein Bloemfontein Bethlehem Welkom Pietermaritzburg Ladysmith Port Shepstone Richard’s Bay Vryheid Vryburg Kimberley Nelspruit Nelspruit

4. Sub-programmes
Find notes on Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD), Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP) and the Land and Agrarian Reform Project (LARP) on



District Office District Office North West District Office District Office Limpopo

Ermelo Witbank Mmabatho Klerksdorp Brits Polokwane

Tel: 017 819 1373 Fax: 017 819 3566 Tel: 013 656 0848 Fax: 013 656 0375 Tel: 018 392 1070 Fax: 018 384 1485 Tel: 018 462 9341 Fax: 018 462 9083 Tel: 012 252 3505 Fax: 012 252 4100 Tel: 015 297 3539 Tel: 015 287 0800 Fax: 015 297 4988 Tel: 021 426 2947/30 Fax: 021 426 2702 Tel: 044 874 1839 Fax: 044 874 1878 Tel: 023 342 0107 Fax: 023 342 0202

As a first step it is important to deal efficiently with land reform to ensure rural stability and market certainty. The process of economic empowerment in South African agriculture starts with improved access to land and the vesting of secure tenure rights in people and to areas where these do not exist. To deal effectively with land reform, it is important that all avenues of land access such as restitution, redistribution and tenure reform be given adequate attention. These processes will include, but are not to become the focus of this strategic sector plan, land uses for non-agricultural purposes such as housing, etc. All possible options to secure rapid and sustainable land reform will be pursued. This will entail the disposal of publicly-owned agricultural land as the first area to focus attention. These will be complemented by measures such as equity sharing schemes, contract farming, rental farming, tenure reform in communal areas and private land acquisition. Because the majority of the rural poor live and farm on communal land, issues of tenure security have to be urgently addressed. It is critical to provide improved incentives and investment opportunities in these areas. And because this is a sensitive matter, a process of continuous engagement with traditional authorities to ensure the success of this process will be undertaken. This will be accompanied by the rehabilitation of irrigation schemes in the former homeland areas and the transfer of their management and ownership to qualified farmers and communities. Although land reform is the critical point of departure in ensuring broadbased participation in the agricultural mainstream, a number of support services need to be addressed simultaneously to ensure that the process of access and empowerment is successful and sustainable.
Source: The Strategic Plan

Western Cape District Office District Office

Cape Town George Worcester

Communication Officers
National: Pulane Molefe Western Cape: Franz Zottl Sandile Nene Gauteng: Vuyani Nkasayi North West: Popie Mongae KwaZulu-Natal: Thokozani Sokhela Nokuthokoza Ndlela Mpumalanga: Zithini Dlamini Limpopo Province: Motlatsi Lebea Avhashoni Magada Eastern Cape: Ncumisa Sikunyane Kholekile “TK” Sonjica Free State: Percy Raseobi Northern Cape: Eddie Nkomazana Tel: 012 312 8452 Tel: 021 426 2930 ext 221 Tel: 021 426 2947 Tel: 012 310 6500 Tel: 018 384 9607 Tel: 033 342 6955 Tel: 033 355 4300 / 8400 Tel: 013 755 8100 Tel: 015 287 0200 Tel: 015 297 3539 Tel: 043 743 3824 Tel: 043 743 0407 Tel: 051 400 4200 Tel: 051 403 0700 / 053 831 4090

7. Roleplayers
AGRI LAND GROUP Tel: 012 345 3911 Fax: 012 345 3949 AGRI LAND GROUP consists of the following companies: ALPRO, ALPROP and ALPIX. It assists emerging farmers in preparation of documentation in support of Government Funding programmes as well as accessing private sector finance. Its services are: • Land Reform Process Management • Professional Property Valuation Reports and Arbitration Services • Agricultural Risk Analysis Reports – Interventions and affirmations • Agricultural Development Project and Business Plans • Comprehensive Benchmarked Agricultural Land Guideline Values Nationally • Agricultural Risk Analysis and Valuation Methodology workshop facilitation and Training Agri Land Group is the “preferred supplier and specialist advisory service to the National African Farmers Union – NAFU – on accelerated land reform”. Research is done on Accelerated Land Restitution and Development practices. Agri SA Tel: 012 643 3400 Although Agri SA is fully aware of the need for rapid progress with land reform, the organisation’s view has always been that land reform should be economically viable and that the resource and production should not be adversely affected in the process. It is critical that administrative and bureaucratic bottlenecks that delay processes be eliminated and that new farmers be supported adequately to enable them to farm successfully on a sustainable basis. The Chairman of the Land Affairs Committee is Dr Theo de Jager, while Annelize Crosby is the Agri SA Land Policy Advisor. Agri-Africa Tel: 021 886 6826 / 082 950 9294 Consulting in agribusiness, financial and technical farm management; agricultural marketing; agricultural development; project design and management.

Details of Regional Land Claims Commissioners can be found at www.

6. Relevant Directorate within the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)
Find contact details and information on the different directorates at www.


AgriSETA and AgriSETA accredited providers are involved in post-settlement programmes. Contact Sello Khoza at 012 301 5619. Also consult the Agricultural Education and Training chapter. Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA) Tel: 033 345 7607 Association for Community Rural Advancement Tel: 053 712 0791/2/3 Border Rural Committee Tel: 043 742 0173

Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 In 2007, the DBSA and The Commission on Restitution of Land Rights (CRLR) signed a five-year Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that will see the two parties working together to provide support to land restitution projects and their beneficiaries. Free State Rural Development Association Tel: 051 448 4628

National African Farmers Union of South Africa (NAFU SA) Mr NJ Gondo (President) Tel: 082 672 2484 Nkuzi Development Association Tel: 015 297 6972/4 Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) Tel: 021 959 3961/ 3733 The Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) is a research and teaching unit located at the University of the Western Cape.

SADC Regional Land Reform Technical Support Facility (SRLRTSF) Tel: +267 3951863 Southern Cape Land Committee Tel: 044 803 9900 Surplus People’s Project (SPP) Tel: 021 448 5605 Transkei Land Service Organisation (TRALSO) Tel: 047 531 2851/2

A land rights service NGO. FSRDA focuses on institutional building CASIDRA activities and provided services to Tel: 044 871 0134 communities through community development work, legal, paralegal Implements rural development and land reform projects. planning and implementation with Institute for Justice and a specific focus on land reform and Reconciliation SMME support services. Tel: 021 763 7138 Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE) Khula Enterprise Finance Tel: 011 482 5140 Tel: 012 394 5560 Find the Land Reform menu Regional office contacts can be option. found on the website and in the Centre for Rural Legal Studies co-operatives chapter. Tel: 021 883 8032 Land Access Movement of SA (LAMOSA) The CRLS promotes land and Tel: 011 833 1063 labour interests of men and women Fax: 011 834 8385 farmworkers in the Western, Fax to email: 086 516 4936 Eastern and Northern Cape of South Africa through Training, Information The Land Research Action Network dissemination, research, advocacy, (LRAN) is a network of researchers legal intervention and development and social movements committed facilitation. Research projects to the promotion and advancement are linked to general projects, of the fundamental rights of and results are incorporated into individuals and communities to training packages and advocacy land, and to equitable access to the work. For research publications resources necessary for life with available, see the heading 9. human dignity.

TAU SA Tel: 012 804 8031 Other universities, like the University of KwaZulu-Natal, also do research into the Land Reform Read more in the Organised Agriculture chapter. process. Resource Consulting Services (SA) Tel: 058 622 1499 Projects include the “integration of commercial and emerging or developing commercial farm enterprises reflecting the objectives of land reform”. SA Agri Academy Tel: 021 880 1276 TRAC North West Province Tel: 018 381 6802 TRAC Mpumalanga Province Tel: 013 755 4324 Mentorship and development geared University of the Free State Lengua Agricultural Centre Tel: 051 443 8859

Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Eighty percent of its core business Tel: 051 401 2163 is focused on the commercialisation of the new SME farmer sector (as beneficiaries of the LRAD Department of Quantity Surveying programme) as new entrants to and Construction Management Tel: 051 401 2250 the agricultural sector. Other organisations include Biowatch, BAWSI, the Development Action Group, the Landless People’s Movement, Ndabeni Community Property Trust, Olive People’s Trust, Restoration Farmers, SACADO, Trust for Community Outreach and Education, and the Women on Farms Project.


Sources of finance
See also the Development Financial Services chapter AGRI LAND GROUP assists emerging farmers in preparation of documentation in support of Government Funding programmes as well as accessing private sector finance. Find their details on page 93. Commercial Banks assist clients to access funds. Find out about finance available under LRAD. Call 012 319 7020 or consult your nearest Land Affairs or Agricultural Provincial offices. The Land Reform Credit Facility at KHULA Toll free help line: 0800 11 8815 Fax: 011 315 7436 Khula is a wholesale facility, wholesaling funds to commercial banks and other high credit-rated institutions at preferential rates for on-lending to Land Reform projects. LRCF funds are made available to the commercial banks and other high credit rated institutions on the submissions of a viable business plan. Target Group: The previously disadvantaged farm workers, neighbouring communities and emerging farmers to acquire land through mortgage finance and control of land based productive assets through equity share schemes. Requirements/criteria: For accessing the LRCF, the project /applicant has to first submit their business plan to the commercial bank of their choice which will evaluate the applications viability, using their own criteria and only when the bank is satisfied, will the application be passed on to the LRCF to assess whether or not the application meets the basic empowerment and Land Reform criteria. Once the bank and the LRCF have approved a loan application from any project, the land reform beneficiaries on that project automatically qualify for a grant to finance the organisational development and capacity building of the new shareholder partners in the enterprise. This grant is called the Community Facilitation and Support Fund. The grant can be accessed by LRCF funded projects only. Enables meaningful participation of historically disadvantaged individuals and communities in high value agricultural, agro processing and eco-tourism enterprises. Find out about finance available under Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD) and the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP). European Union and other countries some times fund land reform e.g. the Belgian government donated €7.5 million (R83.6 million) to further land reform in South Africa in 2008. US Aid Tel: 012 452 2246 In the agriculture sector, USAID has programs that are working to increase Black ownership of assets.

8. Deeds registration
See the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform website – www. – or the Agricultural Land Valuation chapter for contact details of the provincial Deeds Offices

9. Websites and publications
Numerous publications, policy documents etc are available at www. Find the “Land reform” option at Find the relevant publications and documents on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries too – e.g. Land redistribution for Agricultural Development, available in isiZulu, Afrikaans, Tshivenda, English and isiXhosa. The following are available from the AGRI LAND GROUP (contact details on page 93): • • • • Land Reform Process Management Training Manual Agricultural Valuation Methodology Training Manual Agricultural Finance Training Manual Technology Applications Training Manual

The Centre for Rural Legal Studies has discussion papers, briefing papers, conference proceedings, and research publications. Call 021 883 8032/3 or visit Details of PLAAS publications are available on Several publications, notably Policy Briefs and Research Reports are downloadable. The websites of the roleplayers (see heading 7) make for good reading.
Our thanks to Nelson Mafulo (Department of Rural Development and Land Reform) for feedback on the draft chapter


National issues
People with Disabilities
1. Overview
Today, South Africa must rate as one of the most equity and diversity conscious countries in the world. Within this local universe must exist every conceivable variation and reflection of a larger world including race, interrace, gender, culture, nationality, language, religion, sexual orientation, class, political affiliation and status. It is in this context that we need to identify and examine one of the largest yet remarkably invisible components of this demographic soup – disability. With perhaps the exception of HIV/Aids, Disability is unique in that it can, and does, cut across every variable in humanity – socio-economic, political, cultural, racial, gender etc – without exception. The fight for disability rights is just the request of one human to another that his or her humanity be acknowledged beyond the mask of the disability. If we remain blind to disabled people by refusing them access to our workplaces and shopping malls, we will never get to see or acknowledge the human behind the disability. Who then is more blind, the one who refuses to see, or the one who cannot see but wishes to be seen?

Several other mechanisms have been used with differing degrees of success to integrate people with disabilities, principally: • The Employment Equity Act • The Skills Development Act • The Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act • The Labour Relations Act • The Integrated National Disability Strategy (white paper) • The National Building Regulations In 2009, the Minister in the Presidency launched the “South African Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”. It is an inescapable fact that much more needs to be done in the area of integrating people with disabilities into the mainstream economy and society. Find the full discussion on Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) as a precursor to a National Disability Empowerment Strategy in the National BEE Handbook.

3. Roleplayers
Further directories and contact lists of suppliers and service providers are available from these organisations. DeafSA, by way of example, provides contact lists for educational facilties, research, sign language classes and interpreting services, videos and tv programmes, tours, clubs, schools, sports, clinics, churches etc. The South African Disability Alliance (SADA) is made up from the following roleplayers: the QuadPara Association of South Africa (QASA), the National Council for People with Physical Disabilities in South Africa (NCPPDSA), Cheshire Homes, National Council for People with Cerebral Palsy, Deaf Federation of South Africa, Disabled Children’s Action Group (DICAG), Down Syndrome South Africa, Autism SA, South African Federation for Mental Health (SAFMH), Epilepsy SA, South African National Council for the Blind (SANCB), Disabled People South Africa (DPSA) and Deafblind South Africa. Find their details below (affiliates are marked with a ‡): Amasondo Investments (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 767 0348 E Cape – 041 457 1466 Free State – 051 448 1868 KwaZulu-Natal – 031 309 2012/3 Mpumalanga – 013 243 1186 Gauteng – 011 331 8509 This is an empowerment North West – 018 381 4796 company established to engage in business ventures in the context Limpopo – 015 297 0231 of Broad Based Black Economic Association for People with Empowerment. Amasondo Disabilities (APD) Investments provides persons with disabilities who have the skill and integrity to serve on the boards of entities and companies it invests in. Address enquiries to Ari Seirlis at Pretoria – 012 328 6447 QASA. Port Elizabeth – 041 484 5426 East London – 043 722 1811 Age-in-Action (formerly the SA Bloemfontein – 051 444 2883/4 Council for the Aged) Pietermaritzburg – 031 403 7041 Tel: 021 426 4240 Polokwane – 015 291 1787 Nelspruit – 013 741 4767 Kimberley – 053 833 3315 W Cape – 021 423 0204/5 Rustenburg – 014 533 0593 N Cape – 053 831 1830

2. The Disability Struggle
“Everyone on earth lives with a disability ... Those living with a physical or mental disability we treat with rejection. In this way we seek to distance ourselves from our own hidden disabilities. One day we will understand that we all have disabilities and then we will not reject each other. In accepting each other we will find a deeper healing of our disabilities than any medical or counselling intervention could provide”. Michael Stuart The United Nations Convention on the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was ratified by 20 countries in 2008. The disabled have arrived on the world stage in terms of being recognised not only as victims of discrimination and abuse, but as independent members of the citizenry of the world, entitled to equal rights and dignity. This kind of thinking shows marked shifts away from traditional welfare approaches so typical of earlier days, where a person with a disability was seen as a victim who needed to be supported and “helped” in a patronising manner that was itself disabling. This shift was already demonstrated in 1991 with the promulgation of the Americans with Disabilities Act, followed by the UK’s and Australia’s Disability Discrimination Act in 1995. Since then many countries have attempted a variety of Disability specific, anti-discrimination legislation. It is significant that since then there has been an undeniable change in attitude in many parts of the world towards the rights of people with disabilities, demonstrated largely, but not limited to, improved physical access to an increasing ranges of facilities. South Africa attempted to influence all future legislation with the breadth and scope of its new Constitution in 1996. It has to be said that to this day our Constitution is still one of only a hand full that actually acknowledge Disability by name.


Autism South Africa ‡ Tel: 011 484 9909 Cheshire Homes ‡ Tel: 021 685 6169 Fax: 021 685 6066 / 086 565 1677 Deaf South Africa ‡ Tel: 023 342 0757 Fax: 023 342 0088 Deaf Federation of South Africa (DEAFSA) ‡ Tel: 011 482 1610 Gauteng – 011 333 9661/3 Mpumalanga – 013 656 1996 Limpopo – 015 291 5248 E Cape – 043 761 4636 W Cape – 021 683 4665/6 N Cape – 054 332 2605 North West – 018 581 3480 Free State – 051 447 4705 KwaZulu-Natal – 031 201 2261 Department of Higher Education and Training The National Skills Development Strategy aims to deliver learnerships and other skills programmes along an equitable demographic distribution, with a target of 4% for people with disabilities. Department of Women, Children and Persons with Disabilities Tel: 012 300 5575 / 16 Tel: 021 464 2203 Disability Empowerment Concerns (DEC) Trust

East London – 043 743 1579 Welkom – 057 353 3091 Johannesburg – 011 331 1190 Durban – 031 701 2951 Nelspruit – 013 794 1711 Mafikeng – 018 381 5054 Polokwane – 015 291 5326 Disability Solutions Tel: 021 872 1101 Down Syndrome South Africa (DSSA) ‡ Tel: 0861 369 672 Eco-Access Tel: 011 477 3676 Eco-Access focuses on using the environment in their work with visually impaired people, in terms of sensitisation, leadership courses, food gardens at schools, hydroponic gardens, etc. Epilepsy South Africa ‡ Tel: 021 447 3014 W Cape – 021 703 9420 Karoo – 044 382 2155 North East – 013 254 0161 KwaZulu-Natal – 033 394 1041 Gauteng – 011 816 2040 Free State & North West – 056 811 5959 Tel: 076 193 9868

National Council for People with Cerebral Palsy ‡ Tel: 011 726 8040

Skills for Africa Tel: 012 379 4920

An online database of disabled workseekers’ CVs that are matched to vacancies that are uploaded The objectives of DEC are: by employers and recruitment • to develop a sustainable source agencies. of income for the underlying beneficiary organisations (from BEE), in order to assist in Interface funding the work programmes W Cape – 021 854 7758 in human rights, welfare and KwaZulu-Natal – 031 708 1785 development conducted by Gauteng – 011 432 4481 the organisations in favour of people with disabilities. Living Link • to promote the employment Tel: 011 447 7183 of people with disabilities. Disabled People South Africa (DPSA) ‡ Living Link works towards the Tel: 021 422 0357 economic inclusion and social justice for people with intellectual impairments.

National Council for People with Disabilities in South Africa An AgriSETA-accredited training provider (NCPPDSA) ‡ Tel: 011 762 8040 South Africa Federation for Mental Health (SAFMH) ‡ Tel: 011 781 1852 Oasis Association Fax: 011 326 0625 Tel: 021 671 2698 South African Human Rights Runs the Claremont Bakery for Commission (SAHRC) people with intellectual disabilities Tel: 011 484 8300 Occupational Therapy The SAHRC has a unit which Association of South Africa monitors the human rights of (OTASA) people living with disabilities. Tel: 012 362 5457 SA National Council for the The Office on the Status of Blind (SANCB) ‡ Disabled Persons (OSDP) – find Tel: 012 452 3811 the earlier listing of the Department of Women, Children and People SANCB is the umbrella organisation, with Disabilities comprising 104 organisations of and for the blind across all provinces. It Progression offers a range of services, details of Tel: 011 606 3035 which can be found on the website. There are self-help groups, coProgression offers consulting ordinated through their Skills services, which afford people Development division. There with disabilities the opportunity is also a Community Based to be successfully integrated into Rehabilitation (CBR) programme the workplace. Simultaneously, which facilitates the empowerment they partner with businesses to of blind and partially sighted plan, implement and shape a total persons. Depending on the needs disability equity management and interests of the group, this can capability with a view to impacting range from rehabilitation, group formation, entrepreneurial training on a business’s bottom line. (such as bead work, food gardens, QuadPara Association of South detergent making and bee keeping). Africa (QASA) ‡ Tel: 031 767 0348 South African Spine Society Tel: 021 910 3322 E Cape – 041 364 2271 Thabo Mbeki Development Free State – 051 874 2905 Trust for Disabled People Gauteng North – 012 329 2572 (TMDT) Gauteng South – 011 782 7511 Tel: 011 726 4481 KwaZulu-Natal – 031 702 2723 North West – 018 468 8303 N Cape – 071 277 5169 W Cape – 021 975 6078

4. Research
What is the National Accessibility Portal (NAP)? The National Accessibility Portal (NAP) is a five-year research & development project aimed at addressing the marginalisation of people with disabilities from the mainstream economy and society. The project was conceptualised and developed by the CSIR in partnership with a representative group of Disabled Persons’ Organisations (DPOs) and the Office on the Status of Disabled Persons (OSDP) in the Presidency.


NAP will be a one-stop information, services and communications channel that will support everyone involved in the disability field – persons with disabilities, caregivers, the medical profession, and those offering services in this domain. Read more at

National issues
Safety and security
1. Overview
Crime destroys value, destroys lives and leaves deep scars. We all know this, and many of us have the experience of it. Fear can lead to a siege mentality and a negative spiral that goes nowhere creative. Advice given in many quarters is not to be fearful but to be security conscious and aware (see heading 7 for examples of security tips). There are some who go beyond this, who ask how we can expect there to be less crime when our society is characterised by almost 40% unemployment and a vast wealth gap between the “haves” and the “have-nots”. These 40 % are marginalised as they have little real hope of a job and a meaningful life. They have no skills or value to the economy and they are unlikely to get them in a hurry. Some farmers have involved themselves in assisting with skills development, education, small business development, access to land and equipment, access to markets and ownership opportunities. And some of them were doing this before AgriBEE, which encourages farmers to do this, came along. These are the farmers who are a positive force in the community and who are probably doing the most to deal with crime at its roots.

5. International roleplayers
Working with its 182 member States, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) seeks to ensure that labour standards are respected in practice as well as principle. Key ILO instruments relating to the right to decent work of persons with disabilities and prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability include: ILO Convention No. 159 on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), 1983, and its accompanying Recommendation No. 168. Convention No. 159 has been ratified by 80 countries (as at June 2008). Visit The United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is a significant international instrument adopted in 2006 which, together with ILO Convention No. 159 and other international, regional and national initiatives, will contribute to improving the living conditions and status of people with disabilities around the world today and in years to come. Article 27 on Work and Employment will promote opportunities for persons with disabilities to gain a living through decent work in the labour market. The CRPD entered into force on 3 May 2008 and, as with Convention No. 159, is legally binding on ratifying countries. For more information on ILO Convention No. 159 and Recommendation No. 168, visit For additional information on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities visit disabilities.

2. Roleplayers
AfriForum Community Safety: Nantes Kelder Tel: 012 644 4409 Agri SA Agri Securitas: Kobus Visser Tel: 012 663 9935 – see the Agri Securitas menu option Agri SA and its members are committed to South Africa and subscribe to the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Agri SA would like to see a stable rural environment where everybody enjoys quality of life and where there are economic opportunities for all. Therefore it encourages and equips its members to respect human rights and has on various occasions condemned human rights violations in rural areas. identify the projects that are to be financed. The overall objective of the Trust Fund is to contribute to the protection of rural areas and to improve the alertness of the rural community by: • financing approved projects initiated at grassroots level in the interests of the relevant community so that such community can improve its own safety in the process; • providing information to promote own alertness and the protection of homesteads; • making contibutions towards approved trust funds created to assist financially those children who are orphaned as a result of a farm attack; and • making contributions towards Agri Securitas Trauma Scheme premiums in order to assist members of Agri SA to make financial provision for medical expenses incurred after farm attack or accident.

Visit the following international websites:
• The website is a portal to disabled groupings worldwide. Some of these are Disabled People International – www.; Pan African Federation of the Disabled (PAFOD) – http:// ; Danish Council of Organisations of Disabled People – • Healthlink Worldwide – • Disability Knowledge and Research (KAR) – • Inclusion International – • Swedish Organisations of Disabled Persons International Aid Association (SHIA) (find the weblink on • Certain overseas development agencies are involved in the empowerment of the disabled e.g. The United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), Overseas Development Group (managed by the University of East Anglia in the UK) etc. • The World Health Organisation devised new guidelines (the ICF – International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) – • The European Disability Forum – • Centre for Accessible Environments – • World Federation of the Deaf –

The persistently high incidents of farm murders and attacks, has meant that the security of the farming community is one of the The list of approved projects and highest priorities of Agri SA. some notes on each can be found Members of Agri SA serve on on various levels in the rural protection plan from where operations are Business Against Crime (BAC) Tel: 011 883 0717 planned and carried out.

A team of expert agricultural, Provincial contact details, statistics business and public leaders manages and reports can be found on their the Agri Securitas Fund. They website


Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation Tel: 011 403 5650 Tel: 021 447 3661 Conserv Security Tel: 011 957 0048 Crime Line SMS to 32211 Your anonymous crime tip-off line CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security Tel: 012 841 2297 / 4487 Institute for Security Studies Tel: 012 346 9500/2

South African Intruder Detection Services Association (SAIDSA) Tel: 011 845 4870 South African National Security Employers Association (SANSEA) Tel: 011 498 7468 South African Police Services (SAPS) Emergency Tel: 10111 Crime Stop Tel: 08600 10111 National Firearms Call Centre Tel: 012 353 6111

3. National strategy
Priority 6 of the Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF), the “framework to guide government’s programme in the electoral mandate period (2009 – 2014), is “Intensify the fight against crime and corruption”. Safety and security leads to increased confidence in the economy and social structures, and so this priority helps government achieve success with many of the other ten priorities listed.

Farm security features regularly in the Strategic Plan for Agriculture – a document arrived at by the then National Department of Agriculture, Agri SA and NAFU SA. The Plan sets out the following critical issues which are to receive priority attention in the short and medium term: • Formation of a National Peace and Security Forum drawing members from all key rural stakeholders—to complement existing initiatives in combating rural violence, crime, social suspicion and tension that dominates rural areas and to promote good working conditions, good neighbourly relations and greater confidence within the different communities. • Revitalisation of the criminal justice system and support structures of the system to be seen and experienced as a deterrent to crime. • The staffing of the SAPS and SANDF as well as the part-time forces with adequately trained and experienced police and defence force personnel to enhance the capabilities of these forces to combat criminal activities in the country, especially in the rural areas. • Specific human and financial reserves to be dedicated to the SAPS and SANDF to enable the security forces to execute their mandate in terms of crime prevention and the implementation of the rural safety plan. These funds will be prioritised and allocated to be used in operations and activities to combat farm attacks and rural crime. • The strategic importance of the National Operational Co-ordinating Committee (NOCOC) Priority Committee, as co-ordinating structure of all role-players in the rural protection plan, will be reinforced by the necessary human and financial resources to enable it to implement the rural protection plan and to coordinate activities between role-players and Government. The Implementation of the safety and security strategy to bring rural stability and confidence is prioritised in the Plan. Linked to this is the fasttracking of land redistribution for agricultural development.
Details for the Department of Correctional Services, Department of Justice and all government departments can be found on

TAU SA Formerly Transvaal Agricultural Union Tel: 012 804 8031 National Firearms Education and Training Institute Tel: 031 301 0220 TAU SA has developed a security policy to support members, their Policing Association of South families and neighbours to create Africa (POLSA) a safe environment which will Tel: 012 429 6808 promote economic agricultural practices. Where possible, coPrivate Security Industry operation with the authorities Regulatory Authority (PSIRA) is recommended, but it is also Tel: 012 337 5510 /20 /30 realised that mutual support in rural areas can do much to ensure SASSETA (Safety and Security the safety of life and property. Education and Training Authority) TAU SA conducts training for Tel: 086 110 2477 members during which defence, legal matters, first aid and fire fighting receive priority Secretariat for Safety & attention and these aspects are Security integrated to ensure a practical Tel: 012 393 2500 protection plan. This provides government with civilian policy management capacity, independent of the vested and occupational interest of the Police Service. Security Association of South Africa (SASA) Tel: 031 764 6681 Solidarity Tel: 012 644 4300 Their website has a menu option which provides statistics of farm attacks and stock theft and more. The strategic objectives of this organisation may also be found here. University of Johannesburg (RAU) Centre for the Study of Economic Crime (CENSEC) Tel: 011 489 2134

4. Companies involved
Armour Systems & Projects Tel: 011 447 9220 Big Brother CCTV Tel: 011 788 7750

Leigh Matthews Stress and Trauma Centre In September 2009 the names of Tel: 011 226 2200 victims of farm attacks were read out on Solidariteit Radio. The UNISA broadcast took eight hours. College of Law School of Criminal Justice South African Human Rights Department of Security Risk Council (SAHRC) Management Tel: 011 484 8300 Tel: 011 471 2054 Details of SAHRC regional offices are on the website.

Bullet resistant conversions to Infra-red sensitive cameras etc bakkies CrisisOnCall Beka Tel: 012 335 3776 Tel: 011 238 0000 A 24-hour countrywide call-centre to deal with any crisis. One feature Floodlights, emergency lighting and is the trip monitoring service which other luminaries. Contact details of provides total peace of mind to branches nationwide can be found farmers and their families when on the website. travelling back to their farms. CrisisOnCall contributes on a Bernhard Agencies monthly base to the Agri Securitas Tel: 011 802 1783 Trust Fund and thus contributes to the safety of people in the country. Application forms can They provide night-vision be downloaded on the Agri SA equipment e.g. binoculars. website:


CSS & KSS Security Tel: 018 468 8506/ 056 213 3295 Various security equipment including Cellsecure - where you may automate and regulate your security by means of your cell phone e.g. any breach of security sends an SMSs to (up to) five numbers. Defence Concepts Tel: 011 444 0830

Nemtek Tel: 011 462 8283 Electric Fencing Products ROBOGUARD Tel: 018 297 1488 Find the “Farm security systems” menu option on the website. SecuCell Tel: 016 982 4393

6. Security tips
A number of safety tips have been passed on to farmers. Some of these, particularly over firearms, are contradictory. The ones offered here are more a suggestion, a checklist; and many of you would be able to add tips of your own to this list. Read over this to see how safety-aware you are.

Attitude & Routine
• Be alert at all times. • Vary your routine. This applies especially after doing a cash withdrawal in town: this should never be done on a predictable basis. If you have two entrances to your farm, you have the advantage. • Make a habit of not going to sleep immediately after switching off the lights. Stay awake for a while. Dogs • Farmers should keep well-trained dogs on the premises, with some kept inside the house at night. • Pay attention to their behaviour e.g. if they become inexplicably sick, or if their behaviour is different upon your return to the house (if they are fearful or bark at a particular place). • On which part of the yard do they spend most of their time? The other side might well deserve some attention as it makes you vulnerable.

Reinforcing windows: protection from forced entry, natural disaster, “Early warning security systems” bullet resistant etc Waters Firearms Competency HOTSURE Assessment and Training Tel: 0861 265 537 Centre (FCATC) Fax: 086 640 5744 Tel: 011 955 2451 / 082 920 5090 Training is offered through a Safety first. Whether it be your own countrywide network of centres. life, the life of your family, workers and animals. Don’t take safety for Xpanda granted. Don’t gamble with risk, Helpline 0861 972 632 leave nothing to chance. Install a house alarm monitoring system, track your vehicles, monitor your Branches countrywide animals and assets. Employ best farming practice. Limit your risk by acting pro-actively.

• Be wary of strangers who wish to buy livestock, certainly if you do not sell livestock as a rule. Or they may be “looking for work”, or making enquiries about somebody who is in your employ.

• Keys should be carefully controlled to prevent their duplication. Remove all keys from all vehicles when not in use. Be aware if keys disappear or re-appear without explanation.


5. Websites and publications
See the websites mentioned elsewhere in this chapter.

• – lists the names of victims of farm attack • Security Focus – the official magazine of the Security Industry of Southern Africa. The online version, as well as other security publications may be found at • – the SA Human Rights Commission website. A copy of their report on farms and farm attacks may be found here. • – South African Police Services. The “Crime Prevention” option takes you “Farm Attacks”. •, a Primedia initiative which had led to the arrest of nearly 900 criminals by December 2009. Tip-offs can also be smsed to 32211. • – the “FAQ” option takes you to questions relating to firearm licences. • – website of the Department of Correctional Services. • – Department of Justice • The Open Society Foundation for South Africa (OSF) – – has a Criminal Justice Programme. • – IFSEC South Africa’s Securex is South Africa’s “largest security event”. National Directory on Services for Victims of Violence and Crime contains the information of more than 1500 organisations and government services in all nine provinces. The directory can be used as a quick resource to access specialised services for victims, court preparation and support, protection and investigation services, social services centres as well as shelters and crisis centres. It can be accessed at the national department of Social Development (DSD) as well as at all non-governmental organisations working with the department. Visit for contact details. Perpetrators of farm attacks: An Offender Profile, D Mistry & J Dhlamini, 2001. Institute for Security Studies. Oorwin Plaasaanvalle, Lukas Swart. Order it at

• Good relations and communication with farm workers is crucial. • Know every person, who his/her family is, where they come from. • Depending on your relations with them, they could be included in a farm watch system. Certainly they should be encouraged to be alert on security matters and to report anything unusual – alien motor cars, strangers on the farm etc. Reward your workers for useful hints and information. • Have copies of your workers’ identity documents. • Be aware of unusual behaviour and activity on their part especially if you have just hired or retrenched somebody e.g. if they vacate their posts without any reason.


• As far as possible, avoid keeping large sums of money on the premises.

National issues
See the separate chapters on Water Storage, Boreholes and Windmills, Irrigation, and Waste Management

• Always have a cellphone as an alternative to your landline. • Cellphones should have the telephone numbers of the police and farm watch keyed in for easy access during an emergency. • Test your telephones, sirens and alarm systems regularly.

• An electric perimeter fence is a good idea. Failing that, a four-foot fence to keep the dogs around the house. • Have security chains on the doors, and peepholes to see who is at the door. • Don’t sleep in a place where you are visible from the outside. Security gates should be installed at the sleeping quarters inside the house as well as outside. (It goes without saying that you should have burglarproofing and an effective alarm system). • Don’t go outside at night to investigate noises. Call the police or farm watch. • Erect a fence, rather than a wall, around the house, to ensure better visibility. • Have a first aid kit; know what is in it. • Have a torch or two handy, preferably in a strategic place in the house.

1. Overview
South Africa is semi-arid, with the climate varying from desert and semidesert in the west to sub-humid along the eastern coastal area, with an average rainfall of about 450 mm per year, well below the world average of about 860 mm per year. Evaporation is high and as a result, South Africa’s water resources are, in global terms, scarce and extremely limited. Water resources in South Africa are comprised of the following three sources in the order of magnitude: surface water (77%), return flows (14%) and groundwater (9%). The following table presents the water resource allocations per water user group: Water user/sector Agriculture Domestic Urban Rural Industrial Afforestation Mining Power generation Proportion of allocation 62% 27% 23% 4% 3,5% 3,5% 2,5% 2%

Communication & Social
• Have an emergency plan and practice it with your family so that each one of them know what to do. • Let your family know what your movements are. • Liaise with your local police station or agricultural union on what the law allows you to do. • Be attentive when you hear conversations of unusual events. • Encourage a safety consciousness amongst your colleagues.

Farm Layout
• Don’t plant trees or shrubs near gates. These are hiding places for perpetrators. • Be aware of gates that are closed when they ought to be open.
Sources: Perpetrators of farm attacks: An Offender Profile, D Mistry & JDhlamini, 2001;; and Kobus Visser (Agri SA).

Source: Water for Growth and Development (WfGD) Framework, 2009

• The agricultural sector is the largest water user in the country, consuming some 62% of the entire available water resources (do we need to point out to the reader that this contributes to jobs, rural welfare and the country’s food security?) The challenge is to achieve a higher output with the same or less water. It is essential to enhance the productivity of water, and thereby improve the competitiveness of domestic agriculture in the global economy. Agriculture is also facing increasing competition for water resources from domestic and industrial users. • The quality of our water is a national issue. Water use behaviours which have a detrimental effect on our water resources include industrial and mining pollutants and poor maintenance of waste water treatment works. Farmers’ export markets are threatened, and the price water tariffs increase owing to the costs of the treatment systems required to make increasingly toxic water fit for human consumption. • The necessity for water makes it a human security issue. Water-centred knowledge and consciousness are vital. Water Conservation and Demand Management (WCDM) should be high on our agenda.

2. Associations involved
Agricultural Business Chamber Tel: 012 349 1315 / 082 441 2308 Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Tel: 011 486 1102

Find the “Energy & Resources” menu option on the website. The EWT runs the Healthy Rivers Programme.


Environmental Monitoring Group (EMG) Tel: 021 448 2881

purification and distribution of water for domestic, institutional, agricultural and industrial, commercial and other use. Most of them are members of the SAAWU Their aim is to strengthen the – the South African Association of degree of participation, ownership Water Utilities. and responsibility of organisations and communities in the Water Institute of South Africa management of their environment. (WISA) Their focus is on relationships Tel: 011 805 3537 – between individuals, groups and government – particularly where these relationships impact the natural environment. The Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) is a voluntary The Mvula Trust non-profit association of 2 300 Tel: 011 403 3425 members comprising water sector professionals, interested parties, companies, government The largest NGO supporting water departments, educational & and sanitation development in research institutions, local South Africa authorities and associated organisations. National Water Forum (NWF) TAU SA (Louis Meintjies) WISA aims to “build expertise, Tel: 012 804 8031 share knowledge & improve quality CSIR (Dr Paul Oberholser) of life” by providing platforms for Tel: 012 841 3957 / 477 the promotion, integration and application of scientific, engineering The newly formed NWF (2009) has & management knowledge and invited food retailers, agro-chemical skills in the water-cycle through its companies and mining companies to newsletters, magazines, workshops, help battle water pollution in South conferences and websites. Africa will be spearheaded by the TAU SA. It will look at ways to save WISA has 6 regional Branches and water, address water pollution by 11 Technical Divisions. farmers and secure quality water for agriculture. Water Users Associations (WUAs) include all sectors South African Association of dependent on a specific water Water Utilities (SAAWU) resource which they utilise. Tel: 011 455 0591/0176 Notes on the WUAs may be found on - take the “Documents”, “Legislature” There are 19 autonomous Water and “National Water Act” menu Boards, responsible for the options.

Schedule 4 of the Constitution vests the responsibility for water and sanitation services in local government. National government, however, is responsible for the regulatory function. To facilitate the management of water resources, the country has been divided into 19 catchment-based water-management areas (currently these are under revision). Eleven water-management areas share international rivers. Catchment-management agencies (CMAs) are being established to perform water-resource management functions currently performed by the department’s regional offices, while water-service delivery and operations are being transferred to water-services authorities (WSAs). The department remains focused on the phased implementation of the National Water Act, 1998, (Act 36 of 1998), with a particular emphasis on implementing a new organisational structure, which includes: • the National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS), published in September 2004, sets out the procedures, guidelines and overall strategy for managing water resources; • developing and testing a strategy for compulsory water-use licensing to facilitate equitable access to water resources for historically disadvantaged individuals; • enhancing water-use efficiency; • ensuring compliance with dam-safety regulations and enhancing public safety at water resource installations; • investigating and implementing appropriate institutional arrangements for the optimal management of the Working for Water (WfW) Programme; • building national capacity to monitor the state of water resources, so that accurate information is used in decision-making about the use and management thereof; • creating the National Water Resource Infrastructure Agency (NWRIA) to manage and develop national infrastructure. • DWA’s new Blue Drop Certification System hopes to encourage municipalities to improve their drinking water quality management while empowering the public with the right information about what is coming out of their taps. The inaugural National Blue Drop Report 2009 may be accessed by visiting : All water users are required by law (since 1 April 2002) to register their water use (through a Water User Association, any bulk water supplier or directly with DWA. Water-resource development and management in South Africa have, over the years, continuously evolved to meet the needs of a growing population and a vibrant economy, within the constraints imposed by nature. These developments have largely been made possible by recognising water as a national asset, thereby allowing its transportation from where it is available to where the greatest overall benefits for the nation can be achieved. All new uses of water must be licensed according to the National Water Act of 1998 – this includes abstraction (amongst others for the purposes of irrigation, industry, domestic use, etc.), storage, discharge, recreation etc. The licence will specify the amount allowed to be used, with conditions attached. Even the use of water from boreholes must be registered and/or licensed.

3. National water strategy
The commercial agricultural sector utilises some 60% of this country’s water use for irrigation purposes. In a country poor in water resources, this places a considerable responsibility on all in the agricultural sector to operate within the National Water Act No 36 of 1998. Department of Water Affairs (DWA) Tel: 012 336 7500 The Minister is the custodian of South Africa’s water and forestry resources. It is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policy governing these two sectors. While striving to ensure that all South Africans gain access to clean water and safe sanitation, the water sector also promotes effective and efficient water resources management to ensure sustainable economic and social development. South Africa’s Constitution and the Bill of Rights enshrine the basic human right to have access to sufficient water and a safe and healthy environment. The two Acts that enable government to fulfill these rights through the DWA are: • the National Water Act, 1998, which aims to ensure that water resources are protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in a sustainable manner, for the benefit of everyone in South Africa; • the Water Services Act, 1997 (Act 108 of 1997), which created a regulatory framework within which water services could be provided.

All enquiries about the registration, licensing and use of water should be directed to the following Regional Office responsible for any particular area:
Head Office Chief Director: Regional Coordination and Support Chief Director: Eastern Cape Private Bag X7485 King William’s Town 5600 Director: Operation and Maintenance Director: Institutional Development Tel: 012 336 8798 Tel: 043 604 5402 / 082 908 6756 Tel: 041 586 4884 / 083 627 5920 Tel: 043 701 0309 / 082 807 4971

Eastern Cape


Director: Water Sector Support Regional Director: Forestry Director: Corporate Services

Tel: 043 604 5407 / 083 627 5929 Tel: 043 604 5411 Tel: 043 604 5414 Free State Tel: 051 405 9281 / 082 803 3204 Gauteng Tel: 012 392 1301 Fax: 012 392 1304 KwaZulu-Natal Tel: 031 336 2861/2 Fax: 031 336 2849 Tel: 031 336 2700 / 082 808 9914 Tel: 031 336 2715 / 082 804 2722 Tel: 031 336 2926 / 082 803 1817 Tel: 031 336 2926 / 082 888 2954 Tel: 013 759 7310 / 083 628 7614 Tel: 013 759 7329 Fax: 013 755 1678 North West

The European Union is a partner to government, having provided a package of some R1.25 billion to DWEA’s Masibambane programme for the period 2007-2012. It has helped fund the programme since its inception in 2001. The different acts regarding water are available under the “documents” menu option on Go to the Parliamentary Monitoring Group website – – for Annual Reports and briefings of the Department and Water Boards.

PO Box 528 Bloemfontein 9300 Chief Director: Gauteng Private Bag X995 Pretoria 0001 Chief Director: KwaZuluNatal PO Box 1018 Durban 4000 Director: Water Services Director: Water Use and Regulation Director: Institutional Establishment Director: Corporate Services

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)
Director: Water Use and Irrigation Development Mary Jean M Gabriel Tel: 012 846 8567/9 Fax: 012 846 8576
Source: Refer to the latest yearbook on for a comprehensive overview of National Strategy.

4. Training and research
Find the “education” option under “Publications” on the Water Research Commission (WRC) website – It includes the career guide – Water@Work - focusing on potential careers in the water sector. ARC – Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ISCW) Tel: 012 310 2500 Fax: 012 323 1157 In South Africa, with low and erratic rainfall, water is the biggest constraint to agricultural production. This is exacerbated by a high evaporation rate, runoff and deep drainage. A large percentage of research and technology development at the ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ARCISCW) is focused on water use efficiency in both dryland and irrigated crop production. Due attention is also paid to the effect of declining water quality on crops. Areas of water management such as improving dryland water use efficiency through water harvesting and conservation agriculture; managing water quality in the environment and for agricultural use; drought and flood monitoring and response farming to climatic conditions are but a few water issues addressed. ARC-ISCW is committed to improving water management in South Africa with its ever-increasing water shortages. CSIR Water, Environment & Forestry Technology Tel: 012 841 3225 International Water management Institute (IWMI) Tel: 012 845 9132 “Improving water and land resources management for food, livelihoods and the environment” Local Government SETA (LGSETA) Tel: 011 456 8579/0 This is the Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) related to water. National Nuclear Regulator A National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) report in the beginning of 2008 suggested serious problems with the country’s water supply, including radioactive contamination, unsafe dams, waste spills, and the possibility of radioactive material entering the food cycle. University of Pretoria Water Institute Prof Eugene Cloete Tel: 012 420 3265

Mpumalanga Chief Director: Mpumalanga Private Bag X11259 Nelspruit 1200 Director: Water Services Support

Chief Director: North West Private Bag X5 Mmabatho 2735 Chief Director: Northern Cape Private Bag X6101 Kimberley 8300

Tel: 018 387 9547 / 083 629 8991

Northern Cape Tel: 053 830 8804 / 082 809 2306

Limpopo Province Chief Director: Limpopo Region Private Bag X9506 Polokwane 0700 Director: Organisation and Development Director: Operations and Maintenance Director: WRM Tel: 015 295 1237 / 082 807 5643

Tel: 015 290 1216 Cell: 083 627 5914 Tel: 015 290 1230 / 082 804 2886 Tel: 015 290 1463 / 083 293 6331 Western Cape Tel: 021 950 7208 / 082 809 2218

Chief Director: Western Cape Private Bag X16 Sanlamhof 7532

In addition to research and education, a short short course of water quality management and effluent treatment is also presented. For more information contact Elmarie Otto at Tel: 012 Technologies for environmental 420 3824 or email assessment and management, terrestrial resource, forestry, water resource management, coastal The “Capacity-building and development and forest products. knowledge-sharing arm of WISA” can be found at



Water Research Commission (WRC) Tel: 012 330 9058

The WRC has been particularly active in building learning networks, a good example being its leadership role regarding the Water Information Network Find the “Research” menu option (WIN), which aims to strengthen on the WRC website. the capacity of water services at local government level. Capacity building through water research projects is no longer The WRC has been involved in confined to academic institutions. many initiatives which are Africa Increasingly, science councils and based and Africa focused. It has even smaller firms of consultants expanded its role as an active have been including significant member of the Global Water numbers of students in the research Research Coalition (GWRC). teams they appoint to undertake contract research for the WRC.

• The Institute of Landscape Architecture: and the University of Pretoria’s School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture are two other contacts. • The great journal/magazine Urban Green File runs articles and news for the environmental design/planning fraternity. In this journal, many articles on actual projects – where stormwater management have been deliberately applied – have appeared over the last few years. Contact the editor for their archive (accessible on-line) and permission to access it: or

6. Companies involved
Find the directory of companies on, the “Capacity-building and knowledge-sharing arm of WISA (the Water Institute of South Africa). Also find the companies in the Water Storage, Irrigation and Waste Management chapters. ABC Hansen Tel: 012 804 2033 Carin Bosman Sustainable Solutions Tel: 087 940 2771

5. Websites and publications
• Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decision making (November 2009). This report from the 2030 Water Resources Group shows that one-third of the world’s population will have a 50% deficit in water supply by 2030 if no action is taken, but that growing water scarcity can be mitigated affordably and sustainably if action is taken now. Find the executive summary at http://us-cdn.creamermedia. • The Water Wheel is a two-monthly magazine on water and water research. Tel: 012 330 9058 • The booklet Water Resources Management Charges is available from the Department: Water and Environmental Affairs. • Hundreds and hundreds of publications are available from the Water Research Commission. Contact them at 012 330 0340 or email Visit to see what is available. • On find the report Water and the rural poor: interventions for improving livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa, authored by J Faures and G Santini and produced by the Land and Water Development Division of the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Addressing the linkage between water and rural poverty in the region, it discusses conditions for success and proposes water-based, context-specific, and livelihood-centred approaches to poverty reduction in rural areas. • A publication WATER Sewage & Effluent, a monthly magazine published by Brooke Pattrick Publications, can be obtained by contacting 011 603 3960. • Water & Sanitation Africa (an alternate monthly publication) is published by 3S Media. Call 011 531 3300 or visit • The following Info Paks (booklets) can be accessed at za/publications: Collecting rainwater from your roof and Wetland Values and Functions. Relevant websites would include: • The Department of Water Affairs – A twenty-one page report Water conservation and Water Demand management Strategy for the Agricultural Sector may be found here. Numerous other reports and resources can be accessed here including State-of-River Reports (part of the River Health Programme) and Groundwater guidelines. • and – Water Institute of South Africa • – an independent initiative dedicated to the promotion of sustainable water resources management and use • – The World Water Council • See also the websites of the different Water Boards e.g.www.umgeni. and • The World Wildlife Fund Sanlam Living Waters Partnership “blueprint” was launched in 2009, and outlines specific actions to ensure that healthy freshwater ecosystems underpin economic and social wellbeing in South Africa. Find it at

Included in ABC Hansen’s products is equipment for wastewater “Quality and value today for a treatment. sustainable tomorrow” Absolutely Water Tel: 011 907 8377 Water purifying systems Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 021 886 6826 / 082 950 9294 Clear Water Technology Tel: 051 446 1581 Water treatment systems Crystal Clear Tel: 011 640 6445

Water management is one of their Water Treatment Processes and areas of expertise. Environmental Training services Agro-Hytec Distribution (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 863 2884 Eco Aqua Technology Tel: 021 853 1388

Water purification systems Importers and distributors of organic and environmentally FBF Organics friendly water and irrigation Tel: 033 346 1444 treatment products Akwasolv Tel: 082 903 4457 / 072 084 1441 Water recycling solutions Aquamat Tel: 012 346 3242 / 011 472 1311 Water purification Applied UV Tel: 021 448 6721 Remediation of wastewater from mills, breweries, abattoirs and pig slurries Free Water Systems Tel: 0860 728 392 Water Conservation Systems Hanna Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076

To do with storm water management:
• Landscape SA Karyn Richards (editor). Tel: 011 268 6904. Email • Environmental Management Carol Knoll (editor). Tel: 011 268 6732. Email

Water quality measurement and control technology: technically A non-chemical method to treat advanced yet easy-to-use contaminated water equipment for the agricultural industry Biobox Systems Tel: 012 803 7601 Hemcro Africa Tel: 012 841 4958 Water recycling Water Treatment Projects and Biolytix project management Tel: 044 532 7544 / 082 333 5720 A wastewater treatment system


Janet Edmonds Consulting Tel: 082 828 7953

Senter 360 Tel: 018 469 1331

7. International overview
• African Water Association – • Africa Adapt – “Knowledge sharing for Climate Change adaption”. Visit • Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) – www.globalwaterres • International Water Management Institute (IWMI) produces public goods – tools and knowledge – to help developing countries gain ‘more crop per drop’ from water used to grow food. Visit www. • World Water Council, a “global movement for a water secure world” – • The latest World Water Development Report, the third published since 1999, provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of the world’s freshwater resources. To access the full report, go to http:// A report released by the World Economic Forum in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland on 29 January 2009 stressed the urgency of the water crisis. The following points were highlighted in the report: • By 2025, water scarcity could affect annual global crop yield to the equivalent of losing the entire grain crops of India and the US combined (30% of global cereal consumption); but food demand will grow 70-90% by 2050. • Glaciers, which are a source of water for many rivers, are slowly disappearing and the majority is anticipated to disappear by 2100. Rivers are also close to being drained as they supply water to irrigation systems and reservoirs. The result is that the environment suffers. • Within two decades, water will become a main investment opportunity. With good regulation, this will enable the mobilisation of finances for water infrastructure and technology.
Source: NEPAD Business Foundation

Permit applications: Water Use Irrigation equipment Licenses South African Bureau of JoJo Tanks Standards (SABS) Tel: 013 262 3012 Tel: 012 428 6844 Water Analysis Provincial contact details are available on the website. Southern Trident (South Africa) MBB Services International Tel: 041 467 0871 Tel: 021 887 1026 Suppliers of Aquasafe, a low tech NviroTek Labs solution in ensuring safe drinking Tel: 012 252 7588 water SRK Consulting Independent analysis of soil, water, Tel: 011 441 1111 plants, fertiliser and feed P & B Lime Works Tel: 028 424 1157 Terrapin Tel: 011 516 4000

The event managers responsible for Clarifying and purifying domestic the annual Africa Water Congress and general purpose water (find the “Water” option on their website). Water for Africa Tel: 012 336 9800 Roundabout Water Solutions Tel: 011 807 4280


2. Roleplayers

National issues
1. Overview
Improving the status of women is a vital step necessary to alleviate poverty and reduce population growth in Southern Africa. • In most African countries, women are the main producers of agricultural products, especially staple foods. They generally work longer and harder than men. If development is to be pursued in an efficient manner, women must be provided with much better opportunities and support. All societies experience gender asymmetries. In no region of the developing world are women equal to men in social and economic terms. Although legislation sometimes awards women the same formal rights as men, actual practice is to the disadvantage of women in the sense that practice originates from tradition, which prioritises the man and his family. Therefore, women and girls bear the largest and most direct costs of these inequalities, but the costs cut more broadly across the society. • The last half of the 20th century saw great improvements in the absolute status of women and in gender equality in most developing countries. With few exceptions, female education levels improved considerably. The primary enrolment rates of women nearly doubled in Africa, rising faster than boys’ enrolment rates. Women’s life expectancy in developing countries has increased by 15-20 years, and more women have joined the labour force. • In much of Africa, however, women still obtain land rights chiefly through their husband as long as the marriage endures, often losing these rights when they are divorced or widowed. Women continue to have systematically poorer command over a range of productive resources, including education, land information, and financial resources. Moreover, young and particularly married women are suffering from HIV/Aids epidemic, which reduces the workforce and productivity in agriculture and leave many children as orphans. • Gender inequalities impose large costs on the well being of men, women and children, profoundly affecting their ability to improve their lives. In addition to these personal costs, gender inequalities reduce productivity in farms and enterprises, thus impeding prospects for reducing poverty and achieving economic progress. Gender inequalities weaken a country’s governance and hence, the effectiveness of its development policies. • Gender inequalities also impose costs on productivity, efficiency, and economic progress. By hindering the accumulation of human capital in the home and the labour market, and by systematically excluding women or men from access to resources, public services, or productive activities, gender discrimination diminishes an economy’s capacity to grow and to raise living standards.
Source: A Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs report which can be found at www.

Agri-Expo gives financial support to the South African Women’s Agricultural Union (SAWAU), assistance to its congress and training to its show judges. Call 021 975 4440/1 or visit www.agriexpo. Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) Tel: 012 804 2966 / 3186 In 2009 FANRPAN launched its three-year pilot project on ‘Women Accessing Realigned Markets’ – WARM’.

South African Women’s Agricultural Union (SAWAU) Tel: 013 282 4626 Some SAWAU members are directly involved with farming, whether part time or full time. Crops include fruit, vegetables and seedlings, livestock and poultry. The adding of value to products is also common – drying, preserving, bottling fruit; making jam; selling eggs; and the processing of feathers and wool.

Opportunities are set to increase, particularly as tourism becomes better established in the country. National strategy, which would have more women involved in National Women in Agribusiness agriculture, is also advantageous and so it is possible for women to Co-operative (NAWACO) Tel/fax: 035 870 3978 exploit opportunities and access Tel: 072 140 9379 help, finance and skills. Based in KwaZulu-Natal, Nawaco targets women with an interest in agribusiness. It provides information on how women can take advantage of the agribusiness sector. Sanlam COBALT Tel: 021 947 4506 “Women are capable plan-makers, especially those on farms who help keep the farming business going with their innovative entrepreneurial activities. But regardless of their considerable contribution to wealth creation on the farm and the knock-on effect in job creation for the neighbouring communities, their work is not often lauded”. This national umbrella organisation has branches in towns across the country and in Namibia. Women in Agriculture and Rural Development (WARD) structures exist in most provinces. Contact your Provincial Department of Agriculture. Alternatively, a contact is Ms C Molo. Fax her at 043 683 1011 or call 083 521 9630. Women on Farms Project Tel: 021 887 2960 /1/2

Builds organisation amongst women in agriculture by building their capacity as agents of change and as leaders. Women’s programmes include health, cooperatives, labour rights, land and housing, Find details of the annual search for trade justice, social security and the top women entrepreneurs on trade competencies. Subscribe to the website. their Plasfokus newsletter. General contacts of relevance to women Awesome South Africa Tel: 033 347 2247 Black Sash Tel: 021 461 7804 Their Wonderful Women Gathering addresses the role of women in “tackling negative perceptions and influencing positive change in the country” The Black Sash has regional offices in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal

It is not for nothing that we speak of “Mother Earth”. The female designation is logical for that which gives, supports and nurtures life. Women have always been involved in agriculture. Whether this is in the role of stand-by-your-man, the wife who is intricately involved in activities on the farm, or whether she runs an agricultural enterprise on her own, women and the land go together.


Business Women’s Association (BWASA) Tel: 011 486 0186

With branches across the country, the BWASA is the largest association of professional and businesswomen in SA. It helps women to grow in confidence with career guidance and business opportunities. It also facilitates the matching of suitable mentors with mentees. Its Development Fund assists with education, development, growth, empowerment and uplifting of women. The aim of the Commission, as set out in section 187 of the Constitution, is to promote gender equality and to advise and make recommendations to Parliament or any other legislature with regard to any laws or proposed legislation which affects gender equality and the status of women. Find out about the Women Development Programme.

South African Women Entrepreneurs Network (SAWEN) Tel: 012 394 1657 / 06

This dti initiative is a networking forum for individuals and organisations that are committed to the promotion and advancement of women entrepreneurs through the facilitation of access to business opportunities. SAWEN is a Public Private Partnership which is run by Women In Business.

Commission on Gender Equality Tel: 011 403 7182 Tel: 015 291 3070 Tel: 021 426 4080 Tel: 043 722 3489 Tel: 031 305 2105 Tel: 051 430 9348 Foundation for the Development of Africa Tel: 082 490 5584 Gender Justice Tel: 021 423 7088

South African Women in Dialogue (SAWID) Tel: 012 845 2041 / 33 Technology for Women in Business programme (TWIB) Tel: 012 394 9500 twib.htm Thuthuzela Care Centres (TCC) Tel: 012 801 2717 Tel: 047 568 6274 An initiative aimed at improving the availability of comprehensive services for rape and sexual assault survivors in South Africa. There are 10 TCCs to date, and a further 7 are planned by the end of 2012. “To end violence against women”

Their flagship project is the One Man Can Campaign which supports men and boys to take action to end domestic and sexual violence and to promote healthy, equitable relationships that men and women can enjoy – passionately, respectfully and fully. Based at the University of Pretoria

Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Centre Tel: 011 403 8230 Tel: 013 795 5294 WDB Investment Holdings Tel: 013 795 5429

Institute for Women’s and Gender Studies Tel: 012 420 3898

WDB Micro-Finance is a not-for-profit organisation which has been providing rural women with capital in the form of group loans and basic training for over a decade. This network extends across the housing and construction professions, housing finance institutions, government, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), and academic institutions.

Isivande Women’s Fund (IWF) The Fund provides finance for startTel: 0861 843 384 ups, business expansion, business rehabilitations and turnarounds, franchises and bridging finance. Find more under the “Gender & Women Empowerment” option at www.thedti. Masisizane Women’s Housing & Financial Services Cooperative Tel: 083 720 9525 Nafcoc Women’s Chamber Tel: 011 807 6644 NISAA Institute for Women’s Development Tel: 011 854 5804/5 People Opposing Women Abuse (POWA) Tel: 011 642 4345 South African Council for Business Women Tel: 021 975 1794 South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) Tel: 011 484 8300 This is a Community-Based Non-Profit NGO which focuses on the abuse of women and women’s issues. They run a production loan scheme for small agricultural projects and food security projects.

Women for Housing Tel: 011 275 0268 www.womenforhousing. Women in Finance Tel: 084 353 9865 Women in Oil & Energy of SA (WOESA) Tel: 011 880 7479 Women in Research Dr Siphokazi Koyana Tel: 012 481 4156/54/66 Women’s Legal Centre (WLC) Tel: 021 4424 5660 Women’s Net Tel: 011 429 000

A non-profit organisation that promotes women in the oil and energy sector.

An NGO undertaking research into gender-based violence (GBV) in Africa

The WLC seeks to advance the struggle for equality for women, particularly black women, who suffer socio-economic disadvantage, through the promotion and development of human rights for women. “Using ICTs strategically to create a society where women and girls are agents of social change”

The SA Council for Businesswomen is a dynamic, vibrant and powerful agent of change and development for all levels of businesswomen.

There are numerous other sector-specific women’s associations e.g. Women in Information Communication and Technology (WICT), Women’s International Shipping and Trading Association (WISTA), Association of South African Women in Science and Engineering (SA-WISE), African Women Chartered Accountants (AWCA), Women in Nuclear (WIN).


3. National strategy
The disempowerment of black women predates even apartheid, and the arrival of the Dutch and English colonialists in the 17th century. Black women were disempowered through customary laws and practices such as polygamy and patriachalism, which made the role of women vastly inferior to that of men. During apartheid the majority of black women suffered the triple oppression of race discrimination, gender discrimination and class discrimination. The National Machinery for Advancing Gender Equality (often abbreviated as NMG) was developed following the 1995 World Conference on Women in Beijing, as part of a National Gender Policy. Key components within the NMG are: • Ministry of Women, Youth, Children and People with Disabilities – situated within the Presidency • Gender Units or Focal Points (GFP) – situated in line departments • Joint Monitoring Committee on Improvement of Quality of Life and Status of Women (JMC) • Commission on Gender Equality (CGE) • NGOs who work in the field advance gender equality Most government initiatives – e.g. AsgiSA, the Expanded and Public Works Programme (EPWP) – favour women.
Source: Excerpts from the National BEE Handbook covers women empowerment admirably.

Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) Gender & Women’s Empowerment Unit Tel: 012 394 1604
Find the “Gender & Women Empowerment” menu option at

Ministry of Women, Youth, Children and People with Disabilities Tel: 012 300 5575 / 16 / 80 Provincial Governments run programmes of which women may take advantage. Find out what is happening in your province.

4. International business environment
• An international website – • Find the “African Women in Agricultural Research and Development “ programme at • Leading Women in Africa – – is “a pan-African movement uniting women leaders in order find ways and means to contribute to the maintenance of peace and stability in the continent through the unity and Economic empowerment of Women of Africa in the 21st century”. • – the World Association of Women Entrepreneurs (Les Femmes Chefs d’Enterprises Mondiales – FCEM) • – International Centre for Research on Women. This site includes information about international research projects, seminars, social policy issues, grants, advocacy efforts, and publications. The focus is primarily on women in developing and transition countries. • Feminist theory website – includes 5 000 bibliographic references, nearly 600 internet links, material on feminism in 130 different countries and indepth profiles of 80 internationally-known feminists. • Links to women’s studies and gender research – • Gender, Science and Technology for Development http://gstgateway. • Women for Women International – “helping women survivors of war rebuild their lives” – • Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (WOCAN) – • UNIFEM – – is the United Nations Development Fund for Women. It provides financial and technical assistance to innovative programmes and strategies to foster women’s empowerment and gender equality. The Southern Africa Regional Office is based in Johannesburg. Contact details and an online contact form can be found on the website. • The African Women’s Development Fund (AWDF) – – is a grant-making foundation which supports local, national and regional organisations in Africa working towards women’s empowerment. Email address for general enquiries, grants department, fundraising department and the capacity building unit are given on the website. • Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) is “the largest international organisation for rural women”. Visit • Rural Women New Zealand – • Of all the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), goal number five – preventing women’s deaths during pregnancy and childbirth – is generating the least resources and lagging furthest behind. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) – - is an international development agency supporting countries to use “population data for policies and programmes to reduce poverty and to ensure that every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe … and every girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect”. • World Congress of Rural Women is a global event held every four years to discuss challenges facing rural women. The last event was in South Africa (2007). Rural women are one of the most marginalised groups in the world. They make up a quarter of the total world population, but own 2% of the land and receive 1% of all agricultural credit (Markinor Survey reported in Mail & Guardian 2 May 2007).

All national departments are involved in empowering women. The weighting on the BEE scorecard underscores this. Industry-specific programmes are run, and some tenders are set aside for women. Find out what is available by contacting the different departments or by visiting their websites. Find contact details at Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Gender Mainstreaming Tel: 012 319 7211 The annual Female Farmer of the Year competition was initiated by the former national Department of Agriculture in 1999 in partnership with provinces and the private sector. The aim was to empower women in the agricultural sector by recognising their contributions and increasing their visibility. Whereas women were originally involved in food production mainly for subsistence, they are now competitors in local and international markets and positively making a qualitative contribution to poverty alleviation. Owing to the expanded mandate of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the competition changed its name to take into account female producers/entrepreneurs of all sectors. From 2010 , it is now “Female Entrepreneur of the year”. Entry forms, reports and guiding documents may be found on www.daff. “One of the objectives of Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture is to enhance access and participation to agricultural opportunities for all, especially those not traditionally being part of agriculture. Focus will be on, amongst other things, start-up support packages for these new entrants to farming. Women, Black people, the disabled and the youth of all races are the focus of this objective. The Strategy aims to promote new entrants into the agricultural sector, without penalizing existing commercial farmers.” Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) “Agricultural development is a vital element of the ISDRS. A successful agricultural sector will form an important component of integrated and sustainable rural development and vice versa. All three tiers of government have to contribute directly to this strategy by providing appropriate and integrated agricultural support services to the rural poor and new and emergent farmers. Women, young people and the disabled feature as the main targeted groups in this regard.”
Source: From the Strategic Plan for Agriculture.


5. Local business environment
While the governments of developing countries are becoming more aware of the role of women in food production and food security, macro-economic and agricultural policies and programmes in many countries have not adequately helped rural women to make use of resources. Governments’ policy support must include improving rural women’s access to agricultural, financial and social services such as education, health, sanitation and clean water supply. Moreover, women’s access to land needs to be considered as the foundation of all economic activities and social development. Awareness must be fostered among policy makers, planners, village heads and male farmers of the benefits resulting from women’s access to land in terms of family and national food security. • Institutions providing education, training and other resources and services to improve the agricultural productivity of farmers must be strengthened, particularly in the provision of these services and resources to women. Retraining of male extension workers is recommended, in order to strengthen their skills in working with women farmers. There should also be retraining of female extension workers to make their knowledge and work more relevant to the major productive activities of women farmers. • An overhaul is needed of rural financing systems and adjustments should be made to national credit and financial policies, including relaxing the requirements for collateral and co-signing by a woman’s husband for a loan, and allowing for alternative forms of collateral including group guarantee. • Improved technology is required to improve women farmers’ productivity to decrease labour demand and drudgery and to maintain or rehabilitate soil conditions and fertility. • Small-scale women farmers are creditworthy and need financial support to acquire the improved technology with which they can improve their socio-economic situation and thus, the food security of their families. Innovative collaborations should be established between autonomous, decentralised rural financing systems and agricultural and rural development programmes, whereby the latter are responsible for providing technical assistance for increased productivity and the former are responsible for providing credit for improved inputs, based upon local savings capacities, to ensure ownership of development and sustainable progress.

• Lack of marketing opportunities is an important constraint to increased production by women food producers in particular. Credit for working capital and crop storage will aid producers to sell at high seasonal prices. Improved access to marketing groups, small-scale traders’ cooperatives and expanded availability of appropriate storage in local and regional markets, market information and training in marketing, accounting and management skills are required to eliminate the existing marketing constraints that women farmers face. Research should therefore be directed to identifying possibilities for surplus food production by subsistence farmers and marketing opportunities for non-officially priced agricultural produce. • Collaboration between governments and intergovernmental organisations with civil society organisations can strengthen the efforts of all to improve services, education and training aimed at increasing the productivity of women farmers and hence, food security. NGOs play a pivotal role in mobilising the rural population and specifically rural women. Because they function through a more informal structure, rural people find it easier to use NGOs as their representatives in negotiations with more formally organised government institutions. The role NGOs play in supporting and representing rural populations therefore needs to be recognised. A better dialogue is needed to find out how government institutions can establish an enabling environment to further the impact of existing NGO collaboration with rural people and in particular rural women. • Better training opportunities need to be made available to rural women in order to: - improve their knowledge of improved agricultural practices and crop varieties; - strengthen their leadership skills and abilities to participate better in peasant associations and decision-making processes with regard to agricultural services and inputs; - assist them in mobilising their demand for credit, agricultural research on improved crop varieties, appropriate technology extension support and other services relevant for the food security and well-being of themselves and their families.
Source: Women & The Agricultural Sector compiled by Chana Majake. The above is adapted from the original article, which can be found at



2. National strategy

National issues
The United Nations (UN) has proclaimed an International Year of Youth starting on 12 August 2010. Find out about the UN’s Programme on Youth at

Find the National Youth Development Agency Act (Act No. 54 or 2008) at and the National Youth Policy 2009 – 2014 document at Previous legislative policy framework such as the National Youth Commission (NYC) Act 1996 and NYD 2000 outlined institutional arrangements for youth development. These were reviewed by various stakeholders from 2007, and in April 2009 cabinet approved the National Youth Policy (NYP) for 2009-2014 which details a number of policy imperatives. This is to be followed up with an Integrated Youth Development Strategy that sets out specific plans to give effect to the policy propositions. National attempts to empower youth focus on employment initiatives and small business development support, in the belief that solving the economic problems of youth will in turn make them less vulnerable to other social problems. Work experience opportunities include internships, learnerships, apprenticeships and national youth service. The establishment of a National Youth Service has been viewed as a mechanism to encourage voluntary and service activities by young people to support community and national developments, whilst simultaneously accessing new opportunities for skills development, employment and income generation. Read more at www. Forty percent of the youth between the ages of 18 and 24 are neither in employment, education institutions nor in workplace training. This means that they are not productively engaged due to, among others, very limited access to post-school education and training opportunities, poor resources, the lack of financing and the restricted availability of jobs. This is a huge wastage of human potential and a squandered opportunity for social and economic development.
Source: A speech by Dr Nzimande, Minister of Higher Education and Training, reported in Buanews 30 June 2009

1. Overview
Challenges faced by youth can become national crises in ten or twenty years’ time. But while youth can represent the threat of social unrest, they also represent the opportunity for lasting change and transformation. • In a way that is impossible to achieve through our current systems and institutions, youth bring the potential for new mindsets and approaches to old problems, with the chance to permanently erase systemic faults in our world that no amount of social engineering can change. The built-in willingness of youth to try new solutions and to challenge ageold problems can be channelled towards highly creative developments in any society that is willing to be youth-focused. • South Africa will experience a youth bulge in its population curve for the next four decades. This is called a demographic dividend because it boosts the size of the working population and is an opportunity to boost economic growth and innovation. After the youth bulge, South Africa will face other challenges, and hopefully will have built up the strength to move more of the economy over to technology and knowledge intensive activities. • Against this backdrop, the importance of changing perceptions about agriculture among the youth has been highlighted, particularly by government. There is more to agriculture than simply planting crops. Agriculture is a science and a business.
Source: Michael Stuart, writing for the National BEE Handbook

The challenge is to create jobs for the people we have now, not those we hope to have one day when our education system is vastly improved. This means focusing both on lower-wage, start-up jobs and strategies to provide access to work for the young and unskilled and not only on formal, higher paid employment. About three-quarters of the unemployed are young. The official unemployment rate for people between the ages of 15 and 24 is almost 20% higher than the rate for the population as a whole. In 2007, 72% of 15- to 30-year-olds who wanted a job had never worked before. Unemployment at an early age often scars people for life. Young people excluded from the labour force for long periods are deprived of on-thejob learning, leaving them with permanent skills deficit. On the other hand, young people are the quickest learners. Skills acquired in youth are deeply ingrained. If we can’t find everyone a job — and the truth is that we can’t — we should focus on the young.
Source: extracts from the Centre for Enterprise Development’s “5-Million Jobs” document at

Recognising that youth is a challenge beyond any one ministerial mandate, all government departments have some youth focus, be this bursary schemes, internships, mentorships and incubator programmes (in mid 2009, the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries announced a budget of over R22 million for its envisaged National Youth Service for Agriculture programme). Find contact details and websites for government departments at The Buanews newsletter is an excellent way to stay in touch with various initiatives for youth. Visit to subscribe.

3. Other roleplayers
• See the Agricultural Education and Training and Careers and Employment chapters. • National Young Farmer of the Year competitions are run through the channels of organised Agriculture (find details of the different farmer unions in the Organised Agriculture chapter). Find the information under heading 6. • An annual Young Farmer Conference is run by Agri SA. • Commodity organisations like NERPO (see the Beef chapter) are also involved.


Agri-Expo Tel: 021 975 4440 Business Today Training Tel: 011 873 8240 Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE) Tel: 011 482 5140 Centre for Youth Development (CYD) Tel: 011 410 6837 / 8 Children’s Institute University of Cape Town Tel: 021 689 5404 Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) Tel: 011 313 3911 Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) Tel: 012 302 2000 The June 16 1976 Foundation Junior Achievement SA (JASA) Tel: 011 832 2632 Offices exist in all provinces (find contact details on the website) JumpStart Handbook Tel: 011 517 4076 National Youth Commission (NYC) National Youth Development Agency Tel: 08600 96884 Fax: 011 805 9709 Find provincial and municipal contact details on the website.

Agri-Expo initiated the National Agricultural Youth Show Association in 1999 and is still involved. Entrepreneurship and fascinating “Life Choices” training for youth. Find research reports on youth e.g. South Africa’s door knockers: Young people and unemployment in metropolitan South Africa and the more recent 5-Million Jobs.

Santam Agriculture Tel: 012 369 1202

Santam Agriculture has been supporting young farmers for the past five years at the annual Young Farmer of the Year competition. It also recently established, together with 40 young farmers, the Western Cape Young Farmer Forum. SLOT is an NGO that has a success rate of 45 – 60% in either placing their students in formal employment, or helping them start their own ventures. They are specialists in job preparation and job creation. NERPO’s subsidiary youth development and agribusiness entity

School Leavers Opportunity Training (SLOT) Tel: 033 398 0508 / 9 / 10

The Children’s Institute is a leader in child policy research and advocacy in South Africa. Run through its Young Professionals Programme, Siyenza Manje is aimed to support the growth of skills at local government level. The HSRC runs a Youth Policy Initiative. Several resources on its website will be useful to people planning youth empowerment projects.

South African Youth Agribusiness Co-operative (SAYA Co-op) Mr Aggrey Mahanjana Tel: 012 361 9127 / 348 8566 Strategy & Tactics Tel: 021 424 4837

S&T managed the task team that drafted the white paper on the National Youth Service, its attendant business plans and implementation strategy. Find the “Youth Development Unit” option on the website. See National Youth Development Agency A NERPO project with other strategic partners to help unemployed young agricultural graduates enter the agricultural sector.

Tshwane Municipality Tel: 012 358 4493 / 768 Umsobomvu Youth Fund (UYF) Young Agribusiness Entrepreneurial Development Programme (YAEDP) Mr Aggrey Mahanjana Tel: 012 361 9127 / 348 8566 Youth in Agriculture and Rural Development (YARD) Mr N Phungo – 072 676 4306 Youth Development Network (YDN) Tel: 011 836 2172

Details of all programmes are on their website. Of special interest here is the Enterprise Dynamics Programme which runs for 3 hours, once a week for 11 weeks. It costs a “commitment fee” of R50.

A career guide and life skills annual targeted at Grade 9 to Grade 12 learners in schools countrywide. See National Youth Development Agency The agency is a result of a merger between Umsobomvu and the Youth Commission. Part of its functions are to facilitate the roll-out of youth economic participation, undertake policy, research and development, provide advisory and information services and promote access to funding. The agency will fast-track the implementation of programmes that affect young people in areas of entrepreneurship, skills development, education, rural development, health as well as the fight against crime.

A national network of six youth developmental organisations operating in South Africa. YDN has an excellent website with resources including manuals, tools, publications, and research. Find the national and international links to other youthrelevant roleplayers. This is a project of the Free State Youth Commission to provide information and news for youth development. The website provides information on job opportunities, political rights, basic financial skills, health and sexuality, education and careers, starting a business, and safety and the law. Youth Managers is a private entity which provides consulting services focused on Youth Development in Financial Literacy, Enterpreneurship and Leadership.

Youth Information Service (YIS) Tel: 051 400 8301/021 683 4515

Youth Managers Clement – 076 273 7416 Mabutho – 079 551 1662 Sandile – 072 783 0811


4. National Agricultural Youth Show
• The future of agriculture lies within the attitude of the youth towards agriculture. The National Agricultural Youth Society is a non-profit organisation that strives to encourage youth and to engender a love for agriculture. • Each province has its own trial where the two best contestants per section proceed to the nationals. Currently there are ten provinces that participate in the championship. A full provincial team consists of 87 children if they participate in all fifteen sections. Each section has two age groups – juniors for children under 14, and seniors for children under 18. All participants must be scholars and they compete for the province where they attend school. • There are fifteen classes in which children compete i.e. beef catle, dairy cattle, meatgoats, milchgoats, fibregoats, woolsheep, muttonsheep, horses, pigs, chickens, rabbits, fancypigeons, racingpigeons, home industries and dairy products. Each class is judged in different sections. • This is one of the most wonderful opportunities for children to work with animals and as a positive introduction to agriculture. • All children are welcome. For further information, contact Hennie Prinsloo at 082 671 9712.
Source: Aubrey Pistorius

The programme starts each year with an invitation to educators to attend a free one-day permaculture workshop. Educators who acquire permaculture skills become “food security champions” in their communities. They are encouraged to develop food gardens that yield much-needed food for hungry school children. School grounds are transformed into healthy, greened environments and educators are empowered to share their food gardening skills with learners, other educators and members of the school community. Once schools have developed gardens, they enter their projects into a national competition. They receive ongoing support and advice from permaculture experts who visit schools and then select 63 finalists. All finalist schools win a cash prize as well as environmental, health and gardening resources. Additional prize money and resources are awarded to the winners of the emerging, intermediate, advanced and provincial categories. EduPlant is run by Food & Trees for Africa. Contact details for schools wishing to participate in EduPlant Tel: 011 803 9750 Email: info@trees. Website: Educational materials for schools linking permaculture to the active learning curriculum are also available.
A DVD documentary showcasing the Woolworths Trust EduPlant programme as a model of a systemic-solution that works towards the eradication of poverty in our time is available from the Woolworths Trust. Contact Jackie Busch, 021 424 1530,

5. Toyota SA National Young Farmer of the Year
For details of their young farmer work, contact other farmer unions like TAU SA and NAFU SA (details in the Organised Agriculture chapter). Entry requirements: • The candidate must be 35 years of age or younger on the day that entries for the competition closes. • The enterprise size and compilation of the candidate is not important, i.e. the chances of a game/livestock farmer, grain/fruit/wine farmer or a mixed farmer are equal to win the competition. • The candidate may farm on his/her own or in association with others. In the latter case, the candidate must have specific allocated responsibilities and decision-making authority on which he/she will be judged. Candidates can only enter the competition as individuals (e.g. brothers are not allowed to enter as a team but they can enter as individuals and compete against each other for the title). • The candidate must be a fully paid member of the Provincial Agricultural Union. • Winners may not enter the competition again. • The evaluation panel is compiled from unbiased experts on specific agricultural fields and they use an objective scientific method to appoint a national winner based on certain predetermined international management criteria. • The panel of judges will visit all finalists on their farms. • The decision of the panel of judges is final and no reasons or comments will be given to candidates. The competition runs along provincial lines (through the Provincial Agricultural Unions e.g. Free State Agriculture). The finalists from the provinces go through to national level. Budgets and financial records, production management and marketing, risk management, maintenance, labour relations and organisation, and community involvement are all factors considered by the judges.
Source: Adapted from notes sent by Free State Agriculture

The South African Youth Charter
Preamble Recognising South Africa’s legacy of oppression, particularly against its youth, and forging ahead in our new democracy, youth and government commit to upholding a Youth Charter for enhancing youth development and participation in our country. Recognising that youth, as defined by National Youth Commission legislation, are not homogenous, the Youth Charter upholds rights of all youth irrespective of race, gender, sex, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth. Upholding South Africa’s Constitution, the National Youth Policy and other legislation, the Youth Charter espouses values of youth as critical resources in our democracy and active citizens in building millennium communities. In realising this vision, youth and government will: • develop and implement local youth policy and agenda; • create a conducive environment for youth development and participation, including creating institutional support for youth development; • allocate resources (human and financial) for achieving vision of effective and efficient implementation of youth policy; • create and sustain communication mechanisms that facilitate clear, accessible and transparent dialogue between all relevant stakeholders; • ensure optimal participation and consultation of all youth in government planning processes; • develop and implement programmes, in consultation with youth, for the advancement of youth development and service; • periodically review and evaluate government’s implementation of youth policy and programmes; • establish mechanism for affirming and educating youth about governance and national youth service; • support youth structures and work with youth to address critical socio-economic and developmental challenges facing communities; • create and sustain spaces for cultural, recreational and sports activities. This Youth Charter is a testament to our struggle, as youth, for a democratic South Africa. It binds all South African youth, in all their diversity, and government, to ensure the effective realization of National and Local Youth Policy.

6. The Annual Woolworths Trust EduPlant Programme
The Woolworths Trust EduPlant programme, in association with the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, LandCare SA and SABC Education, promotes and supports schools in the growing of good food in a sustainable way. For more than a decade, EduPlant has helped thousands of schools to enhance food security in their communities and to improve the nutrition of their learners.



Capacity building, science & technology
Agricultural education and training
1. Overview
• The reader is referred to the separate chapter on agricultural careers and employment. • Along with the provision of skills and the capacity to perform, the spin-offs of education and training go beyond the workplace and staff morale: people become agents of change and positive participators in the development of their communities. It is for good reason that education and training feature in the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) scorecard and also receive the largest share of the national budget. • The provision of Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) is a cornerstone in the work of the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs). Certainly generating literacy amongst farm workers remains one of the greatest challenges to our investment in people.

4. Agricultural schools
Three branches of agriculture studies are offered at these schools: Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Technology and Agricultural Management Practices, the last two being practical in nature. • Agricultural Sciences is the study of the relationship between soils, plants and animals in the production and processing of food, fibre, fuel and any other agricultural commodities that have an economic, aesthetic and cultural value. It is an integrated science that combines the knowledge and skills from Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Social Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Mathematics and Economics. This subject must be seen within the holistic science framework rather than as an isolated science. • Agricultural Management Practices is the study and application of economic and management principles that are used in the production, transformation and marketing of food and other agricultural products. The foregoing principles are used in the production and value adding of high quality agricultural products that have economic, aesthetic, social and cultural value. • Agricultural Technology focuses on technological processes used in agriculture to create an understanding of how processes, equipment and structures are used with people, soil, plants, animals and their products to use the environment, to sustain and maintain quality of life and to promote economic, aesthetic and sound cultural values. Schools that offer all three (Agricultural Schools) are listed here. For a list of other schools which offer Agricultural Sciences but are not classed as “Agricultural Schools”, contact Mr EP Nel (details under heading 2). Schools where we were unable to confirm contact details are marked with “‡”.

2. Associations Involved
South African Agricultural Teaching Association (SAATA) Chair: Mr EP Nel Tel: 056 216 3826/ 083 556 5947 Association of Principals of Agricultural Colleges (APAC) Marius Paulse Tel: 021 808 5018/9 Agriculture Sectoral Education and Training Authority (AgriSETA) Jerry Madiba Tel: 012 301 5600 The AgriSETA Board offers financial support to you as employer and employee in respect of training and development programmes. See heading 9.

School Contact Details

Beestepan Agricultural High School Tel: 013 297 1697 / 082 682 2923 (Middleburg) ‡ Fax: 013 246 7118 Perdekop Agricultural High School Tel: 017 785 1028 / 082 828 4917 (Perdekop) Fax: 017 785 1028 Morgenzon Landbou Akademie (Morgenzon) Tel: 017 793 3089/58 Fax: 017 793 3270 Tel: 013 733 3224 Fax: 013 733 3226 Cell: 072 238 0501 / 072 369 5878 Tel: 017 730 0094 Fax: 017 730 0094 Cell: 082 682 0550

FOODBEV Tel: 011 253 7300 FIETA (Forestry SETA) Tel: 011 712 0600 Mathews Phosa College (Schagen)

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
The merger of Agriculture with Forestry and Fisheries is expected to take some time. Find updates to relevant directorates on Of major importance is the Agricultural Education and Training strategy (AET Strategy). Find it on – take the “Divisions” menu option. The AET Strategy is concerned with the provision and maintenance of sound education and training to support an environmentally and economically sustainable agriculture. Other government departments of relevance are the Department of Basic Education, and the Department of Higher Education and Training (see separate chapter). Find contact details at

Sinethemba Agricultural High School (Piet Refief)

Suikerland Agricultural High School, Tel: 013 790 1191 (Malelane) Fax: 013 790 1190 Mahhushe Agricultural High School Tel: 013 780 7064 (Kwalugedlane) Fax: 013 780 7064 Cell: 083 289 5872 Umzimcelo Agricultural School (Ermelo) Hoërskool Middelburg (Middleburg) Tel: 017 819 5820 Fax: 086 615 9445 Tel: 013 282 7393/4/5 Fax: 013 282 4402


North West
School Hoërskool Sannieshof (Sannieshof) PH Moeketsi Agricultural High School (Taung) Kromellenboog Combined School (Christiana) Hoërskool Wagpos (Brits) Contact Details Tel: 018 683 0011 Fax: 018 683 0476 Tel: 053 994 1845 Fax: 053 994 1846 Tel: 053 441 9100 / 082 447 6612 Fax: 053 441 2791 Tel: 012 255 5646/7 Fax: 012 255 5568

Northern Cape
School Hoër Landbouskool NoordKaapland, (Jan Kempdorp) Hoërskool Martin Oosthuizen (Kakamas) Contact Details Tel: 053 456 0424 Fax: 053 456 0425 Tel: 054 431 0884/5 Fax: 054 431 0443

Western Cape
School Boland Agricultural High School (Windmeul) Hoër Landbouskool Oakdale (Riversdal) Augsburg Landbougimnasium (Clanwilliam) Contact Details Tel: 021 869 8143 Fax: 086 582 0547 Tel: 028 713 2549 Fax: 028 713 3248 Tel: 027 482 2120/2 Fax: 027 482 1850

School Dimani Agricultural High School (Shayandima) Kheto Nxumalo Agricultural High School (Giyani ) ‡ Harry Oppenheimer Agricultural High (Limburg) Tshipakoni Agricultural High School (Vumani ) ‡ Settlers Agricultural High School (Settlers) ‡ Hoër Landbouskool Kuschke (Eerstegoud) ‡ Merensky High School (Tzaneen) Contact Details Tel: 015 964 3520 Fax: 015 964 1416 Tel: 015 812 3313 Fax: 015 812 4200 Tel: 015 426 0006 Fax: 015 426 0046 Tel: 015 912 ask 41 Tel: 014 730 0211 Fax: 014 730 0290 Tel: 015 225 7026/7 Fax: 015 225 7029 Tel: 015 305 7901/2 Fax: 015 305 7903

Free State
School Weiveld Landbouskool en Hotelskool (Parys) Hoërskool Kroonstad (Kroonstad) Hoërskool Hendrik Potgieter (Reddersburg) Jacobsdal Agricultural High School (Jacobsdal) Unicom High School (Tweespruit ) Bultfontein Hoërskool (Bultfontein) Contact Details Tel: 056 817 6688 Fax: 056 817 6689 Tel: 056 212 4551 Fax: 056: 212 5434 Tel: 051 553 0129 / 082 451 5188 Fax: 051 553 0129 Tel: 053 591 0050 Fax: 053 591 0061 Tel: 051 963 0013 Fax: 051 963 0128 Tel: 051 853 1140 Fax: 051 8531676

School Hoërskool Bekker (Magaliesburg) Contact Details Tel: 014 577 5936/7 Fax: 014 577 5938/9

School Contact Details Tel: 033 267 7920 / 083 799 7806 Fax: 086 512 9604 Tel: 034 982 2261 Fax: 034 980 8708 Tel: 035 879 1075 Fax: 035 879 1077 Tel: 033 251 0328 Fax: 033 251 0094

Eastern Cape
School Phandulwazi Agricultural High School (Alice) Hoër Landbouskool Marlow (Cradock) Winterberg Agricultural High School (Fort Beaufort) Contact Details Tel: 082 491 9044 Tel/fax: 040 653 8758 Tel: 048 881 3121 Fax: 048 881 3192 Tel: 046 645 1168 Fax: 046 645 1518

Weston Agricultural College (Mooi River) Vryheid Landbou Skool (Vryheid) James Nxumalo Agricultural High School (Ulundi) ‡ Zakhe Agricultural College (Umgungundlovu)



5. Agricultural Colleges
Agricultural Colleges offer higher education for those wanting to follow a career in agriculture, as well as further education training (FET). Agricultural Colleges offer higher education for those wanting to follow a career in agriculture, as well as short courses, known as further education training (FET). They are linked to their Provincial Department of Agriculture (PDA), e.g. Cedara is linked to the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs and Rural Development. Further Education Training (FET) i.e. short courses are offered in animal production, crop production, as well as in areas like tractor maintenance and the safe handling of chemicals. A document, Structured Training Programmes, listing all short courses, may be found on Alternatively, contact the Agricultural College of your choosing. Institution and Province Cedara KwaZulu-Natal Elsenburg Western Cape Fort Cox Eastern Cape Glen College Free State Grootfontein Eastern Cape Lowveld Mpumalanga Madzivhandila Limpopo Owen Sithole KwaZulu-Natal Potchefstroom North West Taung North West Tompi Seleka Mpumalanga Tsolo Agricultural College Eastern Cape Contact Details Tel: 033 355 9304/5 Fax: 033 355 9303 Tel: 021 808 5451 Fax: 021 884 4319 Tel: 040 653 8038 Fax: 040 653 8040 Tel: 051 861 1248 Fax: 051 861 1122 Tel: 049 842 1113 Fax: 049 842 1477 Http:// Tel: 013 753 3064 Fax: 013 755 1110 Tel: 015 962 7200 Fax: 015 962 7231 Tel: 035 795 1345 Fax: 035 795 1379 Tel: 018 299 6636 / 66 Fax: 018 293 3925 Tel: 053 994 9800 Fax: 053 994 1130 Tel: 013 268 9300/1/2 Fax: 013 268 9305 Tel: 047 542 0025 / 107 Cell: 082 301 9829

Central University of Technology (CUT) School for Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Tel: 051 507 3113 • A National Diploma in Agricultural Management (3 years) and a B Tech: Agriculture (Degree) is offered. An M. Tech and D. Tech are research options. Research is done in the fields of Agricultural Management, Animal Production and Crop Production. • Short courses are also offered, and students and lecturers are involved in community service and frequently liaise with industry. The latter is mostly accomplished during the second year of training in the form of experiential training on a farm for a one-year period, while various assignments in most subjects also necessitates completion on a farm or agricultural business. • Merit bursaries from the 2nd year of study, and Innovation fund bursaries for research projects are available. Mangosuthu University of Technology Faculty of Natural Sciences Tel: 031 907 7111 • Three year National diplomas in Plant production or Animal production offered. Bursaries are available. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University George Campus (Saasveld) Tel: 044 801 5111 Fax: 044 801 5031 • Departments within the School of Natural Resource Management are Forestry, Agriculture, Nature Conservation, Game Ranch Management and Wood Technology. The National Diploma, B. Tech degree, M. Tech and D. Tech in agriculture are offered. Port Elizabeth North Campus Tel: 041 504 3633 • National Diploma in Agricultural Management; B. Tech in Agricultural Management; M. Tech and D. Tech in Agriculture. North West University Faculty of Agriculture, Science & Technology (Mafikeng Campus) Tel: 018 386 1321/9 • The School of Agricultural Science is made up of three disciplines, two centres and an experimental farm. The disciplines are Animal Science, Crop Science and Agricultural Economics and Extension. • Subjects like Zoology, Botany and Microbiology are offered at the Potchefstroom Campus (Faculty of Natural Sciences). The contact number there is 018 299 1433. Stellenbosch University Faculty of AgriSciences Tel: 021 808 4833 Programmes offered are Agricultural Economics and Management, Animal Production Systems, Conservation Ecology, Crop production Systems, Food and Wine Production Systems, Forestry and Natural Sciences, Agricultural Production and Management. Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Department of Agronomy Department of Horticultural Science Department of Food Science Sustainability Institute (Part of the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences) Tel: 021 808 3728 Tel: 021 808 4803 Tel: 021 808 4900 Tel: 021 808 3578 Tel: 021 881 3196

6. Universities and Further Education (FET) Colleges
Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) Faculty of Applied Sciences Tel: 021 959 6230 Fax: 021 864 5274 National Diplomas in Agricultural Management and Agriculture (Animal Production or Crop Production), Horticulture, Consumer Science, Environmental Health, Environmental Management, Food Technology and Nature Conservation are offered. B Tech and M Tech qualifications in these areas are also offered.



Tshwane University of Technology Faculty of Science Tel: 012 382 6208 Contact details for the Departments of Animal Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Technology, Crop Science, Horticulture, Nature Conservation and Environmental Health are available on the website. University of South Africa (UNISA) College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences The College is situated within the Florida Campus on the corner of Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida, Johannesburg. College lecturer’s offices are situated in the B Block. In addition, a Science Hub is to be developed on the Campus that will house comprehensive laboratory and other facilities to enrich our students’ learning experience. One of the College’s greatest strengths is the close working relationships we have with industry and government. This is a major benefit to our students because it means, first of all, that our qualifications have been specifically designed to meet the skills needs of employers. Another advantage is that these relationships create many opportunities for our students to gain practical or research experience by working on projects that we run with government or industry partners. This College is one of the few higher education providers in the agricultural and environmental sciences that offer technikon-type and university-type programmes under one roof. In Agriculture, for example, we offer a National Diploma and B.Tech in Agricultural Management as well as a generic B.Sc. (Agric). The College is committed to teaching, research and community participation in order to meet the needs of South Africa, the SADC region and Africa as a whole. SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES Department of Agriculture, Animal Health and Human Ecology – the focus is on agricultural management, animal health, community agriculture and social development. This department also hosts the Unit for Indigenous Technological Knowledge Services. Agriculture – 011 471 2341 Animal Health – 011 471 2984 Human Ecology – 011 471 3103 Department of Life and Consumer Sciences Life Sciences e.g. Animal physiology, biochemistry, botany, biology, microbiology and zoology – 011 471 3604 Consumer Sciences e.g. Food, clothing and textiles, nutrition and hospitality – 011 471 3438 SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The Department of Environmental Sciences focuses on nature conservation, horticulture and landscaping, and environmental monitoring and management. Environmental Sciences – 011 471 3222 Horticulture and Landscaping – 011 471 3138 Nature Conservation – 011 471 2163 The Department of Geography offers undergraduate degrees in environmental management and geography modules up to doctoral level. – 011 471 3689 / 2084 CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Tel: 011 471 2143

University of Fort Hare Faculty of Science and Agriculture Tel: 040 602 2232 Fax: 086 628 2403 Departments in the School of Agriculture and Agribusiness are: Agricultural Economics and Extension; Agronomy; Livestock and Pasture Sciences. Departments like Geography, Biochemistry and Microbiology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) etc are housed within the School of Biological and Environmental Sciences or the School of Physical and Computational Sciences. AGRIPARK Tel: 040 602 2126 They establish developmental projects with local communities as partners through University and external funding. Agricultural Information Centre Manager Tel: 040 602 2403 / 082 200 3550 University of the Free State Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences PO Box 339 Bloemfontein 9300 Tel: 051 401 2322 E-mail: Head of Department Agricultural Economics Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Architecture Centre for Environmental Management Centre for Microscopy Centre for Sustainable Agriculture Chemistry Computer Science and Informatincs Consumer Science Telephone 051 401 2250 051 401 2211 051 401 2332 051 401 2863 051 401 2264 051 401 2163 051 401 9212 051 401 2754 051 401 2304

Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for 051 401 2721 Africa Genetics Geology Geography Institute for Groundwater Studies Lengau Agricultural Development Centre Mathematics and Applied Mathematics Mathematical Statistics and Actuarial Science Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology Paradys Experimental Farm Physics Plant Sciences Quantity Surveying and Construction Management Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences Urban and Regional Planning Zoology and Entomology 051 401 2261 051 401 2515 051 401 2255 051 401 2175 051 443 8859 051 401 2190 051 401 2311 051 401 2396 051 443 9011 051 401 2926 051 401 2514 051 401 248 051 401 2212 051 401 3210 051 401 2427

The University of the Free State presents a number of short courses for commercial and emerging farmers. These are presented in Afrikaans, English or Sesotho. To find out about the financial planning and strategic management courses offered by the Centre for Agricultural Management, call 051 401 2557 or email


University of KwaZulu-Natal (PMB) Faculty of Science & Agriculture Tel: 033 260 5808 • The schools related to agriculture are: - School of A gricultural Sciences and A gribusiness – A gricultural Economics; A nimal and Poultry Science; Dietetics and Food Nutrition; Forestry; C rop Science; Horticultural Science; Plant Breeding; C ommunity Resources. - School of Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology and Plant Pathology - School of Biological and C onservation Science - Environmental Science • Other Schools in the Faculty include Chemistry, Mathematical Sciences, Chemistry etc. Fourteen (14) Centres are linked to the Faculty including the African Centre for Crop Improvement; the African Centre for Food Security; and the Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development. Details of all of these can be found on the website. University of Limpopo Faculty of Sciences, Health & Agriculture Tel: 015 268 2203 •The most relevant branch here (for readers of this directory) is the School of Agriculture & Environmental Studies. The Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Horticulture, Animal Production or Pasture Science) and Bachelor of Agricultural Management in Animal Production are offered. Readers may be interested in other qualifications too e.g. Bachelor of Nutrition and Bachelor of Science (offered in Biological Sciences, Soil Science etc). University of Pretoria Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Tel: 012 420 3201 • Departments within the School for Agricultural and Food Sciences are: Consumer Science; Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development; Plant Production and Soil Sciences; Animal and Wildlife Sciences; Centre for Nutrition; Centre for Wildlife Management; Post Graduate School for Agriculture and Rural Development; Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa; South African Institute for Agricultural Extension; SADC Centre for Land Related, Regional and Developmental Policy. • Other schools within this faculty are the School for Biological Sciences, the School for Physical Sciences and the School of Mathematical Sciences. •Also of relevance to agriculture, of course, is the Faculty of Veterinary Science. The contact telephone number there is 012 529 8000. University of Venda School of Agriculture Tel: 015 962 8310 / 408

The School of Agriculture offers Agricultural Economics, Animal Science, Agricultural and Rural Engineering, Family Ecology and Technology, Forestry, Horticultural Sciences, Plant Production, Soil Science. There is also a Centre for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation and a separate School of Environmental Sciences. University of Zululand Faculty of Science and Agriculture Tel: 035 902 6649 / 6065 The Agricultural Department covers Agronomy, Animal Science, Economics, Extension and Rural Development.

7. AgriSETA: short courses
The agricultural sector over many years got used to the so-called ‘Short courses’. Boskop offered these with great success. The single, most important problem was that the learners never received recognition on the successful completion of these courses. During the past years much effort has been invested in finding a solution to this problem. So-called ‘Unit Standards’ were designed which ensures that the incumbent complies with minimum standards. Now such training is certified and learners receive officially recognised certificates.
Primary and Secondary qualifications, Citrus Modules, Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape qualifications are listed on the website

8. Some AgriSETA accredited training providers
Find the comprehensive list on Accredited training providers in related sectors can be found on the websites of FOODBEV and the forestry SETA, FIETA. Visit and • Buhle Farmer’s Academy Tel: 013 665 4001 buhlefarmers@telkomsa. net (see advert on page 126) • Dew Crisp Farms (Pty) Ltd. Tel: 011 840 1600 • Dicla Training Tel: 011 662 9024 • Earth Innovations Tel: 043 726 9900 • Elgin Learning Foundation Tel: 021 848 9413 • Grain Training Institute Tel: 0861 484 678 (see advert on page 126) • Institute of Natural Resources Tel: 033 346 0796 • Flori Horticultural Services Tel: 013 866 7432 / 082 564 1211 • Koue Bokkeveld Training Centre Tel: 023 317 0983 • KwaZulu-Natal Poultry Institute (KZNPI) Tel: 033 346 0049 www. • Mthonyama Dev. Enterprise & Agric./Soc. Consultants Tel/fax: 043 643 3429 /5367, Tel: 043 642 2214



• NWGA - National Wool Growers Association of South Africa Tel: 041 365 5030 • Rainman Landcare Foundation Tel: 031 783 4412 • SASRI Tel: 031 508 7400 • Shukela Training Centre Tel: 031 508 7735 • Skills for Africa Tel/fax: 012 379 4920 (see advert on page 125) • Umnga Farmer’s Group Tel: 045 933 1318

11. Agricultural Research Council (ARC) training
The ARC Institutes are able to structure courses upon request. The numbers of persons accepted for the courses and the costs vary and are obtainable from the contact numbers. Grain and Industrial Crops Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Business Division Tel: 021 809 3100 Institute for Industrial Crops (ICC) Tel: 014 536 3150 Courses cover orchard and vineyard management, post-harvest Courses on tobacco, cotton and technology and processing etc. fibre crops are presented. Public Support Services Business Division Grain Crops Institute (GCI) Institute for Agricultural Tel: 018 299 6100 Engineering (IAE) Courses are offered on the Tel: 012 842 4000 production of dry beans, sunflowers, soy beans, groundnuts, Courses are provided as required in the fields of mechanisation, soil maize and sorghum. conservation structures and animal housing. Small Grain Institute (SGI) Tel: 058 307 3400 Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ISCW) A regular course on wheat Tel: 012 310 2500 production is focused on extension officers and students. Other courses Specialised courses are structured on small grains are presented as components of research and on demand and in collaboration service programmes in the fields of with commercial and developing water harvesting, soil science and climate studies. agricultural industries. Livestock Business Division Animal Production Institute Tel: 012 672 9111 Included amongst courses offered are those to do with animal production and management, pastures, cheese and yoghurt production, meat processing and carcass cutting. Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute Tel: 012 529 9111 Courses offered include applied veterinary helminthology, veterinary ectoparasitology and tick identification. Horticulture Business Division Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute (VOPI) Tel: 012 841 9611 Hydroponic Vegetable Production and Basic Vegetable Production for Improved Nutrition courses are presented. Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops (ITSC) Tel: 013 753 7000 Training includes lectures as well as practical in-field demonstrations. Courses cover crop and cultivar selection, orchard floor management, pruning, post harvest handling, plant diseases and management of diseases etc. Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 • Principles of integrated pest management (IPM) for established and developing agricultural systems • Handling, extraction and Identification of plant-parasitic nematodes • The identification of phytophagous mites and of slide mounted specimens of selected mite families. • Introductory and advanced spider identification courses • Identification of some parasitic mites (Acari) of birds and domestic animals in Southern Africa. • Alien plant control for land managers • Beekeeping development for resource-limited farmers and for for extension workers • Practical course in phytobacteriology techniques in applied entomology • Introductory mycology • Fungal taxonomy course • Plant inspectors course for the indentification of quarantine pests and diseases • Biology and control of harvester termites • Transmission electron microscopy – preparation and examination of biological material.

9. AgriSETA: learnerships
• A learnership can by and large be compared to the well-known apprenticeship. A learnership normally covers a period of six months to one year. Thirty percent of the training is theoretical and 70% is practical. The major part of the training, at least the practical training, can be offered on the farm. • Learnerships are available in the following subjects: Agricultural Management; Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (for both farm owner and farm worker); Fruit; Grain; Milling; Red Meat; Seed; Sugar; Sugar Processing; and Tobacco. • A learnership leads to a qualification and the level of qualification starts at Level 1 – Level 1 is equal to Grade 9 (or Standard 7 – for those that still remember!) The highest level is level 5. • AgriSETA will pay the course fees should you wish to expose your employees to a learnership. In order to provide for as many employers as possible to participate in this process, a maximum of five workers per farmer will be paid for. If an employer wants to expose more than five workers to learnerships, he is welcome to do so, but the employer will have to pay their fees himself. The charge per learner is about R15 000 for a learnership. • The above is directed at permanent employees, but should you wish to offer an unemployed person the opportunity to complete a learnership, you are welcome to contact agriSETA. •In the case of an unemployed person, AgriSETA will also pay for his training – the cost PLUS a weekly allowance for the duration of his training. • The employer will have to enter into an agreement with the learner for the duration of the learnership. The strategy is that the employer offers an opportunity to the employee to obtain practical experience in the work place. The practical experience will obviously have to be in relation to the theoretical training the learner is busy with. After completion of the learnership, the employer will have no further obligation towards the learner. By taking in such a learner you as employer get the opportunity of evaluating the person with a view to future employment. ADDITIONAL INCENTIVE: An added benefit to employers is that employers also receive tax deduction benefits once learners enrol and once they have successfully completed the learnership.

10. Adult Basic Education Training (ABET) and general training
Find the ABET menu option at

• A number of AgriSETA-accredited providers offer ABET training (see heading 8). • Media Works assists the SMME in sourcing learners, assessing them and then placing them on the appropriate ABET programme, supplying facilitators and overseeing examinations, where required. Media Works also helps the SMME with the relevant paperwork required to comply with the SETA’s requirements to claim back the Skills Levy. Visit www. or phone 0861 696757. Media Works has branches in Johannesburg, Bloemfontein, Cape Town, East London and Durban. • Thrive Learning Facilitation “makes sense of skills development and SETA accreditation processes for companies and training providers alike”. Visit or call 0861 847 483. • The Rainbow SA National Skills Development Handbook, a sister publication, takes you through the skills strategy and legislation in an easy-to-understand way and provides an extensive list of training providers. Call 011 485 2036 or visit

These and other training providers are listed under the “Training and research” heading in the chapters of this directory.


Capacity building, science & technology
Careers and employment in agriculture
1. Overview
• There are many different careers in the agricultural industry, from farm workers to scientists. Under heading 6, these careers and academic path of study is set out. • If you are considering a career in agriculture or in the agro-food industries, contact the SETAs for a list of skills that are scarce. These details can usually be found on their websites. Contact details for the relevant SETAs can be found in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter. If you wish for details of ALL SETAs, visit www.skillsportal. • There are hundreds of other careers which touch on the world of agriculture which may not be inherently agricultural in and of themselves. A look through the different chapters of this book will give you an idea of these: there are managers, secretaries, social workers, mechanics, lawyers, politicians, meteorologists etc. In this chapter we have tried to list these options too (see headings 7 and 8). • Two sources were vital in compiling this chapter: Careers in Agriculture and Water@work. Find both of these listed under the “Websites and publications” heading.

External Bursary Scheme The prime function of the Agricultural Bursary Scheme is to contribute towards human resources development in the agricultural sector. The bursary scheme is the major part of a comprehensive youth development programme undertaken by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The criteria for financing shall be a combination of the subject curricula: Mathematics, Physical science, Agriculture and Biology. The Directorate’s main focus is to train veterinarians, viticulturists, agricultural engineers, economists, food scientists and other crucial skills for the growth of the agricultural industry. Experiential Training The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries will provide experiential training opportunities primarily for bursars in relevant study disciplines requiring experiential training as part of their qualification conditions. Experiential training opportunities may be accessible to other categories of trainees, namely unemployed graduates, volunteers provided that the following are available: • • • • adequate financial resources to accommodate such trainees; adequate infrastructure resources to accommodate such trainees; appropriate and qualified mentor(s) to supervise trainees; specific or particular duties that can best be executed by trainees.

The Directorate Education, Training and Extension Services will maintain communication and liaison with the different academic institutions regarding the progress of trainees. Internship This category targets qualified unemployed agricultural graduates and graduates in other relevant fields who needs practical hands on experience to enhance their employability. Young Professional Development Programme

2. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
The merger of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries was not complete at the time of writing this chapter. Some changes in directorates are expected. Find the latest at

Directorate: Education, Training and Extension Services Tel: 012 319 7028 The Directorate Education, Training and Extension Services plays a major role in promotion of careers in Agriculture by offering the following: • External Bursary Scheme • Experiential training, Internship and Young Professional Development Programme • International study programmes

This category targets young graduate in possession of requisite Bachelor’s degree such as B.Sc., B.Sc. Agric., B.Sc. Engineering., B.V.S. or post graduate qualification in Agriculture or natural science who would like to further their studies at Honours, Masters and PhD level in the area research leading to innovation in the critical scarce skills in agriculture. International Study Programme This programme will allow theNational Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries to provide resources to potential trainees in the agricultural field to participate in international training interventions. The focus of international programmes is on post-graduate studies and short courses.


3. Companies involved
AgriJob Tel: 082 388 1000 Agricultural Placements Tel: 033 343 1106 / 082 337 1290 AgriVAS Tel: 033 342 9310 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Tel: 051 401 2163 Country Careers Tel: 021 872 1894 FW de Klerk Foundation Tel: 021 930 3622 A register is compiled of people who are prepared to make their special skills available to assist local authorities and government departments. The rationale is that if skills are needed, use South Africans rather than import these skills from elsewhere. The focus is on people older than 50 who have skills in, amongst other sectors, agriculture and local authority. HCR Development Fax: 086 670 8401 • Consultation services on and Development Facilitator for Occupational Curriculum Development • Mentor for persons trained as Development Facilitators. Hopkins and Calvert Tel: 021 851 3639 Job Junction (Pty) Ltd Tel: 015 297 6195 Leaders Unlimited Tel: 011 722 1600 Overseas Opportunities Tel: 044 874 6440 Par Excellance (Personnel Practitioners) Mariana Wait du Plessis Tel: 011 888 3433 Fax: 011 888 1225 http:/ parexcel Personnel Practitioners specialising in the guidance, recruitment, and selection of staff for the food, beverage, packaging, and agricultural industries in (Southern) Africa. YDP Work & Travel Tel: 021 440 5160 Agricultural internships in Australia and the USA Agricultural companies like BKB have open days for school goers (and potential future employees). Find out more on Others, like Suidwes, make use of learnerships to induct people into different careers. Read about learnerships in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter.

4. Websites and publications
• Find the document Careers in Agriculture – used as a source for this chapter – at • Water@Work is a career guide focusing on potential careers in the water sector. It can be downloaded from the websites of various associations involved in that sector e.g. the Water Research Commission (www. or the Water Institute of South Africa ( • Visit the websites of the companies involved e.g. http:/users.iafrica. com/p/pa/parexcel and related associations e.g. the Association of Personnel Service Organisations – – and the Human Resource Council of South Africa – • Look for menu options like “Careers” on agricultural websites and publications e.g. Landbouweekblad, Farmer’s Weekly, the SA Fruit Journal and its website, and the Poultry Information Centre website – Some company websites offering employment or set out possible careers within that company e.g. And the website of the Agricultural Business Chamber actually invites agricultural graduates to post their CVs on Call 021 975 2004 for the following recommended books: • Careers in health sciences Beyond 2000 Publishers. ISBN: 978-09814108-5-2 ISSN: 1681-7737 • Careers In Science, Engineering And Technology Beyond 2000 Publishers. ISBN: 978-0-9814108-4-5 ISSN: 1681- 7737 See what opportunities exist at: • (Agricultural internships in Australia and the USA) • • – Worldwide Agri Exchange (opportunities here and abroad) • • • • – find the Agriculture Forestry Fishing option

5. Bursaries
• For Information on bursaries, contact National Student Financial Aid at 021 763 3232 or visit their website • Find out what is available from the National and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. DAFF bursaries can be viewed on Select: (1) Divisions (2) Education, Training and Extension Services (3) Careers in Agriculture. The Mpumalanga Department of Agriculture, Rural Development and Land Administration is spending some R25 million on college students and upgrading the skills of extension officers, and a further R3.5 million on internships. Through the Vula Ematfuba programme, it is also supporting 76 students at higher learning institutions who are studying scarce skills such as veterinary science, crop and animal production and agricultural economy.


• Bursaries for studies in agriculture are offered by the Study Trust. Details can be found on Call 011 726 5604, email or write to PO Box 29192, Melville 2109. • Various industry associations offer bursaries e.g. The South African Association for Food Science and Technology (, the South African National Seeds Organisation (SANSOR) and the Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA), the Deciduous Fruit Producers Trust (DFPT), the Wool Trust. • Enquire about bursaries which are available from institutions offering the training e.g. Mangosuthu University of Technology. The Citrus Academy manages a a bursary fund that supports students at every level from secondary education upwards, and at a wide range of academic institutions. AgriSETA is also a source of funding for studies. • Fundisa is a subsidised account designed to foster savings for education, and aimed at lower-income groups. Savers receive a 25% bonus from government in addition to the money they save. For further info call the Stanlib contact centre on 0860 123 003. • Providing bursaries is one avenue for companies who seek to fall into line with Black Economic Empowerment legislation (Corporate Social Investment). At the same time, they will be sourcing future (suitable) candidates for employment within their ranks. Find out what is available from companies within the agricultural sector in which you have an interest. • Foundations offer scholarships. These are available to students across Africa even if the training happens in South Africa itself. These may be specifically related to the agro-food industry e.g. the Protein Research Foundation (visit or general e.g. the Nelson Mandela Foundation. • The SADC Banking Association has an Incentive Scholarship Fund. Find out more at • If your area of interest is more towards the environment, find out about the Indalo Yethu Environmental Scholarship Fund. Indalo Yethu’s details can be found in the Biodiversity chapter. • Postgraduate bursaries are offered by the Protein Research Foundation. Write to

• Irrigation and Drainage – The agricultural engineers’ services involve the design of new irrigation systems, e.g. pivot and conventional irrigation systems, micro, drip and flood irrigation and drainage. They also play a leading role in the planning and design of large state water schemes, hydrological research and water usage in the Republic of South Africa. • Conservation of Natural Resources – Soil and water are limited but necessary for economical food production. Here the agricultural engineer can also help by means of advisory services relating to protective soil conservation and pasture systems and may get involved with the design and planning of conservation structures and safe transport systems for flood water control.
Career opportunities in Agricultural Engineering Qualification B.Sc.Eng. Agric. Duration Four years (full time) Institution University of KZN University of Pretoria Job opportunities Entry Requirement Mathematics and Physical Science, all on level 6 (70-79%)

• Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) • ARC • Universities • Consulting • Food Processing companies • Agricultural equipment & systems manufacturers

Agricultural Economics
Agricultural economists are economists who studied economics with special emphasis on the food systems, natural resources, environmental policy and economic development, and as such whose area of specialization is focused towards the agricultural sector. They analyse and advise the optimal use of production factors for the environmentally sustainable production of food and fibres in an internationally competitive marketing milieu. They are also concerned with all economic activities, which include the manufacture and distribution of agricultural means of production, the farming process, determination of government policy concerning agricultural and consumption affairs, purchasing, processing and distribution of agricultural products, as well as the international trade policies.
Career opportunities in Agricultural Economics Qualification B.Sc. (Agric.).Agric. Economics Duration Four years (full time) Institution Universities offering agricultural degrees Entry Requirement Mathematics, Physical Science, Agricultural Science or Economics / Business Economics Level 4 (50-59%)

6. Careers in agriculture
Agricultural Engineering/Bioresource (visit
This category of engineer plans, designs and develops the equipment or infrastructure needed for the production and processing of agricultural products and they specialise in a specific field such as agricultural mechanisation, soil and water conservation, agricultural structures, irrigation and drainage and technology for food processing. The agricultural engineering programme is termed differently by different universities namely: biological and agricultural engineering, and processing engineering and bioresource engineering. The latter is more likely to be used widely by most institutions as recommended in the academic circles. What do I need to become an agricultural engineer? You must really enjoy studying science and engineering to be able to successfully complete your studies in this field and thereby ultimately realise your dream of becoming an agricultural or bioresource engineer. Employment opportunities The employment opportunities available to the agricultural engineers include the following focus areas: • Energy Sources and Mechanisation – Agricultural engineers contribute through research and development of alternative energy sources and machines, testing and improvement of existing sources of machinery. Agricultural engineers also provide consultation services on implement replacement, especially expensive machinery which is not always suitable to local conditions. • Farm Structures – Farm structures contribute to a successful farming enterprise. The agricultural engineer creates these facilities in accordance with animals’ needs and product demands within the boundaries of structural durability and the sensible application of capital. This field includes buildings for intensive meat, milk and egg production; storing, drying, refrigeration and processing of a large variety of agricultural and other products; glasshouses, plastic-covered tunnels, etc for animal, flower and vegetable production.

Job opportunities Government Departments

• DAFF • International Relations and Cooperation • Trade & Industry • Labour • Water and Environment Affairs (DWEA) • Commercial Banks • Land Bank • Development Bank of SA (economists, credit consultants / advisors and commodity traders) • Universities, ARC, Statistics SA (lecturer, researcher, economist)

Banking Institutions

Consulting firms, academic and research institutions

Other private organisations • Media companies • Consulting firms • International Agencies (development) • Seed companies • Agribusinesses and co-operatives


Agronomists are responsible for the successful growing of corn, maize, grain sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower, cotton, sugar cane, potatoes and forage crops. Agronomists must develop and implement production systems with the aim to have optimal economic production without harm to the environment. Career opportunities in Agronomy Qualification B.Sc. (Agric) For a career as an agronomist (scientist) National Diploma in Agronomy and B.Tech in Crop Production – For a career as an agronomist (technician) Duration Four years (full time) Three years (full time) Institution Universities offering agricultural degrees Most Universities of Technology and Colleges of Agriculture Entry Requirement Mathematics and Physical Science level 4 (50-59%) Mathematics and Physical Science

Animal Science
Animal scientists are qualified people involved in research and development and who give advice to the livestock industry concerning the production of animals and their products. These scientists focus areas include: animal nutrition, breeding, genetics and meat science, as well as various production systems with regard to a variety of farm animals. Responsibilities of an animal scientist Animal science refers to the study of livestock in their specific environment and their products such as meat, milk, fibre, leather and the variety of products which emanate from these primary products. This includes the development of new products and the processing and marketing of animal products. Animal scientists make important contributions in various fields, through: • assisting the industry to effectively utilise the natural resources of the country; • researching the challenges which face the livestock producer and the livestock product manufacturer; • giving advice on all animal species and their products (contribute to the livestock industry); • conserving and putting to use the rich genetic biodiversity on animal species farmed in South Africa; • using up-to-date biotechnology to help the livestock industry to keep abreast of the global competition it faces in animal production and products. The nature of the work varies from working directly with animals to the fundamentals of molecular biotechnology. Researchers may therefore spend their working day in the laboratory and/or physically working with animals. Consulting animal scientists find themselves in the applied situation, which requires travelling and experiencing the industry in a wide sense. Requirements: what kind of personality do I need? The most important requirement is that animal scientists should like to work with animals. Career opportunities in Animal Science Qualification B.Sc. Agric.Animal Science Duration Four years (full time) Institution Universities offering agricultural degrees Job opportunities • Livestock industries • Agricultural extension officers • Technical adviser/manager for businesses involved in the livestock, livestock products, distributors of forage and stock remedies • Teaching / lecturing • Research: nutrition, physiology, breeding and processing of products Entry Requirement Mathematics, Physical Science Level 4 (5059%)

Job opportunities • Agribusinesses and Agricultural co-operatives • Fertiliser manufacturers • Agricultural pesticide departments • Universities

Agricultural Technical Services
Agricultural technicians assist agricultural scientists in their work and help with the collection of information. They also give advice and information to the farming industry. There are three groups of agricultural technicians, namely: • Agricultural resource technicians – Work together w ith the agricultural resource officer – Involved in the classification, description and plotting of a region’s natural resources. • Agricultural extension technicians – A ssist the agricultural extension officer – C ollect information to determine the needs of extension • Agricultural research technicians – Help the agricultural researchers. Career opportunities in Agricultural Technical Services Qualification National Diploma in Agriculture: Botany; National Diploma in Nature Conservation; National Diploma in Analytical Chemistry; National Diploma in Agriculture: Animal Production; National Diploma in Engineering Duration Three years (full time) Institution Most Universities of Technology Entry Requirement Mathematics, Agricultural Science, Physical Science or Biology

Biological Nitrogen Fixation
What is biological nitrogen fixation? Availability of nitrogen in soil is perhaps the single most important factor limiting plant growth and crop yields. Some free-living and symbiotic bacteria directly influence availability of nitrogen in soil by conversion of atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia in the process termed biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Worldwide BNF accounts for 65 % of the nitrogen used in agriculture, of which the symbiosis of legumes with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia is by far the most important source. Legumes such as soy beans, groundnuts, peas, beans, lentils, lucerne and clover are a major source of protein for human and animal consumption. What is needed to become a biological nitrogen fixationist? A strong interest in biological science and research is essential and the person should love to work under uncomfortable conditions with soil.

Job opportunities • Government departments: DAFF and DWEA • ARC • Agribusinesses and agricultural co-operatives


Career opportunities in Biological nitrogen fixation Qualification B.Sc. Agric. Or Microbiology Duration Three years (full time) Institution Most Universities Entry Requirement Biology and/or Agricultural Science and Chemistry

Job opportunities • Departments of Agriculture • ARC • Academic institutions • Food manufacturing / processing companies

Horticulture and Hydroponics
Horticulturists are involved in the application of scientifically based production systems of vegetables, fruit and ornamental plants. Hydroponics is a kind of a system of production called soilless growing where fertilisers and minerals are added to or mixed with water and supplied to plants. Horticulturists can advance their career as biotechnologists by furthering their studies in this discipline. The positions that can be found in the institutions listed in the table below, include among others, the following: • Agricultural product sales • Arborist • Chemical research and development • Consumer relations • Corporate horticulturist • Disease and pest manager • Equipment sales • Retail and wholesale sales representative • Roadside marketer • Seed and bulb sales and marketing • Extension specialist • Fertiliser sales representative • Floral crop grower • Floral shop manager • Fruit and vegetable grower • Garden centre manager • Garden writer • Golf course superintendent • Greenhouse manager • Home and commercial lawn • Sod grower care manager • Horticultural artist • Horticultural consultant • Horticultural therapist • Interior plantscape designer • Interior plantscape manager • Landscape contractor and marketing • Landscape designer • Nurseryman • Nursery crop grower • Nursery manager • Owner of horticultural business • Park manager representative • Park/zoo horticulturist • Plant breeder • Plant propagator • Plant researcher • Quality control specialist • Radio/TV editor • Teacher – High school/ Junior college • Urban forester / horticulturist

Job opportunities • Govt research: National and Provincial Departments of Agriculture • ARC research centres • Private companies: commercial inoculant manufacturers • Own company – consultant • University academics: research on legume nitrogen fixation

Entomologists are basically involved in research to ensure plant protection. There are various categories such as plant pathology, microbiology and insect diversity. What is needed to become an entomologist? You must have a strong interest in science studies and research. Career opportunities in Entomology Qualification B.Sc. Entomology Duration Three years (full time) Institution Entry Requirement Most Mathematics, Physics Universities and Biology Level 4 (50-59%)

Job opportunities • DAFF • ARC • Academic institutions

Food Science / Food Technology
Food scientists are responsible for food examinations and inspections to ensure that food is healthy and safe for human consumption. Their functions revolve around the following areas: • investigating the basic nature of food and its nutritional, physical and chemical properties; • research into new and economical production procedures; • development of new and safe food products; • management within companies involved in food processing and preservation. Food technologists are concerned with aspects pertaining to the production, preservation and development of high-quality foods. They also manage processing plants and quality assurance laboratories. They are charged with monitoring of food-quality standards by government bodies (namely SABS). Career opportunities in Food Science / Technology Qualification B.Sc. Food Science or B.Sc. (Agric.) Food Science for career as a Food scientist National Diploma in Food Technology and a B.Tech Food Technology – for a career as a Food technologist Duration Four years (full time) Institution Most Universities Entry Requirement Mathematics, Physics and Biology or Agricultural Level 4 (50-59%)

Career opportunities in Horticulture and Hydroponics Qualification B.Sc. (Agric.) Horticulture; National Diploma or B.Tech degree in Horticulture Duration Four years for degree and three years for National Diploma Institution Most Universities, Universities of Technology, Agricultural Colleges Entry Requirement Mathematics, Physical Science, Agricultural Science and Biology

Job opportunities • DAFF • Botanical gardens • Farming businesses • Fresh produce markets • Seed manufacturing companies • Agribusinesses / co-operatives • Private enterprises • Lecturing / teaching • Research institutes e.g. ARC • Development organisations

Four years

Most Universities of Technology

(As above)

Microbiology is the study of micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and protista that can only be seen with a microscope! We can call them “the unseen multitudes!” All living organisms have the metabolic ways to grow, reproduce and maintain themselves. A single bacterial cell, under the best conditions, can produce in less than a day more than a billion descendants. Viruses are not alive, they need a living host to survive. Today


we define a virus as a noncellular infectious agent. Protista are dominated by eukaryotic organisms that are single celled. Different protista differ in their characteristics and nutrition. What does a microbiologist do? A microbiologist works mostly in a laboratory or a place where a microscope can be installed. It can be anywhere in the field of nutrition, agriculture, medicine, ecology, pharmacology, cosmetics, marine life or any place where animals and plants or people live! Identification is by means of DNA karyotyping. Characteristics needed to become a microbiologist Such a person must have a keen interest to work in a laboratory, an inquiring mind and good concentration; must be accurate and exploring. He or she must have a love for botany, zoology (biology), genetics and, in general, for living and very small things. The candidate must be self-motivated and mechanically inclined. Career opportunities in Microbiology Qualification Duration Institution Most Universities and Universities of Technology Entry Requirement Matric exemption (not for Universities of Technology). Average 50% for Mathematics; 50% for Physical Science; Biology passed B.Sc. (Agric.) Four Microbiology years (full time)

Pasture / Grassland Science
Pasture/Grassland Science deals with all aspects of the conservation, improvement and utilisation of natural and established pastures. The pasture/grassland scientist answers questions such as how often, how severe and at what time of the year should grazing plants be defoliated, how many animals can be kept on a certain pasture and why is it necessary to put up fences and make camps. Career opportunities in Pasture / Grassland Science Qualification Duration Institution Most Universities and universities of Technology Entry Requirement Mathematics, Agricultural Science and/or Biology Level 4 (50-59%) B.Sc. (Agric.) Three Grassland/ years (full pasture; time) National Diploma in Nature Conservation

Job opportunities • Departments of Agriculture • National Parks – various sections of nature conservation • Fertiliser and seed companies

Soil Science
Soil scientists specialise in the development of soil, profile differentiation and morphology. Also concerned with soil fertility, classification and chemistry. The various divisions with focus areas of specialization comprise the following: • Soil survey and analyses – Scientists study soils by means of profile pit observations or by drilling with mechanical augers and then do physical and chemical laboratory analyses. The results obtained (also compiled as maps and aerial photographs) are used as vital information for infrastructural planning (urban planning, regional planning, roads, pipelines, power lines, etc.) and agricultural management purposes. • Soil physicists and hydrologists study and research problems relating to water and soil interactions, soil-air permeability, formation of ploughsoles, etc. • Soil chemists and fertility specialists are concerned with soil nutrients availability and deficiencies using specialised techniques for the purpose of compiling the most effective fertilisation programmes. • Soil biologists – the focus here is on transformations brought about by micro-organisms. Career opportunities in Soil Science Qualification Duration Institution Entry Requirement Mathematics and Physical Science Level 4 (50-59%) B.Sc. (Agric.) Soil Four years Most Science – for a career (full time) Universities as a soil scientist and universities of Technology National Diploma: Three Soil Science – for a years (full career as a soil time) technician Most universities of technology

Job opportunities • National ARC centres • National, provincial departments of agriculture • Food industries • Wine cellars • Lecturing / teaching • Private companies

Plant Pathology
Plant Pathology is defined as the study of the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the mechanisms by which these factors cause disease, the interactions between these causal agents and the plant (effects on plant growth, yield and quality), and the methods of managing or controlling plant disease. It also interfaces knowledge from other scientific study fields such as mycology, microbiology, virology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, etc. Plant pathologists are scientists concerned with the understanding of the dynamic processes involved in plant health. Their work is more research orientated. Career opportunities in Plant Pathology Qualification B.Sc. Agric. In Plant pathology Duration Three years (full time) Institution Universities offering agricultural degrees Entry Requirement Mathematics and Physical Level 4 (50-59%)

(As above)

Job opportunities • Research: national and provincial government. departments • ARC • Agrochemical companies • Seed companies • Fertiliser companies • University academics • Farming and nurseries • Pharmaceutical representative • Private company • Private consultant

Job opportunities • Agricultural co-operatives and agribusinesses • Manufacturers of fertilisers • Agricultural departments • ARC • Universities

Statisticians generate, collate, verify, maintain and disseminate statistical information on the agricultural sector, including the monitoring and projection of trends in agriculture, food security and food utilisation.


Career opportunities in Statistics Qualification B.Sc. (Agric.) Economics or B.Com (Agric. Economics) Duration Institution Entry Requirement Mathematics, Agricultural Science or Economics / Business Economics Four Most years (full Universities time) Job opportunities • Departments of Agriculture • National Parks Board • Commercial banks and other financial institutions • Academic institutions

Qualification National Diploma Veterinary Technology – for a career as a veterinary technologist B.Tech. Veterinary Technology – for a career as a veterinary technologist

Duration Three years: four semester formal training, two semesters of suitable experiential training

Institution Universities of Technology

Entry Requirement Senior certificate / any equivalent qualification: Level 4 (50-59%) for Mathematics, Physical Science and Biology National Diploma in Veterinary Technology or an equivalent qualification

Two years on Universities block study of Technology

Veterinary Science
Veterinarians provide services to farmers. Pet owners, breeders, animal welfare organisation, game reserves, zoos, etc. At government level they are involved in regulatory services, i.e. diagnostic services, control of diseases, prevention of disease introduction into the country and eradication of diseases. They are also concerned with small and large animal practice and the conducting of research. Attributes to match the career A keen interest in the medical field with a special and dedicated love for animals, which means enjoying to play and care for them are attributes essential to this choice of career. You also need to be physically strong. Career opportunities in Veterinary Science Qualification Diploma Veterinary Nursing – for a career as veterinary nurse Duration Two years (full time) Institution University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science Job opportunities • Veterinary clinics, dairies, kennels • Universities • Pharmaceutical firms and other industries • Surgical instrument marketing firms • Animal research centres • Zoological gardens • Animal welfare societies Qualification B.Sc. Animal Health – for a career as an Animal Health Scientist Diploma in Animal Health – for career as Animal Health technician Duration Four years (full time) Three years Institution University of North West and others Entry Requirement Mathematics, Physical Science, Biology and Agricultural Science as recommended subjects Senior Certificate: Maths, Biology and Agricultural Science as recommended subjects Entry Requirement Mathematics and Physical Science with a minimum pass mark of Level 4 (50-59%)

Job opportunities • State veterinary services • Laboratory animal science • Research • Academia Qualification Certificate: Poultry Meat Examination – for a career as a Poultry Meat Examiner Duration Co-operative training / inservice training / 30 days with minimum 15 000 slaughtered chickens Institution Universities of Technology Entry Requirement Minimum Grade 10 with at least one of these subjects: Mathematics, Biology, Science or Agricultural Science. Experience will be considered if you do not comply with these requirements. Certificate in Poultry Meat Examiners / equivalent manager, supervisor or quality control certificate with applicable experience. A complete curriculum vitae with registration.

Certificate: Poultry Meat – for a career as a Poultry Meat Inspector

20 days inservice training. Self study with the completion of applicable assignments

Universities of Technology

Job opportunities • Poultry meat industry / poultry meat inspector • Poultry abattoirs • State veterinary regulatory services Qualification Certificate: Red Meat Examination – for a career as a red meat examiner Duration Institution Entry Requirement Minimum Grade 10 with at least one of these subjects: Mathematics, Biology, Science or Agricultural Science. Experience will be considered if you do not comply with these requirements.

University of North West (full time); UNISA (minimum three years distance learning) Job opportunities

• State veterinary services • Industry: feeds, medicines etc • Laboratory animal science • Veterinary public health • Research • Academia • Zoological gardens • Animal welfare societies • Wildlife ranching and conservation • Marine biology • Animal production sectors

Theory and Universities practical theory: of minimum 30 Technology hours tuition co-operative training / inservice training 80 days divided as: 30 days bovine; 30 days pigs (minimum 3 000 pigs). 20 days sheep (minimum 2 000 sheep) Job opportunities

• Red meat industry • Red meat abattoirs • State veterinary regulatory services


Qualification National Diploma Environmental Health – for career as a meat inspector B.Tech. Environmental Health – for career as a meat inspector

Duration Three years – the last three months are co-operative training.

Institution Universities of Technology

Entry Requirement Senior certificate / equivalent qualification with Level 3 (40-49%) Mathematics and Physical Science National Diploma Environmental Health or equivalent qualification

Weeds Biocontrol Science
Work in the field involves searching for natural enemies (either insects or disease-causing organisms such as fungi) of invasive plants (weeds) in the weed’s country of origin and studying the natural enemies in quarantine to determine whether they have potential in controlling the invasive plant, and whether they are host-specific. The host-specific and damaging insects and fungi are released from quarantine and placed onto their target weeds in the field. The release sites are regularly visited to see whether they have become established and are controlling the weed. Biocontrol scientists specialising in aquatic weeds regularly wade in polluted, weed infested rivers or dams, wearing waders, or use boats. Career opportunities in Weed Biocontrol Science Qualification B.Sc. or B.Sc. (Hons.) Entomology Duration Four years (full time) Institution Most universities Entry Requirement Mathematics, Physical Science and Biology or Agricultural Science Level 4 (50-59%)

Two years on Universities block study of Technology

Job opportunities • Environmental health officer • Health advisor • Air pollution control officer • Meat inspector • Occupational hygienist • Private consultant

Job opportunities • Government departments • ARC centres • Universities: lecturers, researchers • Private consultants • Private companies

Viticulturists apply plant science principles to manipulate the vine to produce the kind of grapes necessary for the production of different wine types and styles. Compulsory school subjects: Mathematics, Physical Science, Biology Academic requirements: B.Sc. (Agric.) Viticulture Career opportunities in Viticulture and Oenology Qualification Duration Institution Entry Requirement

7. Careers related to agriculture
Find details of the following (and more) in the Water@Work career guidance resource.

B.Sc Agric Four StelMathematics and Physical Science Viticulture years (full lenbosch Level 5 (60-69%) and Oenol- time) University ogy – for a career as a viticulturist/ oenologist Higher Certificate in Agriculture – for a career as a viticulturist / oenologist Two years Elsenburg College of Agriculture, Cape Peninsular University of Technology Elsenburg College of Agriculture, Cape Peninsular University of Technology Senior certificate / equivalent qualification. If students fail a Mathematics evaluation in the advent of the academic year, they will need to register for Mathematics.

Aquaculture is the cultivation of plants and animals that live in water, including fish, shellfish, waterblommetjies, crustaceans, and even crocodiles. These creatures are harvested for food, pets, aquariums, and for restocking wild populations. Aquaculturists usually work as farmers or technicians. Like farming, stock needs to be cared for all the time, even over weekends and public holidays.

Aquatic Scientist
As an aquatic scientist, you will study various aspects of inland and marine water environments. These cover the physical (e.g. temperatures, water currents and rates at which water flows); the biological (e.g. plants, animals and microbes that live in water); the chemical (e.g. the organic and inorganic composition of water, water cleansing and water quality) and the ecological (the ways in which organisms interact with their environments).

Diploma in Agriculture: Cellar Technology – for a career as a viticulturist / oenologist

Three years with practicals

Mathematics, Biology and Physical Science. Higher Certificate in Agriculture programme, with Viticulture and Wine Science as selected subjects – or equivalent qualification.

Biochemistry is the basis of all the life sciences. As a biochemist, you study the cells of living things such as animals, plants, and micro-organisms, their chemical composition and their metabolic processes. You apply your knowledge in fields such as medicine, veterinary science, agriculture, forestry, horticulture, environmental science, and manufacturing.

In general, biologists study living organisms (i.e. their structure, functions, evolution, distribution, and the way they relate to each another). As a biologist, you research the life cycles of living things (e.g. humans, animals, plants) and how these cycles relate to their environments.

Job opportunities • Entrepreneur Manager • Product developer • Technical food marketer • Winemaker

Botanists study the biology and ecology of all types of plants. As a botanist, you could use your knowledge in areas such as conservation, management of natural resources, agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, and biotechnology.


Ecologists study the relationships of plants, animals, and their environments, and the ways that all these interact with each other.

Zoologists are biologists who study animals. In this career, you study the structures, characteristics, functions, ecology, and environments of animals; the evolution of animal forms; and animal anatomy, physiology, embryology, behaviour, diseases, and geographical distribution. You may work as a researcher at a university or research institute, as a laboratory or fieldworker, in a museum, in education, or in wildlife management, conservation, agriculture, and medicine.

Environment Engineer
As an environment engineer, you assess and manage the effects of human and other activity on the natural and built-up environment; you conduct environmental impact assessments, manage natural resources, and control pollution.

Environment Health Officer
In this career, you develop, regulate, enforce, and monitor laws and regulations that deal with public health, building, and environment management, so as to promote good health, hygiene, and safety.

8. Other careers – people and companies listed in this book
Find details of the following (and more) in the Water@Work career guidance resource.

Environment Protection and Control
If you become an environmental protection officer, you will look after the environment by monitoring the quality of effluents being discharged from individual plants/processes or larger industrial or manufacturing sites.

As an accountant, you will prepare financial statements, budgets, accounting systems, and cash flows so that managers can make sensible business decisions and improve profits. Accounting careers include Chartered accountant, Cost accountant, Financial accountant, Accounting management consultant, Financial manager, Auditor, Credit controller and Bookkeeper.

Environment Scientist
There are many different kinds of work in environmental science. You can deal with the conservation and management of natural ecosystems in water and on land, habitats, rare or endangered fauna and flora, or nature reserves.

Administrators and clerks do all the general office work that helps other professional staff and managers to do their jobs e.g. keeping records, writing up accounts, preparing and typing reports and letters, and filing. You could be in charge of a company’s administration, or you could become an office manager, bookkeeper, cashier, personal assistant, typist or secretary, or receptionist.

As a geographer you study the Earth’s surface, its land features, climate, vegetation, and physical conditions. You also study and analyse the relationships between human activities and the natural and built environment. A climatologist is a geographer who studies climates, their phenomena, and causes. A geomorphologist is concerned with the geological aspect of the Earth’s land and seafloor surfaces. A fluvial geomorphologist studies the science of river formation.

Business Process Outsourcing and Offshoring (BPO&O)
This industry, which has only been active in South Africa for about a decade, is expected to grow annually by 50 percent for the next four years. It provides an opportunity to create many jobs for unemployed South Africans: all one needs is a basic matric. It includes jobs like call centres.

Geology is an earth science, or geoscience, and includes knowledge from fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, and palaeontology. Geotechnologists and geotechnicians work closely with geologists.

Cartography is the science of making maps, as well as their study as scientific documents and works of art. In particular, it concerns all stages of evaluation, compilation, design and graphic representation required to produce new or revised maps from different forms of basic data, such as aerial photographs, field records, historical manuscripts, other maps, and statistical reports. The introduction of GIS (geographic information systems) and other computer assisted mapping systems; wireless applications and GPS (global positioning systems) have added new dimensions to cartographic techniques and the use of digital spatial information. Conventional map production techniques are giving way to the application of computer technology.

As a geophysicist, you use physics, mathematics, and chemistry to understand and explain the physical features of solid earth, fluid earth, and the upper atmosphere (i.e. the Earth’s surface and interior, and its atmosphere and hydrosphere).

As a geotechnologist, you work in a very complex area, studying the crust of the Earth to help locate and extract natural resources such as water, minerals, and metals, and to determine conditions below the surface.

Hydrologists study water in streams, rivers, and underground. In this career, you evaluate different processes in the water cycle, such as rainfall, evaporation, groundwater, and river flows so as to find out how much water is available and how reliable is the supply.

Chemical Engineer
If you work in chemical engineering, you will design and operate processes that turn raw materials (through physical, chemical, and thermal changes) into useful everyday products such as petrol, paper, fertilisers, pharmaceuticals, toothpaste, sugar, plastics, synthetic fibres, chemicals, explosives, and cement. You could also protect the environment by controlling the pollution of water and air. Chemical engineers, chemical technicians, and Chemical technologists are careers here. Related specialisations are: Process design; Process control engineer; Biochemical engineer; Petrochemical engineer.

Find Microbiology under the previous heading. Careers here include: agricultural scientist; aquatic scientist; biologist; botanist; ecologist; entomologist; horticulturist; medical technologist; microbiologist; pharmacist; zoologist, Bacteriologist, Virologist and Mycologist.


Civil Engineer
Civil engineering is probably the broadest of the engineering fields. Civil engineers create, improve, and provide facilities for living, industry, and transportation. In a civil engineering career you need to know about construction materials, soils, hydraulics, and fluid mechanics. You will also be concerned with protecting and conserving the environment. Civil engineers are helped by civil engineering technicians, who do much of the practical and functional work, and civil engineering technologists, who do the more theoretical work such as planning, design, or research.

Laboratory worker/analyst
As a laboratory technician or technologist, you help scientists (in the physical, chemical, biological, and life sciences) by collecting samples, carrying out experiments, taking measurements, and recording results. If you become a chemical laboratory technician or technologist, you will help to develop, produce, and use chemicals and related products.

As a lawyer, you provide legal advice, write documents, conduct negotiations on legal matters, and you may represent clients in courts of law. Not all lawyers practise as legal professionals; you can also use your knowledge in business-related matters such as industrial relations, taxation, commercial transactions, and the incorporation of new companies.

Community Worker
Community workers encourage and help groups to help themselves and to develop, that is, they help communities to identify their own needs, to take decisions, and to develop ways in which to meet those needs. Community workers travel within their communities and keep in close personal contact with them.

Leisure and recreation provider
Tourism, leisure, and recreation are the fastest growing industry in South Africa, and offer an exciting future — in the areas of water-related leisure activities, ecotourism and many others. If leisure, sport, and recreation interest you as a career, there are many to choose from, such as working as a: tourist manager, tour operator tour guide, tourist information officer, travel agent, or recreation manager/officer.

As an economist, you develop and apply theories about how people spend their money; processes involving the ways in which goods and services are produced, supplied, and used; and how businesses or governments allocate resources (e.g. natural resources, technology, labour, and capital or finance). If you are interested in economics, you might consider one of these careers: • Environment economist – studies the environmental impacts of projects and developments; advises industry and government on regulations for environmental and natural resource management; advises government about its responsibilities in terms of international agreements and environment treaties • Other – accountant; actuary; agricultural economist; conveyancer; industrial economist; political scientist; stockbroker.

As a manager, you provide leadership for organisations to achieve their objectives. Managing a business includes organising, researching, planning, controlling, and directing all or part of the work of other employees. You would need to manage and motivate people so that they do their jobs well, and you might also need to manage resources, such as finances. Different types of managers perform different tasks: • Top management includes the chairman, board of directors, managing director or chief executive officer, and other high-ranking managers. • Functional managers manage specific functions or divisions within a company, such as administration, marketing, finances, or buying. • Operational managers are responsible for the way a business works, for example, credit and cost control, or production managers. • General manager is the chief manager, responsible for the work of a number of managers with specific responsibilities. She or he will have a broad background and does not work as a specialist in any particular field; this work combines functional and operational management. • Management consultant works independently as an advisor to businesses on management matters; investigates problems and provides solutions; helps with strategic planning.

Education/Training Practitioner
Education and training are essential in agriculture and beyond. It is a career which might interest you if you enjoy teaching and helping people to grow and develop their potential. In addition to schools and tertiary institutions, there are also the following fields: • Human resources development practitioner. Here you would plan, prepare, and conduct training for employees in industry, businesses, and government departments, to help with skills development and raising productivity (including on-the-job training and apprenticeships) • Training officer. This involves planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating training and development programmes in organisations. • Adult educator — this career is practised mainly in the areas of professional development, adult basic education, skills development, and personal enrichment.

Marketing specialist
If you work in marketing, you will have to find out what consumers want to buy and how to supply them with these products or services as cheaply and efficiently as possible. Other careers that involve marketing include public relations, copywriter, product developer, purchase manager, creative director, media director, and sales manager.

Human Resource/Personnel Manager
As a human resources (or personnel) manager, you would be concerned with people at work and their relationships with each other and with the organisation e.g. staffing, training or human resource development, organisation planning and development, labour relations, remuneration, research, and administration.

• A mathematician develops mathematical theories and methods (theoretical mathematics). In this work, you solve problems by applying mathematical principles and models and by carrying out operational research and numerical analyses (applied mathematics). You can apply mathematical and statistical principles in many different areas, including physics, medicine, computer science, ecology, industry, and commerce. • A statistician collects, classifies, and analyses numerical information to make decisions and forecasts, for example, and to evaluate processes. • An actuary is a statistical expert, working on information to do with mortality, illness, unemployment, and retirement. In this career, your specialised functions are useful mainly for the insurance industry in developing life insurance policies, for instance, and medical aid and pension schemes.

Information Technology Specialist
People who work in information technology (IT) are concerned with giving computers instructions to carry out tasks (computer programming), designing and analysing computer programmes (systems analysis), administering databases and networks, operating computer systems, and designing hardware. IT-related occupations include website designer, network controller, computer consultant, electronics engineer, personal computer (PC) support technician, and Internet services and support technician.


Mechanical Engineer
As a mechanical engineer you design, develop, produce, install, operate, test, and maintain machinery and mechanical equipment. Mechanical engineers are assisted by mechanical engineering technologists and technicians, and all of them work closely with other professionals (e.g. with architects in designing air-conditioning plants). Mechanical engineers, technologists, and technicians normally specialise in a particular field and the mechanical equipment associated with it. Here are some examples: • Agriculture – tractors, threshing machines, harvesters, milking machines, and packing machines; • Water – design and construct waterworks and waste and wastewater treatment plants; • Power generation – steam, water, gas, and nuclear turbines used for driving power generators.

Social Scientist
Social scientists are concerned with the origin and development of human society, and the institutions, relationships, and ideas in life in society. If you are interested in a career in the social sciences, you could consider the following: • Sociologist – examines the ways in which social groups (e.g. families, tribes, and communities) and institutions (e.g. religious, political, and business institutions) interact and influence each other and the behaviour of individuals. • Industrial sociologist – applies the principles of sociology to the organisation of workers and to the relationship between workers and employers, and is concerned with labour relations in complex industrial societies. • Anthropologist – studies the origin, development, and functioning of human societies and cultures, now and in the past, by looking, for example, at religion, family and kinship systems, languages, art, music, and economic and political systems. As an anthropologist, you may specialise as an applied anthropologist, a physical anthropologist, a linguistic anthropologist or a social/cultural anthropologist.

Meteorologists study the Earth’s atmosphere and the changes in it that affect day-to-day weather, long-term climate, and extreme weather conditions such as hurricanes and tornadoes. You forecast the weather by examining trends in the atmosphere such as wind currents, precipitation, and air pressure. A related career is that of the meteorological technician; here you would be responsible for collecting meteorological information and for operating and maintaining weather observation networks.

Social Worker
Social work is concerned with the well-being of people and helping them to cope with problems caused by poor social conditions, unemployment, and poverty.

Political scientist
As a political scientist, you study the way people behave politically as individuals, groups, and as a large mass and their relationship to society and the economy.

Surveying (also called geomatics) is the science of measuring and mapping the layout of the face of the Earth, including natural and man-made features and the sea. After spending some years in the field, you may want to specialise as one of the following: Hydrographic surveyor; Land surveyor – also called a cadastral surveyor; Engineering surveyor – surveys routes for pipelines, sewers, tunnels, roads, and railways; Topographic surveyor – measures and takes aerial photographs of the physical features of the Earth such as rivers, hills, and valleys in order to compile maps; Geodetic surveyor — accurately locates positions on the Earth’s surface using signals from satellites (e.g. the global positioning system or ‘GPS’), the positions of stars, and electronic distance and levelling measurements; Mine surveyor – establishes the boundaries of mines and measures underground and opencast mine workings; Remote sensing surveyor – monitors changes in the surface features of the Earth by using digital data from high-resolution satellites and other imagery systems in the sky.

Process Controller
As a hydroelectric power plant process controller, you operate and control instruments and machinery used for generating electric power. Coal-fired or nuclear power plants also need process controllers. Process controllers can also work in the chemical, power generation, and some food and beverage industries.

Public Relations Professional
In the field of public relations, you work at creating and maintaining a good image of your organisation and showing the public what is attractive or appealing about it. You establish two-way communication between an organisation and its audiences and/or the public (e.g. clients, other businesses, government, shareholders, special interest groups, employees, and communities). A related career would be personnel consulting.

Town and Regional Planner
Town and regional planners develop plans and policies for the use of resources and land and for improving people’s living conditions. You would be assisted by town and regional planning technicians.

• Researchers add to the knowledge in their particular field. As a researcher, you look at what we know in your specialist area, and you test theories to see how true they are. You collect information and organise it in ways that make us look at it in a new way. You also are encouraged to develop new technologies where possible. • ‘Basic’ or ‘fundamental’ research, you study and try to uncover underlying principles and laws that govern the bio-physical world. • ‘Applied’ research, you look for practical ways to apply basic research. • ‘Innovation’ is the process of turning an idea that has been generated through research, into a new or improved product, process, or approach that addresses the real needs of society and involves scientific, technological, organisational, or commercial activities.

As a welder, you join two or more pieces of metal by applying heat, pressure, or a combination of both. Brazing, soldering, electron beams, and laser beams are other methods of joining metals. With similar levels of qualifications, you could also become a boilermaker; tool, jig, and die maker; blacksmith; plumber; sheet metal worker; fitter and turner; panelbeater.
Sources: ; water@work

Our thanks to the Directorate Education, Training and Extension Services and Jeannine Tait at Weston Agricultural College for feedback and input


Capacity building, science & technology
Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET)
“Skills development within a single post-school education and training system”

• a targetted enrolment of at least 1 million students at public FET colleges by 2015 and better mobility of FET graduates to Higher Education institutions. In addition to these changes, the funding of the public FET colleges will be moved from provincial government to national government. FET colleges are also expected to receive more funding from the Skills Development Levy via SETA spending.

4. Planned changes to the skills development system
Planned changes and focus areas in skills development for the year ahead include: • Improved coordination between the SETA system and education and training institutions, particularly FET Colleges and Universities of Technology. • Improved SETA performance, management and governance. • Improved strategic utilisation of funds, including reducing the high amounts of unspent or committed funds and minimising the cost of delivery of learnerships. • Better alignment of industry needs and skills development provision especially with regard to the supply of artisans and technicians. • State Owned Enterprises, the public sector and other large employers will be engaged with a view to get them more involved in training through apprenticeships, learnerships and internships. • Finalisation of industrial policy action plans to guide the industry relevance of skills development efforts and ensure alignment with Sector Skills Plans. • A draft White Paper is planned with the purpose of proposing a range of measures to enhance and expand further and higher education and training opportunities for adults. (In addition a “matric” equivalent qualification appropriate for adults will be developed and will be facilitated by an improved policy on the recognition of prior learning). • Re-invigorating and strengthening the National Skills Authority to, among other things, complement the HRD Council. • The establishment of the Quality Council for Trades & Occupations.

1. Overview
• Following the April 2009 elections, a new Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) was created to enable government to bring a single focus of attention to all post-school education and training. • The new Ministry incorporates the skills development functions previously the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour, as well as the responsibilities of the Ministry of Education, excluding all schooling (Grades R to 12).

2. Scope
DHET has a scope that includes the following areas which were previously the responsibility of the Department of Education or the Department of Labour: • • • • The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) Adult Basic Education & Training (ABET) Further Education & Training (excluding compulsory schooling) Skills development including Sector Education & Training Authorities (SETAs), the National Skills Fund (NSF), the National Skills Authority (NSA) and Indlela. (The employment services, labour centres, and Productivity SA (previously the NPI) remain with the Department of Labour out of the original assigned to it in the Skills Development Act (1998), Skills Development Levies Act (1999) and NQF Act (2008) • Higher Education & Training Agencies and statutory bodies now the responsibility of the new Department as of 1 November 2009 include: • The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) • The three Quality Councils: Umalusi (excluding compulsory schooling); the Quality Council for Trades & Occupations (QCTO); the Council for Higher Education (CHE) • The National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS)

5. Planned changes to the higher education system
Key focus areas: • social transformation of higher education institutions to overcome various forms of discrimination that were identified in the Crain Soudien Report; • reviewing the funding formula for higher education institutions to help change the privileged – underprivileged separation which still exists between institutions. “The bringing together of Higher Education Institutions, Further Education and Training (FET) Colleges, Adult Education and Training and the Skills Development Sector into a single Department of Higher Education and Training provides a powerful basis for addressing education and training in an integrated way.” Dr Blade Nzimande, Minister of Higher Education and Training (DHET)

3. Planned changes to the public Further Education and Training (FET) college system
The importance of the public FET colleges to the new DHET has been emphasised frequently. Amongst other things, the FET colleges give government a cost-effective means to educate and train rural and disadvantaged communities that may not have access to universities or private institutions. Some of the planned changes under the new DHET include: • • • • improved responsiveness to the needs of the economy; expanded programme offerings; the funding of training partnerships with industry through SETAs; improved partnerships with employers and a work-placement programme for FET college graduates; • expanded workplace training opportunities for students and improved student financial aid; • improved management capacity, materials development and the introduction of formal qualifications for lecturers; • institutional audits at all public FET colleges to establish strengths and weaknesses;

Head office contact details Physical address Postal address Website Telephone Fax number Minister Director-General Administrative Secretary Sol Plaatje House, 123 Schoeman Street, PRETORIA Private Bag X893, PRETORIA, 0001 012 312 5555 012 323 5618 Dr Blade Nzimande Ms Mary Metcalfe Ms Sibongile Mncuabe


Capacity building, science & technology
ICT and agricultural media
Information and communication technology (ICT)

3. Computer programmes (software)
There is a World Congress on Computers in Agriculture. Read about the 2009 event at

Record keeping remains a fundamental practice for the successful farmer or business. Various computer programmes – or “software” – are available for the farmer, ranging from financial programmes to management programmes. This technology relates to spraying, irrigation, fertilisation, administration, tank control within a cellar (wine) and more. The advantages of software include: • less time spent on administration; • quick and easy query resolutions; • analysis and summaries of costs and production and what still needs to be done. In addition to being an enhanced information and decision making tool for the farm, it also becomes an invaluable way of bridging the space between producer and market. Traceability – the requirement of being able to track the field or animal from where a product came – makes software crucial.

1. Overview
How does one place a value on communication? To teach and to learn. To tell another how you feel. With these we make a living and a life. Information and communication technology (ICT) is transforming interactions between people and economies worldwide. In an ever increasing global economy, ICT enables us to access and to store information. Media – be it radio, magazines, television – forms part of ICT. This is a modest attempt to look at the agricultural media and ICT available in this country (and beyond). The ACP/EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), together with its partners, held an international seminar on the “Role of the media in agricultural development in ACP countries” (Central, East, Southern and West Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific). Questions were asked, and people from Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific responded (you can imagine how quickly your email’s inbox filled up!) The e-discussions looked at the internet and mobile phones, but also at other areas: • Digital cameras – used to capture pictorially farmers’ problems. • Mp3 players – making it easier for people to capture information and transfer it easily e.g. for radio journalist interviews but also in farmer/stakeholder surveys • Radio satellite receivers in Africa – allow broadcasters to download web-based content (e.g. CTA radio material) without need for internet. • Web 2.0 tools – allow people to access information in different ways e.g. RSS feeds but also to enhance how information is shared/ exchanged e.g. web portals, information from workshops etc. • GPS technologies e.g. in Caribbean – used in a variety of ways including tracking information on pest and disease outbreaks, mapping (e.g. agriculture census in Uganda). More information is available at See also

Farm Management and financial software
DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Donkerhoek Data Tel: 021 874 1047 Key Business Solutions Tel: 084 808 9925 LPF Systems Tel: 0861 573 797 • They assist farmers to take ownership and control over their financial matters by training and the use of financial management software. • LPF AgriBusiness is a financial system specifically developed for any type of farmer, while their “Co-op Statement Conversion” is an ideal support for agri co-ops and could save you hours of time. Plan-A-Head Software Tel: 033 342 7888 Produce Pak Qwill Instant Accounting Tel: 0860 2222 55 This service is offered free to FNB clients Software Farm Tel: 012 365 2683 TrioSagteware Tel: 012 376 4180

2. National strategy and government contacts
Find the ICT charter at – take the “Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment” option Department of Communication Tel: 012 427 8000 South Africa’s high telephony costs have been a subject raised consistently in the past. An independent benchmark study, commissioned by the Department of Communications, looked at cost, quality, access and usage with comparative countries i.e. Malaysia, India, Chile, Brazil and South Korea. Delivering his budget vote in parliament in June 2009, the Minister announced that the study had confirmed that our telecommunications prices are “still way too high in comparison to other countries”. Appropriate intervention were being considered.

Fresh Produce Market and Packhouse software
Produce Pak TechnoFresh Tel: 043 721 1123 The Market Reconciliation System (MRS) provides answers to the following questions: • • • • • • What was sold today and at what price? Who paid me for what consignments? What consignments still have to be paid? How much stock do I have and on which markets? What produce should I send where? Which agent got me the best prices today / last week etc.


Irrigation and crop-related software
DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Software to help farmers with pest and disease monitoring, annual growth monitoring and physical fruit and shoot growth monitoring. These specific types of monitoring help producers with better yields, fruit size and quality.

• The focus of is the South African agricultural and wine industries with its broad range of agribusinesses, wineries, farming, producer and supply activities. • In the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) facilitated email discussion in 2009 (between hundreds of people in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific), it emerged that even www. is a resource for agricultural training videos. Find more on the CTA under heading 12, or visit What do you do if you have a laptop PC but no phone line? • Wireless: simply launch your Web browser, log in and surf! No wires needed. When you’re within range of a Wi-Fi Hotspot, the Internet is all around you in the form of high-frequency radio waves... and to tap into it, all you need is a Wi-Fi card that fits into your laptop PC. Landbouweekblad 7 March 2008 carried an article “Vinniger internet sluit wêreld oop” about farmers in the Western Cape whose lives were changed through this wireless technology. Lucille Botha is the journalist – Find the story on www.landbou. com • TelkomInternet powered by satellite operates by means of a satellite dish and some specialised SpaceStream hardware that translates the two-way Intelsat signal into a 24-hour Internet service with all the attendant benefits. No telephone lines are required. The quality of the signal is excellent, and many farmers have decided to upgrade to the satellite service to improve their reception. Readers who would like more information can call 10217 or visit Telkom’s website at

Soil and weather instrumentation and software
EnviroMon Tel: 021 851 5134 In addition to the instrumentation for monitoring weather elements and soil moisture conditions, Enviromon also supplies customised software for chilling units, weather-related disease warnings, evapo-transpiration.

Livestock computer programmes (software)
Find details of providers in the Animal Improvement and Breeders chapter Many on-farm software programmes applicable to animal breeding are available for producers, combining the functionality of herd management with on-farm recording. Some of the programmes listed have selection decision aids.

5. Magazines
Weekly – General
• Farmer’s Weekly Tel: 011 889 0600 or visit • Landbouweekblad Tel: 021 406 2202 or visit • Farming SA Tel: 0860 103 577

Payroll software
DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Donkerhoek Data Tel: 021 874 1047

Monthly – General
• The Farm Africa Tel: 012 804 9729 • Food & Beverage Reporter Tel: 011 880 3682 • ProAgri Tel: 012 809 0150

Plan-A-Head Software Farmpro Payroll package. Included Tel: 033 342 7888 as part of the MB4000 Farm Management package. Farmpro allows farmers to take control of their wages and salaries and also time and attendance.

Several commodity-specific magazines are published on a regular basis. Some examples are SA Graan/Grain, Pluimvee/Poultry Bulletin, Dairy Mail, Porcus, AFMA Matrix, Winelands, South African Sugar Journal, SA Studbreeder/ Stoetteler etc. These are mentioned in the relevant chapters of this directory.

4. The internet
Using the internet brings a world of information to the farmer, as well as an instantaneous method of communicating (email). Many website and e-mail addresses are provided in this directory. In 2008, South Africa’s internet population was 4.6 million [Internet Access in South Africa 2008 report, released by researchers and consultants at World Wide Worx in 2009]. This figure is expected to grow as much in the next five years as it has in the 15 years since the internet first became commercially available in the country. • is the electronic arm of the agricultural weekly, Landbouweekblad. A host of services is provided: Agricultural news and articles; agricultural product prices; agro company share prices; SMS service with livestock auction prices; agricultural news on WAP site; photo albums; a veterinary Q&A column; financial Q&A column; agricultural blogs; forums for discussions; classified adverts online; a data bank of farm prices for the past decade, and many more. • – Let’s Grow Africa is a “Notice Board for Farmers, Suppliers, Skills, Experts, Consultants, Distributors and Conservationists of Agricultural Products and Services”. Call 012 361 5574 or write to for more information. • is based on the international encyclopedia Wikipedia. The intention is to build an agricultural website of information freely available to all.

Government and Agricultural Unions
• DAFFnews – the official newsletter of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Tel: 012 319 7337 • NAFU Farmer Email or visit www.nafufarmer. • Agri SA and the TAU SA also have regular newsletters. More details in the Organised Agriculture chapter.

Banks and Agribusiness
• Banks put out publications covering agricultural topics e.g. AgriReview, the free, monthly publication from Standard Bank. It features professional analyses of specific aspects of agriculture. Articles cover economic matters, agricultural economic problems, sector analyses, product reviews and financial management. Find back issues at www. Call 011 636 6162 to subscribe. • The Agribusinesses also have their own publications e.g. Afgriland.

Development-sector specific
• Nufarmer & African Entrepreneur Tel: 012 804 5854 nufarmer@iafrica. com • Die Plaaswerker/The Farmworker Tel: 028 425 2542 hanno@agrimega. • Ubisi Mail Tel: 012 843 5702


Magazines by Agriconnect • Milk & Juice is a magazine aimed at informing and empowering milk and juice processors to run their businesses on a sound basis. Visit • The Dairy Mail is a magazine for the dairy industry in South and Southern Africa. Refer to the dairy chapter or visit www. • Ubisi Mail is a magazine for emerging farmers and farm workers, in which technical agricultural information transfer takes place by way of user-friendly articles and illustrations with instructions in five languages. Visit

Name and frequency Ukhozi FM – 90.1 Radio Khwezi – 90.5 Durban Youth Radio – 105.1 Highway Radio – 101.5 Icora FM – 100.4 Imbokodo FM – 96.8 Maputaland Community – 107.6 Newcastle Community – 103.7

Day and time Wed 04h15 - 04h45 Friday 03h45 - 04h45 Mon 05h05 - 05h35 Thurs 19h05 - 19h40 Wed 19h00 - 20h00 Mon 20h00 - 21h00 Wed 19h00 - 20h00 Fri 05h00 - 06h00 Thurs 19h00 - 20h00 Mon-Fri 05h00 - 06h00

No. of listeners 6,675,000 163,000 104,000 102,000 78,000 130,000 85,000 75,000

6. Television
Agri TV can be viewed on SABC from 5h30 to 6h00 on week days, and on SABC Africa at 12h30 on Sundays. Call 011 791 5330 for details. Living Land, SABC 2 on Saturdays 11h00 – 11h30, includes agriculture in its coverage. Landbousake appears on Kyknet on Tuesday and Thursday mornings at 6h30, and again later at 13h00.

7. New farmer leaflets and booklets
Leaflets and booklets are available from the Departments of Agriculture (both national and provincial). To preview some of these, visit www.daff.

The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs and Rural Development broadcasts technical agricultural information on nine radio stations, reaching some seven to eight million listeners every week. The schedule of technical broadcasts is listed above. For further information contact Vuyani Dlamini at For information about province-specific agricultural radio shows, contact your provincial Department of Agriculture. The following programmes cover issues of interest for developing farmers: Name and frequency Ligwalagwala FM (IsiZulu) 92.5 – 103.8 Lesedi FM (Sesotho) 87.7 – 90.6 Motsweding FM (Tswana) 97.9 – 91.0 Umhlobo Wenene FM (IsiXhosa) 90.7 – 97.1 Day and time Thurs 05h10 - 05h25 Thurs 20h15 - 20h30 Wed 19h45 - 20h00 Thurs 04h40 - 04h55

8. Radio
Read about Farm Radio International under heading 12

• Radio Sonder Grense (RSG) informs listeners to agricultural developments in Afrikaans. This happens on Mondays to Friday at 4h45 to 4h55, and on Monday to Thursday from 12h30 to 12h45. Visit www. for more information. • Listen to Radio Pretoria on weekdays at 5h30 and 13h30, and on Saturdays at 6h16 for agricultural news. For enquiries, visit www. or call 012 543 0120. • Radio Elsenburg on RSG (Radio Sonder Grense) broadcasts nationwide: 100 - 104FM. Fridays – 12h30; Saturdays – 11h45. Contact Dr Chris Viljoen at 021 887 0985 or

9. Cell phones
In addition to the advantages of mobility and instant access to market information (e.g. SAFEX prices), technology is available which allows you to open/close gates from your cell phone, to begin/end irrigation and more. To find out about cell phone based security systems, visit www.secucell. or phone 016 982 4393. In low-income areas and countries across sub-Saharan Africa, cell phones often are the first development in telecommunications infrastructure.


10. Books and journals
• has information on agricultural books available. • Finance and Farmers, now in its fourth edition, goes a long way in helping you to manage your risks more effectively. What makes this financial manual indispensable is that it guides you through most of the challenges you face in an ever-changing business environment. The latest edition looks at issues, including production economics, financial management risk, marketing, and agricultural finance with relevant examples. Get Finance and Farmers for R165, including VAT. Postage and packing included. To order a copy, phone 011 636 6162. • Kejafa Knowledge Works is a publisher and distributor of agricultural books. Visit or phone 014 577 0005. • Strategic approach to Farming Success by Dr Wimpie Nell and Mr Rob Napier. This book is designed to assist the farmer/management team in thinking strategically and imaginatively about the future of the farming business, in developing generative relationships with other farmers or agricultural institutions and continue in organising and reorganising the farming business. Order the book at, email or contact Dr Nell at 051 401 2557 or at 082 882 9777. • Find the South African Journal of Agricultural Extension, published annually by the South African Society for Agricultural Extension (SASAE), at AJOL at: or call the editor of SASAE publications at 012 420 3246.

11. Libraries and Agricultural Museums
Institutions of learning offering agricultural degrees/diplomas have libraries, as do the different Agricultural Research Council Institutes. Departments of Agriculture – be they provincial or national – have libraries. The contact number for the National Department of Agriculture is 012 319 6896. The contact details for the National Library of South Africa is can be found at A further source of agricultural information are museums. We have listed four of them here: • • • • Willem Prinsloo Agricultural Museum Tel: 012 736 22035 North West Agricultural Museum Tel: 018 632 5051 x 2264 Free State Agricultural Museum Tel: 051 861 1182 Bathurst Agricultural Museum Tel: 072 408 4858

• Farm Radio International is a Canadian-based organisation working with some 300 radio broadcasters in thirty-nine African countries. It strives to provide rural radio organisations in sub-Saharan Africa with resources for small-scale farmers. Visit • The Eldis Agriculture and Development Reporter is a regular bulletin that highlights recent publications and announcements on agriculture and development issues. In addition to the newsletter, find the Resource Guides on • AGRICOLA (Agriculture Online Access), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Library: visit • ILEIA, the Centre for Information on Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture, is located in Amersfoort, the Netherlands. It promotes the exchange of information for small scale farmers in the Southern hemisphere, mainly through the LEISA magazine. Email or visit • The UN’s Food and Agriculture (FAO) has an international information system, listing world literature dealing with all aspects of agriculture. It is called AGRIS and can be accessed at A related programme is Agricultural Information Management Standards (AIMS) which can be accessed from the AGRIS web pages. • The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) – The website contains historical and projected information for several countries, products etc. • Panos London believe that the media is critical to the success of poverty reduction. They promote the participation of poor and marginalised people in national and international development debates through media and communication projects. • New Agriculturist – – keeps online readers abreast of trends and innovation in agricultural development, particularly in Africa but also in Asia and Latin America. •Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) is “designed to enhance the scholarship of the many thousands of students, faculty and researchers in agriculture and life sciences in the developing world” – • TEEAL, a “full-text digital library … available at low cost to universities, agricultural research organizations” – • United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) published a set of media development indicators that focused on the context of developing countries. Find these at www., or write to Venus Jennings who works on media capacity building issues – • Find the report Information and Communications for Development 2009: Extending Reach and Increasing Impact on the World Bank website –

12. International media
• The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) has run several studies into the use of Information and Communications Technologies in agriculture. Visit for more details. Also find details of newsletters to which visitors can subscribe e.g. agritrade, a twice-monthly news alert on agricultural trade issues.

13. Associations involved
Agricultural Writers SA Tel: 012 804 8812 (secretariat) • The association is a voluntary, non-profitmaking professional association promoting the image and standards of agricultural journalism in South Africa. It was established in Pretoria in 1977. • The association is representative of agricultural journalists serving the industry through magazines, newspapers, radio and television. Qualified membership is also extended to friends of the agricultural media. It remains, however, primarily a body run by journalists for journalists. • Branches are responsible for organising their own activities, but consult with the national executive on matters of common concern. The various branches find their own sponsors, but sponsorships are negotiated at national level to fund the annual function, finance national executive meetings and assist branches. • The international representative liaises with agricultural journalists and organisations abroad, through correspondence and representation at international meetings, such as the world congress of the IFAJ (International Federation of Agricultural Journalists). • Agricultural leaders and other experts regularly address branches on relevant topics. A Farmer and an Agriculturist of the Year are nominated in each region annually, in accordance with strict criteria, and they are honoured locally. An independent panel of judges then chooses the national winners from these candidates. International Federation of Agricultural Journalists – Wireless Access Providers Association of South Africa (WAPA) Tel: 021 880 2228


Capacity building, science & technology
See also the Precision Farming chapter

Government and state related associations, umbrella bodies and research groups involved:
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Earth observation technologies and geographic information systems, spatial modelling and scenario planning are all listed as “Key Strategic Areas and thrusts” in DAFF’s National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy. Find the document on Agricultural Geo-referenced Information System (AGIS) Mr Hein Lindemann Tel: 012 319 7548 Directorate: Information & Communications Technology Systems Tel: 012 319 6187

1. Overview
It is essential to have accurate maps in any farming enterprise, particularly if you are planning to do Precision Farming. Other times when you will be grateful to have maps are when you are: • • • • • • • • • • • planning aerial crop-spraying determining the potential of land applying pesticides ordering seed and fertiliser wishing to insure your crops hiring or renting land when planning time periods for grazing having overhead installations done e.g. power cables estimating crop yields determining crop suitability searching for breeding stock

AGIS aims to be a comprehensive information system covering all aspects of agriculture. Different types of information will be available: • basic data (e.g. crop, climate and soil information) • interpreted information (e.g. grazing capacity, erosion potential of soils) • models and application programmes (e.g. crop suitability and adaptability)
Find the “Dynamic Maps” menu option on

Some of the Agricultural Colleges do short course training in map reading along with practical exercises involved with the different lectures. Find their details in the agricultural education and training chapter. ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water Tel: 012 310 2580 • GIS: Data processing (Data capturing and Projections); Applications (Crop modelling, Spatial modelling / interpolation, Multi-layer modelling); Spatial database development (Informix, MS Access) and Data Integration • Satellite & Airborne Remote Sensing: Low-level imaging (Digital Multispectral Video Camera, Precision farming information); Digital image processing (Geo-referencing, Image classification); Image interpretation (Vegetation mapping & monitoring - Population dynamics, Degradation mapping, Rangeland ecology, Savanna ecosystems, Crop inventories, Drought monitoring, Land cover, Soil mapping and Conservation planning); Sample frame statistics (area / point); Disasters (Flood mapping; Drought monitoring; Fire mapping). The Council for Geosciences (CGS) Tel: 012 841 1911 • The Council for Geoscience (CGS) is one of the National Science Councils of South Africa. It is the legal successor of the Geological Survey of South Africa. • A modern Drawing Office produces a wide variety of geoscientific maps using both conventional and electronic cartographic technologies. The production procedures are increasingly automated, linked to the ARC/ INFO-based GIS, which facilitates rapid map production and updating. • International co-operative projects that have been carried out, or are in progress, include geological mapping, geochemical and geophysical surveys, and the production of maps in many countries, either on a bilateral basis, i.e. Mozambique, Angola, Benin, Zambia, Namibia, Tanzania, Congo and Burkina Faso, and Morocco, or collaboratively in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) region. • The CGS actively participates in a variety of SADC projects aimed at promoting the economic development of the African sub-continent. KZN Department of Agriculture, Environmental Affairs & Rural Development (DAEA) Tel: 033 355 9387 Accurate records based on the soil type, rainfall, typography and climate on individual farms of KwaZulu-Natal.

Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a system of synthesizing information, uses maps and ortho rectified photography as inputs to generate data (ordinary photographs can lead to inaccuracies and GIS is about measurement). Other systems of mapping include the use of satellites and Topo-cadastral mapping.

2. Roleplayers
e-Liso SAT Tel: 012 349 1406 EWheels Tel: 012 807 6809 / 082 959 5679 ESRI South Africa Tel: 011 238 6300 Farm-IT Tel: 012 666 7000 Geographic Farm Technologies Tel: 012 377 0553 Laser Lady Tel: 011 795 2638 Specialist Structural and Geotechnical Software. MAPCO Plaaskaarte Tel: 017 712 1075 Farm maps & Precision Farming. Laminated maps drawn on fixed scale: 1/10 000 A4 Laminated book and photocopies included. Electronic data available on request (Pdf. and shp. files)

SENWES Geographical Geographic Information Services Management Systems (GIMS) Tel: 018 464 7382 – see ESRI South Africa GISCOE (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 345 8000 GTI Geoterraimage Tel: 012 349 0055 Geographical Information System hosting access to farm and regional maps through the Internet.

TNH Wildlife Tel: 082 890 9993 Fax: 086 519 0124 Land Resources International (Pty) Ltd Tel: 033 392 8360 GIS mapping


Department of Rural Development and Land Reform Chief Directorate: Surveys and Mapping Tel: 021 685 4300 / 4070 Tel: 012 334 4500 Tel: 051 448 0984 Tel: 033 394 7610

The national GISSA website posts job vacancies, conferences, tenders and links to other web sites. Geological Society of South Africa Tel: 011 492 3370

Capacity building, science & technology
Plant breeding and biotechnology
1. Overview
• “Biotechnology” is a contraction of `biological technology’. Although it has been to be synonymous in some circles with genetic modification, it is a term used to represent a continuum of different bio-techniques, ranging from non-controversial tissue culture to controversial genetic engineering embodied in ‘modern biotechnology’. • It has been identified as the leading technology of 21st century with tremendous potential to address economic, social and environmental issues afflicting the poor in developing countries. Biotechnology can increase crop yields, reduce crop vulnerability to environment and climate stresses, reduce the need for field applied chemicals, and improve the health and taste of foods. • Critics say these crops could irreversibly damage existing plants, harm wildlife and that the patents on genetically engineered seed gives too much power to multinational companies. A visit to the websites mentioned in this chapter will give the reader different perspectives. • Biotechnology relating to animals, specifically cloning, is covered in the Animal Improvement and Breeders chapter later in this book. Adapted from

South African National Aerial photography, ortophoto Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) mapping, maps of South Africa Tel: 012 843 5000/200 Tel: 021 799 8800 Department of Water and Environmental Affairs Tel: 012 336 7851/49 SANBI has established the B-GIS Unit to provide biodiversity maps to the public via the internet. Ground water maps Geo-Information Society of South Africa (GISSA) Membership is free and currently available through the various provincial bodies, the contact details for which can be found on the GISSA web site.

3. Websites and publications
• The CGS hosts the largest Geological Library and Information Service in Africa, which continuously strives to improve its coverage of African geology, in the form of books, journals and maps. Information products are being made available, both in standard analog and electronic formats and Internet solutions for optimal information access are being developed. • provides a useful SA business directory and online, zoomable, interactive maps of SA that can be printed or e-mailed to a friend. • Spot your farm – or anywhere else – from outer space: visit either or • Read about the RapidEye five-satellite, geospatial information system at • – Open Forum on Participatory Geographic Information Systems and Technologies • The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA) has worked on the production of a training kit focusing on participatory mapping practice. Find information on, or write to Giacomo Rambaldi at

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) is just one particular specialisation within the scientific discipline of biotechnology. Biotechnology has traditionally been used to provide us with yoghurt, beer and bread, in that we use bacteria or micro-organisms to create these products. The difference is that modern practices of genetic engineering – which is the process through which GM takes place – now enables us to shatter the species boundaries. For example, we can insert genetic information from whales into birds, or we can put bacterial and viral genes into plants, as is done with most genetically engineered foods. Genetic engineering, therefore, allows us to move DNA between unrelated organisms. There are few limits to what we can do; the question is: what should we be doing, or not doing, with this technology?
Source: (Adapted)

The art of plant breeding is seated in the ability of the breeder to identify differences in traits of economic importance among plants, and to improve these traits with available scientific knowledge. Plant breeding covers: • breeding systems involved in self- and cross fertilising plants, vegetatively propagated plants and hybrids; • quantitative genetics; • advanced breeding methods such as recombinant DNA technology, double haploid breeding and mutation breeding; • marker-assisted breeding using both protein- and molecular markers.
Source: University of the Free State

Plant tissue culture, also called micropropagation, is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant.


Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation, including: • the production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits, or have other desirable traits; • to quickly produce mature plants; • the production of multiples of plants in the absence of seeds or necessary pollinators to produce seeds; • the regeneration of whole plants from plant cells that have been genetically modified; • the production of plants in sterile containers that allows them to be moved with greatly reduced chances of transmitting diseases, pests, and pathogens; • the production of plants from seeds that otherwise have very low chances of germinating and growing, i.e. orchids and nepenthes. Plant tissue culture relies on the fact that all plant cells have the ability to generate a whole plant (totipotency). Single cells (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, or roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and plant hormones. Plant tissue culture is used widely in plant science, where it has a number of commercial applications such as: • Micropropagation – to produce large numbers of identical individuals. It is widely used in forestry and in floriculture. Micropropagation can also be used in to conserve rare or endangered plant species; it is also used to speed up the initial propagation of valuable plants, say a rare tulip bulb, followed by conventional vegetative propagation from tubers or cuttings. • A plant breeder may use tissue culture to screen cells, rather than plants for advantageous characters, e.g. herbicide resistance/tolerance. • Large-scale growth of plant cells in liquid culture in bioreactors as a source of secondary products, like biopharmaceuticals. • To cross distantly related species by protoplast fusion and regeneration of the novel hybrid. • For production of dihaploid plants from haploid cultures to achieve homozygous lines more rapidly in breeding programmes, usually by treatment with colchicine which causes doubling of the chromosome number. • As a tissue for transformation, followed by either short-term testing of genetic constructs or regeneration of transgenic plants. • Certain techniques (The shoot-tip culture technique) may be employed that can be used to produce clean plant material from virused stock (virus- infected parent plants), in crops such as potatoes.

• New – a variety is new if propagating material or harvested material thereof, has not been sold or otherwise disposed of by, or with the consent of, the breeder for purposes of exploitation of the variety within certain time limits. If the variety has been disposed of in this fashion in South Africa more than a year before the date of the filing of the application or in other UPOV member countries − more than six years in the case of vines and trees or more than four years in the case of other varieties – it is no longer new. The definition of ‘sell’ in the Act includes: agree to sell, or to offer, advertise, keep, expose, transmit, send, convey or deliver for sale, or to exchange or to dispose of to any person in any manner for a consideration; and ‘sold’ and ‘sale’ have a corresponding meaning. Thus, a mere agreement to sell propagating material or harvested material, as opposed to the actual sale thereof, can destroy the novelty of a variety, as an “agreement to sell” is also included in the definition and deemed to be the same as “sell”. • Distinct – a variety is distinct if, at the date of filing the application for a PBR in South Africa, it is clearly distinguishable from any other variety of the same kind of plant of which the existence on that date is a matter of common knowledge. • Uniform – a variety is uniform if, subject to the variation that may be expected from the particular features of the propagation thereof, it is sufficiently uniform with regard to the characteristics of the variety in question. • Stable – a variety is stable if the characteristics thereof remain unchanged after repeated propagation, or, in the case of a particular cycle of propagation, at the end of each such cycle. What Is The Term of a PBR Registration? A PBR is granted for a period of 25 years in the case of vines and trees; and 20 years in all other cases, calculated from the date on which the certificate of registration is issued. What Are The Rights Of The PBR Holder? The effect of the protection given by a plant breeder’s right shall be that the PBR holder has the exclusive right to undertake the• production or reproduction (multiplication); • conditioning for the purpose of propagation; • sale or any other form of marketing; • exporting; • importing; • stocking for any of the purposes referred to in the previous five bullet points of(i) propagating material of the relevant variety; or (ii) harvested material, including plants, w hich w as obtained through the unauthorised use of propagating material of the relevant variety. If any other person wishes to undertake any of the above acts, he may not do so without authority from the PBR holder. Usually this is in the form of a licence. However, a person who procures any propagating material of a variety in a legitimate manner will not infringe the PBR in respect of the variety if he resells that propagating material, or sells any plant, reproductive material or product derived from that propagating material for purposes other than the further propagation or multiplication thereof. The same applies to use or multiplication of that propagating material in the development of a different variety; use for purposes of bona fide research; and use of that propagating material for private or non-commercial purposes. The Act also allows a farmer who procured propagating material legitimately, to retain and replant seed on the same land, but only for one season, and the right is limited to the particular farmer. When does one infringe a PBR? A PBR is infringed by any person who, not being the holder of the PBR, performs, or causes to be performed, without a licence, the acts reserved exclusively for the holder of the PBR. A licensee who fails to comply with any term or condition of a licence also infringes the PBR. It is also an infringement to use the approved denomination of a protected variety in relation to plants or propagating material of any other variety for any purpose whatsoever or to sell plants or propagating material of a protected variety under any other denomination than the approved denomination of that variety. For more information in this regard, contact At van Rooy of DM Kisch Inc. Email or visit

2. Plant Breeder’s Rights
What Are Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR)? New plant varieties are protected in South Africa in terms of the Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR) Act, Act 15 of 1976. South Africa does not have a “plant patent” system like in the USA, as the Patents Act 57 of 1978, states that a patent shall not be granted for any variety of plant being the product of a biological process. New plant varieties produced through biological processes are therefore protected exclusively in terms of the PBR Act. However, genetically modified plants could be subject to the Patents Act, as they are not strictly new varieties of plants that were produced through biological processes. South Africa is a signatory of the UPOV Convention and the PBR Act was promulgated as a result of the implementation of UPOV – see www.upov. org. In terms of the UPOV convention, member countries grant the same rights to persons of foreign member countries as they grant to their own. UPOV also regulates the right to claim priority to an application filed in another member country. This simply means that a PBR application in a UPOV member country could form the basis for a PBR application in another UPOV member country, for the same variety, filed within one year. When Does A Variety Qualify For PBR Protection? To qualify for PBR protection, a plant variety has to be new, distinct, uniform and stable.


3. GM crop adoption In South Africa
• Genetically modified (GM) cultivars have been experimentally fieldtested in South Africa since 1990 and commercially grown since 1997. GM cotton with the Bt bacterial gene against specific insect pests (bollworm larvae) was approved for commercial release in 1997, stalk borer resistant GM maize in 1998, and herbicide tolerant GM soya beans in 2000. The GMO Act 15 of 1997, amended to become the GMO Act 23 of 2006, regulates all research facilities handling GMOs, all genetic modifications as defined on all organisms, greenhouse and laboratory contained use, field trials, commercial release, and import and export of live modified organisms such as seeds, grains, microbes and live vaccines. • Decision making involves a permit system that applies some 11 kinds relevant for specific uses or actions with GMOs. During the 2008 calendar year a total of 272 permit applications were approved and 84% or 229 dealt with maize. Of these, 22 were for grain imports, 4 for grain exports, 22 for seed imports, and 10 for commercial seed exports. The remainder was for export and import of samples for research, breeding, multiplication, contained use, and field trials. Other permits applied to cotton, sorghum, soya beans, cassava, and GMO live vaccines for clinical trials. • GM cotton has reached saturation level at 92% of area planted (the 8% balance having to be planted to conventional cotton as insect refugia) and this was made up of 82% stacked genes for bollworm resistance and herbicide tolerance, 6% herbicide tolerance and 4% insect resistance. Soya beans area planted comprised over 80% GM, all using the herbicide tolerant trait. In South Africa, as in other GM soya countries, this trait has facilitated the move to conservation reduced tillage and crop rotation. Despite a reduction in maize area planted, GM seed sales in 2008 maintained their forecast. GM area planted increased to 69% of total maize area with white maize at 70% of white area and yellow at 68% of yellow area. A study conducted in collaboration with the University of Pretoria showed that a cumulative area of GM maize of 6.2 million hectares had been planted since 1999/2000 and yielded an estimated 23 million tons of GM grain. The cumulative farmer benefit came to R3 billion. • GM permits have been granted for greenhouse contained testing of bio-fortified grain sorghum, virus resistant chinkerinchee flower and altered starch composition cassava. Approvals for clinical GM vaccine trials include HIV/AIDS and TB. Field trials approved for GM maize include drought tolerance, new herbicide tolerance, new insect resistance, and stacked combination traits. GM trials for GM cotton cover several new insect resistance, herbicide tolerance and stacked combination traits. Another herbicide tolerance trait in soya beans is being tested, while GM sugarcane with altered sugars is forthcoming. Data researched, collated and verified by Wynand J van der Walt, FoodNCropBio, The research has been supported by funding from the Maize Trust. Find global statistics at, website of International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications.

scientific assessment of the application by the Advisory Committee to evaluate the potential risks to humans, animals and the environment. Following the safety assessment, the decision making body appointed in terms of the Act, the Executive Council, will decide whether or not to approve a particular application based on the recommendation by the Advisory Committee, the application and public inputs. If the GMO activity is approved by the Executive Council, a permit is issued granting the applicant permission to conduct the specified activity. Permits and certificates that are issued vary, depending on the activity specified in the application. Directorate: Genetic Resources Tel: 012 319 6024 Registrar: Plant Breeder Rights Act Tel: 012 319 6183 DAFF administers the Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR) Act, Act No. 15 of 1976 as amended in 1996. The objective of this Act is to provide for a system through which intellectual property rights (plant breeders’ rights) relating to varieties of certain kinds of plants may be granted and registered.

Department of Science and Technology (DST) Tel: 012 843 6300 The National Biotechnology Strategy provides for the Biotechnology Regional Innovation Centres (BRICs), the National PlantBio Innovation Centre, the National Bioinforamtics Network (NBN) and the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB). The Centres are linked to business incubators, and support a portfolio of projects in animal heath, industrial, agricultural and environmental areas as well as providing a vehicle for commercialisation. The DST’s agency, the South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement (SAASTA), runs a technology awareness campaign. The awareness campaign is called the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB). South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement (SAASTA) Tel: 012 392 9300 Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) Tel: 012 392 9300

4. National strategy and government contacts
Information and contact details for DAFF directorates can be found under the Divisions menu option on

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Directorate: Biosafety Tel: 012 319 6199 Registrar for the Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997 Tel: 012 319 6382 The Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997 (Act No. 15 of 1997) is administered by the Directorate Biosafety within the Department of Agriculture.

Since the implementation of the GMO Act in December 1999, all activities with genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are conducted according to permits issued in terms of this Act. The Act makes provision for a Registrar who is responsible for all administrative processes; regulatory bodies, i.e. the Advisory Committee and Executive Council, as well as the appointment of inspectors and an appeal board. GMO applications are submitted to the Registrar who ensures compliance to the GMO Act. This is followed by a

Biotechnology Regional Innovation To be eligible for protection in Centres (BRICs): terms of the PBR Act, the plants from which new varieties are • Biopad – developed should be declared • Lifelab EcoBio Innovation by the Minister in accordance to Centre – the regulations of the Act, i.e. the • Cape Biotech – www. breeder or his agent should submit a request to the Registrar to have • PlantBio – the plant concerned included in za Table 1 of the regulations upon • National Bioinformatics approval by the Minister. Network (NBN) – www.nbn. Currently, about 360 taxa are declared in terms of the PBR Department of Water and Act as follows: 53% ornamental Environment Affairs crops, 27% agricultural crops, Directorate: Biosafety/Genetically 10% fruit crops and vegetable Modified Organisms crops respectively. In an attempt Tel: 012 310 3396 to streamline the administrative procedures, the Registrar publishes This directorate was formed in a call inviting applications to have 2005 to co-ordinate and support new plants declared twice a year in work in implementing the the Government Gazette. Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety. At the end of 2008, 2076 varieties had valid plant breeders’ rights as follows: 713 for Agricultural crops, 349 for fruit crops, 762 for ornamental crops and 252 for vegetable crops. About 60% of the rights are owned by foreign nationals and 40% by locals. Of the locally owned varieties about 15% is owned by public institutions. Directorate: Plant Production Tel: 012 319 6079 Department of Health (DOH) Tel: 012 312 0000 / 3161 At present there is no segregation between genetically-modified and non-genetically modified foods in South Africa. Labelling and related legislation would be the DoH’s responsibility. The DoH has a Biotech unit.


5. Training and research
The PUB website contains a list of training providers and institutions in this area. Careers in genetics and biotechnology may also be found there. Visit Find Tertiary Institutions menu option on the Southern Africa Plant Breeders’ Association website – Research papers are also available here. ARC – Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute (VOPI) Dr Sonja Venter (Research Institute Manager) Tel: 012 841 9611 Biotechnology forms an integral part of the Plant Breeding and Crop Protection divisions of the Agricultural Research Council’s Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute. The Plant Breeding division relies on biotechnology for the development of molecular markers for various vegetable crops. Molecular fingerprinting is performed routinely for the breeding programs of the institute, as well as for private clients. The Crop Protection division utilises molecular biology techniques to characterise and identify viral, fungal and bacterial pathogens. This technology is also used to study host pathogen interactions and the ecology of the pathogens in question Tissue culture protocols for many ornamental and vegetable crops, including root and tuber crops such as cassava, sweetpotato, and the wild potato (Plectranthus esculentus), a neglected indigenous crop, have been developed. African network in modern biotechnology, and the University of the Witwatersrand, are working on a continent-wide partnership for scientists in biotechnology. The Centre planned to create opportunities for the involvement of African scientists throughout the region and to hone its network of excellence in biotechnology. Contact Prof Chris Rey at the School of Molecular and Cell Biology. Tel: 011 717 6324 or email CSIR – Bio/Science Tel: 012 841 4220 Biotechnology Programme: CSIR Bio/Chemtek houses one of the largest biotechnology research facilities in South Africa, with more than 60 biotechnologists, organic chemists, molecular biologists and technologists. These experts work in both process and plant biotechnology, and the applications thereof. Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) Tel: 012 420 3939 National Research Foundation Tel: 012 481 4000 / 4001 / 4002

Institute of Wine Biotechnology (IWB) Tel: 021 808 3770 w w w. s u n . a c . z a / w i n e _ biotechnology The IWBT has long term collaboration with the South African Wine Industry to generate transgenic grapevine with improved disease resistance. Department of Genetics Plant Breeding Laboratory (SUPBL) Tel: 021 808 4860 The SU-PBL has long term collaboration with the South African Winter Cereal Trust to conduct germplasm development. The SU-PBL also conducts a full scale triticale breeding programme. University of the Free State Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 051 401 2514 Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 051 401 2250 University of KwaZulu-Natal Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness Tel: 033 260 6075

School of Biological and Conservation Sciences Tel: 033 260 5104 Tel: 031 260 3197 Their work in plant germplasm conservation research has placed South Africa firmly in the international arena in understanding the biology of recalcitrant seeds, their improved handling and the potential for their improved shortterm storage, as well as longterm conservation of the genetic resources of the many species concerned. University of Pretoria Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) Tel: 012 420 3938 University of the Witwatersrand Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences Tel: 011 717 6427 Within the Department there is a strong research interest in the micropropagation (mass production by tissue culture) of selected crops (e.g. cassava) and of South African indigenous plants.

6. Websites and publications
See also the websites of the associations, government departments etc mentioned elsewhere in this chapter.

Virus elimination techniques have North West University been developed for potato, sweet Tel: 018 299 1111/2222 potato and cassava to provide meristem-derived disease free material for use in propagation, Private companies conduct their own research. An example is Sappi breeding, in various genebanks, Forests Research who are working and to provide certified virus-free on a process called somatic planting material to farmers and embryogenesis, being applied to the commercial sector. Pinus patula. This process results in the clonal production of artificial African Biofortified Sorghum embryos through the use of tissue (ABS) Project culture techniques. Tel: 011 781 4449/082 787 4799 Stellenbosch University Institute of Plant Biotechnology African Centre for Crop (IPB) Improvement (ACCI) Tel: 021 808 3836 Tel: 033 260 5524 The IPB has long term collaboration with the South African Sugarcane Research Institute to generate transgenic sugarcane with enhanced sucrose accumulation or with improved biomass for alternative The African Centre for Gene uses. Technology (ACGT), a South Based at the University of KwaZuluNatal, the ACCI “trains African plant breeders, in Africa, on African crops”.

• Find the quarterly South African Plant Variety Journal (compiled by Directorate: Genetic Resources) on • A number of publications publications are available from the Biotechnology Unit at the Department of Science and Technology. • The websites of AfricaBio and Biowatch are informative, and provide links to numerous other sites. They also give details of publications and research: and The PUB website includes a series of posters on biotech for teaching purposes, fact files, activities, projects, in addition to links and info. • Links to information on national biosafety and GMO debates can be found at the following portal: • offers advice to South Africans on GM foods amongst other things. • Bio World Online – – provides biotech news, reports, forums, articles, calendars and reviews. • – World Congress on the Future of Food and Agriculture (anti-GM). • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety – • The Plant Variety Journals – Information on plant varieties registered or deleted from the register – can be found on (under “Publications”). • For culturing and propagation techniques refer to: topic/plant-tissue-culture. • – Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) • AgriForest Bio-Technologies – • – “Africa’s first on-line Science Magazine”. • – Network of Concerned Farmers. • – Refer to this website for articles regarding the ”Implications for Small Farmers”.


• – for a look at what a New Zealand company is doing in Tissue Culture. • – if you have a specific question or you want to suggest content, you are invited to contact them at info@gmoafrica. org • – Issues in biotechnology. • The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – • Voices from Africa: farmers and environmentalists speak out against AGRA – “a new Green Revolution in Africa”. This report challenges “Western-led plans for a genetically engineered revolution in African agriculture”. Find it at

FoodNCropBio Wynand van der Walt Tel: 012 347 6334 / 083 468 3471 Monsanto SA Tel: 011 790 8200 SA National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) Tel: 012 843 5058

through proactive communication among private and public sector institutions, emphasising the need for co-operation and maintenance of high ethical standards and norms, thereby contributing toward stable, sustainable agriculture. Find recent newsletters on their website. Starke Ayres Tel: 021 534 3231

7. Other roleplayers
AfricaBio Tel: 012 667 2689 AfricaBio works with small-scale farmers who want to assess agricultural biotechnology for themselves. African Centre for Biosafety Tel: 011 646 0699 African Harvest Biotech Foundation International Tel: 011 781 4447 Biowatch South Africa Tel: 031 206 2954 An NGO dedicated to publicising, monitoring and researching issues of biological diversity, genetic engineering and sustainable livelihoods. Bioventures Capital Fund Dr Heather Sherwin Tel: 021 462 2152 / 083 260 8307 Du Roi Laboratory Tel: 015 345 1572 / 1217 Specialise in the production of tissue culture banana plants.

SANBI’s GMO unit came into operation on the 1st March 2008. Starke Ayres is a leader in the development, production and marketing of a wide range of South African Plant innovative and high-yielding Improvement Organisation vegetable crops for the professional (SAPO) grower. Tel: 021 887 6823 SunBio Tel: 021 887 2474 South African Society for Biochemistry and Molecular This is a company within the Biology Institute for Wine Biotechnology at the University of Stellenbosch. It is aimed at commercialising the Southern Africa Plant research outputs of the Institute. Breeders’ Association Tel: 021 808 4860 Syngenta South Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 541 4000 The Southern African Plant Breeders’ Association is dedicated to the promotion of the science and art of plant breeding as a profession


8. International business environment
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) genebanks
Centres supported by CGIAR operate eleven genebanks, containing more than 650 000 samples of staple crops and related wild species (see table to the right). Those materials include traditional varieties developed through many generations of selection by farmers, as well as wild species, crop breeding lines and improved varieties. Centre and website Africa Rice Centre (WARDA) International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) – International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) International Potato Centre (CIP) International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) International Livestock Research Institute International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) – International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) – Rice Beans, cassava, forages Maize, rye, triticale, wheat Crop

Andean roots and tubers, potato, sweetpotato Barley, chickpea, faba bean, forage, lentil, wheat Sesbania Chickpea, groundnut, pearl millet and other millets, pigeonpea, sorghum Bambara groundnut, cassava, cowpea, soybean, yam Forages Banana and plantain Rice

• African Biotechnology Stakeholders Forum (ABSF) – www.absfafrica. org • African Crops Network (find the maize breeders, cassava breeders etc options) – • African Harvest Biotech Foundation International Foundation provides the tools of biotechnology for Africa and the developing world through crop and product orientated projects and programs – • – Kenya is “one of the most progressive countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in developing transgenic agriculture products” • – a Uganda-based website containing information on biotechnology and related issues • Bioversity International – • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – • East African Regional Programme and Research Network for Biotechnology, Biosafety and Biotechnology Policy Development – • European South African Science and Technology Advancement Programme (ESASTAP), an initiative of the Department of Science and Technology’s Programme for International Co-operation and Resources – Local contact details: 012 843 6341 and • International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) promotes the safe use of biotechnology worldwide with special regard to the needs of the developing world. Includes a library of documents on biosafety, and a bibliographic database on biosafety studies published since 1990. In 2007 a component of the ICGEB was opened at the University of Cape Town. South Africa is the third country in the world to host a research laboratory of the ICGEB • International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) facilitates the transfer of agricultural biotechnology applications from industrial to developing countries and counsels developing countries on the testing of products. It also assists in the implementation of biosafety and food safety regulatory procedures, the deployment of resistance genes, and with IPRs – • The Global Crop Diversity Trust – A supporter of the CGIAR Centres, the trust is building a fund to provide support for the sharing of genetic resources • Union for the International Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) –

The cartoon (bottom left) is used courtesy of the Department of Science and Technology’s Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) unit. These cartoons can be accessed at

System-wide Information Network on Genetic Resources (SINGER) enables users to search genebanks worldwide for required genetic traits. This help researchers and farmers develop more nutritious plants that are disease and pest resistant and can cope with drought, flooding and other effects of climate change. See


Capacity building, science & technology
Precision farming
Also see the Mapping chapter

• Near Infra Red (NIR) Ortho rectified Imagery. This is becoming a very important technology – initially with timber and wine farmers but spreading to all farmers. Information derived from these technologies allows farmers to: • apply inputs such as fertilisers and seed at variable rates exactly where they are needed; • make more efficient use of these inputs. Precision farming is listed under “Key Strategic Areas and thrusts” in DAFF’s National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy. Find the document on

1. Overview
Precision Farming is a site-specific crop management approach that enables crop farmers to apply optimum inputs in their fields only when and where they are needed. Precision Farming methods are based on sound agronomic, economic and environmental data. The concept is simple: just as each land on a farm is treated differently according to the average production potential of its soil, Precision Farming varies treatment of the soil within the land according to the actual variations in different places. Basic principles The more homogenous the soil within a land, the less benefit you would get from Precision Farming. On the other hand, the more variable, the greater the benefits. An economic analysis will show at what point the investment in a Precision Farming Programme entails a certain minimum fixed cost per hectare; it would not be economically justifiable in low-input, low-yield rain-fed crop production. But, in high-input, high-yielding crop production on high-potential soil – especially under irrigation – its ability to optimise expensive inputs would be highly beneficial. The tools of the trade Precision Farming utilises six ultra-modern technologies: • Global Positioning Systems (GPS), which provides a navigation system to establish a position of a tractor or combine anywhere in a land within less than 2 meters on a latitude-longitude grid overlay. • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – GIS Computers capture, manage and analyse spatial data related to crop productivity and field inputs. • Variable Rate Technology (VRT), which provides “on-the-fly” control of field inputs. • Optical satellite imagery – provides real-time monitoring of crop development and anomalies due to variation in soil potential, physical or climatic variables, pest and diseases, or nutrient deficiencies. • Satellite Imagery and Aerial Imagery.

2. Roleplayers
ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate Electrolee and Water (ARC-ISCW) Tel: 012 347 9933 Tel: 012 310 2500 Monitor the flow of seed, fertiliser The ARC-ISCW has a section and axle rotation. focusing on precision farming research and implementation. EnviroMon Specialised equipment, together Tel: 021 851 5134 with an extensive database of satellite imagery, is used to develop products to assist farmers For the supply, installation, in improving their profitability maintenance and calibration of instrumentation for monitoring through precision farming. weather elements and soil moisture conditions. Agrista Tel: 031 303 2299 Falcon Agricultural Equipment Tel: 033 330 4764 Caryki Consulting CC Tel: 083 445 2662 Farm-IT Solutions Tel: 012 666 7000 Cerealis Precision Tel: 018 632 0362 Farm-IT services include: • Remote sensing/GPS Surveying DFM Software Solutions • Agronomists and soil mapping Tel: 021 904 1154 • Emerging Farmer strategy formulation and support Products include the DFM Irrigation Control System and DFM Continuous Soil Moisture Probe.


FarmSecure Tel: 058 307 6900 GeoSpace International Tel: 012 348 4586 Hanna Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076 See advert on page 105 Laduma Harvesting Tel: 082 446 1300

MAPCO Tel: 017 712 1075 Max Yield Hannes – 082 419 3337 Agricultural contractors for conventional or no-till planting, for distribution of lime (precisionbased – GPS) New Holland Tel: 011 922 2300

NOTE; it is always critical that samples are taken in the prescribed manner and represents the area/lot that is being evaluated. Contact them for more information. OMNIA Ltd Tel: 011 709 8888 Available services: detail soil- and chemical maps for integrating into the Precision Farming process; an agronomic team to make recommendations on how to develop the Precision Farming process, step by step. Promeet Michiel Theron – 082 802 2442 Ronin Tel: 011 606 2194 / 082 452 0673 The Dickey John Land Manager control system provides variable

rate application control for precision precision chemical and fertiliser applications. Enquire about other precision farming equipment. Senter 360 Tel: 018 469 1331 / 082 564 5955 SiQ Tel: 012 807 9460 Technifarm Tel: 028 514 3140 Theebo Tech (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 981 2161 TOPCON Tel: 018 468 2822

Precision farming equipment Specialists in precision farming Ask your nearest Northmec information and yield mapping dealer about the Cruizer guidance system. Fond contact details at Land Resources International Tel: 033 392 8360 Nviro Crop Derived from leading edge airborne Tel: 018 290 7343 remote sensing technology, LREye™ Imagery provides growers with vital crop performance information. NviroTek Labs (Pty) Ltd Recurrent crop problems can be Tel: 012 252 7588 tracked over time, allowing for cost-effective containment and National, independent laboratory solution-planning. services for agriculture. Analyses of soils, plants and water is critical to Lantek SA ensure optimum yields of any type Tel: 082 374 4760 of crop, being produced.

Find the notes on satellite imagery on the Agis website,, and visit roleplayer websites e.g.


Capacity building, science & technology
Precision livestock farming
1. Overview
Increasingly, animal health, behaviour and welfare are becoming an integral part of food quality. Monitoring animal health, behaviour and welfare can assure consumers that the products they buy are from healthy animals that were kept in ways that are in accordance with good farming practice. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) is a sub-set of precision agriculture. PLF exploits identification and associated sensory and location technologies to optimise feeding and control, with a view to achieving objective yield factors, improved animal health and optimised usage of related resources. Traceability and automated food information management are integral to the PLF concept. A majority of farmers make decisions based on short rather than long-term expectations. In order to implement good practices of PLF it will therefore be of vital importance to be able to showcase an attractive economical return on investment of such changed practices for the farmer or food business operator. It will also be important to find the balance between the demand for sustainable and profitable production. A key issue will be how to make PLF practical for the individual farmer to use. These questions are being explored in a new project, “BrightAnimal”. BrightAnimal is a Coordinated European Union Support Action project that will review and evaluate past and current research relating to precision livestock farming (PLF). BrightAnimal will examine PLF in the light of consumer interests and on-farm production processes, with special emphasis on the needs of and implications for small and medium enterprises. BrightAnimal will produce a book on PLF, as well as best PLF practices booklets in four areas: aquaculture, dairy cattle, pigs and laying hens. BrightAnimal is coordinated by AIDC UK. European partners are from UK, Spain, Norway, Denmark and Estonia. Participants include representatives from South Africa, China, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia and Australia. The project will become increasingly visible during 2010 and be completed by mid-2011. Through BrightAnimal, South African interested parties and experts will be able to engage directly with PLF researchers around the world, and to critically review PLF research papers and programmes, assess the impact on producers and make recommendations for the way forward.

South Africa will host a BrightAnimal workshop for the “standards and best practices” and “food information management and advanced traceability” work packages on 08 September 2010 in Johannesburg. The workshops are being arranged in conjunction with the ICST eAfrica conference, which will take place on 09-10 September 2010. Members of the South African network and PLF community will thus have the opportunity to engage directly with PLF global experts.
Source: Gwynne Foster. Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA) is the registered legal entity. Gwynne Foster coordinates BrightAnimal activities in South Africa. Write to her at Read more at the Bright Animal website – – or write to Andrew Callahan at

2. Roleplayers
Roleplayers involved with the identification, monitoring and tracking of livestock

ARC-Irene Tel: 012 672 9393 Read about the DNA testing and Identification done by the ARC – Irene in the Livestock chapter. The contact person for this services is Ben Greyling. AXXON Tel: 011 837 7177/6/0 Fax: 011 837 3100 Suppliers of electronic animal scales and I.D. systems that integrate with most local software programmes. BrightAnimal Gwynne Foster – 082 578 4201 BURNTAG Tel: 028 722 2399

• livestock and game remote monitoring (eco-tourism, health & safety) • research tool as well as monitoring the research subject. • estrus and bull performance monitoring • farm automation • movable asset usage monitoring • remote freezer/cooler monitoring (mobile & fixed) • farm security (alarm monitoring and personal protection) • guard, herder, hiker & hunter monitoring • vehicle usage monitoring and tracking • produce temperature monitoring • farm planning and natural resource utilisation management

Identipet Tel: 011 957 3455/6 Consumer Goods Council of South Africa Tel: 011 789 5777 RAU Easy Farming Tel: 058 863 1515/082 550 6883 The South African registered legal entity and partner to the Bright RuDDScales Animal project Tel: 086 111 4634 GMP Tags Livestock weighing systems with specialised software, electronic identification products. “Committed to traceability” SA Vet HOTSURE Tel: 086 119 2345 Tel: 0861 COLLAR Fax: 086 640 5744 Import/export livestock identification equipment Livestock branding Biotelemetry solutions for proactive risk management and precision farming.The benefits include: • animal health remote monitoring • precision grazing and veld utilisation monitoring


Capacity building, science & technology
Science and research
Also see the Plant Breeding and Biotechnology chapter

Medical Research Council (MRC) Tel: 021 938 0911

1. Overview
Agriculture, being a primary industry, supports many other industries, roughly to the ratio of 1:1,6 regarding job opportunities. Apart from being a catalyst for economic growth generally, agriculture provides food, clothing, employment, tourism, contributes to the alleviation of poverty and promotes international competitiveness. With the adoption of the National Spatial Information (NSI) into the Agricultural R&D Strategy, it becomes increasingly important to identify, develop, adapt, adopt and transfer appropriate technologies to both the first and second economies. In this way the divide that persists with dualism will hopefully be bridged. The aim in identifying new and emerging technologies in the South African context is not only to increase global competitiveness, but also to ensure household food security and to assist the developing farmers in entering the mainstream. In identifying technologies, stimulating innovative solutions must be encouraged.
Source: National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy 2008, which can be found on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries website, www.daff.

The NRF is South Africa’s premier agent for investing in knowledge and innovation across all disciplines of the natural sciences and engineering, as well as social Improves the nation’s health status sciences and humanities. and quality of life through relevant and excellent health research South African Bureau of aimed at promoting equity and Standards (SABS) development. Tel: 012 428 7911 National Research Foundation (NRF) Responsible for the development Tel: 012 481 4000/1 and publication of standards for products and services

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
• One of the priority concerns of the Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture, released by the National Department of Agriculture, Agri SA and NAFU SA, is Research and Development. Find this document on the Department’s website: See also the National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy 2008. • Find the Government document South Africa’s National Research and Development Strategy on Directorate: Research & Technology Development Mr Ramagwai Joseph Sebola Tel: 012 319 6078 Develops and monitors the implementation of suitable policies and strategies for research and development, technology development and transfer in the agricultural sector. Find the National Agricultural Research & Development Strategy at The National Agricultural Research Forum (NARF) Mr Ramagwai Joseph Sebola Tel: 012 319 6286/078 Partners include national and provincial government, universities and universities of technology, private research organisations and the private sector. Its main objective is to facilitate consensus and integrate co-ordination in research, development and technology transfer to agriculture in order to enhance national economic growth, social welfare and environmental sustainability and seeks to advise government through the Minister of Agriculture and Land Affairs on all matters pertaining to agricultural research, development and technology transfer. The Secretariat is based at DAFF. Most directorates are involved in agricultural research in their areas of responsibility (e.g. Animal Production, Genetic Resources etc).

2. Science Councils of South Africa
Agricultural Research Council (ARC) – see heading 4 Tel: 012 427 9700 science and technology to improve the quality of life of the country’s people.

Council for Mineral Technology Promotes agriculture and related (Mintek) sectors through research, Tel: 011 709 4111 technology development and technology transfer. By developing and making available Council for Geoscience (CGO) the most appropriate and costTel: 012 841 1911 effective technology, Mintek enables the minerals industry to operate more effectively. Geological, geophysical and palaeontological research supplying Human Sciences Research geological information to the Council (HSRC) Government and the public. Tel: 012 302 2000 / 021 466 8000 / 031 242 5400 Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) Tel: 012 841 2911 Facilitating problem solving and enhancing decision making through research excellence in the human The CSIR undertakes and applies sciences. directed research and innovation in

Department of Science and Technology Tel: 012 843 6300 Fax: 012 323 8308 The Department of Science and Technology strives towards introducing measures that put science and technology to work to make an impact on growth and development in a sustainable manner, in areas that matter to all the people of South Africa.


4. The Agricultural Research Council (ARC)
The ARC is accountable to the Department of Science and Technology in terms of the regulatory framework affecting institutions with research and development as a primary mandate, but reports to the Department of Agriculture in terms of objectives and budget. It is one of eight research councils in South Africa and was established in 1992 in terms of the Agricultural Research Act of 1990 (Act No. 86 of 1990) as amended in 1993 and 1995. For more detailed information, visit www. or contact ARC head office at 012 427 9700.

5. Other institutes and organisations involved
Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA) Tel: 012 328 6970 Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA) Tel: 049 842 4335

Public Support Services

ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ISCW) ARC-Institute for Tropical and Tel: 012 310 2500 Subtropical Crops (ITSC) Tel: 013 753 7000 Activity: soil science, agro meteorology, water utilisation, GIS Activity: citrus, pineapple, banana, avocado, mango, guava, litchi, ARC-Institute for Agricultural papaya, granadilla, tea, coffee, Engineering (IAE) spices, pecan, macadamias, cashew Tel: 012 842 4000 nuts, cocoa, coconut Activity: aquaculture, irrigation ARC-Roodeplaat Vegetables systems, energy, mechanisation, and Ornamental Plant Institute product processing (VOPI) Tel: 012 841 9611 ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) Activity: vegetables, potatoes, Tel: 012 808 0952 flowers (bulbs), onions, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, cowpeas Activity: pests, diseases & invader weed control, pesticide ARC-Infruitec-Nietvoorbij management, forest entomology, Tel: 021 809 3100 honey production Activity: fruit production, viticulture News Transfer / oenology, deciduous fruit, grapes Previously Sustainable Rural – table, raisin, white grapes, wine Livelihoods (SRL) & brandy industry, apples, peaches, Tel: 012 427 9700 / 23 plums, pears, berry fruits, tree nut crops, rooibos tea, dates, olives, The Sustainable Rural Livelihoods kiwi fruit, hops. division was established to help the research and development business divisions better understand the Livestock Business Division needs of the resource-poor ARC- Onderstepoort agricultural sector Veterinary Institute (OVI) Tel: 012 529 9111 Grain and Industrial Crops Activity: vaccines, animal diseases ARC-Grain Crops Institute / infectious diseases, parasitology, (GCI) toxicology Tel: 018 299 6100 ARC-Animal Production Activity: grain crops – maize, Institute (Irene) sorghum and millet, sunflower, Tel: 012 672 9111 groundnut, soya beans, dry beans, cow peas, sweet white lupine, Activity: livestock improvement, animal nutrition & farming systems bambara ARC-Small Grain (SGI) Tel: 058 307 3400 development, food Institute SMME products / feed stuffs, animal feeds, improve meat and dairy products, production of beef & dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, poultry, poultry Activity: wheat, barley, oats, rye nutrition, dairy cattle nutrition, red ARC-Institute for Industrial meat production, pig nutrition Crops (IIC) Tel: 014 536 3150 / 2 Activity: tobacco, cotton, hemp, flax, sisal, kenaf

Horticultural Business Division

AISA is an independent research Hanna’s Instruments organisation and think-tank, Tel: 011 615 6076 focussing on Africa in its research, publications and resource library. HOTSURE Tel: 0861 265527 Agricultural Mark Trends (AMT) Tel: 012 361 2748 / 8344 Masters and PhD research applicants can apply for product Research is aimed at developing an grants/sponsorships analytical framework that would assist roleplayers in agriculture in Institute for Commercial quantifying the effects of various Forestry Research (ICFR) Tel: 013 764 2393 agro-economic variables such as agricultural policy, technology, development strategies, regional Protein Research Foundation demand, product distribution, Tel: 011 803 2579 competitive advantages and trade liberalisation on the agricultural economy of the region. Research Stations: Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Tel: 012 420 4583/2 BFAP is an independent research unit involving the University of Pretoria, the University of Stellenbosch, the Department of Agriculture: Western Cape and the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) and associate organisations. • Armoedsvlakte Agricultural Research Station – 053 927 3801 • Dundee Agricultural Research Station – 034 212 2479 • Kokstad Agricultural Research Station – 039 727 2105 • Karakul Agricultural Research Station – 054 332 1931 • Nooitgedacht Agricultural Research Station – 017 819 2781

Others: Messina Agricultural Station, Outeniqua Centre for Science, Technology Research and Innovation Indicators Experimental Farm, (CeSTII) Koopmansfontein Agricultural Based at the HSRC Research Station, Quelea Research Unit (QRU), Rietrivier Citrus Research International Agricultural Research Station, (CRI) Sandvet Agricultural Research Tel: 013 759 8000 Station, Toowomba Agricultural Research Station and the Vaalharts Agricultural Research Station. Companies involved in agriculture Details can be found on the ARC conduct their own research e.g. website – the seed companies, fertiliser companies etc. The Revenue Laws Soil Science Society of South Amendment Act allows companies Africa (SSSSA) to deduct 150% of Research and Tel: 012 310 2504 Development (R & D) expenditure, an attempt to encourage company expenditure on R & D and to make South African Sugarcane South Africa an attractive place to Research Institute (SASRI) foreign-sourced R & D activity. Find Tel: 031 508 7400 details of “Companies Involved” in the relevant chapters. Sugar Milling Research Institute DFM Software Solutions (SMRI) Tel: 021 904 1154 Tel: 031 273 1300 Provides the ARC and universities South African Society of Animal with continuous logging soil Science (SASAS) moisture probes.


South African Society of Crop Production (SASCP) Southern African Society for Horticultural Sciences South African Soil Survey Organisation (SASSO) Tel: 018 633 1143 Southern Education and Research Alliance (SERA) Tel: 012 841 2204 A partnership between the University of Pretoria and the CSIR

Universities and Agricultural Colleges (see the Agricultural Education and Training chapter). Water Research Commission (WRC) Tel: 012 330 0340/9053 The WRC operates in terms of the Water Research Act (Act 34 of 1971) and its mandate is to support water research and development as well as the building of a sustainable water research capacity in South Africa.

6. Local business environment
Research priorities differ in the provinces, based on their ecological conditions and socio-economic situation. The National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy sets out the following “key areas of technological development” – national priorities – along with a brief overview of each: • sustainable natural resource management • maintaining and strengthening competitiveness of the agricultural sector through biotechnology, • information and communications technology • Earth observation technologies • Geographic Information Systems, spatial modelling and scenario planning • product differentiation for global competitiveness • global competitiveness and macro-economics • post-harvest technology development for value adding, • bio-energy and bio-fuels • precision agriculture • animal and plant health • indigenous food crops • production (crop and livestock) efficiency under extreme climate conditions

7. International business environment
Also find the numerous international roleplayers by taking the “Links” menu option at • Association of Agricultural Research Institutions in the Near East and North Africa (AARINENA) – • African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) – www.aatf-africa. org • Australian Centre for Industrial and Agricultural Research (ACIAR) – • Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) – www. • African Highlands Initiative (AHI) – • Agricultural Research Service (ARS) – • The Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) – • African Technology Policy Studies Network (ATPS) – www.atpsnet. org • Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP) – visit,, and other relevant websites.

• Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International (CABI) – www.cabi. org • The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – The website is an excellent orientation to groupings and research publications worldwide. • International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) – www.ciat.cgiar. org • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT – International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre) – www.cimmyt. org • International Potato Centre (CIP) – • Agricultural Research for Developing Countries (CIRAD) – www.cirad. fr • COPAC Academic and National Library Catalogue: free access to the merged online catalogues of 24 of the largest university research libraries in the UK and Ireland – • West and Central African Council for Agricultural and Research Foundation (CORAF) – • CROP & FOOD Research (New Zealand) – • Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Co-operation (CTA) – www. • European Initiative for Agricultural Research and Development (EIARD) – • ELDIS – a service for searching resources on African agricultural research – • Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBAPA) – www. • European South African Science and Technology Advancement Programme (ESASTAP) – • European Union (EU) – find the agricultural research pages at http:// • Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) – www.fara-africa. org • Farm-Africa (Food and Agricultural Research Management) – www. • Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) • German Development Co-operation (GTZ) – • International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) – • Implementation & Coordination of Agricultural Research & Training in the SADC Region (ICART) – find the link at • The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) – • International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) – • Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) – www. • International Centre for Soil Fertility and Agricultural Development (IFDC) – • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – • International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) – • The Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) from Argentina – • International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) – • International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) – • International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) – • PROLINNOVA – Promoting Local Innovation (in ecologically-orientated agriculture and natural resource management) – • Research Into Use (RIU) – This programme aims to improve access to knowledge and technology for poor people whose livelihoods depend on natural resources. It also helps secure funds for teams who are doing promising research. Contact Lucy Nickoll at • Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) – • South Africa-Netherlands Research Programme on Alternatives in Development (SANPAD) – • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) – • WARDA Africa Rice Centre – • West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (WECARD) • WorldFish Centre –


Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
• Barley is a winter cereal crop that is mainly produced in the South Western Cape under dry land conditions. Two-thirds of our barley is produced in the areas around Caledon, Riviersonderend, Bredasdorp, Napier, Swellendam and Heidelberg. The remainder of the production is in the Northern Cape under irrigation (Vaalharts, Douglas, Barkley West, Rietrivier and Hopetown area). Barley is also grown by some small-scale farmers at Taung in the North West Province. After wheat, it is the most important small grain in South Africa. • Barley is mainly used for the production of malt (used for brewing beer), animal feed and pearl barley. The South African barley is primarily grown for malting purposes, but a variable portion annually is not suitable for malt production and is then down graded to animal feed. • Barley is different from most, if not all, other agricultural commodities, as there is only one major barley buyer in South Africa, namely the South African Breweries Maltings (Pty) Ltd (SABM) which supplies SA Breweries Ltd with malted barley. Barley producers have a guaranteed market for 220 000 ton malting quality barley per year, and a choice of a fixed price forward contract or a formula price linked to the Safex wheat price. • Statistics (e.g. crop estimates, export/import etc) may be found on the Department of Agriculture’s website – take the “Publications” menu option at – and on the South African Grain Information Service website – • The local consumption requirements for malting barley are around 270 000 ton per year. • The barley marketing season in South Africa commences on 1 October and ends on 30 September the following year.

SAB Maltings (SABM) Tel: 028 214 3100

Stellenbosch University Department of Agronomy Tel: 021 8084803 The SAB Maltings Agricultural Advisor, Johannes Kokome, does informal training with the farmers Department of Food Science at Taung. Call him at 082 921 Tel: 021 808 3578 7981. South African Barley Breeding University of the Free State Institute (SABBI) Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 028 212 2943 / 082 921 7996 Tel: 051 401 2514 Fax: 051 444 5945 Situated on the Farm Dunghye Park near Caledon, SABBI is managed by SABM. It is a section 21 Company University of Pretoria which receives grants from the Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 012 420 4111 Winter Cereal Trust.

4. Websites and publications
The Guidelines For The Production Of Small Grains In The Summer Rainfall Region and the Guideline For The Production Of Small Grains In The Winter Rainfall Region are highly comprehensive and essential publication. Topics include management of barley production (e.g. reaching target yields), soil tillage guidelines, cultivar choice guidelines, fertilisation guidelines, and weed and insect control. Contact the ARC-SGI.Tel: 058 307 3507 – SAGIS’s website: National stocks, producer deliveries, import, exports, consumption, weekly parity prices, etc. Historical information regarding this crop can also be found. Visit the ARC-SGI webpages on

5. Companies involved
For a comprehensive list go to – take the “List of Co-workers” and then “Barley” menu options.

2. Associations involved
Barley Evaluation Committee Tel: 028 214 3100 The Barley Technical Committee, linked to the Winter Cereals Trust, can also be contacted at the above number. Grain SA Winter Cereal Producers Organisation Tel: 056 515 2145 South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) Tel: 012 523 1400 Winter Cereal Trust Tel: 012 663 1660

AFGRI Animal Feeds Tel: 011 306 4300 Buhler Tel: 011 801 3500 Dannhauser Malt (Pty) Ltd Tel: 034 621 2661 GWK Ltd Tel: 053 298 8200

Overberg Agri Bedrywe Tel: 028 214 3800 SA Breweries Ltd Tel: 011 881 8111 SAB Maltings (Pty) Ltd Tel: 028 214 3100 Senwes Ltd Tel: 018 464 7800 Sentraal-Suid Co-operative (SSK Ltd) Tel: 028 514 8600

3. Training and research
ARC-Small Grains Institute (SGI) Tel: 058 307 3507 weed science, plant pathology, entomology and yield potential.

Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) The ARC-SGI has a scheduled Tel: 012 420 4583 training course, usually in October, specifically for students and extension officers working with At Grain SA (see heading emerging farmers. 2), training is done on barley Its research work covers plant production under irrigation. Find breeding, the evaluation of cultivars, contact details of trainers in the grain quality, plant physiology, tillage Emerging Farmer Support chapter.

Kaap Agri Ltd Tel: 022 482 8048

6. Local business environment
Being able to buy barley locally supports the local economy, is more efficient (less travel and packaging), ensures quicker delivery and secures a good quality of the end product. SA Breweries utilises approximately 275 000 tons of barley malt per annum for the production of beer. This is equivalent to ± 330 000 tons of barley. The current capacity of SAB Maltings, SA Breweries’ malting division, is


220 000 tons of malt. For this 270 000 tons of barley is needed. SABM is committed to use locally grown barley to the largest extent possible. The size of the annual barley crop is one determining factor with regards to how much locally grown barley is used. Another factor is to what extent certain varieties, required for malting and brewing, can be produced under South African conditions. Normally between 70 and 90% of barley produced in the Southern Cape is suited for malting purposes. This figure is directly dependant on the climatic conditions in the Southern Cape during the growing season. During the 1995 season, for example, a record crop of ± 300 000 tons was harvested, but during the next six seasons the barley industry came under severe pressure due to very bad climatic conditions (As low as ± 67 000 tons was produced during the 2001 season in this area). The aim to stabilize the fluctuation caused by total production in only one geographical area, and one with such a highly variable climatic environment, was one of the most important drivers for SAB Maltings to start investigating malting barley production under irrigation. A statutory levy in terms of the Marketing of Agricultural Products Act is applicable (R8.50/t barley) to finance research and information. SABMiller announced in July 2009 that it expected to implement a Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment transaction in the first half of 2010. This would involve an equity issue of around 10 percent of its South African subsidiary, South African Breweries, to a broad base of black participants. Participants would include SAB’s employees; blackowned licensed liquor retailers and liquor licence applicants, as well as black-owned customers of ABI, the soft drinks division of SAB; and the broader South African community through the SAB Foundation. A meaningful dividend stream is expected to be paid to all participants for the whole of the ten-year transaction period, thereby delivering a significant economic benefit from the first year. At the end of the ten-year transaction period, participants would exchange their shareholdings in SAB for shares in SABMiller. Norman Adami, managing director of SAB, said the group was determined to design a transaction that would deliver truly broad-based and tangible benefits. “This deal is good for South Africa and good for SAB,” he added.
Source: SAPA 1 July 2009 (adapted)

Planting Practices: It is important that barley is not planted deeper than 3 cm. The deeper you plant it the more energy is being used for germination and tillering is therefore restricted.
Depending on the status of the seedbed, you should plant between 80 kg to 100 kg for every ha. The average recommended density is 90 kg to the ha.

Fertilisation: The crop’s minimum acidity requirement must be met. For barley, the soil acidity requirement is a pH of 5,5 (KCI medium). Lime application should then be to create a pH of 5,5 to 6,0. Too high a pH could lead to zinc and manganese deficiencies, and barley is very sensitive to this.
A soil sample will tell you how much phosphorus to apply. If there is more than 30 mg of citric acid soluble phosphorus in a kg of soil, then you can apply 12 to 15 kg to every ha. 6kg per ha can be applied where the sample shows your soil to be below 20mg per kg. 4kg phosphorus per ha can be applied for each 1 mg/kg where the analysis is below 30 mg/ha. According to most research, top dressing of nitrogen (nitrogen fertilisation applied after emergence of the crop) benefits the crop, especially where overhead irrigation is being used, and where the soil is lighter and sandier. For the best yield, a total nitrogen fertilisation of 130 kg to 150 kg per hectare should be given. The first nitrogen is applied just before or during planting. Two thirds of the total nitrogen that you will give the crop should be then while the rest is applied from 6 weeks after emergence till as late as the flag leaf stage, depending on the clay percentage of the soil. For a more detailed exploration of fertilisation, see the Guideline for the production of small grains in the Summer Rainfall Regions mentioned under “Websites and publications”.

Weeds: Barley is very sensitive to the competition of weeds. Sort out those weeds as soon as they germinate! Hoelon and Grasp are the only herbicides to use for controlling grass weeds. Never use Topic and Puma on barley. In fact, make sure you read the label because only herbicides registered specifically for barley should be used. Barley is also very particular about the dosage. If you apply too much herbicide, your barley can be damaged. If you apply too little, you stand the risk that the particular weeds can build up resistance to the specific herbicide. Pests: The Russian wheat aphid and some other plant aphids are natural enemies of barley. If they appear there early, apply an insecticide too when you are using the herbicide. Bollworm can also be a problem and will lead to your crop being down-graded. If 3-4 bollworms are present in a meter row, apply a chemical treatment. Fungal Control: It is important to harvest the crop as soon as it is ready (13% moisture content) so that the grain is not exposed to rain during harvesting. Fungal contamination (and with it, toxic substances which are not good for human or livestock consumption) can occur when the crop is exposed to rain during harvesting. Irrigation: Skillful irrigation can give you an optimum crop – yield and quality. It is important not to stop irrigating too early (the last irrigation should be given when the whole plant is nearly discolored). Harvesting: Excessively fast drum speeds and excessively tight concave settings should be avoided when harvesting. It is essential that the grain is not skinned.
The barley must be harvested in bulk and delivered at the depot as stipulated on the contract or as communicated during the growing season. Here it is sampled, classified and graded. The producer then gets paid according to quality (there is a sliding scale system) and quantity.
Grateful thanks to Burrie Erasmus, Francois Potgieter, Tobie Erasmus and SAGIS for feedback on the draft chapter.

7. International business environment
Barley is grown in about 100 countries worldwide. The top ten barley producers are Russia, Canada, Germany, France, Ukraine, Turkey, Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Spain. Export/import figures can be found on The Monthly Bulletin contains updated information.

8. Farmer points of interest
See the tables in the Production Guidelines, issued by the ARC-SGI, referred to earlier. The following notes are summarised from the SGI’s Guideline for the Production of Small Grains in the Summer Rainfall Region, written by GJ Kotzé.

Soil Preparation: It must be emphasized that a fine and even seedbed be prepared. An uneven seedbed will cause uneven development of the crop and in the end, uneven ripening and quality.
The barley cultivars Puma and SSG 585 are at this point in time the cultivar for commercial production of malting barley under irrigation. The seed is treated with a fungicide as well as an insecticide. This will protect it for some time against insects during storage before planting and against fungal diseases for the first couple of weeks after it is planted.


Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
Think strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, gooseberries – as well as boysenberries, tayberries and currants. There are two reasons why South Africa is well-placed to tap into the Northern Hemisphere markets: • We have a range of climates suitable for berry-growing. • We have a strategic advantage in the fact that we are out of season. Challenges include the cost of freight and competition from South America. Berries are consumed as fruit, and also used as products for juice, jam, preserves and liqueur.
Source: Trevor McKenzie and

South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 6896

Valstar (Holland) VERTI-GRO – see RednJuicy

Well-Pict Berries Tel: 044 870 7135 / 082 880 1351 Food Safety Certification programmes: GlobalGAP , BRC, Visit HACCP , ISO 22000 for a grasp of the company. Find the link to the South African operation Tel: 012 428 6648 under “Partners’. Pesticide residue testing for quality Wildebraam Berry Estate Tel: 028 514 3132 control and R&D purposes Fax: 028 514 3100 Tel: 012 428 6844 Winterwood Farms Ltd Constituent or nutrient analysis of A major company in the Berries food and water sector – importing and exporting South Cape Fruit Tel: 044 881 0197 Steyn, Dirk (a berry grower) Tel: 028 514 2523 Wynland Boerdery Tel: 021 881 3222 One of the leading strawberry producers in the Western Cape

2. Roleplayers
Amathole Berries (Pty) Ltd Tel: 043 782 0610 Blue Mountain Berries Tel: 044 876 0131 Gerrit Claassen Chrisleo Botha Dreammaker Fruits Tel: 022 931 8500 Haygrove Heaven Sean Tager – 083 301 8747 Raspberry growers in the Western Cape Red Berry Farm Tel: 044 870 7123 / 083 310 4680 Outside George in the Western Cape, Red Berry Farm produces up to 220 tons of six varieties of strawberries per year since 2001. The farm attracts up to 30 000 people annually.

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find information and contact details at

Directorate: Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6505/39

Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7306

4. Training and research
ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) Charnie Craemer, an acarologist (mite specialist) Research on and identification of plant feeding mite pests. Several species of the Eriophyoidea (e.g. bud mites) are important pests of several currants and berries world-wide. ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Tel: 021 809 3100 Nooitgedacht Research Station (at Ermelo) Mr Nick Prinsloo Tel: 017 819 2781 Stellenbosch University Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 021 808 4900 University of the Free State Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences Tel: 051 401 2212

Growers of blueberries, raspberries, red and black currants RednJuicy John Sandison Eurafruit SA (Pty) Limited Tel: 083 400 0033 Trevor McKenzie: Director Tel: 021 888 5900 Producing strawberries under red shade cloth instead of hydroponic A solid base of South African tunnels proved a better proposition growers has been built up for in KZN – find out more about the export to the UK, with Eurafruit Verti-gro system which keeps the providing the necessary technical berry off the ground and are more back up as well as the marketing of suitable for this area. all fruit and co-ordinating the sales logistics. Eurafruit holds the license for the production and marketing Perishable Products Export of some of the major international Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 blueberry breeding programmes.


5. Websites and publications
PPECB Export Directory. The official guide to South African perishable export products and export service providers. The purpose of the above-mentioned directory is to provide a comprehensive resource and reference work of a broad spectrum of industry role-players and relevant information to both national and international stakeholders involved in the export of perishable products from South Africa. It is issued by the Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 (find berries under the Exotic Fruit section). The Abstract of Agricultural Statistics on includes information on “Strawberries and other berries: production, gross value, sales on markets and purchases for processing”. Find also the annual Statistics on fresh produce markets, which gives an exposition of the mass, value and unit value of the sales of fruit at each of the national fresh produce markets, month by month. These reports are also available from the Resource Centre at the Department of Agriculture. Call 012 319 7141. Call 012 842 4000 or email for the following publications, available from the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering: • Processing of Berries, Volume 1 (Blackberries; Blackcurrent; Blueberries; Cape Gooseberries; Cherries) • Processing of Berries, Volume 2 (Gooseberries; Raspberries; Redcurrants; Strawberries) SA Groente en Vrugte – a magazine, 6 issues a year. Contact 018 293 0622 for more information. Occasionally there are articles on berry farming in agricultural publications and their related websites. Find “A youngberry vintage” at www.farmersweekly., for example, where it is said that 90% of the world’s youngberries are grown on only 70ha near Swellendam in the Western Cape. • Visit the websites of companies involved e.g. www.wellpict-european. com • “Everything you need to know about strawberries” – http:// • – The “finest berries in the world” • – for information relating to cranberries • – “Supplying the world with berry knowledge and resources” • – where you can find a pick-your-own farm near you (USA website) • – an extensive source of information on raspberries • The website of Allanhill Farming Co (UK) includes information on strawberries –

delicate fruits and must be handled with the utmost care. Prompt cooling after picking is important. The cold chain must be strictly applied, because any temperature variation will result in condensation of moisture on the fruit with subsequent increase in decay. Strawberries cannot be stored for more than 5 days as shrivelling, loss of bright colour and waste development will occur. For this reason strawberries can only be air freighted out of South Africa. Almost all berry exports go to the United Kingdom and Europe. Find information about berry exports in the PPECB’s latest Export Directory. Also, the Department of Agriculture’s “Abstract of Agricultural Statistics” has a category “strawberries and other berries”; statistics relating to production, gross value, sales on markets and purchases for processing will be found here. See “Publications” at

Blueberries The blueberry industry in South Africa is a relatively new industry and is still in growing. Blueberries are not native to South Africa, are not well known and therefore the market for fresh blueberries is still very small but is growing every year. The bulk of the fruit is exported as fresh fruit to markets in Europe and in the UK. The prices on the overseas markets have stabilised but due to the seasonal difference there are still opportunities for us to market during the Northern hemisphere Winter. The supply of fruit from South America poses a serious threat to market stability in the future. Raspberries • The seasonal difference between the northern and southern hemisphere can enable the farmers to get the benefit of the higher prices these fruit are sold for. Because raspberries are able to be manipulated, they can be produced 12 months of the year in moderate climates e.g. in Spain. • The exchange rate between the Rand and the US Dollar can be an advantage in terms of export income. The air freight rate is set in Dollars, though, so the cost of getting the product to the market also increases as the rand devalues, which dilutes the effect of a weak currency. • Raspberries can be grown successfully on a wide range of soil types from sandy loam to clay, provided that the subsoil is well drained. • Raspberries are very labour and management intensive. Do not start with a big enterprise without experience in the berry industry. For further information, contact Nick Prinsloo at Our thanks to Trevor McKenzie (Eurafruit), Jeán Kotzé (Dreammaker Fruits) and Nick Prinsloo (Nooitgedacht Research Station) for input and valuable feedback on the draft chapter.

6. Business environment
The Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) is the official certification agency that ensures quality in the supply chain. The services they offer are inspection services, logistical services, food safety auditing and certification and information services which are updated annually in their directory. Both the local and export marketing of fruit are free from government intervention. The exporting of fruit is subject to compliance with certain quality requirements and obtaining a PPECB (Perishable Products Export Control Board) export certificate. Handling requirements for berries differ and there is no way one set of handling requirements can be given. Suffice it to say that they are very


Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
• Canola is an oilseed crop that is mainly grown in the South Western Cape, but farmers north are also starting to plant canola. • Canola can be used as a dual purpose crop (for grazing and the harvest of seeds) in summer rainfall areas such as the Eastern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal. For such purposes, it should be planted January to March. • For grazing, canola has better quality than oats, while long growing varieties have 1,5 to double the dry matter production than oats. • Canola is an excellent rotation crop, and should be used to increase profits of crops such as maize and wheat. • The handling of Canola (after being harvested) is slightly more labour intensive as a result of the small pips. Road and rail trucks need to be sealed more tightly than other commodities in order to prevent losses in transit. • Canola is primarily used for the manufacturing of canola oil and oil cake. It is also included in protein feeds for dog food and livestock rations and biodiesel. • Canola oil is cheaper and healthier than olive oil. In effect is it olive oil + omega 3, thus assisting with lower cholesterol, against heart and coronary diseases, and lowering the chances of certain cancers. • When canola oil is mixed in even ratios with butter, you get a healthier spread, with better taste. In Canada and Australia, many restaurants and quick food suppliers (industrial deep-frying) have transferred to canola for deep frying. • Statistics (e.g. crop estimates, export/import etc) may be found at – take the “Publications” menu option – and www. • The local consumption requirement for canola is around 24 500 tons per year. • According to Petrus Fouche of the Phyto Energy Group, from 2011/12 canola will be used to produce biodiesel, and will eventually need 1 million ton canola seed. This is therefore a crop with enormous economic potential. Canola based biodiesel • Diesel based on other feedstock freezes as low as -5 to -8 ºC. Canola based biodiesel is safe as far down as -22 ºC and meets the strict EU quality specifications. • Canola can be used as a winter crop (rotational crop) and so does not compete with food crops like maize and wheat • Canola is a dry land crop, and so low winter rain is adequate. • The oil content is higher than other feedstock used in South Africa i.e. 36-42% vs. soya 20% & sunflower 30% • The by-product of about 60 % (Oilcake) can be used for: - High protein animal feed that is currently imported thereby resulting in cheaper dairy products; cheaper beef (input costs will be reduced) - Glycerin (Cosmetics, Pharmaceutical, textile & other uses) reducing importation. Find the notes on the potential of canola as a biofuel plus crop on www. The East London Industrial Development Zone (ELIDZ), the Eastern Cape Development Corporation and other roleplayers are exploring this potential.

2. Websites and publications
• Canolafokus is a newsletter that publishes contemporary research results. These can be downloaded from the Protein Research Foundation’s website – • – a Canadian website for “everyone who wants to know more about the world’s healthiest oil”. • – the SAGIS website for statistics (national stocks, producer deliveries, import, exports, consumption, weekly parity prices, historical information, etc.) • – Canola Council of Canada • Canola is covered frequently by the agricultural weeklies, Landbouweekblad and Farmer’s Weekly. Find archived articles at www. and

3. Roleplayers
For a complete list go to – take the “List of Co-workers” and then “Canola” menu options.

ARC – PPRI Tel: 012 808 8000

Phyto Energy Group Tel: 021 853 8004 / 082 779 1609

Research in exotic slugs and other Protein Research Foundation problems causing losses to canola Tel: 011 803 2579/ 1894 plantings in conservation farming. Asgisa Eastern Cape Tel: 043 735 1673 BKB Grainco (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 807 8900 Epic Foods Tel: 011 248 000 Epol – Worcester Tel: 023 342 0180 Grain SA Tel: 056 515 2145 Moorreesburgse Koringboere (MKB) Tel: 022 433 8300 / 8391 Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust Tel: 011 234 3400 Oilseeds Advisory Committee Tel: 011 234 3400 Overberg Agri Bedrywe (Eiendoms) Beperk Tel: 028 214 3800/15 Sentraal-Suid Koöp Tel: 028 514 8600 South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) Tel: 012 523 1400 South African Oil Processors Association Tel: 082 533 0692 Southern Oil Tel: 028 514 3441 Stellenbosch University Department of Agronomy Tel: 021 8084803 Tuinroete Agri Ltd Tel: 028 713 2404 University of the Free State Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences Tel: 051 401 2212


4. Local business environment
• The production of canola in South Africa is usually lower than the demand and favourable prices are achieved. • The biggest sales point for canola in the Western Cape is the industrial market because of its good emulsifying characteristics. • The market for bottled canola oil has room for growth because it is not well known among consumers. It is also fairly unknown in the industrial deep-frying market. • Canola is a good source of protein in animal feed and large quantities of protein for animal feeds have to be imported every year. • The canola marketing season in South Africa commences on 1 October and ends on 30 September the following year.

2. Cassava and South Africa
Cassava is a tropical root crop, requiring at least 8 months of warm weather to produce a crop. It is traditionally grown in a savannah climate, but can be grown in an extremely wet climate. In moist areas, it does not tolerate flooding. In dry areas, it loses its leaves to conserve moisture, producing new leaves when rains resume. It takes 18 or more months to produce a crop under adverse conditions such as cool or dry weather. Cassava does not tolerate freezing conditions. It tolerates a wide range of soil pH (4.0 to 8.0) and is most productive in full sun. While cassava has had a long history in the rest of Africa, cassava is not a well-known crop in South Africa and its agricultural potential in South Africa needs to be fully exploited. Cassava is normally grown between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the Equator, from sea level up to an altitude of 2,000 m. In South Africa the most suitable areas are north of Stanger in KwaZulu-Natal below the 800 m elevation. This area includes the hotter northern and eastern regions of KwaZulu-Natal and the eastern parts of the Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga respectively. These areas together have two million hectares of arable land below the 800 m elevation and an annual rainfall of 500 mm that offers potential for cassava production. Of these, 600 000 hectares are already planted to other crops such as sugar cane, timber, subtropical fruits and cotton. Allowing a loss of a further 400 000 hectares to grazing lands and densely populated settlements in tribal areas, there remain one million hectares which could be planted to cassava. Cold tolerant lines have now however been developed that might increase this area considerably into other no frost areas. Under traditional subsistence farming conditions, the levels of husbandry of cassava tend to be low, with little being done to prevent losses from diseases or pests. Average annual dry land yields therefore usually range only within five to 15 tons a hectare while experimental station yields under irrigation have exceeded 80 tons a hectare.

5. International business environment
• Canola competes with other plant oils, mainly sunflower oil and soy oil, on the local market. South Africa is a net importer of plant oils. • The domestic demand for plant oils is estimated at 720 000 tons per year. • Approximately 300 000 to 350 000 tons of plant oils are produced in South Africa and the balance is imported, primarily as sunflower oil and soy oil. • See the Monthly Bulletin on the SAGIS website for updated information. • Oilseed information is also available on the Oil World website – www. at a fee. Oil World can be contacted on Tel: 0049 40 761 0500 or emailed at
Sources: SAGIS; Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Our thanks to SAGIS and the Phyto Energy Group for input to the draft chapter

3. Roleplayers
ARC- Institute for Industrial Crops Tel: 014 536 3150 iNEMBE BABY FOOD Tel: 013 752 8307

Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), also commonly known as manioc, mandioca and tapioca, is a shrubby, perennial plant whose swollen carbohydrate-rich roots have been used for centuries in tropical lowlands as a subsistence crop. It was first cultivated more than 4 000 years ago, probably in Brazil or Mexico; it was introduced into Africa only in the 17th century and reached Asia about 150 years ago. Yet today, about 40 percent of global output comes from Africa, the rest being produced almost equally by Asia and Latin America. Cassava is the developing world’s fourth most important crop, with production in 2006 estimated at 226 million tons by FAO. It is the staple food of nearly a billion people in 105 countries where the root provides as much as a third of daily calories. It has huge potential – at present, average cassava yields are barely 20% of those obtained under optimum conditions. It produces more carbohydrate per hectare per annum than any other non-irrigated tropical crop. Cassava is also the cheapest known source of starch, and used in more than 300 industrial products. One promising application is fermentation of the starch to produce ethanol used in biofuel, while SABMiller announced in July 2009 that in Africa it was increasingly using locally grown crops like sorghum and cassava to produce “affordable brands”.

University of the Free State Department of Plant Sciences • Find the technical report Tel: 051 401 2514 Results obtained from a baseline study on cassava University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa and other African Centre for Crop Improvement publications on the website. • Excellent notes on cassava, its Tel: 033 260 6288 importance in the world, its products and potential can be University of the found on the website. Witwatersrand School of Molecular and Cell Industrial Development Biology Corporation (IDC) Tel: 011 717 6310/26 Tel: 011 269 3000 African research institutes – find The IDC is working though the details in the Science and Research company BGBI Engineers and chapter. Constructors (Pty) Ltd.

The NEPAD vision for Africa’s agricultural sector is: “an agriculture led development that eliminates hunger, reduce poverty, enhance food security, opens the way to the expansion of exports and puts the continent on a higher economic growth path”. Cassava is promoted as a “Powerful Poverty Fighter in Africa”. The cassava vision is: “Increased contribution of cassava as a food security crop and a major source of industrial raw material for income generation in Africa by 2015”.


Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
• Chicory (Cichorium intybus), a member of the sunflower family, produces a large tapered root which has been used for many years for its beneficial effect on the human digestive system (read about the health benefits of chicory on • Roots of chicory are dried, ground and used as a coffee substitute or supplement. Chicory is also widely used in beverages as a blend with coffee and as an ingredient in pet food and breakfast cereals. • Chicory was first introduced into South Africa for commercial use in 1895 in the Alexandria area in the Eastern Cape. The bulk of South Africa’s chicory is still grown here, and the chicory industry is a major employer. • South Africa produces 45 000 tons of chicory a year. Chicory SA in Alexandria buys harvested chicory root from farmers, dries, roasts and sells it to companies such as Nestlé International in KwaZulu-Natal and National Brands in Johannesburg for the production of blended coffee and chicory beverages. A different chicory is cultivated and produced in the Western Cape, different to the chicory which is added to coffee or drunk on its own. A member of the Asteraceae (chicory) family, it is also known as witloof or Belgian endive. The nutritious, yellow-white leaves make fabulous salads, soups and other dishes. It is cultivated hydroponically in Cape Town, and is sold by Woolworths, Pick ‘n Pay and Freshmark as a fresh vegetable. Not restricted to a particular season, it will always be available, whether for summer salads or winter soups. Not a single morsel gets wasted, as the whole chicon is edible. For more information, visit the website or contact Envidia Holdings. Endivia Holdings Tel: 021 948 1374

4. Roleplayers
Chicory SA Limited Tel: 046 653 0048 Chicory SA Limited is based in the Eastern Cape, its products are marketed to manufacturers and consumers in South Africa and internationally. Products sold by Chicory SA include dried chicory, roasted chicory and liquid chicory extract as well as its own pure, caffeine-free chicory for the local market. Chicory SA also provides vital ingredients to manufacturers of a variety of top selling brand name products, commercially available in major chain stores. Nestlé International South African Chicory Producers’ Organisation Tel: 046 653 0201

Regional contact numbers are Tiger Brands Tel: 011 840 4000 available on the latter site. National Brands (subsidiary of JSE-listed AVI) Tel: 011 707 7000

5. Farmer points of interest
• Although chicory is a hardy, labour-intensive crop, it is vulnerable to disease, especially if the crop suffers moisture or environmental stress. Biological control methods are recommended instead of pesticides, as they do not kill beneficial insects and are more economical. Growing chicory incorrectly can also be harmful to the environment. Intensive tillage is necessary to prepare a fine seedbed and farmers have to plough deeply to eradicate some weeds. Heavy tilling threatens earthworm populations as it disturbs their natural environment. Minimum tillage is best. Chicory is an annual crop and should not be planted in the same land for more than two consecutive seasons. • Use crop rotation techniques to restore the soil and prevent eelworm. • Chicory farmers need a large area of land so that they can rotate the crop.
Source: Darian Keeton (winner of the Mangold Trophy for the best conserved and utilised farm in the Ndlambe area of the Eastern Cape - 2005). Call him at 046 624 5333

2. Websites and publications
Two publications are available from the ARC: • Chicory, a leaflet which can be ordered from the ARC in Roodeplaat. Contact 012 841 9611 of fax 012 808 0844. • Processing of Industrial Crops (chicory, coffee, sugar cane, tea) is available from the ARC in Silverton. Call 012 842 4000 or email Stolttze@arc. Notes on chicory can be found at, the website of Chicory SA.

6. International business environment
• The greatest work on chicory – research, seed development etc - the past few decades has been done by the French. Belgian and Dutch companies have also been involved. Companies include Le Roux’s, Chicoline and Orafti. • New Zealand companies have also been involved in research, development, and production of chicory varieties and selections. Visit, by way of example. • Visit
Sources:; and Our thanks to Loddie Greyling and Paul Griffiths of Chicory SA for input and feedback on the draft chapter.

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find “Food safety and quality assurance” under the divisions menu option at


Field crops and horticulture
Citrus fruit
Refer also to the Fruit chapter

1. Overview
Citrus comprises of the following broad categories: oranges, soft citrus, grapefruit, and lemons and limes. These can be consumed as fresh fruit or processed for juice making, juice concentrates and dried fruit production. Citrus fruit can also be processed as essential oils obtained from fruit peels. These are used by the flavour houses to add flavour to drinks and food, by pharmaceutical companies, in aromatherapy and by the cosmetics industry. Regions under citrus are climatically diverse. Examples are: • the semi-tropical areas of the low-lying eastern seaboard (Zimbabwe, Moçambique, and Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa); • the higher lying subtropical areas (Nelspruit, Letaba, Zimbabwe middleveld); • the cool coastal areas of the Eastern and Western Cape. The northern and eastern areas of Southern Africa are all summer rainfall areas, whereas the Western and Southern Cape enjoy a Mediterranean-type climate with winter rainfall. In the Eastern Cape a bimodal rainfall pattern exists with rains mostly occurring in spring and the fall. This broad climatic range from semi-tropical to Mediterranean-type climates has numerous, distinct advantages resulting in a wide range of cultivars being successfully produced from late February/early March through to late September/mid October. Any natural and/or phytosanitary disaster can also not equally affect all regions, and the supply of fruit from Southern Africa as a whole is thus fairly stable from year to year. However, this diversity also has disadvantages in terms of variability in quality of the same cultivar produced in different areas. Citrus production is primarily focused on export and is therefore highly exposed to competition. Maintaining a good (cost competitive) position, high fruit quality (which includes compliance to phytosanitary standards) and keeping abreast with changes in world market trends are of the utmost importance. 2008/9 was a good year for South Africa’s citrus industry. It increased its share of the 10 million tonne global citrus export market to just under 14%.

The CGA is mandated to maximise the long-term profitability of its members. A statutory levy of 38 cents per 15 kg carton, 2.53 cents per kilogram, (for the 2009 season) on exports allows them to fund a number of programmes – mainly research and research-related (disease management, integrated pest management and fruit quality enhancement). This levy will increase over the next three year period i.e. 39 cents for 2010, and 40 cents in 2011 and 41 cents in 2012. Other programmes include citrus improvement, market access, sanitary and phytosanitary issues, technology transfer and industry transformation. On the request of growers, during this four year statutory levy period (2009 to 2012), marketing information and logistics have now been included in the range of services offered to citrus growers and exporters. Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 PPECB provides internationally preferred food, safety, quality and assurance services to promote and instils confidence in South African products. Contact details of all their regional branches are available on their website. Citrus Marketing Forum Joint chairpersons: Stuart Symington and Justin Chadwick Secretarial services: Gloria Weare

3. Training and research
ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Tel: 013 753 7000 The ITSC in Nelspruit breeds new varieties and houses the citrus quarantine facility. Citrus fruit is included amongst the assigned crops on which research and training is done. Citrus Research International (Pty) Ltd. (CRI) Stellenbosch Tel: 021 882 8553 CEO: Prof Vaughan Hattingh Nelspruit Tel: 013 759 8000 Research & Technical Manager: Dr Tim G Grout Uitenhage Extension Manager: Dr Hennie le Tel: 041 992 5366 Roux Citrus Improvement Programme Manager: Thys du Toit CRI, the research arm of Citrus Growers Association, has been commissioned to research and develop the technical issues required to enhance access of southern African citrus to world markets. This includes requirements for opening new markets, and retaining and improving access to existing markets. The market access imperative is incorporated into all components of CRI’s business. It is therefore a core objective throughout CRI’s operations rather than a true division of CRI. Citrus research in southern Africa is divided into programmes. Within each focused programme are several projects on particular problem areas identified by the citrus industry. A Project Coordinator oversees the research conducted within each project and this may be conducted at various institutions. • Crop and Fruit Quality Management Programme. Market requirements have changed in the past years and research to ensure that fruit of the correct quality and shelf-life is delivered to the market is essential.

2. Associations involved
See notes on Citrus Research International (CRI) under the “Training and research” heading of this chapter. The general fruit chapter has contact details for the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum and other relevant bodies. Citrus Growers Association of Southern Africa (CGA) Justin Chadwick: Chief Executive Officer Tel: 031 765 2514


• Disease Management Programme. Research and services conducted by the Disease Management division focus on all economically important Pre- and Post-harvest diseases of citrus. • Integrated pest management programme. Strategies to manage both indigenous and introduced pests using a bio-intensive approach require continual modification as changes in available plant protection products, pest status and distribution, and horticultural practices occur. • Citrus improvement programme division. The citrus industry is heavily reliant on the Citrus Improvement Programme (CIP) to provide growers with a pipeline for disease-free, true-to-type, high quality propagation material. The CIP consists of a network of co-operating parties and CRI provides the service of co-ordinating the CIP . • Cultivar and rootstock development programme. Introduction and commercialisation of new citrus cultivars. Cultivars that are in demand and are ideally suited to southern African climatic conditions are of great importance. • Extension division. CRI’s Extension Division has the objective of costeffectively co-ordinating the effective transfer of technology to the southern African citrus growers and their service agents. Researchers, consultants, technical personnel from co-operatives, citrus estates and agricultural chemical organisations, as well as grower study groups and regional grower representatives are involved. Citrus Foundation Block: Uitenhage Tel: 041 992 5366 Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728 Citrus Foundation Block is responsible for multiplication of citrus propagation material. Department of Horticultural Commercial citrus nurseries buy Science budwood from the Foundation Tel: 021 808 4900 Block to make trees for the Fax: 021 808 2121 industry.

Goedehoop Citrus Ltd Tel: 022 921 8100 Granor-Passi (Pty) Ltd Tel: 015 298 6000 Houers Koöperatief Bpk Tel: 015 345 8100 Katope Tel: 015 307 4484 LG Juices (Pty) Ltd Tel: 022 921 3544 Letaba Citrus Processing Tel: 012 804 7023 Lona Trading Tel: 021 481 8200 Magaliesberg Citrus Cooperative Ltd Tel: 012 256 9000 Malelane Sitruskoöperasie Bpk Tel: 013 790 0391 Mouton Citrus (Pty) Ltd Tel: 022 921 3405

River Bioscience Tel: 041 583 3464 Riverside Enterprises Tel: 083 702 3746 Sunday River Citrus Company Tel: 042 233 0320 Sunpride Tel: 021 794 0333 Tomahawk Citrus (Pty) Ltd (Malelane) Tel: 013 792 4402 /4590 /4592 Valor Citrus Processors (Pty) Ltd Tel: 041 486 2146 Vital Bugs cc Tel: 082 7710 777

Citrus & Subtropical Consultancy Service Tel: 015 516 4481 South African Citrus Consulting Association (SASSCON) Tel: 013 744 9311 / 083 265 4228

4. Websites and publications
• The Cultivation of Citrus (2nd edition, 2006) and Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa, two publications published by the ARCInstitute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Tel: 013 753 7000 • The Info Pak (booklet) Cultivation of Citrus may also be viewed and downloaded from – take the “Publications” and “Info Pak” menu options. This is a practical introduction to growing citrus. • The Citrus Growers Association publishes a Citrus Statistics booklet every year in about May. This publication is free to all growers and members of the Fresh Produce Exporters Forum (FPEF). Any other interested parties can purchase the booklet by contacting Gloria@cga. • Call 012 842 4000 or email for the leaflet Processing of Citrus Fruit (Grapefruit, lemons, oranges). • The websites of the associations involved are an excellent source of information e.g. and • Local and international links are provided by the CRI website.

6. Local business environment
Citrus produce in South Africa is sold through different marketing channels such as national fresh produce markets, informal markets (street hawkers), directly to processors for juice making and dried fruit production. The fruits are also sold directly to wholesalers and retailers through signed contracts. The larger portion is exported to foreign countries through export agents.

7. International business environment
Find “From the Desk of the CEO” and “Global Citrus Scan” on the CGA website – These are updated weekly and keep growers informed on local and international matters affecting the citrus industry. CLAM consists of the following member countries that produce citrus – France, Spain, Morocco, Italy, Israel, Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, Egypt and Tunisia. A full estimate of each CLAM member’s expected production is available from CGA on request. Southern Hemisphere Association of Fresh Fruit Exporters (SHAFFE) represents, as the name suggests, southern hemisphere fresh fruit exporters: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa, Swaziland, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. For details of the next congress, visit Global consumer trends revolve around entry level considerations – quality, price and service. Food safety and traceability were added after. And now there are what are called the “new generation” things like carbon footprints which we haven’t started to understand fully, but which will impact on our ability to export in the future.

5. Companies involved
Find the exporter lists on A “members’ list” is also available on

Advanced Citrus Solutions Tel: 042 234 0136 Ambrosia Citrus Estate Tel: 015 793 0208 Cape Fruit Processors Ltd Tel: 013 790 3015 Capespan (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 917 2600

Cedarpack Tel: 022 921 2636 / 082 551 1703 Colors Fruit S.A. (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 807 5000 Crookes Brothers Ltd Tel: 039 978 3850 Dole SA Tel: 021 914 0600

Find Recommended Usage Restrictions For Plant Protection Products MRLs On Southern African Export Citrus on the Citrus Growers Association website – This document was compiled by Vaughan Hattingh (Citrus


Research International) and Paul Hardman (Citrus Growers Association of Southern Africa) and is updated twice a year. The Citrus Growers Association website – – has information on packed and shipped volumes which is updated weekly during the citrus season. All growers of export citrus who pay the levy, and exporters who are registered with FPEF (Fresh Produce Exporters Forum) have access to this information, as do members of the CMF (Citrus Marketing Forum). Passwords are available by contacting The Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) does the auditing of South African fresh produce businesses for the new Food Safety requirements which came into effect on 1 January 2004. The United Kingdom and the European Union are the main export market. Other destinations include the Middle East, Japan, Russia and the USA. Oranges make up 70% of the export volume. • To work closely with reliable, knowledgeable agents and to insure the integrity of the cold chain all the way to the consumer are important factors. • Working closely with marketing agents gives the farmer a better understanding of world markets. • Both the larger and smaller agencies have their strengths. Smaller agencies focusing on single countries, for example, can better identify niche markets, which earn good returns. • Know exactly where your fruit is marketed: if prices are higher than the minimum guaranteed, you should get your fair share. • Emphasis in production has shifted from quantity to quality. Never slip up on quality because the consumer never forgets. • Good agents make surprise visits to the port deck to confirm that fruit is in cold storage, and not somewhere else in ambient temperatures. • Packaging and colours should be attractive and eye-catching.

maintenance, particularly pruning, provide citrus producers with more confidence to plant at higher densities. In the hotter regions, where Valencia oranges and grapefruit are produced, spacings of 7x3 meters or 6x3 meters are commonly used, whereas in the cooler regions, where Navel oranges, and Clementine and Satsuma mandarins are produced, spacings as wide as 6x3 meters and as close as 4.5 or 5x2 meters are used.

Preplant soil preparation
The high potential soils of the northern areas (with little or no need for pH correction) is usually only ripped and land preparation costs are thus quite low. In the Western Cape region a lot of money is spent on proper ripping and ploughing. Soil pH correction and other ameliorants (phosphorus, sometimes micro-elements) are added in a double ploughing action. Expensive subsoil drainage systems are often required. In addition, in many cases ridging is considered to provide for added drainage or where the soil is high in clay content.

Virtually all citrus orchards in Southern Africa have windbreaks. Many windbreak types have been tested or are commonly used. The most well-adapted windbreak tree throughout Southern Africa is beefwood or Casuarina (Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.). Pinus radiata D. Don and silky oak (Grevillea robusta A. Cunn) are sometimes used. Deciduous type windbreaks are often used as secondary windbreaks in conjunction with beefwood in the Western Cape, e.g. Dutch alder (Alnus cordata) and Chinese poplar (Populus simonii [syn. P . obtusa]).

Row orientation
Whereas it is not so critical to plant in north-south row directions in the northern regions (lower latitude, dry winters) it is still commonly done. In the more southern latitudes with the more extreme angle of the sun and where rain or dew can keep the tree wet for extended periods during harvest, it is essential to plant in a north-south row direction.

8. Grower’s points of interest
Citrus Improvement Programme and nursery practices
Most citrus nurseries in Southern Africa participate in the Citrus Improvement Programme (CIP). The CIP serves the citrus Industry via a centralised budwood supply farm (Citrus Foundation Block, CFB) near Uitenhage, close to Port Elizabeth. Currently the CFB supplies all certified propagation material to accredited citrus nurseries. A nuclear block of virus-free material of all cultivars is maintained at the Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops in Nelspruit.

Irrigation and fertigation
Under-tree microsprinkler irrigation systems are most commonly used, while some orchards still use overhead sprinkler irrigation. More recently, however, drip irrigation systems have become increasingly common, with an increased use of drip fertigation where pH and electrical conductivity are controlled in a balanced nutrient solution is provided daily to restrict root system development in a bid to control tree phenology. To attain good eating quality, pre-harvest water stress (limited or deficit irrigation) is becoming an accepted practice, for example with Satsuma mandarin.

During the 1980s and more so in the 1990s, Troyer and Carrizo citranges, and Swingle citrumelo, gradually became the rootstocks of choice. This aspect is important for the future competitiveness of the Southern African citrus industry to produce fruit of high eating quality to compete with citrus production regions such as Argentina, Uruguay and Australia where trifoliate orange rootstock is preferentially used due to the cold tolerance it imparts on the scion.

Fertilisation of bearing trees is exclusively based on annual leaf analysis data from leaves from fruiting terminals and the previous history of the orchard with respect to yield, fruit size, quality and previous fertilisation record. Phosphorus and potassium are applied as soil applications, whereas magnesium and the micro-elements (copper, boron, zinc, manganese and molybdenum) are applied as foliar applications, when required. Soil pH correction is achieved by the addition of calcitic or dolomitic lime, and water penetration or salinity problems are addressed by the application of gypsum.

Planting time and procedure
Since most nurseries are producing trees in containers, time of orchard establishment is not critical. However, in the colder, windy areas the preferred planting time is early spring (September/October). Nursery trees are commonly topped at 60 to 70 cm height to allow scaffold development to occur at a height of 40 to 60 cm. Recently, there is commercial interest in planting trellised, untopped trees for earlier production in slow-growing regions such as the Western Cape.

In some production regions there is a shift towards selective pruning by hand or with pneumatic pruning equipment. Most large orchards are, however, hedged and topped mechanically.
Source: CRI, G H Barry and Etienne Rabe

Spacing trends
Citrus tended to be ranched in certain areas, especially the hot climatic regions. Due to increased establishment costs and the need for earlier economic break-even, and the need to have sunlight-, spray- and pickerfriendly trees, there has been a move towards increasingly higher planting densities. Also, the new wave of technology development in tree size


9. Projects and new farmer information
The Info Pak Cultivation of Citrus (see “Publications and Websites” heading) is a practical introduction to growing citrus. Citrus Growers’ Association (CGA) Transformation Tel: 031 765 2514 / 1762 The Transformation portfolio of the CGA has been re-structured to include a Transformation Administrator, stationed at the CGA offices in KZN, and two Extension officers, one in the north and one in the south. It is their responsibility to ensure the meaningful inclusion of the previously disadvantaged in all walks of the citrus industry. The Citrus Growers’ Association receives funding from the CIT Trust to assist with transformation within the citrus industry. Back in 2005, the CGA brought out a publication Our Citrus Transforms, which showed some of the many already existing transformation and mentorship activities within the citrus industry. In 2008, Women in Citrus was published and distributed to growers and interested parties bringing to light just a few of the women of all race groups who are contributing to the successes of the citrus industry in southern Africa. A publication investigating the numerous cases of Youth in Citrus was undertaken in 2009, planned for release in early 2010. All three books are available from the CGA offices. Call 031 765 2514 or e-mail
The booklet Our Citrus Transforms, published in 2005 gives an in-depth picture into the number of citrus farms that are involved in transformation and empowering their workers. The booklet is available from the CGA. Since the issue of this publication it must be noted that there have been even more strides towards transforming the citrus industry. Updates are available from CGA.

Citrus Academy Jacomien de Klerk / Desiree Schonken Tel: 013 208 8960 / 082 496 5510 The Citrus Academy was established at the beginning of 2005 as a division of the Citrus Growers Association, with the purpose of creating an enabling environment for skills development within the South African citrus industry. Since April 2007, the Academy has been a separate section 21 company. The activities of the Academy are funded by CGA levies, with additional project funding sources from a variety of donors. The Citrus Academy has been tasked with addressing five major challenges, being general low skills levels in the industry, employment equity, ownership transformation, scarce and critical skills and quality skills development delivery. The Academy manages a bursary fund that supports students at every level from secondary education upwards, and at a wide range of academic institutions. The Citrus Academy also develops written and visual learning material and learning programmes, assists growers with determining their skills development needs, and represents citrus growers in matters pertaining to skills development. The website of the Citrus Academy has been designed as a functional tool where visitors can apply for bursaries, find a training service provider or register as one, find a candidate or register a vacancy, find a job or register as a job seeker, download learning material and learning programmes, and find information about the latest developments on the skills development front.
Our thanks to the CGA for reading our draft chapter, and for their feedback and suggestions.


Field crops and horticulture

3. National strategy and relevant directorate in at DAFF
Information on the directorates can be found at

Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7306

4. Training and research
ARC – Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Schalk Schoeman Tel: 013 753 7000 Lowveld College of Agriculture Mr Werner Schroder Tel: 013 753 3064

1. Overview
There are two main species of economic importance: Coffea canephora which produces coffee known commercially as Robusta, and Coffea arabica which produces Arabica. Coffee is an ideal pioneer crop for areas with poor infrastructure, as it is one of the few tropical horticultural crop products that can be stored for relatively long periods without perishing. Although coffee will grow well in almost any frost free area with well drained soil, the best coffee producing areas in South Africa are the coastal areas of Southern KwaZulu-Natal, the Drakensberg escarpement of Mpumalanga, and Limpopo. In terms of value, coffee is one of the world’s most important commodities. Bearing this in mind, there is a lot of potential for the industry here to develop and create jobs. Forget the export market – we have a population of 45 million people, many of whom are potential coffee drinkers. Importing coffee into RSA is currently a potentially lucrative business (we import almost all our coffee, some 27 000 tons annually). When international prices increase, local producers benefit significantly. However, the coffee trade is fraught with risk.
Source: Tim Buckland (Riverbend); Schalk Schoeman (ARC-ITSC) and a project proposal to the International Coffee Organisation found at eb3603r1e.pdf

This College took over the processing equipment from the Apart from maintaining a rather Zoeknog Estate when it closed diverse coffee gene bank for down, and is looking into value prospective producers at the adding. Burgershall experimental station of the ARC-ITSC near Hazyview, African Coffee Research no research regarding this crop is Network (ACRN) currently being conducted in RSA. c/o Schalk Schoeman Training takes place from time to Tel: 013 753 7000 time as and when the need arises.

5. Websites and publications
Coffee: an exporter’s guide, 2002. ISBN 92-9137-242-2. This guide provides an overview of the world coffee trade, and includes essential information on prices, niche markets, marketing and quality control, marketing systems, coffee producers’ country profiles. The Cultivation of Coffee. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. This publication has also been available from the Resource Centre at the DAFF. The contact number is 012 319 7141. The following Publications are also available from the ARC-ITSC: • Coffee Handbook 1987, Zimbabwe Coffee Growers Association ISBN 0-7974-0784-7. • Simply Coffee – a practical guide to coffee farming by Richard Clowes (Chipinge, Zimbabwe). ISBN 0-7974-2187-4. Contact Schalk Schoeman at 013 753 7000/7024, or email schalk@arc. Basic grower notes can be found in the “Cultivating coffee” Info Pak at (take the publications menu option). A number of articles can be found on this site. Of particular is the “Organic Coffee” article. Schalk Schoeman says that although most of the coffee growers adhere to principle of sustainable farming (notably soil health) none of the farms currently have organic certification. – this website is part of the Positive Communication programme of the International Coffee Organisation. See also www.cosic. org, the Coffee Science Information Centre. The website (take the “Agriculture” menu option) sets out the growth stages of the coffee plant. Harvesting, Processing, Diseases and fertilisation are also discussed. This website is “dedicated to advancing coffee quality through education and science”. Advanced topics include information about the coffee market, consumption statistics, the coffee sciences, coffee agriculture, and the social issues related to coffee. Find the current world production, market and trade reports at http:// the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the US Department of Agriculture. Also visit the websites of roleplayers mentioned elsewhere in this chapter e.g. where numerous links are given.

2. Associations involved
The previous Southern Africa Coffee Producers Organisation (SACPO) does not function any longer. There is no umbrella association for coffee growers in South Africa. The Eastern African Fine Coffees Association (EAFCA) currently oversees activities of this crop in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Full contact details for each member country can be found on Write to the head office at or to the Ethiopian Branch at International Coffee Organisation (ICO) – The website is a wealth of information. Other international associations include the Inter African Coffee Organisation (IACO), the Association of Coffee Producing Countries (ACPC), and the Speciality Coffee Association of America (SCAA).


6. Companies involved
Assagay Coffee Rick James Tel: 031 765 2941/083 640 2223 Beaver Creek Coffee Dylan Cumming Tel: 039 311 2347 The Coffee Roasting Company Tel: 021 847 1699 iKhofi Tel: 011 475 0773 Sabie Valley Coffee Tim Buckland Tel: 013 737 8169 / 082 751 3400 Verster Coffee Tel/fax: 012 348 4225/2863 Derek Verster – 083 627 2806 Thea Thyse – 083 966 9629

A SWOT analysis:
Strengths • The Agricultural Research Council’s Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops at Nelspruit still has significant capacity to carry out research for the region. • The Institute says coffee production creates more jobs than any other subtropical horticultural crop. • Coffee retail prices in RSA are relatively high. By value adding and marketing the product locally, the crop can still make money even at times when international prices are low due to an oversupply. Weaknesses • The raw bean industry is highly labour intensive. • The low selling price of raw beans and high production costs make it difficult to compete with some third world countries especially in terms of minimum wages. Opportunities: • South Africa is one of the few countries where coffee can be grown organically. Other coffee producing countries have an array of pests and diseases to cope with, while we are relatively fortunate in that regard. • Most of RSA’s population of ±45 million are traditional tea drinkers; active promotion of coffee drinking could potentially be lucrative for many coffee traders, retailers and producers. Threats • The costs of production have increased significantly. • Many skills regarding practical coffee production have been lost due to the closure of government farms. • The white coffee stemborer (a pest) requires day to day vigilance. EAFCA presents a coffee symposium and trade exhibition during February/ March each year. Contact details are under heading 2. Alternatively contact Schalk Schoeman.

The following are packers, procurers, processors and distributors:
AJ Products & Company Limited Tel: 021 699 1030 Back to Basics Tel: 011 472 1922 Fax: 011 472 2008 Barnes Tea & Coffee Merchants Tel: 011 793 7037 Caturra Coffee Company Tel: 021 593 1199 Clipper Coffee & Tea Tel: 021 448 9181 Colombo Tea & Coffee Company Tel: 031 205 3283 Ebbul Foods Tel: 012 379 9461 Entyce Beverages Tel: 031 335 1340 House of Coffees Tel: 011 651 5821 New Look Packers Tel: 011 763 5696 Masterton’s Tea & Coffee Tel: 041 585 4044 Peacock Tea & Coffee Company Tel: 021 762 5067/8 Sara Lee Coffee & Tea SA Tel: 0860 100 620 Tea & Coffee Distributors Tel: 041 374 0033 Unilever Bestfoods Robertsons SA Tel: 031 570 2000 / 2911 WM Cahn Tel: 011 807 2180 Wiesenhof Coffees Tel: 011 397 7055

8. International business environment
Websites mentioned in this chapter provide information on international producers and on the international coffee trade e.g. find the notes on www.ico. org and Coffee is the second most widely traded commodity in the world (petroleum is the first) and it is produced in more than 50 nations. Of the 7.5 million tons of coffee produced worldwide, only 25% is consumed by the producing countries themselves. There are three main coffee growing regions: Africa/Arabia, Indonesia, and Central/South America. The main destinations for most coffee exports are the North American, Japanese and European markets. South Africa imports almost all of its coffee. We do not produce more than 100 tonnes per annum (i.e. 0.4% of what we drink in South Africa). Coffee is an important factor for the development of Africa since it provides substantial foreign exchange earnings for the continent and an indispensable income for farmers. The trade of coffee is Ethiopia’s largest export, for example, generating 60% of its total export earnings and employing about 12 million people. Read about the Ethiopian Coffee Network at www. For notes on the growing of coffee in Africa, visit the website of Eastern African Fine Coffees Association (EAFCA) –

7. Local business environment
Farming coffee and exporting the raw bean is still not a viable option in this country, largely because it is a labour-intensive crop. Coffee looks set to remain a smallish cottage industry that will rely on tourism, direct marketing and value adding to fill the necessary gaps. Labour legislation and impending land claims are cited as further impediments. There are, however, a number of farmers who do plant coffee. For details, contact Schalk Schoeman at the ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, 013 753 7000 or


Growing demand has sparked debate over whether African countries, which mostly sell raw beans, should process coffee. • One problem with roasting coffees is that it shortens the shelf life. Shipping coffee to America takes a month and half. By the time the roasted coffee is at the port, it would already be stale. One answer could be to set up coffee houses in the other country, to roast on site and to sell directly to consumers. This is being done in China. • Instant coffee could work, but high taxes on processed products in Western countries made this a tough market to break into.
Sources: Mail & Guardian 5 July 2007,

Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
Cotton remains one of the most versatile crops grown by humanity, noted for its appearance, comfort and the many useful products it provides. From the seed: flour and feed, refined oil (salad and cooking), margarine, soap and cosmetics, writing materials, rayon industrial fabrics, yarns, plastics, lamp and candle wicks, twine, rugs, mops, furniture upholstery etc. From the lint: clothes, underwear, linings for canvas, tents, medical bandages, sheets, towels, curtains etc. Historical cotton production areas include Limoppo Province (Springbok flats from Bela-Bela to Mokopane), North West Province (Taung, Stella, Delareyville, Maratsane), KwaZulu-Natal (Makhathini Flats), Mpumalanga and Northern Cape (lower Orange River, Vaalharts, Douglas and Prieska). Hectares planted and yields for the Republic of South Africa (Swaziland excluded).
Marketing Year 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Hectares Irrigation 31 263 10 486 18 539 9 791 10 322 18 269 12897 9 720 7 700 5 979 5 269 Hectares Dryland 67 356 40 282 38 153 28 897 12 252 17 450 8 866 8 394 2 863 3 242 1 965 Total Hectares 98 619 50 768 56 692 38 688 22 574 35 719 21763 18 114 10 563 9 221 7234 Yield Irrigation 2 680 3 107 3 455 3 538 3 482 3 455 3 791 3 633 3 674 4 067 4 303 Yield Dryland 545 777 593 515 475 492 521 485 541 825 757 Average Yield 1 222 1 258 1 529 1 280 1 850 2 007 2 459 2 174 2 825 2 927 3 340

9. New farmer information (advice from two experts)
Because of the high level of technical skills required for this crop, a well co-ordinated larger scale co-operative type of operation above that of small-scale farming is recommended. The chances of this project succeeding would be heightened if it added value by roasting, marketing and distributing the end project.
Source: Tim Buckland (adapted from an email)

Schalk Schoeman’s advice to New Farmers: 1. Start small and develop a niche market. 2. Plant rust resistant dwarf or semi dwarf coffee varieties in the right area to cut production costs significantly. 3. Consider organic coffee. 4. Plant spacing between the rows should be about 3-3,5m; within the row use single plants ± 1m apart. 5. Use micro sprayers instead of drip irrigation. 6. Coffee does well with organic manure (compost and/or kraal manure) from time to time, if this is feasible and available (see #3). 7. Mulch your coffee from the onset, it will help to conserve water and will increase organic content of soil. 8. Budget for a tree replacement programme after year 8. Although pruning proves to be very effective, it is time consuming and could be more expensive than replanting. 9. Start with a stemborer control programme at plant. This insect will give problems and most growers will only notice it after significant damage has already been done. 10. Value adding of the product on the farm is essential. 11. For marketing purposes, it is recommended that the coffee to has a “story” – this could be printed in briefly on the back of the container. 12. Current success stories. • Verster Coffee Estate - ± 20 hectares of value adding, export and tourism potential. • Assagay Coffee - ± 25 hectares, market development, export. • Beaver Creek - ± 20 hectare well managed family business, tourism and various forms of value adding despite the obvious roasted ground product. • Thornton Coffee was developed by two sisters-in-law in Oribi flats, Heidi and Debbie Neethling. They buy green Arabica beans from SA producers and produce four roasts, a light, full-bodied, fine Oribi blend of medium and full roast and a dark roast. Thornton processes 4 to 5 tons of coffee a year and delivers its product personally.
Contact Schalk Schoeman at 013 753 7000 or email

2009/10 figures are an estimate. Yield figures are Kg seed cotton per hectare
Source: Cotton SA

2. Associations involved
Cotton SA Tel: 012 804 1462-7 Cotton SA is a cotton industry service company providing the following functions: • the rendering of information services; • the stimulation of the production and the usage of cotton; • the co-ordination of research; • the establishment of quality standards and norms as well as training in this regard. Cotton SA also acts as industry forum and facilitator for the development of the small cotton grower sector. Cotton SA is also the administrator of statutory measures (compulsory submission of monthly returns by processors and imposition of a levy on cotton lint produced to finance its functions). Cotton SA is not in any way involved in the marketing of cotton or cotton products, which are traded on free market principles.


South Africa’s cotton growers, joined by their input suppliers, output processors and the National Department of Agriculture, have developed a strategic plan for the South African Cotton Sector with the following strategic objectives: • growing farm output; • broadening participation to enable emerging farmers to contribute on average 35% of the National cotton crop by 2014; • ensuring sustainability through ongoing commitment from all major role players and through forms of support and methods of operation that are affordable, internationally acceptable (economically, socially and environmentally) and that do not compromise competitiveness; • raising productivity by training emerging farmers and by improving research and extension services and technology transfer; • expanding exports by value, diversity, country of destination and client base; and • accelerating the elimination of unfair competition through promoting regional/international co-operation and through more effective lobbying in international trade forums.
Source: Cotton SA

Lowveld College of Agriculture (Nelspruit) Tel: 013 753 3064 Tompi Seleka College of Agriculture (Limpopo Province) Tel: 013 268 9300/1 Owen Sithole College of Agriculture (KZN) Tel: 035 195 1345 Fort Cox College of Agriculture (Eastern Cape) Tel: 040 653 8033

5. Websites and publications
Environmental Needs Of The Cotton Plant. Dr CG Theron. This and other related articles may be downloaded from the Cotton SA website. Cotton SA – Educational Brochure. An educational brochure with needs of scholars and students in mind is obtainable free of charge. The brochure contains among others, sections on the history, production, processing and uses of cotton. The following may be also be ordered electronically from the Cotton SA website – • Cotton SA Katoen. This magazine is produced every three months. Its main focus is on the producer but carries information on the whole industry. Cotton SA distributes the magazine free to subscribers in South Africa. • Management Guide. This comprehensive bilingual guide was compiled by the ARC-Institute for Industrial Crops and is aimed at the commercial farmer with the aim to broaden his/her knowledge. The publication covers the full spectrum of cotton farming and contains chapters on cultivation guidelines, insect and disease control and the harvesting of cotton. • Small Farmer Guide • Company Brochure • Core Statistics Refer to the Cotton SA portal for the following links: • Cotlook Indices • New York Cotton Futures • – The African Cotton & Textiles Trade Link Other literature available from Cotton SA: • Cotton SA Core Statistics. This is an annual publication compiled by Cotton SA and contains statistics and graphs for the past ten years as well as forecasts for the coming season. The publication contains among others, various domestic and international cotton statistics and is obtainable free of charge to subscribers in South Africa. • Scouting Guide for Pests on Cotton. To help you identify pests and natural enemies of Cotton. It is full colour, in English and Afrikaans, and is a handy guide for farmers and extension officers. • Cleaner Production Guide For Cotton Farmers With A4 Posters. This guide (available in English or Afrikaans) is aimed at the commercial farmer and provides valuable information and hints on cleaner cotton production while at the same time protecting the environment. A seven page trouble-shooting summary of the contents in the guide (on A4 pamphlets in English only) is included. Both the guide and pamphlets are obtainable free of charge (regret available for SA only). Cotton SA also has the following CDs: Integrated Pest Management and Organic Cotton. Find the Cotton Industry Profile on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries’ website, Simple grower notes (Info Pak) on the production of cotton are also available here. The Textile Federation: Find the database of members and roleplayers e.g. dyers and finishers, knitted fabrics, yarns etc.

SA Cotton Producers Organisation (SACPO) is a representative national organisation for cotton farmers with the aim of creating wealth for its members through the provision of markets, skills, partnerships and alliances. Cotton SA Trust Tel: 012 804 1462-7 All surplus funds and assets from the former Cotton Board were transferred in 1997 to the Cotton SA Trust to be used for the benefit of the whole cotton sector. A major responsibility of the Cotton SA Trust is to assist in facilitating market access for emerging cotton farmers.

SA Cotton Ginners Association (SACGA) is the representative body of cotton ginners. Find information on SACGA at www. SA Cotton Textile Manufacturers Association (SACTMA) is the representative body of cotton spinners. South African Textile Industry Export Council (SATIEC) Tel: 021 702 4140 South African Clothing and Textile Workers’ Union (SACTWU) Tel: 021 447 4570

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find information on DAFF directorates at Directorate: Business and Entrepreneurial Development Tel: 012 319 7324

4. Training and research
ARC-Institute for Industrial Crops (IIC) Tel: 014 536 3150 Cotton Research & Technology Development (CSIR) Fibres and Textiles Tel: 041 508 3200 The Research and Technology Committee of Cotton SA meet on a regular basis with one of the main aims to evaluate research projects identified and prioritised by roleplayers. Research results are obtainable from the Institute and also published on a regular basis in the Cotton SA Katoen magazine. The Agricultural Colleges (next column) have been sanctioned by the industry to run the accredited cotton course developed by Cotton SA.


International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) – The ICAC is an association of governments of cotton producing, consuming and trading countries. Find the cotton notes on the website of the National Cleaner Production Centre – (take the “clothing and textile sector” menu option). Cotton & Textiles Trade Directory – available at the following website as well as a useful portal: for the following websites: • African Coalition for Trade (ACT) • African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) • Bremen Cotton Exchange (Bremer Baumwollbörse) • Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) • Cotton Egypt • Cotton International About the people, companies, and trends shaping the international cotton market. • Cotton Outlook • Export Institute Israel link • International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) • International Forum for Cotton Promotion (IFCP) • International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF) • International Trade Forum • Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) (under construction) • Liverpool Cotton Association (LCA) • New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE) • Textile Federation of South Africa (TEXFED) • USDA - Cotton Program — AMS — USDA • World Trade Organization (WTO) Quota Elimination

7. Local business environment
Visit for the latest cotton market reports. Cotton in South Africa is currently marketed on free-market principles, i.e. there is no intervention or restriction on the buying and selling of cotton and prices are determined by the market. Farmers producing cotton in South Africa, market their cotton in one of the following ways: • The seed cotton is sold by the grower to a ginner who gins the cotton and sells the cotton lint for his own account to spinners (and seed to processors), either directly or by making use of agents. • The grower does not sell his seed cotton to the ginner but contracts the ginner to gin it on his behalf on payment of a ginning fee (some growers also own their own gins). The cotton lint and seed remain the property of the producer who then either markets it himself or contracts the gin or someone else to market the cotton lint (or seed) on his behalf. All five ginners currently operating in South Africa are farmer-owned. Challenges to our cotton producers are: • competition from other SADC countries • cheap textile imports from the East • low international prices due to subsidies in the developed world

8. International business environment
Visit for the latest cotton market reports. There is no restriction on the importation of cotton, however a duty on imported cotton lint of R1.60/kg has been in force since 1992. This duty is however in terms of a free trade agreement not applicable to cotton lint imports from countries within the Southern African Development Community (SADC), with effect from 1 January 2004, the duty having been phased out since 2000. The full duty of R1.60/kg on cotton lint is still applicable to imports from outside SADC, in respect of imports that do not qualify under the WTO minimum market access provision. Woolworths has become the world’s third largest consumer of organic cotton, behind American giants Wal-Mart and Nike, according to Organic Exchange, an international organisation dedicated to expanding global supplies of organic cotton. The organic cotton pilot project funded by the ComMark Trust and set up in association with Cotton SA, the Organic Exchange and Woolworths is now in its second season. Research projects were also continued at the ARC-IIC with regard to crop nutrition and organic pest control. Results from the field trials have been promising even with the difficult weather conditions experienced, with yields improving from the previous season. The quality of the cotton also supports the first season’s results showing that South Africa can produce a top quality organic cotton. The cotton from the first season’s crop, about 13.5 tons cotton lint, was retailed in an organic clothing range by Woolworth’s from August 2009 as the first 100% organic cotton clothing grown and made in South Africa. A similar amount of organic cotton is expected from the second season’s planting.
Source: Cotton SA, Bizcommunity

6. Ginning companies involved
Loskop Cotton Tel: 013 261 1498 Noord-Kaap Katoenpluismeule Tel: 082 948 2569 Weipe Cotton Gin Tel: 015 533 3016/7/8 Vaalharts Cotton Tel: 083 230 5342

Cotton Seed Processors (Pty) Ltd Tel: 015 491 4338 / 2801 Cell: 079 840 9140 SA Cotton Waste Tel: 011 873 0466 The South African Cotton Waste Manufacturing Co. (Pty) Ltd was established in 1933 to supply Cotton Waste (an inexpensive cleaning product) to South African Mines and Industry. They are also major suppliers of String, Twine and Rope, both natural and synthetic.


9. Small-scale farmer news
On the initiative of Cotton SA and the government, a National Strategy for the SA Cotton Industry has been developed with the participation of all roleplayers, to fit in with the national Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture previously developed by the government and organised agriculture. One of the core strategies of the Cotton Sector Plan is to broaden the participation of emerging farmers and to raise their productivity through training and by improving research and extension services and technology transfer. Cotton SA has been tasked to manage the implementation process and has recently appointed a full-time manager to oversee this. Cotton SA, some years ago also establish a Small Scale-Cotton Farmers’ Forum with the main objective to co-ordinate and monitor progress with regard to the objective to broaden participation of emerging farmers and to provide an environment where positive interaction between role-players could lead to increased market access for the small cotton farmer. The Forum usually meets 4 times a year and currently comprise more than 50 members representing among others, the national and provincial governments, the ARC, the private sector including ginners and input suppliers, commercial cotton farmers and small-holders as well as financial institutions. The Forum has also established the following three working groups to attend to specific small-scale farmer issues: a Training and Extension Working Group, a Finance Working Group and a Private Sector Working Group. A small-scale farmer co-ordinator was appointed a few years ago to attend to the needs of emerging cotton farmers on a full-time basis, by providing capacity to and being a driving force within all provincial small cotton grower development committees and by identifying production areas for small farmer development. Following the successful training program established at the Lowveld College of Agriculture at Nelspruit, where about 50 small-scale farmers were trained annually from 2001 to 2003, it was clear that in order to reach the production and training goals as envisaged in the Cotton Sector Strategy Plan, training capacity had to be increased. Training was therefore also extended to the Tompi Seleka College of Agriculture in the Limpopo Province, the Mjindi Training Centre and the Owen Sithole College of Agriculture in KwaZulu-Natal, the Fort Cox Rural Development Centre in the Eastern Cape, Mbangwane in Tonga and Pudimoe in Taung. This formal skills development program (which involves a certain number of unit standards at NQF level 1) is organised in four 5 day modules, each of which are synchronised with the normal production cycle of the crop and presented over a 12 month period. The subjects covered in the 4 modules are: • introduction, soil preparation and planting • plant protection, pests, diseases and weeds • pre-harvest crop preparation, harvesting and grading • financial management The courses are theoretical as well as practical, the latter making up about 60% of course content. Experts in each field are drawn from various cotton

roleplayers to impart their expertise to the groups in training. Up to now almost 778 small-scale farmers have attended these courses (320 from KwaZulu-Natal, 126 from the Limpopo Province, 264 from Mpumalanga, 37 from the Eastern Cape and 31 from the North West Province). Cotton SA also has a Master Mentorship Program for small-scale cotton farmers. The project is aimed to provide an initial number of mentors who can support and impart knowledge and practical skills to small-scale farmers. These mentors report via a master mentor to the manager of the Master Mentorship Program. Cotton SA annually also disseminates market and other relevant information to small-scale cotton farmers specifically, in the following manner: • by way of monthly market reports posted to about 500 small-scale cotton farmers; • by way of the quarterly Cotton SA Katoen magazine, which features a regular section aimed at small-scale farmers specifically. The magazine is mailed quarterly to more than 500 small-scale cotton farmers; • by convening farmer information days in small-scale farmer production areas; • by way of articles in small grower agricultural publications; • by way of an illustrated Training Manual for Small-Scale Cotton Growers, in Zulu and English. Research projects are identified by cotton growers (including small-scale farmers) and other role-players on a continuous basis and are undertaken by the ARC’s Institute for Industrial Crops. Most of the research projects are of benefit to both commercial as well as to small-scale farmers whilst some are specifically aimed at the small grower. Research results are published on a regular basis in the Cotton SA Katoen magazine. Small Scale Cotton Farmer’s Forum Chairman: Phenias Gumede National Small-Scale Cotton Farmer Co-ordinator Mr Simon Molope at the ARC Institute for Industrial Crops in Rustenburg. Tel: 014 536 3150

• Cotton Guide/Katoengids/Iseluleko ngokotini/Keletso ka ga katune. This guide for the small scale farmer was compiled by the ARC-Institute for Industrial Crops bearing the needs of the small-scale farmer in mind. The publication (which is fully illustrated in colour with captions in English and isiZulu) covers the full spectrum of cotton farming and contains chapters on cultivation guidelines, insect and disease control and the harvesting of cotton. It is available from Cotton SA. • Ukukhiqizwa kukakotini/Production of Cotton. This publication is available from the Resource Centre at the National Department of Agriculture. Contact them at 012 319 7141.
Our gratitude to Mr Koot Louw of Cotton SA for his support and for providing input so willingly.


Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
• South Africa has a diverse and highly suitable natural environment for the production of flowers. Indoor and outdoor production occurs across differing climactic regions of South Africa. • Most commonly produced products include Roses, Carnations, Chrysanthemum, Proteas, Foliage, Gypsophila, Limonium and a wide range of seed grown flowers e.g. Lisianthus, Delphinium, Helianthus, Limonium, Grasses, Craspedia, Carthamus, Larkspur. • Flower bulbs are also produced in great numbers in a wide variety of species. • Production is both for the local market as well as various export markets. • The main export markets are Europe, Middle East, Asia, Australia, USA.

Gauteng Economic Development Agency (GEDA) Mudunwazi Baloyi Tel: 011 833 8750 The Gauteng Department of Agriculture is also involved. Find contact details in the Provinces and Agriculture chapter.

4. Training and research
• SAFEC, in co-operation with DAFF, runs an ongoing training programme aimed at BEE, SME and Agri Charter related Training and development. • SAFEC is committed to assist new farmers in the cut flower sector and Jac Duif is the co-ordinator in these new projects. • Agri Skills Transfer Network, Prof Hentie Boshof, is involved with providing administrative and financial training programmes new farmers. Contact 018 290 6019. • The Agricultural Research Council’s Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops (ARC-ITSC) provides training courses which covers management, general nursery practice and propagation procedures necessary for running the nursery effectively as well as cultivation. Tel: 013 713 7000. • Training is also done by Flori Horticultural Services. Contact Johannes Maree at 013 735 6883, 082 564 1211, or write to him at Stellenbosch University Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 021 808 4900 Tshwane University of Technology Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 012 382 5911 University of the Free State Department of Genetics Tel: 051 401 2261 University of the North West Tel: 018 386 1321 University of Pretoria Tel: 012 420 3220 UNISA (Florida Campus) Tel: 011 670 9000

2. Associations involved
The cut-flower industry involves the following associations: • • • • • South African Cut Flower Growers Association (SAFGA) South African Cut Flower Export Council (SAFEC) KwaZulu-Natal Cut Flower Growers Association (KZNGA) South African Protea Producers and Exporters (SAPPEX) Protea Producers of South Africa (PPSA)

Make contact with them all through the details which appear below: Tel: 011 692 4237

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find information and contact details of the different directorates under the “Divisions” option at

5. Websites and publications
• View roleplayer websites, starting at • Undercover Farming, which SAFGA shares with other agriculture sections, is distributed to members free of charge. It keeps members up to date on latest developments in the industry, and is distributed to institutions in Africa and abroad. Johan Swiegers is the editor and can be contacted at 012 804 5854 or by emailing • Find the International Protea Register on

Directorate Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6505/39

Phytosanitary issues and policies Phytosanitary inspections at ports regarding plant health. of entry Tel: 012 319 6091/6293 Directorate: Plant Production Awareness, education and Tel: 012 319 6079 promotion of plant health matters OTHER Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134

Agricultural Product Inspection Service (APIS) Tel: 012 319 6100

6. Companies involved
See relevant chapters in this directory e.g. Undercover Growing and Hydroponics, Fertiliser etc.

Freight forwarders and export agents • Grindod PCA – 011 571 0800 • Sky Services – 011 390 2371/4 • Bergflora – 011 975 1773 • Elro J Braak – 012 361 2777


• Cape Mountain Flora – 021 885 2420 • Flamingo Flowers – 011 952 1087 • Flora Exports – 011 396 2041 • Kairali Flora – 011 483 • Living Gold – 018 788 8500 • Notren Trading – 021 689 4907 • Oz Flora – 021 934 0741 • Plantwise – 011 953 4540 • The Better Flower Company – 021 686 1300 • Uniflo Marketing – 021 949 9016 • Vale Flora Marketing – 011 609 3395 Suppliers of plant material • Ball Straathof – 011 794 2316 • Berg en Dal Nursery – 012 258 1641 • Dekker Chrysanten SA – 012 258 0085 • Emerald Green Horticulture – 012 734 2687 www.emerald-green. • Hadeco – 011 958 1350 • Living Gold – 018 788 8500 • Ludwig’s Rose Farm – 012 544 0144/5 • Roeloff’s Nurseries – 014 576 2362 • SAKATA Seeds – 011 548 2800 • SAFROPA – 012 258 8000 • Van Zanten SA – 012 254 0392/3 Soil and water sampling equipment: 1. Hanna’s Instruments Tel: 011 615 6076

The flower industry is complex and requires specialist knowledge and input. It requires: 1. massive capital expenditure (mostly millions); 2. extensive technical knowledge – more than often a grower learns from a family business; 3. intensive, sustained daily management; 4. and most importantly, a market. Over-supply of crops on the domestic market occurs regularly, resulting in a downward trend in prices. The export market is new and still expanding, but requires careful market planning. According to the World Bank Technical Paper, the following preconditions are laid down for the South African Flower Trade: 1. Basic market opportunity One has to have sold the product prior to starting the venture, or you have to know where a market for that product exists before planting. Access to Europe is difficult and expensive. Often there is an oversupply, and farmers are the ones to suffer. 2. Availability of sustainable human capital Human capital in the form of learned and committed people who are prepared to take a risk is required. South African labour, compared to the rest of Africa, is no longer cheap. 3. Minimal level of infrastructure This pertains to availability of airfreight, cooling facilities, roads, telecommunications etc. Also of importance is an internal infrastructure relating to hothouses, fertigation, pesticide systems, heating-andcooling, storing facilities. 4. Financing arrangements High capital investment is a pre-requisite. Before starting a new farm, you will need a detailed business plan. Issues such as weather, soil types, water quality, fertilising and spraying programs, harvesting, packaging and marketing should be addressed. Consultants might work through a checklist that will help you identify opportunities or weaknesses of your proposed venture. 1. Johannes Maree 082 564 1211 Technical advisor – general 2. Leon Hefer 082 789 0499 Alstroemeria (Inka lilies) 3. Jac Duif 082 443 1755 Flowers from seeds 4. Hentie Boshoff 018 290 6019 Market information and planning 5. Louise de Klerk 013 752 4247 Technical advisor: Gerberas 6. Lindi Grobler 082 577 6507 Grower advice, technical advice, feasibility studies 7. Arend Doorduin 082 577 6507 Grower advice, technical advice, feasibility studies 8. 0861 427336 – a call center Information supplied by Johannes Maree and the South African Flower Export Council
Our thanks to Jac Duif, the South African Flower Export Council, for feedback on the draft chapter

7. Local business environment
The Multiflora flower auction is by far the most important and convenient marketing channel for local marketing. The auction, situated at City Deep, has daily auctions from Mondays to Saturdays from 07:00 where major agents and wholesalers buy flowers. The auction is market driven and prices for products are determined by supply and demand. For newcomers to the industry a visit to Multiflora is absolutely essential to see the heartbeat of sales in the floricultural industry in South Africa. Contact Ernst Nieuwenhuys at 011 613 4011, email or visit www.multiflora. for more information. For the Pretoria flower auction, contact 012 326 4445 / 083 320 7245. For Flora Town flower auction, contact 011 548 0700 / 082 442 6288. Besides these, there is also a strong network of flower wholesalers, distributors and exporters. Bunches For Africa buys flowers from farmers, for example. Visit for more information.

8. New farmer information
So you want to be a Flower Farmer? At events like Gardenex & Growtech, the Growers Associations, the show organisers, Undercover Farming magazine and even florists get inundated by enquiries from potential investors who want to start a flower farm. Potential growers and investors have to reflect on a few vitally important facts beforehand.


Field crops and horticulture
Deciduous fruit
Also refer to the Grapes and Fruit chapters

HORTGRO SERVICES facilitates the following activities: • Trade & Market Access / Phytosanitary PROTECTION FOR THE Industry; • Transformation: Education, Social & Economic Development * Land Reform; • Industry Information & Statistics; • Research, Technical transfer, Plant Improvement and Certification; • Effective Communication with all target audiences.

1. Overview
The operational industry services and functions of the Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust (DFPT), provided for a wide range of national industry organisations, have been transferred to a new service entity, HORTGRO SERVICES . HORTGRO SERVICES is the mouthpiece of a new and transformed Industry, communicating with government authorities and other interest groups on behalf of several groupings in protecting producers’ interests. A Board, representing the producer associations and other stakeholders, guides and oversees the activities of HORTGRO SERVICES to ensure maximum stakeholder input, co-operation and cost effective industry services and functions. The key factor in the industry is the grower, and HORTGRO SERVICES and its substructures, together with other role players, execute the Industry Plan that will manage and influence the decisions and directives as identified by the respective producer associations. The industry operates in a free market environment with no government subsidisation. The role players in HORTGRO SERVICES are: • SA Apple & Pear Producers’ Association (SAAPPA) • SA Stone Fruit Producers’ Association (SASPA) • Dried Fruit Technical Services (DFTS) • Protea Producers of SA • SA Cherry Growers Association (SACGA) •SA Olive Industry Association

2. Local business environment
For information and statistics please visit the HORTGROSERVICES website at

3. Transformation
Find the “Transformation” option at The Deciduous Fruit Development Chamber (DFDC) is a representative body of emerging farmers which create mechanisms within the deciduous fruit industry to: • strategically expedite their integration into the mainstream economy and formal industry structures (i.e., prevent duplication and creation of new structures); • bridge the knowledge gap between commercial and emerging farmers; • promote fair practices; • promote better communication with and by emerging farmers; and • enhance utilisation of resources/services by emerging farmers with the support from the existing industry service capacity, resources and expertise.

The main functions of HORTGROSERVICES are: • to protect and expand market share based on effective communication; • the building of long term relationships; • lobbying with relevant authorities; • positioning horticultural products amongst relevant target audiences; • the lowering of input costs and the enhancement of efficiencies in the export value chain; • to enhance the long-term economic viability and sustainability of the industry thereby increasing the bargaining position of the producers.

4. Roleplayers
Culdevco (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 870 2900 HORTGRO SERVICES Tel: 021 870 2900 Joint Marketing Forums SAAPPA & SASPA Tel: 021 870 2900 SIT Africa Tel: 021 - 870 2900 Stimuplant CC Tel: 012 802 0220

HORTGRO encompasses a world of new opportunities and options with a range of new stakeholders participating in the production and marketing of horticulture products. These stakeholders are:

• DFPT Research, including technical transfer • Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum • Deciduous Fruit Industry Development Trust (housing all ex-statutory assets and reserves) focussing on training and development • SAPO Trust (plant improvement), DPA (plant certification) • Government Departments and Institutions

Vital Bugs CC Tel: 082 7710 777 / 015 307 6956 National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115


5. Training and research
Short course training is one of the offerings at Agricultural Colleges. Pruning and manipulation of deciduous fruit, parts and functioning of the deciduous fruit tree etc are covered at Elsenburg, for example. Find details of the Colleges in the Agricultural education & training chapter. For information on the HORTGRO SERVICES Bursary and Career Scheme or application forms to apply for a bursary, contact Retha Louw at or Tel 021 870 2900. ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Tel: 021 809 3100 Cape Women’s Forum Tel: 021 883 2490 DFPT Research Tel: 021 882 8470 Praktika Tel: 022 913 2933 SA Agri Academy Tel: 021 880 1277

6. Websites and publications
• Various brochures about Deciduous fruit are available from the DFPT, as well as a Deciduous statistics publication. Visit the website www. for more information, or contact them at 021 870 2900. • The SA Fruit Journal looks at research, news on technical matters, exports. Visit; call 021 870 2900; fax 021 870 2950; or email • A series of pamphlets covering pome fruit and stone fruit diseases, pests and other topics are available from DFPT Research. Call 021 882 8470 or email The ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij also has publications relating to deciduous fruit. Email booksalescape@arc. or call 021 809 3305. • Statistics are available for various Deciduous fruit. These figures cover production, sales on markets, exports, purchases for processing, prices realised, gross value and total value of production. • The Transformation publications, New Leaves and New Blossoms as well as brochures on the social responsibility programmes are available from HORTGRO SERVICES, call Retha Louw at 021 - 870 2900 or email • Find archived articles on the websites of the agricultural weeklies – and The article “The Windermere revolution: upsetting the apple cart” at the latter looks at how an apple producer achieves yields of up to three times industry norms. Our thanks to HORTGRO SERVICES for feedback on the draft chapter.

South African Plant Improvement Organisation Trust (SAPO Trust) Tel : 021 887 6823 The chief goal is to manage research in such a way that longterm as well as short-term needs Stellenbosch University will be addressed. HORTGRO Department of Conservation SERVICES strives to co-ordinate this Ecology and Entomology process, and to gain access to funds Tel 021 808 3728 for research in order to ensure the availability of a satisfactory research capacity. Crucial too, is Department of Horticultural that research findings and other Science technical information is passed Tel 021 808 4900 through to the producer in an effective manner – Technology Transfer. Koue Bokkeveld Opleidingsentrum Tel: 023 317 0983
Find the details for training provders in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter.


Field crops and horticulture
Dry beans
1. Overview
The dry bean production areas in South Africa as follows: Province Mpumulanga/Gauteng Area Middelburg, Nigel (including the Bloekomspruit/ Grootvlei area), Delmas (including the Sundra, Eloff, Waaikraal, Kendal area), Ermelo (including the Chrissiesmeer/Lothair area). Bethlehem (including the Aberfeldy/Afrikaskop area), Fouriesburg, Ficksburg, Clocolan, Harrismith, Kroonstad, Henneman Lichtenburg, Koster, Rysmierbult Brits, Thabazimbi, Koedoeskop, Marble Hall, Tuinplaas, Vaalwater, Ohrigstad, Lydenburg, Burgersfort Kokstad, Vryheid, Bergville/Winterton, Greytown, Weenen, Mooiriver Kimberley, Douglas, Modderrivier

2. Associations involved
Dry Bean Producers’ Organisation (DPO) Tel: 012 808 1660 Fax: 012 808 1924

Free State

North West Limpopo

KwaZulu-Natal Northern Cape

The DPO provides industry-related services (like supplying production and marketing information) to the bean producer. It manages the research done, and is responsible for product and market development. It has been a member of the International Pulse Trade & Industry Confederation (IPTIC) since 1993, for the purpose of promoting and facilitating international trade in dry beans.

3. Training and research
The major research partner of the DPO (and the bean industry) is the ARCGrain Crops Institute at Potchefstroom. Their contact telephone number is 018 299 6100. The industry’s research plan ensures that attention be focused on the following aspects of bean production: • cultivar development, evaluation and improvement • agronomy • plant protection Although specific research projects are tackled with regard to the control of various bean diseases, the research plan mainly focuses on the breeding of suitable dry bean cultivars which are well-adapted to South African production conditions. The following research projects are at present being undertaken by the ARC Grain Crops Institute: • the transfer of dry bean technology to commercial dry bean producers • dry bean cultivar evaluation • the production of disease-free seed • development of bean cultivars resistant to fungal diseases • combating of bacterial diseases of dry beans • dry bean breeding • application of molecular marker technology to dry bean breeding The following cultivars were released from the breeding programme conducted by the ARC-Grain Crops Institute:

Dry beans are an ideal rotation crop and research has also shown that dry beans ensure higher yields in a crop rotation system. Improved cultivars also produce higher yields, provided that the correct soil is used and the commodity is cultivated correctly. From an economic point of view it makes a great deal of sense to plant as many dry beans as possible in a crop rotation system with maize on suitable soils. The recommendation is one year of dry beans out of three to four years in a crop rotation system. In a dry bean crop rotation system the longterm yield of maize has been increased by as much as 1 ton/ha. On highyield soils the introduction of a dry bean/maize crop rotation system could drastically improve the profitability of both the dry bean and maize crops. For more information regarding the cultivation of dry beans, contact the Dry Bean Producers’ Organisation (details under heading 2). In South Africa mainly three types of bean are produced: Red Speckled beans, Small White Canning beans and Large White Kidney beans - in that order of importance. Red Speckled beans have the biggest market and are mainly sold in retail quantities in shops for preparation at home. The market discriminates against cultivars of which the seeds are too small (smaller than 100 seeds per 40g) or those of which the background colour rapidly becomes darker. Small White Canning beans are, as the name suggests, mainly used for canning purposes and, in view of the ever increasing need of the consumer for convenience foods, there is a growing market for these beans. Canners have very specific quality requirements though and only buy certain cultivars. Large White Kidney beans are mainly used for retail packaging and to a lesser extent for canning purposes. The market for these beans is, however, relatively limited and an over-supply can easily occur in a good season. Other locally produced types such as Carioca and Painted Lady have a very limited market.

Red Speckled
- OPS RSI - Kranskop HR1 - Jenny - OPS-RS2 - DBS 310 - Kranskop - OPS-RS4 - DBS 360 - OPS RS5 - Sederberg


Small White Canning
- Teebus - Teebus RR1 - OPS KW1 - Teebus - RCR 2

4. Websites and publications
The DPO has a number of free information brochures in connection with the health benefits of dry beans as well as a new recipe book entitled Bean Renaissance – the intelligent food choice (see DPO’s contact details under heading 2). SA Drybeans is a magazine – published twice a year, a Marketing Issue in May and a Production Issue in October. Dry Bean Production and Disease Manual. This comprehensive publication is available from the Dry Bean Producers Organisation and the ARC-GCI (contact details under headings 2 and 3).


Painted Lady

Root Diseases of Dry Beans. Available from the DPO. The excellent publication Dry Bean Production (information supplied by the ARC-GCI) is available from DAFF’s Resource Centre – contact 012 319 7141. It is also available on the web: (take the “Publications” and “Info Pak” menu options. With regard to quality control an important document is the Regulations related to the Grading, Packaging and Marking of Dry Beans destined for sale in the Republic of South Africa as published in Government Gazette No. 23571 on 5 July 2002. A wealth of information in connection with dry beans and the bean industry can also be obtained by visiting the DPO’s website at

Large White Kidney

(Graphics used courtesy of the Dry Beans Producers’ Organisation)

5. Companies involved
The Field Crops Market Value Chain Profiles, produced by DAFF, includes a list of all dry bean traders and dry bean packers.

Dry bean cultivar recommendations
A study of the characteristics of the different dry bean cultivars is available. The purpose of this study is to help the producers to select the correct cultivars for their purposes and the area in which they are located.

Health benefits
Research is also done on the health benefits of beans by the Potchefstroom campus of the University of the North West. Tel: 018 299 2469 Research has indicated that dry beans provide an excellent combination of all the following characteristics. They • are high in plant protein; • are high in soluble and insoluble diet fibre; • are high in complex carbohydrates; • contain several minerals and B vitamins; • have a low fat content; • are low in salt; • contain no cholesterol.

Dry Bean Seed (DBS) Tel: 012 808 1660/2 DBS is a bean seed company which supplies high quality disease-free certified and certified bean seed to the industry. Coen Bezuidenhout-saadtoetssentrum (Edms) Bpk – CBS Tel: 012 808 1660 CBS offers laboratory services to the dry bean industry which entail the determination of the disease status of seed, as well as the disease-free making of bean seed and various diagnostic tests in respect of bean diseases. Trading in dry beans: Beanex (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 808 1660 The result of a marketing initiative of the DPO has been the establishment of a broker trading as Beanex. Suppliers (producers) are able to offer their beans as per sample to Beanex who will offer it to the trade. Other traders can be found on – select the “Find a Trader” menu option.

One-day courses on the production of dry beans are offered by the DPO in conjunction with the ARC-Grain Crops Institute. The DPO offers a dry bean grading course, based on their comprehensive Production and Disease Manual. Tel: 012 808 1660 The DPO offers nutrition education courses to caregivers and any other interested parties on the basis of the Health research done by the Potchefstroom campus of the University of the North West. Tel: 018 299 2469


6. Local business environment
From the producer to the consumer: the value chain

7. International business environment
Find the Market Trends, performance and processing menu options on www. The domestic consumption absorbs all of the local production. It is, however, normally necessary to supplement a shortfall by means of imports. Imports are mainly from China (85%), but also from the USA and Canada (5%). The landed costs of imported beans, determined largely by the then current exchange rate of the Rand in relation to the US Dollar, have a definite influence on the local price structure. The prices obtained for locally produced beans are also influenced by the quality of the beans on offer (locally produced versus the imported product). A strengthening of the Rand in relation to the US Dollar also encourages higher volumes of imports. By means of specific market research and a comprehensive breeding program and efforts, the seed company Dry Bean Seed (Pty) Ltd is able to supply producers with Red Speckled varieties which have become established as preferential consumer choices and in respect of which a market has been developed overseas. The cultivars include Kranskop, Kranskop HR1, Jenny, OPS-RS1, OPS-RS2, OPS-RS4, OPS-RS5,DBS 310, DBS 360 and Sederberg. Depending on a world shortage on beans, South Africa has been able to export beans to a number of different countries, mainly in Africa and Europe. Other bean producing countries that can influence the South African bean industry are the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Africa (Ethiopia) and Europe.


Agribusinesses Co-operatives Brokers Online Trading Wholesalers Importers

Pre-Packers/ Processors Unbranded

Pre-Packers/ Processors Branded

Processors Export Agencies

8. Small-scale farmer information
Dry beans play an important role in the production systems of many smallscale farmers in South Africa. The crop is mainly cultivated in the rural areas of Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State and the Eastern Cape in combination with maize. The soil and the climatic conditions in these areas are favourable to the successful production of dry beans. The short growing period and reduced nitrogen fertiliser needs are added advantages. The major part of beans produced by small-scale farmers is used for home consumption and/or traded at local markets. Despite limitations hampering the production of dry beans in this sector, the indications are that this sector can make a substantial contribution to dry bean production in South Africa. The experience has shown that small-scale farmers are eager to learn, that they want to improve their production and that they will take advantage of any form of constructive support. A strong technology development system along with support from the industry are vital to overcome the constraints of the small-scale producer and to establish a vigorous dry bean industry in this sector. This much-needed support to small-scale producers is currently provided by the ARC-Grain Crops Institute (ARC-GCI), and its main partner, the Dry bean Producers Organisation (DPO).
Our thanks once again to Engela van Eyssen of the DPO for her input.

INFORMAL MARKET Hawkers Spaza shops Shops in rural areas Shops in the townships Pension day hawkers

FORMAL MARKET EXPORT MARKET Formal (e.g. Europe) Pick ‘n Pay Africa Spar Food aid schemes Hyperama Checkers/Shoprite/ Niche markets Woolworths Makro Trade Centre

Bean producers have the choice to sell directly to the trade or supply their product to the first point of sale in the bean marketing chain such as wholesalers and co-operatives. Beans can be sold to packers or processors and if they are unbranded they are sold in the informal market through spaza shops and hawkers. If they are branded they get to the formal market through the chain stores e.g. Pick ‘n Pay, Hyperama, Woolworths and Checkers/Shoprite. Split beans can also be exported to niche markets in the form of flour, and the bread and pasta industry make use of it. South Africa has a dry bean deficit of no less than 50 000 tons a year and relies on imports. This suggests an opportunity for the whole of Southern Africa to increase production. You are invited to contact the DPO should you require more information in connection with price movements for the present marketing season, landed costs of imported dry beans, import quantities, the tariff payable in respect of imported dry beans and the present supply and demand situation.
Source: DPO; Field Crops Market Value Chain Profiles (find it on


Field crops and horticulture
Floriculture and nursery crops
See the separate Cut-flowers chapter

• • • •

Iris Society Tel: 012 654 4395 South African Green Industry Council (SAGIC) Tel: 011 606 3156 Landscape Irrigation Association of South Africa Tel: Lawnmower Association of South Africa Tel:

3. Nurseries
Find contact details for nurseries on the Seedling Growers Association of South Africa website –

1. Overview
Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development plant breeding of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists. Floriculture crops include bedding plants, flowering plants, foliage plants or houseplants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. As distinguished from nursery crops, floriculture crops are generally herbaceous. Bedding and garden plants consist of young flowering plants (annuals and perennials) and vegetable plants. They are grown in cell packs (in flats or trays), in pots, or in hanging baskets, usually inside a controlled environment, and sold largely for gardens and landscaping. Geraniums, impatiens, and petunias are the bestselling bedding plants. Chrysanthemums are the major perennial garden plant in the United States. Flowering plants are largely sold in pots for indoor use. The major flowering plants are poinsettias, orchids, florist chrysanthemums, and finished florist azaleas. Foliage plants are also sold in pots and hanging baskets for indoor and patio use, including larger specimens for office, hotel, and restaurant interiors.

4. Leading garden centres
Also find the list of garden centres at

2. Associations involved
South African Nursery Association (SANA) Tel: 072 994 5371 SANA represents the nursery industry as a whole, and also represents individual associations such as: • • • • • • Allied, Bulb & Seed Trade Association Bedding Plant Growers Association Garden Centre Association (GCA) Indigenous Plant Growers Association Ornamental Growers Association Rose Growers Association

Botanical Society of South Africa Tel: 021 797 2090 The Botanical Society Head Office is situated at Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens. It has sixteen branches: Grahamstown, Port Elizabeth (Algoa), Roodepoort, Bredasdorp, Cedarberg, Pietermaritzburg, Durban, Bloemfontein, Garden Route, Kirstenbosch, Kogelberg, Polokwane, Nelspruit, Pretoria, the West Coast and the Winelands.

1. Brandmullers Garden Pavilion (Vereeniging) Tel: 016 428 3351 2. Cape Garden Centre (Joostenbergvlakte) Tel: 021 988 4137 3. Cape Garden Centre (Somerset West) Tel: 021 885 0334 4. Colourful Concepts (Broederstroom) Tel: 012 244 3469 5. Colourful Splendour (Craighall Park) Tel: 011 447 5817 6. Colourful Corner (Honeydew) Tel: 011 794 5733 7. Countryside Nursery & Garden Centre (Brits) Tel: 012 252 0210 8. Driefontein (Shaka’s Rock) Tel: 082 946 0850 9. Dunrobin (Pietrmaritzburg) Tel: 033 347 1948 10. Dunrobin (Botha’s Hill) Tel: 031 777 1855 11. Ferndale Nurseries (Constantia) Tel: 021 794 5175/44 12. FloraFarm Tel: 011 894 2377 13. GardenShop (Bryanston) Tel: 011 463 5773 14. GardenShop (Menlopark) Tel: 012 460 5137 15. GardenShop (Parktown North) Tel: 011 447 2368 16. GardenShop (Constantia) Tel: 021 794 5015 17. Garden World (Muldersdrift) Tel: 011 957 2046 18. Illovo Nursery (Illovo Beach) Tel: 031 916 2491 19. Leeways Garden Centre (Johannesburg South) Tel: 011 683 2358 20. Lifestyle Home Garden Tel: 011 792 5616 21. Malmesbury Kwekery (Moorreesburg) Tel: 022 433 3232 22. Malmesbury Kwekery (Malmesbury) Tel: 022 482 2612 23. McDonalds Garden Shop Tel: 033 342 2191/ 24. Midlands Garden Centre (Nottingham Road) Tel: 033 267 7153 25. Midlands Garden Centre (Lions River) Tel: 079 709 3586 26. Plantland (Crowthorne) Tel: 011 702 2188 27. Plantland (Lombardy) Tel: 012 809 2120 28. Plantland (Akasia) Tel: 012 549 4945 29. Plantland (Zambesi) Tel: 012 808 1544 30. Plantland (Wonderboom) Tel: 012 543 1065 31. Plantland (Cornwall Hill) Tel: 012 667 6330 32. Plantland (Menlyn) Tel: 012 348 7121 33. Plantland (The Wilds) Tel: 012 991 3061 34. Sherwood Garden Centre Tel: 041 398 4400 35. Super Plants (Parklands) Tel: 021 556 8669 36. Super Plants (Bothasig) Tel: 021 558 0190 37. Super Plants (Tokai) Tel: 021 715 4666 38. Super Plants (Hermanus) Tel: 028 316 4006

5. Websites and publications
• The Gardenex and Green Living is thé most important local floricultural show in South Africa. Visit for more. • The Royal Horticultural Society’s Propagating Plants, published by Dorling Kindersley. • Find the South African Floriculture Cluster Study on the NEDLAC website – • – also a source of much information for gardeners • The Gardener, a magazine for “everyone who loves gardening”. Tel: 031 764 0386 • See the Ballstraathof website for seasonal charts and other useful information: • – the International Plant Propagators’ Society (IPPS)

• The Cycad Society of South Africa Tel: 012 343 3929 www.cycadsociety. org • South African Protea Producers and Exporters Association (SAPPEX) Tel: 021 870 2900 • South African Orchid Council Tel: 011 452 0600 • Succulent Society of South Africa Tel: 012 993 3588 www. • Fern Society of South Africa Tel: 012 662 1922 • Interior Plantscapers Association of South Africa Tel: 011 626 2067 • South African Landscapers Institute Tel: 011 606 3855


Field crops and horticulture
Forage and pastures
1. Overview
“Fodder” refers to food given to animals rather than that which they forage for themselves. This includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, grains and legumes. “Forage” traditionally meant plant material eaten by grazing livestock pasture, crop residue, immature cereal crops – but is used more loosely these days to include what was previously indicated by “fodder”. The establishment and management of cultivated pastures is a highly specialised industry. Choice of species or cultivar, preparing the correct seedbed, the time to sow, seeding depth and density as well as fertilisation, are examples of aspects that should be taken into consideration. Grasses are often mixed with other grass species or with legumes like Lucerne. Nonetheless, cultivated pastures (on dry land) can produce up to four times more than natural veld and will play an increasingly important role in the future.

The following brochures on pasture plants are available now as the compilation Cultivated Pastures for South Africa from the ARC. Tel: 012 841 9828. Scientific Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Acroceras macrum Anthephora pubescens Atriplex nummularia Cenchrus ciliaris Chloris gayana Cynodon species Dactylis glomerata Desmodium intortum Desmodium uncinatum Digitaria eriantha Eragrostis curvula Eragrostis tef Festuca arundinacea Leucaena leucocephala General Name Nile grass, Nylgras Borseltjiegras Oumansoutbos Bloubuffelsgras Rhodesgras, Rhodes grass, Nyankomo (Zulu) Star grass, couch grass Cocksfoot, Orchard grass Groenblaar Desmdium Silwerblaar Desmodium Smutsvinger Oulandsgras, Weeping love grass Teff, Tef, T’ef Tall fescue Leucaena, koa haole, ipilipil, wild tamarind, jumbie bean Italian & Westerwolds ryegrass Perennial ryegrass Hybrid ryegrass Lusern, Alfalfa Kikoejoe English Language English Afrikaans Afrikaans Afrikaans Afrikaans English English Afrikaans Afrikaans Afrikaans English English English

2. Websites and publications
• has extensive, practical notes on pastures – Eragrostis and Lucerne. The content is illustrated with photographs. • Visit the very impressive website • The Pannar Seed (Pty) Ltd website is worth a visit – www.pannar. com. Various cultivars of grain and fodder crops are described, with details of different cultivars and their advantages. Their range also includes various fodder crops including forage cereals, perennial clover pastures, ryegrass, lucerne and forage sorghum. • Guide to Profitable Pastures John Fair, M&J Publications, Harrismith, SA. Some literature is also available on • The Suidwes website has notes on a number of fodder crops – www. • Die Kynoch weidingshandleiding. EB Dickinson, GFS Hyam, WAS Beytenbach, Keyser Versfeld. ISBN 0 620 14918 3 • Tropical grasses PJ Skerman, F Riveros. FAO. ISBN 92 5 101128 1. • Die bestuur van aangeplante weiding in somerreënvaldele Chris Dannhauser. The Distributor, Warmbaths, SA. ISBN 0 620 16389 5. Visit or call 014 577 0005 for the following publications, available from Kejafa Knowledge Works: • Diereproduksie vanaf aangeplante weiding in die somersaaigebied L Scheepers • Guide to Grasses of South Africa Frits van Oudtshoorn (also available in Afrikaaans) • Management Intensive Grazing J Gerrish • Pasture Profits with Stock Cattle A Nation • Quality Pasture A Nation • Pasture Handbook (also available in Afrikaans) Call 012 842 4000 or email for the following publications, available from the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering: • • • • • Small-scale hay farming in South Africa (also available in Afrikaans) Artificial drying of Lucerne (also available in Afrikaans) Production of green lucern with a dehydrator system The operation and application of mounted mowers The operation and application of hay rakes and hay tedders

14 15

Lolium multiflorum Lolium perenne Lolium boucheanum x L. perenne Medicago sativa Pennisetum clandestinum Pennisetum sp Setaria sphacelata Sorghum sp Trifolium pratense Trifolium vesiculosum Vicia sp Vigna unguiculata

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Afrikaans Afrikaans English

Mannagras Red clover Arrowleaf clover Vetch Cowpea

Afrikaans Afrikaans English English English English

3. Roleplayers
Find SANSOR and companies involved in the Seeds & Seedlings chapter. Your local agribusiness / co-operative will also be involved – see the Agribusinesses chapter).

Agricol Tel: 021 981 1126

The ARC Animal Production Unit has a Lusern/Lucerne CD available. The CD was developed by a team of researchers under the supervision of Dr Albert Smith, and is a comprehensive guide to the production and management of Lucerne in South Africa. Contact 012 841 9873.

The Animal Production Institute employs scientists and technicians with a wide range of skills including plant breeding, forage production, Agricon conservation agriculture and Tel: 051 448 0961 conservation of plant genetic resources.The focus of their work is research and development Lucerne (Alfalfa) pellet mills, made of new technologies in the area with the small producer in mind. planted pastures in order to improve forage production for ARC Animal Production supplementing forage from natural Institute veld. They have a team dedicated Range and Nutrition Unit to breeding and development of Tel: 012 672 9073 new forage cultivars to improve


forage production. They work in partnership with various seed companies in the sales and distribution of new varieties of forage species. They also manage a Plant Genetic Resources Genebank, which is a national asset whose focus is to ensure that our valuable forage species are conserved. They also conduct research on improving the efficiency of producing forage for livestock under various climatic regions. All these efforts contribute to their support of a thriving livestock production industry.

The GSSA intermittently produces information days in collaboration with other organisations on a range of subjects, and has recently unveiled a mentorship programme to provide support to young scientists. The GSSA hosts a members’ expertise database for the public who seek expert advice in different areas. Hoogland Animal Feed Tel: 054 331 1835

Stellenbosch University Department of Agronomy Tel: 021 808 4803 Tshwane University of Technology Mike Panagos University of the Free State Animal- and Wildlife- and Grassland Sciences Prof Hennie Snyman Tel: 051 401 2221 Prof Hentie van der Merwe Tel: 051 401 2606 Dr Gerrie Scholtz University of KwaZulu-Natal Biological and Conservation Sciences Tel: 033 260 5505

University of Limpopo Tel: 015 268 9111 Prof Chris Dannhauser University of the North West – Potchefstroom Prof Klaus Kellner Tel: 018 299 2510 UNISA Dr Mary Mustafa University of Venda Dr Joseph Baloyi

K2 Agri ARC Plant Protection Research Klein Karoo Seed Marketing Institute Tel: 044 203 5180 Tel: 012 808 8000 The PPRI researches weed Find the “Forage and pasture management techniques, mainly crops”, “Lucerne seed” and “Latest news” menu options on focusing on alien plants. the website. Cango Engineering Multi Feeds Tel: 044 272 3590 Tel: 053 474 1848/9 “The feedplant specialist” Marketing and supply of roughage and protein for livestock e.g. County Agencies Tel: 082 490 9951 / 031 312 9336 Lucerne, wheat straw, soy oilcake, fish-meal. They also research Lucerne cultivars. A lucerne exporter Diepdrift Lusernsaad Mr Dirk van der Merwe Tel: 027 341 2279 National Lucerne Organisation Tel: 044 272 8991

4. Farmer information
When it comes to choosing the best forage crop to plant, it is important to consider the following factors: • Is the forage crop suited to the soil and climatic conditions? • What sort of animal production will the forage crop be used for? For example, will it be used for milk production, fattening of weaners or the maintenance of dry cows, and so on? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of a particular forage crop, and how do these characteristics fit in with current stock farming practices? • How versatile is a forage crop and can it be used for more than one purpose? • Ensure that sufficient forage is planted to supply the required stock needs. It is preferable to work on a conservative forage yield and to make provision for a surplus. • Where intensive forage crops are planted under irrigation, be sure to plant crops which provide good yields and have a high feed value. Irrigation is expensive and one must look at obtaining optimal forage yields and optimal usage. • Before establishment, ensure that you know the fertilizer requirements for forage crops, the correct application times and how to correct any soil nutrient deficiencies. • Where possible plant more than one forage crop, especially perennial grasses, in order to spread risk and to create a better fodder flow programme. Well-matched grass or legume mixtures can play an important role in this regard. • Plant forage crops to complement sources of natural grazing and field crop remains and to gain the best advantage from all these sources of animal feed. • Use of intensive pastures, particularly those under irrigation, can result in internal parasite and fungal disease problems in stock. An effective dosing programme should be followed and, in the case of sheep and dairy cows, preventative measures must be taken for foot rot.
Source: Forage Crop Production Guide by Pannar Seed (Pty) Ltd. This highly useful document can be found on

Pannar Grasslands Society of Southern Tel: 033 413 9500 Africa (GSSA) Tel/fax: 049 842 4335 The Provincial Departments of Agriculture, working closely with The GSSA is involved and concerned the Agricultural Colleges, present with the science and practice of courses on cultivated pastures, range and pasture management. hay and silage making, and conduct This broad field involves primarily research on pasture production, the use and conservation of natural weed control, and animal nutrition resources. It encompasses applied Scientists and extension officers fields such as livestock production, can provide advice on fodder flow wildlife management, nature management. The Soil laboratory at Cedara can conduct detailed conservation, water catchment soil analyses and provide advice management and range and mineon optimal fertiliser regimes for a dump rehabilitation. The disciplines wide range of crops. Find contact include amongst others, ecology, details in the agricultural education botany, zoology, range and pasture and training chapter. science, animal science, soil science and genetics. Resource Consulting Services (SA) For the African Journal of Forage Tel: 058 622 1499 Science, events and the newsletter Grassroots refer to their website.


Species Name Acroceras macrum Andropogon gayanas Anthephora pubescens Brachiaria brizantha Cenchrus ciliaris Chloris gayana Cynodon dactylon Cynodon nlemfuensis Dactylis glomerata Dactyloctenium giganteum Dichanthium annulatum Digitaria enantha Eragrostis curvula Eragrostis lehmanniana Eragrostis tef Festuca elatior Hemarthria altissima Lolium multiflorum Lolium perenne Panicum coloratum Panicum maximum Panicum repens Paspalum dilatatum Paspalum notatum Paspalum scrobiculatum Pennisetum glaucum Pennisetum clandestinum Pennisetum purpureum Phalaris aquatica Setaria sphacelata Sorghum bicolor & S.halepense Urochloa mosambicensis Urochloa oligotricha

Common Name Nile grass Blue grass Wool grass Common signal grass Foxtail buffalo grass Rhodes grass Couch grass Star grass Cocksfoot Giant crowfoot Vlei finger grass Common finger grass Weeping love grass Lehmann’s love grass Tef Tall fescue Swamp cough Annual rye grass Perennial rye grass Small buffalo grass Guinea grass Couch panicum Dallis grass Bahia grass Veld-paspalum Pearl millet Kikuyu Elephant grass Canary grass Golden bristle grass Wild sorghum Bushveld signal grass Perennial signal grass

Soil Damp Sand loam Sandy Most soils Most soils Most soils Most soils Most soils Most soils Sandy soil Clay soil Mostly sandy Mostly sand loam Sand loam Mostly sand loam Mostly damp soil Wet soil Most soils Most soils Clay soil Fertile loam Wet sandy Wet clay soil Moist sandy Moist soils Sandy loam Fertile soil Fertile soil Moist soils Fertile sand loam Most soils Sand loam Sand loam

Rainfall/Year 625-1500mm 400-1400mm 300-650 mm 500+ 375-750mm 600-750 mm 625-1750 mm 650 mm + 900 mm + 450 mm + 500-900 mm 500 mm + 600-1000 mm 250-500 mm 500 mm + 750 mm + 500 mm + 900 mm + Only irrigation 500-1000 mm 550-600 mm 500 mm + 750-1250mm 750-1000mm 900 mm + 125-700 mm 700-1600 mm 600-1500 mm 400 mm + 700-1700 mm 400-750 mm 600-1200 mm 700-1500 mm

Use Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing, sometimes hay and silage Grazing, sometimes hay Grazing, sometimes hay Grazing, sometimes hay Grazing Grazing and hay Grazing and hay Grazing and hay Grazing, sometimes silage Grazing and hay Grazing and hay Hay and grazing Winter grazing, silage, hay Mostly grazing Winter grazing Winter grazing Grazing, sometimes hay Grazing, hay and silage Grazing Mostly grazing Grazing Grazing, hay and silage Grazing and silage Grazing Grazing and silage Grazing (winter) Grazing and silage Grazing and silage Grazing and hay Grazing and hay

Source: Guide to Grasses of SA. Frits van Oudtshoorn

Our thanks to Craig Morris and Dr Albert Smith of the ARC for doing much of the foundational work, and to Alan Short, Lufhando Dziba and Mike Peel for feedback on this edition’s draft chapter. Unfortunately, owing to space constraints we are not able to print all the graphs/charts sent to this project by them.


Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
The “Industry Info” menu option on provides a wealth of information. Find also the latest “SA Forestry Industry Abstracts” on this website. The forestry and forest products industry plays a major part in the lives of South Africans in both the first and second economy, from the rural areas to the well-developed, highly capital-intensive and international-recognised timber processing and pulp and paper sector. Plantations cover some 1,26 million ha of South Africa, and the forestry, timber, pulp and paper (FTPP) sector employs close to 170 000 people. Forestry provides logs as raw material, mostly for timber, veneer, plywood, paper and wood fuel. Plantation types. Using the characteristics of the fibre produced, plantations can be classified into two main categories: hardwood and softwood. Eucalyptus (mainly Eucalyptus grandis and its hybrids) and wattle (Acacia mearnsii) are the main hardwood species grown in South Africa. Pine (of which Pinus patula is the most common species) accounts for all South African softwood plantations. As a tree poor country (where indigenous forests are protected), South Africa has had to rely almost exclusively on the development of exotic forest plantations to meet its demand for wood. Forestry is one of the sectors identified as a key growth area in terms of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), which aims to reduce poverty and unemployment and help the country achieve an economic growth rate of 6% per annum.
Source: ScienceScope, January 2009 page 29;

• South African Forestry Contractors Association (SAFCA) • South African Wood Preservers Association Tel: 011 974 1061 / 011 392 1995 • South African Institute of Forestry Tel: 012 348 1745 • The Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry of South Africa Tel: 031 764 2494 • Timber Frame Builders Association Tel: 021 845 4435 • Timberwatch Coalition Tel: 082 444 2083 • Wildlands Tel: 033 343 6380 (indigenous trees programme)

3. National strategy and government contact
Find the forestry menu option at

The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) has initiated the development of the Forestry 2030 Roadmap, meant to assist the sector in realising its potential contribution to job and wealth creation as well as the conservation of biological diversity. It also reflects all contemporary trends of global forestry. The roadmap is not static and will be updated and modified on a regular basis. Relevant Legislation: National Forests Act, 1998 (Act No. 84 of 1998) – concerned with the sustainable management of forests and the protection of forests and trees as well as community participation; the National Veld and Forest Fires Act, 1998 (Act No. 101 of 1998) – concerned with the combating of veld and forest fires; the Wattle Bark Industry Act, 1960 (Act No. 23 of 1960) which provides for the control of the wattle bark industry. Certain trees are protected by law and should anyone wish to cut or utilise these trees they need to apply for a licence from their local DWAF office. In terms of Section 15(1) of the National Forests Act, no person may cut, disturb, damage or destroy any protected tree or possess, collect, remove, transport, export, purchase, sell or donate any protected tree or any forest product derived form such a tree without a license. The list was published under Government Gazette No 27846, notice no 797 of 5 August 2005 and this list is updated each year in terms of a Government Notice. Enquiries: Theo van der Merwe. Tel: 012 336 7669

2. Associations involved
Forestry South Africa Tel: 011 803 3403/4 – Large Grower Group Tel: 033 346 0344 – Medium and Small Grower Group Forestry South Africa (FSA) is South Africa’s premiere and largest forestry Organisation representing growers of timber in South Africa. The association has over 90% of all registered timber growers as members, this equates to over 2500 members. The Organisation provides for the establishment of three separate and distinct entities under the umbrella of an overall Executive Committee, namely: • Large Growers Group • Medium Growers Group • Small Growers Group Each of these groups have their own committee structure with proportional representation on the Executive Committee.

4. Training and research
Find the “Skills Development” and notes on research (under “Industry Info”) on the Forestry SA website –

Aquila Training Tel: 013 767 1224

• Dendrological Society and Foundation Tel: 012 567 4009 www.dendro. • Paper Manufacturer’s Association of South Africa (PAMSA) Tel: 011 803 5063 • Sawmilling South Africa (SSA) – previously the South African Lumber Millers Association (SALMA) • South African Arboricultural Association c/o Tel: 011 475 7263

Council for Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) Division of Water, Environment & A joint venture between the CSIR Forestry Technology and the University of KwaZuluTel: 012 841 2682 / 2203 / 3225 Natal. Institute for Commercial Forestry Research (ICFR) Durban University of Tel: 033 386 2314 Technology Pulp and Paper Department Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University FIETA (Forest Industries School of Natural Resource Education and Training Management Authority) is the SETA responsible Tel: 044 801 5019 / 11 for training in the forestry sector. Find the “Accredited Providers” National Diploma, B.Tech, M. Tech menu option on and D. Tech in forestry. Accredited short courses are also offered. or call 011 712 0600.

Forestry and Forest Products Research Centre Tel: 031 242 2300/88 &


Skills for Africa Tel: 013 764 2164 AgriSETA-accredited training Stellenbosch University Department of Forest and Wood Science Tel: 021 808 4812 / 3301 / 3293 South African Forestry Tel: 012 348 1745 Institute

University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg) Forestry Science, Community Forestry Science Tel: 033 260 5808 University of Pretoria Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) Tel: 012 420 3938/9

6. Companies involved
Find the extensive Business Directory on There are 40 different categories e.g. agrochemicals, anti-split plates for pole manufacturers, automation and information technology, chain saws etc. Agkrug Tel: 058 303 6477 Asgisa Eastern Cape Tel: 043 531 0103 Austro Engineering Tel: 021 856 4370/1 Komatiland Forests (KLF) Tel: 013 754 2724 Mondi Forests Tel: 011 994 5400 MTO Forestry Tel: 042 281 1712

of University of Venda Forestry Horticulture Science Tel: 015 962 8110

• Concordia Bert Van Den Toorn Tel: 044 382 5481 • Fort Cox College of Agriculture and Forestry Tel: 040 653 8033/6 • New Africa Skills Development Pam Naidoo Tel: 033 330 7002 • Southern Africa Forestry Training College Derek Howe Tel: 033 569 1692 / 082 372 1310 • Forest Engineering Southern Africa Tel: 033 386 2314

5. Websites and publications
• SA Forestry Magazine Tel: 031 303 6466 www.saforestrymagazine. • Wood SA and Timber Times Tel: 011 726 3081/2 www.malnormags. • Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, published by the Southern African Institute of Forestry. • The Forestry Handbook, published by the Southern African Institute of Forestry (SAIF). Visit for details (look for the “Forestry Handbook” menu option), or contact 083 523 8733. • Tree Farming Guidelines for Sappi Outgrowers is a practical guide to timber forestry. The manual is available on CD-Rom (contact 033 347 6629 or write to Chapters can be downloaded from • Making the Most of Indigenous Trees Fanie and Julye-Ann Venter. Briza Publications. Contact: or visit • Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Struik Publishers). Features more than a 1000 species. • Find the “Downloads” menu option on Included are reviews of the economics of the forestry, timber, pulp and paper industry in South Africa; detailed market analyses of the various components of the forestry value chain. • Call 012 842 4000 or email for the leaflet Charcoal production in kilns. It is also available in Afrikaans. • The Centre for International Forestry research’s (CIFOR) publications pages include titles on forest management, forest research, forest degradation, and many more resourceful tools for scientists and those concerned about the future of the world’s forests. Visit www.cifor. • – find extensive list of publications on the World Agroforestry Center publications site. • – Community Forestry International • – Southern Africa’s online information and trading portal for the timber, furniture and related industries • – Global Association of Online Foresters

Mobile equipment for cutting logs and making planks Multisaw Tel: 044 532 7849 Bandit Tel: 021 930 4555 NCT Forestry Co-operative Ltd Barry Collier & Company Tell: 033 897 8500 Tel: 013 752 4349 NCT Tree Farming, a wholly-owned Bestbier Sawmills subsidiary, has a total of twenty-five Tel: 051 713 7046 (25) contracts and a timber area of some 13,000 hectares. A total management package is supplied Food and Trees for Africa which includes the handling of Tel: 011 803 9750 all forestry operations, financial services, administration, marketing and the employment of suitable Grow Wild staff. Tel: 011 465 8857 Natal Forest Productions Tel: 033 212 2193 HM Timber Tel: 011 450 1230 Northern Timbers – see HM Timber The timber division of Hans Merensky consists of a number of companies engaged in forestry, sawmilling, manufacturing, nurseries, research and development in the production and marketing of high quality timber. Harding Treated Timbers Tel: 039 433 1805 Janet Edmonds Consulting Tel: 082 828 7953 Nukor Minimills Tel: 011 610 2000 Rance Timber Tel: 043 683 5200 Rural Forestry Development James Ballantyne – 079 516 1261 Rural Forestry Management Peter Dixon – 082 802 2826

SAFIRE Insurance Company Limited Ecological assessments (indigenous Tel: 033 264 8500 forests), timber permits, protected tree permits Samgro Kluver Designs Tel: 021 842 3364 Tel: 033 413 3233


Sappi Ltd Tel: 011 407 8111

South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 6923

Find details of Sappi Forests, Sappi Certification (see heading 7) Kraft, Sappi Saiccor etc on the website, South African Forestry Company Limited (SAFCOL) Scanwood Solutions (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 804 3716 Tel: 012 803 0036 / 0861 472 461 Stihl Tel: 0800 336 996 SGS South Africa Tel: 013 764 2670 Timbercity Tel: 011 445 3000 Forestry Certification – Chain of Custody Tel: 013 764 1589 Treated Timber Products Fax: 086 5708011 (TTP) Tel: 033 342 2679 Forestry Certification – Forest Management Volker Forestry (Pty) Ltd Fax: 086 607 7532 Tel: 034 982 1498 The York Timber Organisation Ltd (Yorkor) Singisi Forest Products Tel: 013 764 9200 Tel: 039 553 8000 / 832 0109
Find the links to SABS permit holders, SATAS certified suppliers, and inspectors and supplemental treaters on the website of the South African Wood Preservers Association –

dependency on financial and infrastructure support from government to being owners and shareholders in multi0million rand timber plantations. The communities have also been empowered to control the operational and financial aspects of their plantations. The consultants were recently joined by James Ballantyne of Rural Forestry Development and together they’re guiding the process of taking these community-owned forestry businesses from strength to strength.
Source: Farmer’s Weekly 22 May 2009, pages 54-56. Find the complete article on the archives at

9. Local business environment
• Find updates on and • Find the BBBEE Forestry Charter under the “Forestry” menu option at The Eastern Cape Development Corporation lists the following Forestry / Wood Products Opportunities on their website (take the opportunities menu option): • Building Joinery: Black owned saw-millers can diversify into doors, frames, flooring, planks, mostly in pine; export potential • Charcoal: small wattle plantations can be used to produce high quality charcoal. Can develop from the ‘Working for Water’ campaign. • Community Forestry: transfer small plantations to community trusts to form CPPPs with sawmills and other wood processing companies • Improved Wood Quality: training saw millers in wood processing, especially pine • Increase Forestry Area: Eastern Cape is the only province that can increase its forestry area. An estimated 120,000 ha can be planted, mostly in Transkei. • Indigenous Plantations: small plantations of indigenous hardwood (Yellowwood, Blackwood) can be harvested to a limited extent. • New Hardwood Plantations: need for increased availability of eucalypts (saligna) and wattle • Paper And Pulp Mill: long term potential for a paper and pulp mill at Umtata once forestry area has expanded. • Treated Poles: potential for a plant in Butterworth; uses in agriculture and transmission poles • Wood Chipping Plant: East London IDZ can host an export wood chipping plant, railing timber from Umtata. For further information, contact the ECDC at 043 704 5606.

7. Forestry certification
Find the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) website at To find out more about forestry certification, contact SGS South Africa at 013 764 2670 and the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at 012 428 6923.

The certification of forests and forest products emerged during the previous decade as an environmental initiative to halt the destruction of the world’s natural forests. Certification encompasses an independent and ongoing assessment / audit of an organisation’s forest management practices, to measure compliance against a range of nationally and internationally recognised social, economic and environmental standards. South Africa favours the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification. It is the global benchmark, has rigorous performance-based criteria and is increasingly being demanded by environmentalists and consumers alike. Today, 75% of South Africa’s plantations are certified (60% by FSC), giving the country by far the highest percentage of certified forests worldwide. It is a market-driven way of ensuring (and reassuring consumers) that plantations are sustainably managed.

Forestry to assist in transformation and growth Because the demand for timber is expected to increase, there is an urgent need to increase the forest base by planting more trees to ensure that current processing plants can function optimally. DAFF is promoting the afforestation programme, which involves the establishment of new plantations for growth and development purposes. Most of the land that has the potenetial for addorestation is found in the communal areas of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal, presenting excellent opportunities for communities to become the future owners of forestry business.
Source: September 2009 DAFFnews p 2.

8. Emerging Farmer news
The Eastern Cape/KwaZulu-Natal border is known for its rural poverty. The Ngevu, Mabandla and Zintwala communities in the Umzimkhulu district struggled for many years, until an innovative model was launched to uplift them by integrating them into the commercial forestry sector. It comprises three projects, one for each community, to ensure dividends from forestry can be used for building infrastructure like schools and clinics. Forestry consultants Peter Nixon and Themba Radebe of Rural Forestry Management have, over ten years, taken these communities from total

10. International business environment
Find the “International News” section at
Our thanks to Tammy Swain (Institute for Commercial Forestry Research), Dr DW van der Zel (Southern African Institute of Forestry) and Gerrit Marais (SGS South Africa) for feedback on the draft chapter.


Field crops and horticulture
To be read along with the other fruit chapters in this directory i.e. deciduous, subtropical and citrus

The South African Cherry Association (SACGA) Tel: 021 870 2900 The Secretarial and financial services is also provided by HORTGROSERVICES.

Tomato Producer’s SACGA falls under the structure Organisation (TPO) of HORTGROSERVICES – see the Refer to the vegetables chapter (with apologies to some) Deciduous Fruit chapter. The SA Olive Association (SA Olive) Tel: 021 870 2900 Find details of other roleplayers in the citrus, deciduous and subtropical fruit chapters.

1. Overview
Technical information and overviews are available on role-player websites listed in this chapter. Visit and, for example. The reader should also refer to publications under “Economic analyses” and “Statistical information” at

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find information and further contact details on the different directorates under the Divisions menu option at

• Deciduous fruit is grown mainly in the Western Cape, as well as in the Langkloof Valley in the Eastern Cape. Significant table and dried grapes production areas are also along the Orange River and in the Free State, Mpumalanga and Gauteng. (Information and statistics can be found at • Citrus is mainly produced in the irrigation areas of the Limpopo, Mpumalanga, the Eastern and Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. (Find updates and news at • Subtropical crops such as avocados, mangoes, bananas, litchis, guavas, pawpaws, and granadillas are produced mainly in Mpumalanga and Limpopo, as well as in the subtropical coastal areas of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape. Pineapples are grown in the Eastern Cape and northern KwaZulu-Natal. (Find statistics at Deciduous Apples, apricots, pears, grapes (fresh and dreid), plums, nectarines, peaches, quinces, cherries, Persimmons, pomegranates and figs Citrus Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, easy peelers and limes Subtropical Avocados, bananas, mangoes, litchis, papayas, papinos, granadillas, pineapples, guavas, loquats, melons and kiwi fruit Other Sweet and water melons, sour figs, prickly pears, custard apples, jack fruit and medlars

Successful fruit exports depend on compliance with the requirements of target markets, and compliance begins in the orchard. Find the relevant export protocols under the Plant Health pages on

Agricultural Produce Agents Council (APAC) Tel: 011 894 3680 Department of Science and Technology (DST) The DST has been involved in the post-harvest innovation programme, addressing technology gaps across the chain – from harvest to home. Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 Regional offices Nelspruit Gauteng Tzaneen Durban Port Elizabeth Cape Town Tel: 013 755 2879 / 082 490 5996 Tel: 011 396 1393 / 071 685 9669 Tel: 015 307 4236 / 082 466 5700 Tel: 031 467 2719 / 082 462 0472 Tel: 041 364 3671/2 or 082 441 2797 Tel: 021 552 3408 / 082 951 8806 Tel: 012 804 6825/6 or 082 416 2366 National Programme Managers Inspection – 082 465 0768 Cold Chain – 082 465 0760 / 082 566 1150 Grapes – 082 462 1006 Citrus – 082 772 5000 Pome & Stone – 082 461 6314 Food Safety – 082 462 1010 Protocols – 083 342 2175 Other Products – 082 786 3165 Airport – 021 935 0819 Cape Town Harbour – 021 421 1370

Note: Opinion is not unanimous regarding the category is which certain fruits are placed.

2. Associations involved
Citrus Growers Association (CGA) Tel: 031 765 2514 HORTGRO Tel: 021 870 2900

SA Subtropical Growers’ Association (Subtrop) Tel: 015 307 3513 This association represents the SA Avocado Growers’ Association (, the SA Mango Grower’s Association (, the SA Macadamia Growers’ Association ( and the SA Litchi Growers’ Association. Fruit SA is an alliance of the various fruit exporting sectors consisting of citrus, deciduous and subtropical fruit.

Analytical Services

Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) Tel: 021 526 0474 SA Table Grapes (SATI) Tel: 021 872 1438

4. Training and research
Refer to the citrus, deciduous and subtropical fruit chapters for details of roleplayers not listed here.


The two relevant institutes of the ARC’s Horticultural Business Division are the following: ARC-Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Crops Tel: 013 753 7000 ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Tel: 021 809 3100 / 3366 The ARC Institutes also do training. Visit for information. Cape Women’s Forum Tel: 021 883 2490 Citrus Academy Tel: 031 313 3364 Elgin Learning Foundation Tel: 021 848 9413 Ethical & Leadership Institute (ELI) Tel: 021 855 2848 Koue Bokkeveld Opleidingsentrum Tel: 023 317 0983 Praktika Tel: 022 913 2933 SA AgriAcademy Tel: 021 880 1276/7 SAPO Trust Tel: 021 887 6823 Skills for Africa Tel: 012 379 4920 Contacts in all provinces can be found on the website. Vineyard Academy Tel: 021 809 3419

separately. These can be viewed at Also available are the Trends, Economic Analysis and Statistical Information reports. The latter gives detailed statistics on production, sales on markets, exports and purchases for processing. Information Guide of Deciduous Fruit of SA. Contact Retha Louw at 021 870 2900 or – includes overviews of all fruit. – “Your one stop webpage for top South African Olives” Call 012 842 4000 or email for the following leaflets, available from the ARC in Silverton: • Processing of Citrus Fruit (Grapefruit, lemons, oranges) • Processing of Deciduous fruit (Apples, apricots, grapes, pears, plums, peaches) • Processing of Olives and Legumes (green peas) • Processing of Field crops (Chilli, bell peppers, tomatoes) • Processing of Subtropical Fruit (Avocado, bananas, figs, guava, kiwifruit, litchi, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple). SA Groente en Vrugte. A magazine, 6 issues a year. Contact 018 293 0622 for more information. Find the numerous technical notes on fruit crops on the AGIS website, The easy-to-understand “Infotoons” can also be viewed here (take the “AGIS” and “Skills Development” menu options). The following Info Paks (booklets) are available free of charge from the Department of Agriculture. Call 012 319 7141. They can also be viewed at (take the “Publications” option). • Cultivation of avocados • Growing avocados • Cultivation of citrus • Producing guavas • Cultivation of mangoes • Cultivation of pineapples • Growing granadillas • Cultivating litchis • Cultivating litchis (Tshivenda) • Cultivation of papayas • Subtropical crops • Solar drying of fruit and vegetables

AgriSETA accredited groups do training in fruit e.g. Skills for All include bananas, citrus, vines and more in their training programme. Find AgriSeta accredited companies in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter. Fruit production is involved in the diplomas training at the Agricultural Colleges. Various short courses are also offered e.g. Cedara runs peach processing, vegetable and fruit drying, and jam manufacturing short courses, whilst Elsenburg conducts management and horticultural diploma courses over a 2-3 year period. Find the list of Agricultural Colleges in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter.
Find details of all universities in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter.

6. Companies involved 5. Websites and publications
Visit the websites of the various associations and companies mentioned in this chapter. The PPECB Export Directory is the official guide to South African perishable export products and export service providers. It is issued by the Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB). The purpose of the above-mentioned directory is to provide a comprehensive resource and reference work of a broad spectrum of industry role-players and relevant information to both national and international stakeholders involved in the export of perishable products from South Africa. Call 021 930 1134 or visit SA Fruit Journal. The magazine consists of dedicated sections for the three fruit sectors – citrus, deciduous and subtropical – as well as market, industry and research news. To keep a balance, a section for woman and some general news are included. Regular features on specific topics such as logistics, packaging, and education are covered. Visit for more information, or contact Christa van Rooyen at 021 870 2900 (email Statistics on fresh produce markets. Annually this gives an exposition of the mass, value and unit value of the sales of fruit at each of the 15 national fresh produce markets, month by month. Each product is dealt with
Also see companies under the different fruit chapters e.g.Subtropical Fruit.

African Fruit Co Tel: 011 660 5007 AlternaFRUIT Tel: 0860 111 592 Bethlehem Farmers’ Trust Tel: 058 303 0560 DFM Software Solutions Tel: 021 904 1154 Recent years have seen the agricultural market change drastically. From water acts, labour relations to getting your produce accepted overseas, file upon file of information needs to be kept and hours spent in keeping it up to date. For many it has become a full time occupation. Software exists to make this task easier and less time consuming. Also consult the ICT chapter for other role-players.

Goldpack (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 569 4199 Multihead portion weighers for potatoes, onions, carrots and various types of fruit; bagging, labeling solutions and more. Hortec Tel: 023 316 1530 / 021 859 4242 Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Food, Beverage and Industries SBU Tel: 0860 693 888


As a business unit their role is to focus on investments biased towards job creation, SME development, export generation and regional development.


The largest portion of the Food, South African Bureau of Beverage and Agro-Industries Standards (SABS) SBU’s investment portfolio has been in fruit and nuts industries. • Contact Elaine Smith for Food Safety Certification Ligthelm Kwekery programmes: GlobalGAP , Tel: 078 802 1578 BRC, HACCP , ISO 22000. Call 012 428 6837 or write to Paltrack • Contact Hein Garbers at 012 Tel: 021 970 2850 428 6648 and garberhv@sabs. for pesticide residue testing for quality control and R&D purposes Maluti Fruit • For constituent or nutrient Tel: 058 304 3367 analysis of food and water, contact Chris Fouche Paltrack at 012 428 6844; email: Tel: 021 970 2850 PricewaterhouseCoopers – Agri Industry Group Kobie Bekker (National Leader and Southern Region) – 023 347 0941 KwaZulu-Natal – 033 347 7200 Central Region – 051 503 4100 Northern Region – 013 754 3300 Eastern Region – 041 391 4400 As trusted business advisor the Agri Industry Group focuses on providing specialist services e.g. tax, accounting, entrepreneurial advice, internal audits etc. Within the fruit industry there is a vast amount of technology to assist today’s farmers, relating to spraying, irrigation, fertilisation, administration, market trends, block costings, tank control within the cellar, temperature/sugar readings with delivery of grapes to cellars etc. These companies are listed in the “ICT and agricultural media”, “Irrigation” and other chapters.
The following companies are fruit exporters. Find comprehensive lists on the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum, Subtrop and other industry organisation websites.

Fruits Unlimited Fruitways In Season Marketing Katope Citrus Le Roux Group LGS Exports Lona Trading Louterwater Landgoed Mouton Citrus SAFE SAFPRO SAPEX Saratoga Fruit Estate Seaboard International Trading

021 860 1800 021 851 9742 021 943 5960 015 307 6977 021 864 1967 021 880 0394 021 481 8200 042 272 1724 022 921 3405 021 657 4000 041 582 4706 021 883 8280 023 615 1315 021 419 9929 023 313 3533 042 233 0320 012 460 2971/8606 021 919 4696 / 082 781 8293 021 852 8494 021 851 3788 028 514 1455

Specialised EHS Systems (SEHS) Tel: 012 535 2854 Fruit handling equipment systems and

Snofrut Exports (Pty) Ltd Sunday River Citrus The Fruitman Tru-Cape Unifrutti SA WP Fresh Distributors XL International

7. International business environment
Find details on the PPECB Export Directory under heading 5. Also visit the association websites and those mentioned under heading 5 for updated information and news. • The Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) is the official certification agency that ensures quality in the supply chain. The services they offer are inspection services, logistical services, food safety auditing and certification and information services which are updated annually in their directory. • Both the local and export marketing of fruit are free from government intervention. The exporting of fruit is subject to compliance with certain quality requirements and obtaining a PPECB (Perishable Products Export Control Board) export certificate. • When the industry was deregulated in the late nineties, the single marketing channel for export was abolished. At present there are a few hundred exporters selling South African fruit abroad. As a result, South African products thus compete against international role players, and in some cases against each other. The various industries, i.e. citrus, grapes etc. have however organised themselves by establishing industry representative bodies which look after the interest of producers and exporters, in order to optimise and co-ordinate export volumes to specific markets.

Company Afrifresh Export Agrilink Cape Citrus Cape Five Export Capespan Colors Fruit SA Delecta Fruit Dole SA Du Toit EXSA FEDFA Franschhoek Marketing

Contact details and website 021 763 7600 011 390 2366 021 887 0026 021 850 4640 021 917 2600 021 807 5000 021 930 1181 021 914 0600 023 312 1071 021 914 8280 021 917 2882 021 876 3140/1/2


8. Emerging farmer news
• The creation of the Deciduous Fruit Development Chamber (DFDC) was facilitated by HORTGRO SERVICES to integrate emerging producers into mainstream commercial structures. Read more at (find the “Transformation” option). The other industry groups have similar focus areas. • Read about the Capespan Foundation and the Thandi Fruit initiative at Alternatively, call 021 917 2600. • In response to a range of rural needs an increasing number of programmes and projects are located under the umbrella of the Goedgedacht Trust. Visit Refer to the New Farmer Information heading in the Citrus Fruit chapter. • Skills For Africa is a focused skills training company dedicated to the upliftment of previously disadvantaged rural communities and the improvement of task level productivity in chosen industries. Find their details – as well as those of other providers – under the Training and Research heading. • Find out about the Top of the Class programme from either Michelle Kruger at the FPEF – 021 914 3018; – or from Bronwyn Palmer – 082 802 5301; TOC is an opportunity for previously disadvantaged students to be exposed to the entire fresh fruit value chain. Exporting fruit from the Western Cape Province of South Africa to markets in Europe, North America and Asia contributes significantly to the province’s Gross Domestic Product. The main export producers are large-scale farmers. Even with the change in discriminatory legislation and practices in South Africa after 1994, few emerging farmers have entered this market. This is due to: • The historical political inequalities faced by the predominantly coloured and black emerging farmers, in particular the lack of access to agricultural resources and inputs, because legislation used to exclude them from mainstream commercial farming. • The subsequent inability of emerging farmers to produce the volumes and, at times, the quality required for export. • The significant influence of economies of scale, making it almost impossible for emerging farmers to achieve a significant profit. Input pricing and transport cost eventually impact on the final price of the products grown. • Commercial farming is a highly technical operation, and but it in fact also a financial and managerial exercise. Most emerging farmers need to be brought up to speed on all three these skills. The few smallholders who manage to export their fruit do so through collective or individual arrangements with large-scale commercial operations. In the paper Across The Divide: The Impact of Farmerto-Farmer Linkages in the Absence of Extension Services, Tim Hart and Roberta Burgess look at how one such farmer, in the absence of agricultural extension and research services, but through linkage with a large-scale producer, started exporting apples in the 1970s. During the ensuing decades, this producer developed his own knowledge and innovations in both fruit production and socio-economic arrangements and could thus continue to export most of his annual apple crop. This case provides three clear conclusions that must be noted by those involved in agricultural development: • Farmers’ linkages are vital for their success and survival; providing them with access to various inputs and markets that are typically unattainable. • Such linkages can also provide the necessary catalyst and opportunity for farmers to innovate, thereby maximising the potential of these linkages and subsequently optimising production within the constraints of their circumstances. In light of this, effective agricultural extension and research requires officials and agents to not only work with farmers but to go beyond individuals and village groupings to look at the significance of broader linkages and the role these play in agricultural production and development. Where appropriate they should seriously consider strengthening farmers’ networks and innovations, rather than ignoring or replacing these. Contact Tim Hart at

Field crops and horticulture
Grains and oilseeds
See also the separate grain and oilseeds chapters e.g. Maize, Sunflower etc.

1. Overview
Grains, cereal grains or cereals are grasses cultivated mostly for the edible components of their fruit seed – the endocarp, germ and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat or maize (in American terminology, corn) constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is more moderate and varied but still substantial. The word “cereal” derives from “Ceres”, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. The three main oilseeds produced in the world are soybeans, canola (rapeseed) and sunflower. Crushing these oilseeds resluts in the production of soya oil, rape oil (canola), and sunflower oil. Also soy meal, rape meal (canola), and sunflower cake are produced. Oilmeal is typically used as an ingredient in animal feedstuffs, and the vegetable oil for food and non-food uses e.g. an ingredient in processed foods, cooking oil and biofuels.

2. Associations involved
Grain SA (GSA) Tel: 056 515 2145 GSA was founded in 1999 by grain farmers for grain farmers to have one powerful organisation representing their interests. Grain SA was formed out of NAMPO (maize), NOPO (soybeans, sunflower and groundnuts), the WPO (wheat, barley and oats) and the SPO (grain sorghum). The website is current and helpful, providing updates on fuel and World Trade issues, various report-backs on their working groups, as well as a classifieds section. Read about the NAMPO Harvest Day, an annual agricultural show held over four days at the NAMPO Park near Bothaville, in the Agricultural Shows and Events chapter. South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) Tel: 012 523 1400 The main objective of SAGIS is the collation, processing, analysing and timeous distribution of reliable and useful market information related to grain and oilseeds to all roleplayers. Macro-economic information is available, both locally and internationally, to enable role-players in the grain and oilseed industries (commercial and emerging sectors) to continue making meaningful decisions. SAGIS’ information is distributed through various channels i.e. magazines, faxes, representative organisations and The information is detailed and regular. The website has links to various external sites such as the Kansas City and Chicago Boards of Trade.

Trust Administrators:
Maize Trust Tel: 012 807 3958 Winter Cereal Trust Tel: 012 663 1660


Oil & Protein Seeds Development Trust Tel: 011 234 3400

Sorghum Trust Tel: 012 807 3958

Crop Estimates Liaison Committee (CELC) National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 Lizette Mellet or Prof A Jooste The Crop Estimates Liaison Committee (CELC) is an official committee that functions under the auspices of the NAMC. CELC is amongst others, to monitor the performance of the Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) and make recommendations for the further improvement of crop estimates on an ongoing basis. Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 – Head office Tel: 031 467 2719 – Island View Tel: 056 515 2543 – Bothaville Department of Energy – South Africa has excluded maize in the initial stages of the country’s biofuels policy in an attempt to keep a lid on high food prices. Maize is a staple food source for the majority of the poor in the country. See the Biofuels chapter. South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911

Associations and Committees:
Oilseeds Advisory Committee Tel: 011 234 3400 SA Oil Processors Association (SAOPA) Tel: 082 533 0692 SA Cereals & Oilseeds Trade Association (SACOTA) Tel: 082 533 0692 SA Groundnut Processors & Traders Association Tel: 056 343 2892 Sorghum Processors Association Tel: 018 297 7181 / 082 561 5742

Maize Forum Tel: 012 807 3958 Wheat Forum Tel: 012 807 3958 Groundnut Forum Tel: 011 234 3400 Sunflower and Soybean Forum Tel: 011 234 3400 Sorghum Forum Tel.: 012 807 3958

The National Chamber of Milling Tel: 012 663 1660 SA Chamber of Baking Tel: 012 663 1600 Animal Feed Manufacturers Association (AFMA) Tel: 012 663 9097 SA Biofuels Association Tel: 011 486 2775

4. Training and research
Research is financed by the various trusts and is done by the Agricultural Research (ARC), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) and other research organisations. The different trust administrators may also be contacted with regard to training (contact details under heading 2).

Southern African Grain Arbitration Service Association The Grain Value Chain Network (SAGAS) (GVCN) is an informal group of Tel: 012 807 3958 businesses and others who wish “to make a difference at ground level Grain Handling Organisation of in agriculture”. Input companies Southern Africa (GOSA) (e.g. Pannar, Monsanto and Tel: 011 237 6100 Omnia), agribusinesses (e.g. VKB) and associations (e.g. Agricultural Business Chamber, Grain SA and the National Chamber of Milling) Grain Silo Industry (GSI) attend meetings. Tel: 012 348 3044 Detail of representative bodies and the different forums can also be found on the SAGIS website: Take the “List of Associations” or the “List of Forums”menu option.

The Agricultural Colleges offer diploma courses. Provincial Departments of Agriculture, working closely with these colleges, offer short courses on crop production. Find contact details in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter. AgriSETA accredited trainers (see the Agricultural Education and Training chapter or visit Examples are: • Buhle Farmers Academy Tel: 013 665 4001 • Skills for Africa Tel: 012 379 4920 ARC-Grain Crops Institute (GCI) Tel: 018 299 6100 The Small Grain Institute focuses on the improvement and cultivation of small grain crops such as wheat, barley, oats, triticale and rye. Its research work covers plant breeding, the evaluation of cultivars, grain quality, plant physiology, tillage, weed science, plant pathology, entomology and yield potential.

3. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find information on the various directorates under the “Divisions” menu option at

Directorate: Agricultural Statistics (D:AS) Tel: 012 319 8454

Crop Estimates Committee (CEC) Tel: 012 319 6507

Through the CEC, the Directorate Agricultural Statistics provides information on all major grain crops in South Africa for the benefit of all role players in the agricultural sector. Find out more at

The mandate crops of the ARCGCI include the following staple and high protein food and feeds: maize, sunflower, dry beans, sorghum, groundnut, soybeans, canola and crops of lesser importance such as cowpeas, millets and bambara. ARC (PPRI) Tel: 012 808 8000 Courses for small farmers and extension officers are given:include CSIR – Foodtek grain production in general; maize (Food science & technology) production; groundnut production; Tel 021 658 2740 dry bean production; and sorghum production. The Grain Farmer Development A course for maize production in Association (GFDA) is a body to the Eastern and Western areas can support new entrants into the grain also be given. industry and to help them become independent grain farmers. The ARC-Small Grains Institute GFDA was launched by the (SGI) Agricultural Business Chamber, the Tel: 058 307 3507 / 3400 Maize Trust, the Sorghum Trust,


Grain SA, Omnia fertiliser, Pannar Seed, L&L Agricultural Services, Syngenta SA, Tongaat Hulett Starch, the National Chamber of Milling, the SA Chamber of Baking and the Winter Cereal Trust.

SAGL is a quality analyses laboratory and has ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. National information is published on They provide ring tests and give laboratory training and are recognised as the grain analyses Grain SA runs courses on grain reference laboratory in Southern production as well as on SAFEX Africa. (see “Commodity Trading” in the “Finance” section of this The universities (see Agricultural book). Study Groups are run for Education and Training chapter) emerging farmers. Included in its offer degrees in which Crop Science Farmer Development Programme is included. Examples include: are week long introductions to producing maize, wheat, sunflowers Stellenbosch University and other grain crops. Find details Department of Agronomy of these and other training in the Tel: 021 808 4803 emerging farmer support chapter. The reader is also referred to the “Developing Agriculture” menu Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 option on Grain Training Institute University of the Free State Tel: 012 656 1870 Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 051 401 2514 Protein Research Foundation Tel: 011 803 2579/1894 Some of them offer short courses for Commercial as well as Emerging Southern African Grain Farmers. In addition to emerging Laboratory (SAGL) farmer courses, for example, the Tel: 012 349 2683 University of the Free State also runs a two-day Risk Management of Cash Crops course which enables The SAGL is an association the farmer to master risk-hedging incorporated under Section 21 on all levels. Call 051 401 2535. (Association not for gain).

•The Grain SA newsletter Perspektief/perspective gives overviews of different grain crops. • – SAGIS website: National stocks, producer deliveries, import, exports, consumption, weekly parity prices, historical information, etc. • Find the excellent Agricultural Marketing Extension series on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries website, www. (take the “publications” and then “General publications” option). The “Field Crop Marketing” document covers the marketing of grains and oilseeds. • A number of Info Paks on different grain and oilseed crops are available on – take the Publications menu option. Included here is a brochure on safflower, a lesser known annual oilseed crop, which is well adapted to drier areas. These booklets and brochures can also be obtained by calling the Resource Centre at 012 319 7141. • – if you wish to know which crops will grow well in your area, refer to a map for “crop suitability”. Contact 012 842 4000 or write to for the following leaflets, available from the ARC in Silverton: • Processing of Cereal Crops Vol. 1 (Maize, oats, rice) • Processing of Cereal Crops Vol. 2 (Sorghum, wheat) • Processing of Cereal Crops Vol. 3 (Barley, sesame, poppy seed, rye) • Processing of Oil Seeds (Soy beans, sunflower) Included among the many publications available from Kejafa Knowledge Works are Handtering en berging van graan op die plaas and How to grow top quality Corn by Dr H Willis. Visit or call 014 577 0005.

6. Companies involved
See companies listed under the individual grain and oilseed chapters, as well as the grain storage and handling, milling, seeds and seedlings, animal feeds and commodity trading chapters. Extensive lists are also available on

5. Websites and publications
• GSA runs a monthly publication SA Graan/Grain, devoted to grain matters for its members, but also distributed to identified role-players such as business and political leaders, ministers, education and training institutions, schools and other industries, etc. • Find relevant options on the Grain SA website These include statistics and reports on production, markets and inputs. Find contact details for members on the different working groups and much more.There are also weekly radio programmes (refer to the ICT and agricultural media chapter).

ABC Africa Group Tel: 012 804 2033 AFGRI Tel: 012 664 8000 / 017 624 1000 African Micro Mills (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 584 6250 Bessemer Tel: 011 762 5341/2/3/4 Buhler Tel: 011 801 3660 Grain Silo Industry Tel: 012 348 4044 Grain Training Institute Tel: 012 656 1870

JSE Limited Commodity Derivatives Tel: 011 520 7535 Kaap Agri Ltd Tel: 022 482 8000 Louis Dreyfus Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 217 5300/ 784 6446 NWK Ltd Tel: 018 633 1286/7 OVK Ltd Tel: 051 923 4500 Plantkor Tel: 036 468 1309 Senwes Ltd Tel: 018 464 7800

Suidwes Grain The GSI Group Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 018 581 1000 Tel: 011 794 4455 Vrystaat Koöperasie Beperk (VKB) GWK Ltd Tel: 058 863 8111 Tel: 053 298 8200


7. The grain market
The grain market is the place where buyer and seller meet to agree upon a market price. It is not a physical market like, for instance, Tshwane’s Fresh Produce Market where all products are sold at a central point. In the case of grain the market is where the farmer sits in his office on the farm and from where he phones his grain dealer to find out out what price he’ll get for his maize in, say, Gelukspan. The grain market can therefore be in any place. To function, the grain market needs the following participants:

8. Local business environment
• The relevant whole grain/oilseeds are marketed according to free market principles, normally by traders, producers (own grain and oilseeds) and storers (previous Co-ops). • Oilseeds have an indirect impact on industries in which balanced feeds constitute a major input cost. The animal feed chain tends to link oilseeds with the costs of dairy products, beef, mutton, pork, broiler chickens and eggs. • Note the function of SAGIS (see heading 2). Detailed information, updated regularly, is available from them. • The Industry Info menu option on the above website gives you access to economic indicators and various market movements. • Agrimark Trends (AMT) also provides a useful Product Synopsis report for maize, wheat and other agri outputs. Visit • Read the Biofuels, Animal Feeds and Milling chapters in this directory.

1. Local Wholesalers
These can be someone like Pico feeds at Zeerust (in South Africa’s North West Province) who only sells grain in the immediate vicinity. As Pico buys and sells grain for its own account, it acts as principal. A speculator (see point 6 below) is the opposite of a principal.

2. International Grain Dealers
They buy large quantities at a time as they sell shiploads on foreign markets. They are well-provided with capital. Cargill is an example of an international grain trader.

9. International business environment
• Southern Africa information on maize, wheat and sorghum are available on the SAGIS website – It can also be accessed on or by emailing the SADC Regional Early Warning – • – Chicago Board of Trade • Grains and grain milling products qualify for duty free access under the AGOA Act to the USA. • For import/export data visit the SAGIS website: select the “Weekly Imports/Exports” menu option. This is updated every second working day of the week for Maize and Wheat. For Grains/Oilseeds other than Wheat and Maize – select the “Monthly Bulletin” menu option. • World price information, production, trade, stocks and consumption information for wheat, barley, oats, maize (corn), sorghum, soybeans, groundnuts (peanuts), sunflower seed and rapeseed is available on SAGIS’ website under the menu option “Database”. • Find the current world production, market and trade reports at http:// the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the US Department of Agriculture. • Visit (National Agricultural Statistics Service – NASS) for grower estimates in the USA. These reports can be accessed at no charge. • – the World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the outlook for world agriculture. • China National Grain and Oils Information Centre – www.chinagrain. • – The USA’s National Institute of Oilseed Products. Oilseed information is also available on the Oil World website, www. at a cost. • Other international websites include the International Grains Council – visit and • Also visit the websites of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research – and of the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) – www.cimmyt. org. English and Spanish titles are available. Export and import parity Compared to some other countries, South Africa is a small producer and thus a price taker. Local prices for grain and oilseed crops are somewhere between import and export parity. Import parity is the price a buyer will pay to buy the product on a world market. This price will include all the costs incurred to get the product delivered at the buyer’s destination. An export parity price is what a local seller could get by selling his product on the world market, excluding the export costs. The price which the seller gets is based on the condition that he delivers the product to the nearest export point (usually an harbour) at his own expense. World prices for grains and oilseeds are usually quoted in US dollars. Import and export parity prices are published by the South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) to help producers in their marketing planning.
Source: Field Crop Marketing, one of several manuals in the “Agricultural Marketing Extension” on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries website, www.

3. Millers
Tiger Milling is an example of a miller having silos on its own premises. They carry large stocks in case the mills come to an unexpected standstill. It also works out cheaper to store as much grain as possible on their own premises. Millers also buy ahead to provide for future needs. They want a constant flow of quality grain. Their contracts carry no force majeur, which means that they won’t protect you if you can’t deliver grain as you undertook to in your contract with them.

4. Animal Feed Producers
Epol, Meadow, Voermol and Molatek are examples of animal feed producers. They also have storage facilities on their own premises, as they can’t risk running out of grain. They usually buy yellow maize, but if the price of white maize falls to below that of yellow maize, they will also consider buying the white variety. They’re the people who usually buy second or third grade and will also consider buying yellow maize on overseas markets; which explains why they always express local prices in terms of yellow maize imports, particularly in coastal cities Cape Town and Durban.

5. Grain Storers
These are the agricultural companies who own silos for the storage of grain at a fee to the producer. They also buy and sell grain for their own account. Their core business should be the handling of grain.

6. The Speculator
The speculator makes the market work. He buys and sells grain without ever taking ownership (the opposite of a principal) and plays a very active role in the marketplace. The more speculators on SAFEX, the more transparent the market.

7. The Producer
The farmer’s most important aim is to produce grain without having to store it. It is assumed that the producer will sell his grain and that the buyer will carry the storage fee.

8. The Banks
Their main purpose is to finance and protect the farmer (by means of hedging agreement). Some banks also speculate on SAFEX for their own accounts.
Source: Farming SA, April 2008, an extract from the Lucrative Grain Marketing series by Phiri Bosigo.



Field crops and horticulture
See also the winemaking chapter

3. Roleplayers: table grapes
DFPT (Deciduous Fruit Producers Trust) Research Tel: 021 882 8470 Lowveld College of Agriculture Tel: 013 753 3064 Short courses in table grape production are given

1. Overview
A grape is the fruit that grows on the deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins and grape seed oil. The main wine grape producing areas are: Worcester, Paarl, Stellenbosch, Malmesbury, Robertson, the Olifants River, the Orange River and the Little Karoo. Table grapes are mostly produced in Limoppo Province, the valleys of the Orange, Olifants and Berg Rivers, and the Hex River Valley (find the map on Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. When the grapes are used for winemaking, it is also known as viniculture. It is one branch of the science of horticulture. Oenology (Enology – American English) is the science of wine and winemaking i.e. after vine-growing and grape harvesting. See the separate “wine” chapter.
Source: (adapted);; Horticultural Crops Market Value Chain Profiles on

South African Table Grape Industry (SATI) Tel: 021 872 1438 Amongst the information on the SATI website, find the following: • • • • • • Details about SATI (mission, company structure etc); Technical (viticultural research, markets etc); Producers (geographic information on table grape growing areas); Industry info (statistics, data etc); News – includes international stories; BEE – interesting transformation document.

4. Roleplayers: wine grapes
Find the Winetech database on the SAWIS (SA Wine Industry Information and Systems) website. Visit or call 021 807 5700.

Agrivitis Tel: 021 864 1018 Fax: 021 864 3689 Consultants VINPRO Tel: 021 807 3322 VinPro is the service organisation for 4 500 South African wine producer members, which represents them in dealings with the government and on all relevant wine industry forums. VinPro provides the following services: • consultation in viticulture, oenology, soil science, agro-economics, general management and black economic empowerment (BEE); • access to quality grafted vines, as well as rootstock and scion material via a 50% shareholding in Vititec Ltd; • management, logistical services and generic promotion for industry wine shows/competitions; • information transfer through the monthly WineLand magazine (incorporating Wynboer) and the annual publications Wynboer Technical Yearbook and the SA Wine Industry Directory; • strategic industry information through websites and electronic and printed newsletters; • facilitating various communication initiatives/forums with stakeholders including the annual VinPro/Nedbank Information Day; • facilitating Technology Transfer for Winetech; • WineMS – a user-friendly information management system tailored for wine businesses. Viticor Tel: 021 867 0406 Vititec Tel: 021 807 3017

2. Roleplayers: general
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Tel: 021 809 3100 Cape Peninsular University of Technology Tel: 021 864 5213 SA Society for Enology and Viticulture (SASEV) Tel: 021 889 6311 South African Agri Academy Tel: 021 880 1276

National Diplomas in agriculture and agricultural management, Stellenbosch University as well as BTech and MTech degrees focusing on viticulture and Department of Horticultural oenology. Science Tel: 021 808 4900 Elsenburg College Fax: 021 808 2121 Tel: 021 808 5111 Department of Viticulture and Courses include vineyard crop Oenology protection, installation of trellis Tel: 021 808 4782 systems in vineyards, canopy Fax: 086 564 0651 management of vines, maintenance and pruning of vines etc. Vitamech Tel: 021 907 8000 Kaap Agri Tel: 022 482 8000 Provitis equipment For vine farming machinery, contact their mechanisation division.

Specialises in the marketing and distribution of niche products “Setting new global standards for vine plant improvement”


5. Websites and publications
Statistics of Wine-grape Vines, available from the South African Wine Industry Information and Systems (SAWIS), provides an overview of grapevine plantings as well as trends and changes over the past years. Visit www. or call 021 807 5700., website of the South African Table Grape Industry, contains a wealth of information. Find the technical, producers, industry info etc menu options. The Abstract of Agricultural Statistics – find it on - includes statistics on grapes – production, sales on markets, exports, purchases for processing etc. A series of full colour pamphlets from the ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij discusses how to identify, control and prevent various diseases and pests in the vineyard. Contact 021 809 3305 or write to booksalescape@arc.

6. Transformation
“”The Power of the Grape’ tells the story of empowerment projects and new partnerships in the North West Province, Mpumalanga, the Orange River, the Olifants River, the Berg River Valley and South Africa’s oldest grape region, the Hex River Valley”. Find this document on the South African Table Grape Industry website – Also find the BEE menu option on the website. Contact the BEE Advisory Service at VINPRO by calling Peet Visser at 021 807 3304 or by writing to Information can also be found on – take the “services” menu option.


Field crops and horticulture
Also see the Grains and Oilseeds chapter

South African Groundnut Forum Tel: 011 234 3400 South African Groundnut Processors and Traders Association Tel: 056 343 2892

Suidwes Tel: 018 581 1000 Techmach Technology Tel: 011 762 1091/2/3

1. Overview
• Groundnuts are a high value crop produced mainly in the north western regions of South Africa mostly in areas with sandy soil i.e. the western and north western Free State, the North West Province, and the Northern Cape. In Limpopo and Mpumalanga, production is lower. • Statistics (e.g. crop estimates, export/import etc) may be found on the South African Grain Information Service website – • The local consumption requirements for groundnuts are around 59 700 ton per year. • Groundnuts are primarily used for the manufacturing of peanut butter and the direct edible market. Other uses include massage oil; cooking oil; diesel; soap; body, shave and hair creams; antibiotics; glue for wood; fertilisers and animal feed. • The domestic price is more or less on a par with the international price and is not influenced much by the size of the local crop, because only a portion fraction of the domestic crop is produced for the international markets. Though in some years only a relative small portion of the total crop is exported, this portion is important for the profitability of the producers and primary processors. • The groundnut marketing season in South Africa commences on 1 March and ends on 28 February the following year.
Source: SAGIS, AM Cronje.

3. Websites and publications
• Groundnuts always tops. Dr CJ Swanevelder. This publication is available at the ARC-Grain Crops Institute. Tel: 018 299 6100 • Diseases in groundnuts can be classified as leaf, stem and pod diseases as well as particular viral diseases. Insects, such as termites, could also plague the groundnut farmer. All these diseases can be identified with the aid of Groundnut diseases and pests, an ARC-GCI publication. The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries’ Field Crops Market Values Chain Profiles covers groundnuts as one of its chapters. Contact the Resource Centre at 012 319 7141. • Groundnut production is an excellent publication – with simple but accurate notes. Copies can be obtained from ARC-GCI or from the Resource Centre at DAFF (call 012 319 7141). It can also be viewed at, take the “Publications” option. Also find the Info Pak “Cultivation of groundnuts” here. • Food Safety Requirements for the local and international marketing of groundnuts is obtainable from the SA Groundnut Forum. Call 011 234 3400/1. • Also find the information on groundnuts at • – SAGIS website. National stocks, producer deliveries, import, exports, consumption, weekly parity prices, historical information, etc. • The leaflet The manufacturing of peanut butter is available from the ARC in Silverton. Call 012 842 4017 or email

2. Roleplayers
For a complete list of members of the SA Groundnut Forum, contact Mr G Keun at telephone number 011 234 3400/1. A list is also available on the SAGIS website: go to

4. Local business environment
• Producers are able to take advantage of the free market. No statutory levies are applicable and the marketing of oilseeds is free from government intervention. • Oilseeds have an indirect impact on industries in which balanced feeds constitute a major input cost. The animal feed chain tends to link oilseeds with the costs of dairy products, beef, mutton, pork, broiler chickens and eggs. • The South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS), a section 21 Company funded by, amongst others, the oilseeds industry, perform the information function. Notices regarding Registration and Records and Returns were promulgated in the Government Gazette to be administered by SAGIS.

The Agricultural Colleges do short course training on groundnut production and groundnut processing. Madzivhandila College, for example, offers a course in peanut butter making. Find contact details in the agricultural education and training chapter.

Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust Tel: 011 234 3400

The Oil and Protein Seed Development Trust provides funding for research on sunflowers, soybeans and groundnuts that ARC-Grain Crops Institute is in the interest of producers, Tel: 018 299 6100 processors and consumers. The Oilseeds Advisory Committee can be reached at the same Course on groundnut production number. be given on demand. Pannar Seeds Tel: 033 413 9500 Capstone Seeds Tel: 033 330 4474 Protein Research Foundation Tel: 011 803 2579 Grain SA Tel: 056 515 2145 South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) Find more Grain SA notes in the Tel: 012 523 1400 general Grain and Oilseeds chapter. Grain SA also offers emerging farmers a week long introduction See the SAGIS notes in the general training course on producing Grain and Oilseeds chapter. groundnuts. Find details in the Emerging Farmer Support chapter.

5. International business environment
• Groundnuts are imported from China, Malawi, Argentina and Zambia. South Africa exports to a number of countries in the EU and the Far East. • Phytosanitary requirements and quality standards must be adhered to and a Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) certificate must also be obtained for groundnuts to be exported. • The import tariff for groundnuts is 10% of the fob price. • The relative prices of other grain products, the exchange rate, availability of seed, availability and landed cost of imported crude oil, as well as plantings of other field crops mainly determine market prospects for the oilseed industry.

See the monthly bulletin on the SAGIS website for updated information.


6. Commercial farmer points of interest
Aspects of Critical Importance concerning Groundnut Production • Groundnuts may not be planted more than once in three years on the same land. • Soil moisture is critical. Do not plant in dry soil. Ground which has built up soil moisture will diminish risks. • Soil preparation should leave the land even, firm. • Weed control is important: weeds hamper the cultivation process and use up valuable soil moisture. • Quality seed is a priority. After treating the seed, plant slowly and shallowly (30mm – 50mm). • Avoid planting in cold soil. • Remember that most cultivars require 150 days to yield a respectable crop: do not plant too late. • 18 kg Nitrogen (N) per hectare for dryland growing and 50kg N/ha for irrigation are recommended if your soil needs nitrogen. • Calcium is important for the formation of the pods. Areas where the calcium content is lower than 300 mg/kg, must be fertilised with calcium. • When fertilising, do not place fertiliser in the pod zone. Administer fertiliser widely or place it under the kernel. • Given the high value of groundnut hay and the potential drop in kernel quality and yield, leaf spot must be thoroughly treated. Under irrigation conditions, attention must be paid regularly to this. • When groundnuts are planted in soil where no groundnuts had been planted for more than eight years, the seed must be inoculated with the correct Rhizobium bacteria. The seed must then be further treated with Thiulin or TMTD against fungal diseases. Groundnuts that are not inoculated can be treated with Ifax. • Beware of Atrasine damage resulting from previous administrations. • Be prepared for windy conditions. Seed requirements Recommended seed requirements in kg/ha INTER-ROW SPACING IRRIGATION 45CM 149 131 108 200 176 154 47 40 35 DRYLAND 150CM 91CM 68 58 50

Field crops and horticulture
Herbs and spices
See also the Essential and Vegetable Oils and the Indigenous Medicinal Plants chapters

1. Overview
• Herbs and spices are used for enriching what we eat and for delighting the tongue. It is the seasoning and flavouring of the foods that brings out all the variety and tapestry of regions, nations, continents. • The increasing demand in developed countries for natural flavour offers tremendous potential for spice crops as sources of natural flavours. Spices include pepper, ginger, cinnamon, clove, paprika and nutmeg – to name only a few. • Herbs and spices are used fresh, dry and in blends in preparation of food and beverages. Because of the variety that exists, a farmer need to do good market research to decide which crop to grow. • Herbs and spices are also used to treat illnesses. They are used by phytotherapists (a person who practices herbal medicine) and homoeopaths, to treat a wide range of health problems. • The processing end of herbs and many spices is essential oils (see separate chapter). These are used in flavouring for toothpaste, beverages, sweets, ice cream and food; in cosmetics for perfume and personal care products. New applications in Agriculture include being used as organic pesticides and in veterinary use for insect repellents and safer dips for fleas and ticks. For industrial use they are used in a number of products such as washing powder and polish. The aromatherapy industry uses the largest variety of oils, while uses are increasing in the pharmaceutical industry.
Sources: SAEOPA and

Seed size 30CM 7,5cm inter-row spacing 50/60 60/70 70/80

2. Associations involved
The Health Product Association Of South Africa Tel: 011 789 4464 Southern African Essential Oil Producers Association (SAEOPA) Karen Swanepoel Tel: 082 785 8700 The Health Products Association of Southern Africa (HPA) represents the majority of manufacturers and distributors of Complementary and South African Association of Traditional Medicines in Southern Herbal Practitioners Connie Meyer Africa. Tel: 021 976 5200 Homoeopathic Association of South Africa South African National Halaal Authority Tel: 0861 786 111 The official representative of the Homoeopathic Profession in South Find the “Spices & Condiments” Africa. menu option. North West Chilli Growers’ Association Tel: 014 543 4501

Source: and Dr Jan Dreyer.

7. Small-scale farmer information
Farmers with limited resources, especially in the northern and eastern parts of South Africa, grow groundnuts mainly for their own consumption. Groundnuts are an important source of nutrition in the northern KwaZuluNatal and Mpumalanga areas. Groundnuts are expected to become more important for the following reasons: it is an excellent rotational crop because it enriches the soil with nitrogen; secondly, it is a crop with a high economic value which can fetch good prices on the local market. Groundnut production requires greater management skills than many other crops. Successful farmers are those who apply the prescribed management practices throughout the production process.
Source: The National Department of Agriculture, SAGIS, Suidwes, Dr J Dreyer, AM Cronje. Our thanks to SAGIS and the ARC-Grain Crops Institute for feedback on the draft chapter

3. Training and research
Also refer to the Essential and Other Oil Chapter


Agribusiness in Sustainable Natural African Plant Products (ASNAPP) Tel: 021 808 2965 ARC-Institute for Tropical & Subtropical Crops (ITSC) Tel: 013 753 7000 Dept of Agriculture (KZN) Dr Maria de Figueiredo Tel: 033 355 9156 KARWILConsultancy Willie Alberts – 072 929 7080 Research and training on essential oil, medicinal plant and industrial crops and Agricultural advice for SAEOPA. Pico-Gro Tel: 011 314 1029 Pico-Gro trains extension officers for government and emerging farmers for the CSIR. They also provide training for companies and individuals in their private capacity.

South African College of Herbal Medicine and Health Tel: 011 463 2363 The College in Herbalism Aromatherapy; Growing. offers courses and Nutrition; Medicinal Herb

ARC-ITSC publications: • Herbs – Grow your own First Aid Kit • Herbs for the Garden/Kruie vir die Tuin • The Cultivation of Ginger in SA Contact them at Tel: 013 753 7000, e-mail or write to them at Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200.

• There are some Info Paks on herbs and spices (find these under “Publications” at Included here is Cultivating ginger, Cultivating pepper, Production guidelines: Basil, Production guideline: Peppermint etc. Contact SAEOPA about the planned manual on the agricultural requirements for essential oil crops to be published by SAEOPA and DAFF. • Companies involved – e.g. Mayford Seeds (SAKATA) have grower guides. Contact Mayford at 011 548 2800. • Handbook of Herbs and Spices (three different volumes) by KV Peter. Publisher: Woodhead-CRC. Vital for those involved in the study, cultivation, trade and use of spices and herbs. Contact Academic Marketing: Tel 011 447 7441. • A planned manual on the agricultural requirements for essential oil crops is to be published by SAEOPA and DAFF. Contact SAEOPA for details. • The South African Journal of Natural Medicine is dedicated to providing information to the general public and practitioners interested in all aspects of natural medicine. All articles are written by professionals with practical experience in their subjects. Be sure to consult with your doctor before you embark on any self-medication programme. Holistic remedies can be potent. Contact 021 880 1444. • Find the publications by Margaret Roberts at www.margaretroberts. or contact her at Tel/fax: 012 504 1729. • Back to Eden. Jethro Klosse. Lotus Press. An essential handbook for those interested in herbalism and traditional remedies.

South African Herb Academy (SAHA) Tel: 012 819 1049 Distance Learning Herbology Study Programmes. Contact them for details of all courses and modules. Stellenbosch University Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 021 808 4900 Fax: 021 808 2121 Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 University of the Western Cape School of Natural Medicine Tel: 021 959 3064

On the web:
• Find the herbal encyclopaedia – htm • Find the “Facts on herbs” at • Find the articles by Ivor Hughes on, www. and elsewhere. A series of his articles outline the basic requirements for small scale, sustainable cultivation and processing techniques for rural communities. In particular, look out for Herbs in Africa: Conservation and Co-operation. • Find the seasonal chart at • – Di-Di Hoffman’s “Timeless Herb Secrets” website. Grower articles, links, popular features etc. • – find the “Herbs” menu option (for uses of different herbs) and the “Sowing guide”. • Find notes on Companion Planting at, (Canadian), (USA).

Various companies involved offer workshops and training. The newsletters available (see heading 4) often carry news of these, as do the agricultural weeklies e.g. Farmer’s Weekly. One person runs workshops in which a manual is included and five products (from a range of possible cosmetics). Email or call 084 584 0809 for more information.

4. Websites and publications
Get these newsletters:
• Herb e-news (from • Di-Di’s “Original and Only” Bouquet Garni Herbs Newsletter ( log in at to read it. • Barefoot Herbs newsletter. Details on

Some international websites:
• – International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT) • – Spices Board of India. A directory of Indian Spices exporting companies is available from them. • Find notes on the different spices at • – Merchants of exquisite spices, herbs and seasonings (American) • – A spice encyclopedia • – hundreds of articles, notes and links • – “for everything herbal”, a US-based site • – Herb Research Foundation (USA) • – Australian website. Notes for gardeners, retailers and growers • – New Zealand • – “Your online resource for herbal news and information”, presented by the American Botanical Council • – New hope natural media online • – Buchu herbal spring water

ARC publications:
Call 012 842 4000 or email for the following publications, available from the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering: • Processing of Herbs and Spices (cinnamon, paprika, jojoba, parsley) • Processing of Field crops (chilli, bell peppers, tomatoes) • Oil processing in South Africa • Oil seed processing using the ram press • The extraction of essential oils from herbaceous materials by steam distillation ARC – Roodeplaat provides publications relevant to the “herbs and spices” category e.g.The cultivation of parsley, The cultivation of culinary herbs in South Africa, Production of coriander in South Africa, The cultivation of chillies etc. Contact them at Tel: 012 841 9611 or fax the Public Relations Officer at 012 808 1127.


5. Companies involved
Abba Moosa Wholesalers Tel: 031 209 1125 Afriplex Tel: 021 872 4976 Agribusiness in Sustainable Natural African Plant Products (ASNAPP) Africa Tel: 021 808 2965 Apha Seeds Tel: 016 366 0616 Barefoot Herbs Tel: 082 415 3743 Bouquet Garni Tel: 012 808 1044 Cape EOS (Essential Oils Services) Fanie Pienaar – 082 338 8292 The Cape Herb and Spice Company Tel: 021 701 5140 Chilli Africa Tel: 082 820 8986 Crown National Tel: 011 201 9000 Deli Spices Tel: 021 505 2000 The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) has supported paprika farming in Keiskammahoek in the Eastern Cape. Call 011 313 3911 or visit Essential Herbs Tel: 082 922 3066 / 082 463 1360

Gauteng Economic Development Agency (GEDA) Mudunwazi Baloyi Tel: 011 833 8750 Grassroots Group Tel: 023 232 0506 Green Energy Herbals Tel: 021 572 3717 Herbs-a-plenty Tel: 082 562 2343 / 082 338 8292 Herbal Africa Tel: 011 673 1692 Icy Herbs Tel: 051 943 0317 iLembe District Municipaity Tel: 032 437 9512 Innovation Africa

Margaret Roberts Herbal Centre Tel: 012 504 1729 / 071 161 6441 Natpro Spicenet Tel: 031 705 4118 Neltropica Rachel Maartens – 082 345 5681 Professional services in drying and processing of agricultural products. Information and training available. Norgrow International PaprieX Tel: 012 250 2676 Peppadew International Tel: 011 516 4202

Pico-Gro Tel: 011 314 1029 A global trading company specialising in the sourcing, supply and cultivation of African medicinal Growers and supplier of plants/ herbs, oils and tinctures. seedlings Jacklin Organics CC Tel: 017 844 1589 Red ‘n Jucy Tel: 031 767 2096

Certified organic dried chilli, dried VERT-GRO systems basil etc SAKATA Seeds KARWILConsultancy Tel: 011 548 2800 Willie Alberts – 072 929 7080 Stotazel (Pty) Ltd Tel: 044 272 8349 / 082 454 1035 Develops business plans for the industry. Suppliers of fresh, pickled and dried chillies and peppers Laughing Pumpkin Farming Tel: 083 625 3695 Unilever Tel: 031 570 3000 The company sources farmers with irrigated land to grow capsicum products under contract for it.

6. International business environment
Africa’s low per capita incomes, especially among rural populations, are directly linked to the problems of poverty and hunger. Thus, agriculture is – or could be – a critical engine of economic growth. However, small-scale producers in mainstream agriculture face multiple barriers: declining prices for traditional crops, lack of access to capital, transport, market access, and the market dominance of large commercial enterprises, among others. Alternative crops, in the form of natural plants, are far better suited to the creation of viable agribusinesses in rural communities. First, indigenous African plants occur naturally and so are relatively easy to cultivate commercially. Second, natural plant production is labour intensive rather than capital intensive, and so minimises capital investment while at the same time maximising job-creation potential. Third, African communities have extensive knowledge of indigenous plants, creating a natural competitive advantage in this sector.


Favourable market conditions in the natural plant products sector also support the involvement of small-scale suppliers. The global nutraceutical market alone is estimated to be worth $60 billion annually in sales of dietary and meal supplements, as well as specialty products. There is also increasing demand for organic and natural products such as herbal teas, essential oils, herbs and spices, phytomedicines and phytocosmetics. This growth has been supported by a global swing away from synthetic products to those that are natural, healthy, sustainably produced and fairly traded. Africa has only just started to tap the virtually unlimited economic potential of its natural botanical heritage. To reap the full benefit, much more has to be done to commercialise crops, to increase value-addition on African soil, and to capitalise on new market development opportunities. To introduce these crops into the main market stream will be a major challenge, but can be done with support, training and funding.

Field crops and horticulture
1. Overview
The Honeybush plant was used in past decades over a wide area and by the indigenous people based in the Western and Eastern Cape. Honeybush tea grows naturally in the wetter Eastern Cape mountains and spreads down along the Langeberg and Swartberg mountains into the Western Cape towards the western coast as far as Piketberg. The wild harvested and commercially grown species occurring naturally in the Eastern and Western Cape are Cyclopia intermedia and Cyclopia subternata. Cyclopia genistoides can be found along the coastal regions of the Western Cape. Some species are re-sprouters, whilst others are re-seeders; this determines the frequency of sustainable harvesting practices, and research is ongoing on this aspect. Berg tea (Cyclopia intermedia) is harvested in the wild and processed at processing facilities in the area. Commercial plantings have been established since 1998, but the major source for current production is still from natural populations. C. subternata and C. genistoides are harvested from plantations, comprising about 35% of the annual production. At present the tea is produced on a limited commercial basis. In excess of 250 tons per year is produced and the demand already exceeds the supply. Honeybush Tea has a pleasant aroma and taste, and on a blind tasting compares favourably with other herbal teas. As a stand-alone product its key differentiating features are as follows: • uplifting bouquet and light herbal taste with a relatively low tannin content and caffeine-free as well as good anti-hepatoxic, anti-oxidant and diuretic properties; • mainly wild-harvested with organic certification (very labour intensive and often found in inaccessible areas); • the principles of cultivation are predominantly organic: high certification prices mean that not as many producers take advantage of this as is possible; • the potential exists for good participation of Historically Disadvantaged People in seedling production, cultivation and packing; • identified as a New Crop by the Department of Agriculture; • good progress in agricultural- and health benefit- research; • benefits from value-adding technology developments in the Rooibos industry. Sophisticated extraction methodologies for pharmaceutical extracts are currently being researched.
Look for honeybush research programme on

International trade organisations
• International Chamber of Commerce, • European Spice Association, • Finnish Food Industry Federation, • COVIB (Syndicat National des Transformateurs de Poivres, Epices, Aromats et Vanille), • Fachverband der Gewürzindustrie eV, • AIIPA (Associazione Italiana Industrie Prodotti Alimentari), • International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO (ITC), • DIPO (Danish Import Promotion Office for Products from Developing Countries), • GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, www.gtz.deI • CE Italian National Institute for Foreign Trade, • CBI (Centre for Promotion of Imports from developing countries), • Norad (Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation), www. • SIDA (Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency – Department for Infrastructure & Economic Co-operation), www. • SIPPO (Swiss Import Promotion Programme), • OTA (Organic Trade Association) North America,

7. Emerging farmer news
As many herbs and spices are especially suited to small-scale cultivation (many are short-term crops), they could be of major significance to smaller producers and also to limited-resource farmers in rural areas countrywide. Countries like China and India are good examples of success in essential oil production by small farmers. A constant effort is made to recruit new emerging farmers in the industry. Herbs and spices are ideal for rural areas especially if they are dried locally. This reduces the volume to be transported, and the dried product can be stored under cool, dry conditions for a length of time. The advantages of essential oils as a crop are unlimited. The reason for it not being a popular crop is because of lack of basic agricultural and marketing information, and the exploitation and the ignorance of farmers when it comes to alternative crops. Most essential oil crops are relatively pest and disease free, drought tolerant, low risk, low input cost, no theft value and can be done collectively on small scale farms. Projects overlap into the fields of agriculture, chemistry, economics, botany, consumer science, tourism health, indigenous knowledge systems and social studies. More people from all these disciplines and faculties could become involved to the advantage of the industry, the agriculture community and our country.
Our thanks to SAEOPA, Connie Meyer and Erika Oberholzer for feedback on the draft chapter

2. Industry breakdown and roleplayers
Industry association
South African Honeybush Tea Association (SAHTA) Tel: 021 809 3331 Fax: 021 809 3002

Cultivated honeybush tea
Depending on Species, plants are harvested once a year after which they take another 12 months to re-grow. The full aroma of the plant is built up in the last three to four months of this cycle.


Research organisation and NGOs
ARC – Infruitec Nietvoorbij Soil Science Division: Marlise Joubert Tel: 021 809 3331 / 3100 Fax: 021 809 3002 Production research (cultivation, harvesting practices, breeding and evaluation, nutrition, soil preparation); training and support Post-harvest and Wine Technology Division: Dr Elizabeth Joubert Tel: 021 809 3444 / 3100 Fax: 021 809 3430 Research on product development, composition, quality parameters and health properties ASNAPP: (Community Project) Tel: 021 808 2922

National Agricultural Marketing Council Mr Happy Mohane Tel: 012 341 1115 DAFF Plant Quality Control Annemarie Bourquin Tel: 012 319 6059 Plant Production Mr Thabo Ramashala Tel: 012 319 6079

Western Cape Department of Agriculture Tel: 021 808 5111 Dr Dirk Troskie Tel: 021 808 5190 Dr Jacques van Zyl Tel: 021 808 5302)

Wild harvested honeybush tea
The mountainous area in which Honeybush in endemic, is approximately 30 000 hectare ranging from the Groot Winterhoek Mountains in the Eastern Cape through to the Piketberg area in the Western Cape. The pickers negotiate a price with wild source owners and use contract transporters to deliver the fresh plant material to processing facilities. Haarlem Pickers Tel: 082 802 4822 Quinten Nortje Tel: 042 288 0203

Communities involved in honeybush production
Ericaville Community Project Tel: 044 385 0354 / 082 791 6646 / 073 518 3812 Haarlem Community Project Tel: 083 716 0086 Mooi Uitsig Trust (community project) Tel: 042 275 1652

There are five Honeybush processors who shred and oxidize the green tea to redbrown tea. The process can be divided into three main steps: shredding, “fermentation” (oxidation) and sifting. Shredding Most on-farm processors utilise tobacco-cutters to shred the tea. Advances in the industry includes a speed-controlled conveyor belt that feeds a threebladed rotating cutter, which cuts the tea into fine particles without breaking the structure of the plant. Fermentation The plant material is “fermented” for approximately 24 hours at a temperature of 85 °C, or for 60 hours at 70 °C, depending on the species. Stainless steel rotating drum fermenters are used, which in some cases also served as driers. Alternatively the tea is dried in the sun. Final moisture content after drying is less than 10%. Note: The fermenting process is an individual process – each company has its own methodology.

Farmers involved in honeybush production
Alexander Behr Cell: 084 359 0791 Schalk Engelbrecht Tel: 044 763 1132 Forest Ferns Tel: 042 280 3823 Nico Janse van Rensburg Tel: 028 572 1906 Fritz Joubert Tel: 028 482 1613 Van Zyl Joubert Tel: 028 424 2160 Johan Kritzinger Tel: 042 275 1652 Quinten Nortje Tel: 042 288 0512 Marius van Dyk Tel: 044 697 7070 Marius Schutte

Roleplayers not directly involved
Cape Nature Western Cape Deon Hignett Tel: 021 659 3418 Department of Economic Affairs, Environment and Tourism – Eastern Cape Gerrie Ferreira Tel: 042 292 0339 za Department of Economic Development and Tourism: Western Cape Mr Goodwell Dingaan Tel: 021 483 9315 Department of Trade and Industry Tshifhiwa Madima Tel: 012 394 1149

Helgaard Ackermann Tel: 042 295 1513 Cape Honey Bush Tea Company Tel: 044 697 7070 Towen and George Ferreira Tel: 042 273 2218

Johan Kritzinger Tel: 042 275 1652 Quinten Nortjie Tel: 042 288 0203


Processed tea is then subjected to steam pasteurisation, sieving and dedusting. The tea is first exposed to hot steam for a prerequisite time, followed by hot air drying., The tea dust is separated from the tea, followed by grading into various cut sizes / grades e.g. coarse, fine and super-fine. Cape Natural Tea Products Dawie de Villiers Tel: 021 982 5030 Cape Honey Bush Tea Company Marius van Dyk Tel: 044 697 7070 Marius Coetzee & Coetzee Neill Coetzee Tel: 021 905 1318 Indaba Teas of Africa - see Cape Natural Tea Products Khoisan Tea Peter Schulke Tel: 021 421 3111 Melmonth Tea Quinten Nortjie Tel: 042 288 0203

Field crops and horticulture
To be read along with the vegetable, fruit, berry and flower chapters

1. Overview
Find the latest quarterly economic overviews on – take the “Publications” option. Also look for the most recent Abstract of Agricultural Statistics. The following horticultural crops are included: apples; apricots; grapes; pears; peaches; plums; prunes, cherries and quinces; figs; strawberries and other berries; watermelons, melons and other summer fruit; dried fruit; wine; avocados and pawpaws; pineapples; oranges; lemons; grapefruit; naartjes; and vegetables. • Horticulture covers a range of crops including vegetables, certain trees (e.g. fruit, nut, tropical), floral crops, herbs and spices, medicinal crops and natural products. • The areas of study include arboriculture (trees), floriculture (floral crops), olericulture (vegetables), pomology (fruits) and viticulture (grapes). • Horticultural crops, particularly vegetables are produced throughout South Africa. The south-western and southern regions of the Western Cape are mainly suitable for deciduous fruit, grapes, wine and vegetables; the low-lying, subtropical areas of Mpumalanga and Limpopo for subtropical crops, citrus and vegetables; the lower reaches of river valleys of the Eastern Cape for citrus and vegetables and the Upington area for grapes and wine. • The vegetable industry is the largest within the horticultural group both in terms of production and value. South Africa is self-sufficient with regard to vegetable production and exports both fresh and processed vegetables. • Horticulture dominates our export trade in agriculture. • Labour is the single most important production component of fruit and vegetables, accounting for up to 55% of total production costs. • Increased production of horticultural products has a ripple effect on many other related industries such as paper and packaging production, transport services, fertiliser supplies, harbour services and small business vendors in the cities.

Tertiary Level Processors
Tertiary Processors consist of Honeybush extract producers, Instant tea producers and Cool method Green tea-processors. Afriplex Riaan van Breda Tel: 021 872 4976

4. Training and research
The ARC- Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Medical Research Centre is involved in production, training Programme on Myotoxins and Experimental Carcinogenesis and product development. Dr Wentzel Gelderblom Tel: 021 938 0286 Marlise Joubert Tel: 021 809 3331/100 Stellenbosch University Soil preparation, fertilisation, Department of Biochemistry soil preparation and orchard Dr Ann Louw management aspects, as well as on- Tel: 021 808 5873 farm training Chris Smith / Dr Hannes de Lange Tel: 021 809 3360 / 044 272 5133 / Breeding and evaluation Dr Elizabeth Joubert Tel: 021 809 3444 Product development, quality standards, composition and health properties Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578

2. National strategy and relevant directorate at DAFF
Find details of the various directorates under the Divisions option at www.daff.

Agricultural Product Inspection Services Tel: 012 319 6100 Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7306

Plant Health Tel: 012 319 6505/39 Plant Production Tel: 012 319 6079

Find the excellent “Agricultural Marketing Extension” manuals under “Publications” at One of these is Horticulture Marketing Extension. Also see the range of horticultural Info Paks.

3. Roleplayers
Sources: Marlise Joubert and Elizabeth Joubert of the ARC InfruitecNietvoorbij. Thank you for your willingness to update the chapter. See the various horticultural chapters. A number of other chapters, too, are relevant here e.g. Seeds & Seedlings, Packaging, Fresh Produce Markets etc.


Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: 021 886 6826 / 082 950 9294 Fax: 086 684 6143 / 086 670 7439 Products and services: • empowerment structuring and implementation • strategic and project management • soil, water, crops, weed, horticulture management • agricultural trade and marketing and price analysis • value adding • Product development; • micro and macro modeling • agricultural and land policy • rural development • human resource development • rural sociology • monitoring and evaluation • Black economic empowerment.

Cape Peninsular University of Technology (CPUT) Faculty of Applied Sciences: Agriculture Tel: 021 959 6523 Dew Crisp Farms Tel: 011 840 1600 Durban Fresh Produce Market Tel: 031 311 5140 EnviroMon Tel: 021 851 5134 A variety of equipment and weather services available e.g. weather forecasts, climate related disease warnings, meteorological consultation. Eco-Fert Tel: 021 979 1737

Intensive Agricultural South Africa Tel: 021 808 2965 Intensive Agriculture South Africa Tel: 021 808 2965

Plaaskem Tel: 011 823 8000 Plant Health Products Tel/fax: 033 266 6130

The Plant Science Consultants Association (PSCA) has a number For training in organic farming, of horticultural experts. Contact visit Lindros Wendy Wood at 012 460 2576 or Whole Earth Consultants can be contacted at 082 719 7263. Another provider is the Rainman The Provincial Departments Landcare Foundation. Call 031 of Agriculture, working with 783 4412 and visit www.rainman. the Agricultural Colleges, present a number of horticultural and value-add courses e.g. vegetable Klerksdorp Fresh Produce production, vegetable and fruit Market drying, jam manufacturing etc. Find Tel: 018 469 1241 their details in the “Agricultural Fax: 018 469 3629 education and training” chapter. For deciduous fruit training, contact PricewaterhouseCoopers – Agri the Koue Bokkeveld Training Industry Group Centre at 023 317 0983 Kobie Bekker (National Leader) –023 346 5502 Mangaung Fresh Produce Central Region – 051 503 4100 Market Northern Region – 013 754 3300 Tel: 051 410 4500 Eastern Region – 041 391 4400 KwaZulu-Natal – 031 271 2000 As trusted business advisor the Microbial Solutions Agri Industry Group focuses on Tel: 011 475 4362 providing specialist services like: • accounting services • management control Mycoroot (Pty) Ltd • tax services Tel: 046 603 8443 • e-Business services • transaction support • forensic services and litigation support “Mycoroot, the home of • risk management services mycorrhizal fungi. An organic • mergers and acquisitions microbial fertiliser that boosts yield • entrepreneurial advice and production by enhancing soil • business recovery services health and plant root functioning” • internal audit services Nelson Mandela Bay Fresh Produce Market RT Chemicals Port Elizabeth Tel: 033 386 9384 Tel: 041 461 1409 Fax: 041 461 1069 Perishable Product Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 Pico-Gro Tel: 011 314 1029 SA Agri Academy Tel: 021 880 1276/7 SAKATA Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 548 2800

They also do training in all of the Elgin Learning Foundation Tel: 021 848 9413 above. The ARC Horticultural Business about the Global Division consists of the following Read institutes: the Institute of Tropical Horticulture Initiative at www. and Subtropical Crops (ITSC) at Nelspruit, the Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Hortiserv Prof Hentie Boshoff Institute (VOPI) at Pretoria and Tel: 018 290 6019 the Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute at Stellenbosch. Contact the ITSC at 013 753 7000 or write to The business side of farming needs Details for as much attention as the technical the other institutes can be found in planning. Both of these aspects the Science and Research chapter, should be part of the business or at plan – if you are to be competitive and to meet the needs of the free Agribusiness in Sustainable market. Hortiserv has developed Natural African Plant Products best practice templates for (ASNAPP) Africa benchmarking and upgrading of Tel: 021 808 2965 horticulture farming units in the field of production, human resources, finance and costing, business Agribusiness development, viability analyses, information marketing, support, research, systems, overall business planning. training. Industrial Development Biogrow Corporation (IDC) Tel: 028 313 2054 Food, Beverage and Agro Industries Tel: 0860 693 888 “Organic solutions” Included in the Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) The IDC has a mandate to support baseline publication are analyses entrepreneurs, especially if there is of the horticulture sector. Call 012 a processing component – oils or 420 4583/2 or visit www.bfap. fats. Projects include nuts, cherries, fruit, viticulture, flowers and more.

Starke Ayres “Bulk herbs and essential oil Tel: 021 534 3231 production”


South African Bureau of Standards (SABS)

Stellenbosch University Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 021 808 4900 • For Food Safety Certification programmes: GlobalGAP , BRC, HACCP , ISO 22000 etc. contact 012 428 6896 or write Stimuplant to • Pesticide residue testing for Tel: 012 802 0940 quality control and R&D purposes is dealt with by Hein Garbers at 012 428 6648; email: An inexpensive and environmentally • Chris Fouche – 012 428 6844; friendly alternative to nitrogen Email: fertilisers is biological nitrogen – is responsible for constituent or nutrient analysis of food fixation, a process whereby bacteria known as rhizobia alter and water. atmospheric nitrogen into a plantSouthern African Society utilisable source of nitrogen in for Horticultural Sciences symbiosis with legume plants by (SASHS) forming root nodules. The input of Tel: 021 808 4763 nitrogen through biological nitrogen fixation increases soil fertility and crop yield, as well as decreasing the A national Southern African Society for Horticultural Sciences congress need for nitrogen fertilisers. is held every 18 months to provide researchers and students an opportunity to present their research to a broader audience. It also serves as a meeting place for the departments and institutions involved in horticultural research to discuss and coordinate common concerns. Details of the next congress can be found on www. Find details of the Universities in the Agricultural Education and Training chapter Vegetables Under Protection Paddy de Vries Vital Bugs Tel: 015 307 6956

Possible strategies: • sell to neighbours • sell to local markets • supply to processors (see the roleplayers heading in the different horticultural chapters, as well as in the Agro-processing section) • supply to visiting hawkers or bakkie traders • supply to national fresh produce markets • supply government contract • growing products for fresh produce export (see the various chapters dealing with exporting and food safety) • contract farming.

Initially look at a few potential products (the product is what you are going to produce). These should be as a direct result of market research and determining what are the needs and demands.

The site is where you are going to produce the identified product. Selecting a production site is very important and must be thoroughly investigated prior to starting the actual project. Processes that need to be worked through when identify a potential site are product requirements, site selection, climatic conditions, site preparation and water. Product requirements. Determine what are the climatic requirements for each of the identified crops. For example, some prefer high humidity, while others don’t. Some crops prefer sandy soils, while others prefer loamy soils. Different crops have different water requirements as well. Site selection. The closer to the market the better. Try to stay within a radius of 200km from the identified market. If exporting this point would be the airport. Investigate climatic conditions. Look at the macro- and micro-climate of the area in which the production site is situated. How close are they to the required conditions of the identified crops? Look at frost, hail, humidity, wind, temperature. When is the first and last date of frost? Is the site in a hail belt? Is there a prevailing wind and which direction does the wind normally come from? What are the average maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the year? Site preparation. Do a soil profile to determine how deep the soils are and how good the drainage is. You Need 1-1,2m deep soil. Do a soil texture test to determine clay content, etc. Do a complete soil analysis. Top soil profile – 0-30cm Sub-soil profile – 40-60cm. Water is the most important aspect to take into account when assessing a potential site. You need to buy water and not land. Without water you don’t have a horticultural project. • The most important factors to look at initially are quantity and quality of available water. The amount of water needed depends on the following factors: plant cultivar; water holding capacity of soil; climate; irrigation system; evaporation factor; wind. In the growing season a person will obviously need more water than in dormant season.Average water needed is 4-6 litres per square metre per day. Primary water source (e.g. boreholes) should give at least 3 times that of average. An exception would be in the case of a hydroponic setup with a closed system. That is when the run-off water from irrigation is caught up and reused. Winter usage can drop to 2 litres per square metre per day. Summer usage can go up to 8 litres per square metre per day. As a guideline, good quality water is water with the following characteristics: pH = 5,5 to 7,0 EC as low as possible. Less than 0,3mS/cm No organic matter Free of any pathogens • The best source of water is borehole. Be careful of river water. Often it is contaminated. It is in most cases not a good idea to use municipal water as a source for a horticultural project, because it contains a lot of chlorine and is expensive. • Be aware of the legal aspects regarding permission to use water and register as a water user, etc.

5. A model for horticultural production
Despite its growth potential, the horticultural industry also has its fair share of challenges, one of which is the great length of time it takes for farmers to become established in this sector, especially when dealing with tree crops and orchards. With a four to five year waiting period before a decent return on investment can be expected, farmers often have to rely on mixedfarming practices to generate a steady income stream. This model by Johannes Maree is meant to highlight the main factors and process necessary in setting up a successful horticultural project. The idea of the model is to assist in formulating initial planning. That is, it is a strategicbased model, which is meant to help give direction and focus when planning a project.

Central to any horticultural project is the market, or markets. Without a market (demand) there is no point in growing a product to sell (supply). The market(s) targeted can be any of the following: • • • • • • personal consumption feeding, supplying the immediate (local) community. local market (Immediate vicinity of project) local provincial market national export (neighbouring countries – road transport; overseas – air or sea freight)

When looking at the different potential markets, first classify them in terms of distance from where the source of the horticultural produce will be. Markets can be general or niche markets. It is important to first determine what markets are available and what their needs and demands are. Aim to meet the market’s requirements. Give the market what they want, not what you think they want.


Certain potential crops have been identified from the market research. However, without the technical knowledge of how to grow these crops the project will not be successful. One needs to determine whether this knowledge is available and at what cost. General knowledge, skills and abilities of those working on the project, be they labourers, supervisors or managers is important to the overall success of any horticultural project. Do the identified employees have the knowledge and practical skills? What are the costs involved in obtaining these skills and knowledge?

Which system is cheaper? A cheaper system is not necessary a more cost-effective one, but initial startup capital can be a limiting factor. Depending on the overhead system used, the nozzles, with the anti-drip component, can be fairly expensive. However, drip line is not very cheap either and one has to use much more lengths of drip line than of overhead lines and nozzles. Generally speaking, there is no significant difference in comparative costs between a drip system and an overhead system. A basic drip or overhead system could cost around R25 000 per ha. This includes pumps, main lines, filters, micro-jets, dripper lines and basic fertigation system (not computerised). Which system lasts longer and gives the least hassles? There is more ware and tare associated with the nozzles of micro-sprayers used in overhead irrigation, especially those that swivel. These nozzles have to be replaced periodically. The advantage of drip lines is that there are no moving parts. However, a problem with drip irrigation is that often a lot of damage is caused to the tape during weeding and working of beds. Great care has to be taken when stakes are inserted into the beds to support and raise support nets. Depending on what type of plants you grow, there is also the hassle factor of having to lift the drip lines after every cycle, to clean and prepare beds, then re-lay the lines prior to planting. An advantage of overhead irrigation is that the system is permanently out of the way. Drip lines, if they become blocked, are a bigger problem to sort out than overhead micro-sprayers, which one can simply remove and clean individually. This is not possible with the typical tape drip lines that are generally used in the industry. It is actually important to install a good filter system, regardless of the irrigation system used. DRIP SYSTEM Advantages 1. More efficient use of water 2. Can harvest flowers while irrigating 3. Less moving parts therefore less ware & tare 4. Cheaper to replace a damaged line 5. Structures and paths remain dryer 6. Less overall dampness – less fungal disease 7. Preferred by certain crops Disadvantages 1. Less efficient on young plants & seedlings 2. Easier to damage if on surface of beds 3. Greater hassle factor with soil preparation Disadvantages 1. Less efficient use of water 2. Less efficient use of fertiliser 3. Can’t harvest, etc. while irrigating 4. Wets leaves – can lead to more diseases 5. Can’t use at advanced flowering stage Adapted from an article by Johannes Maree. or call 082 564 1211. Contact him at OVERHEAD SYSTEM Advantages 1. Generally give a better surface coverage 2. More efficient on young plants or seedlings 3. Easier to clear blockages that might occur 4. Out of the way – less damage or hassle 5. Cleans dust off leaves and plants 6. Preferred to drip by certain crops

Requirements and needs should be determined for each of the crops identified by the market research. For example, certain crops grow best under shadecloth, while other do best in greeenhouses or tunnels. Money needed to start up a project needs to be carefully calculated. The cultivation of each horticultural crop has different cost implications. Certain crops might be labour intensive or require the use of expensive machinery. The initial capital input costs need to be calculated and if a person does not have enough the following decision needs to be made: • Do I go look for additional capital and what does it cost? • Do I consider growing another crop that requires less input capital? • Do I consider looking for a less expensive production site, keeping in mind the advantages and disadvantages of such? • Do I look at growing a crop where knowledge is more available and cheaper? The economics of the project also include return of investment, production costs, etc. Meeting the exact requirements of the market also comes at a cost and a person has to consider if it is worthwhile the expense. Adapted from an article by Johannes Maree. or call 082 564 1211. Contact him at

6. Notes on irrigation
DRIP vs OVERHEAD – WHICH IS BEST? The importance of irrigation is a given. But which system to use is not always so clear. Johannes Maree highlights some aspects to consider before making your final decision on an irrigation system. When setting up, expanding or upgrading a horticultural operation a person needs to decide which irrigation system will be best – drip or overhead? By overhead we mean micro-irrigation systems that are setup overhead or high above the plants, realising that micro-irrigation systems that run along the ground or are just above the ground are also available. Firstly, we need to tackle some other questions. Keep in mind that I am not looking at the different drip or overhead systems, per se, but simply comparing the two irrigation methods as a whole. What is your water situation? Generally speaking, a drip system uses water more efficiently than an overhead system. An overhead system waters the pathways, which normally constitutes 20-30% of the surface area, while a drip system only puts water down on the plantbeds. If your water supply is not strong, then drip irrigation is usually a better option. What are you going to grow? Certain crops prefer certain systems, while others don’t mind. For instance, it is better to grow lizianthus or roses using a drip system, because the plants are sensitive to getting their flowers and leaves wet. On the other hand, I tend to recommend overhead systems for greens and foliage crops, as they like to have water on their leaves on occasion and can benefit from the heightened humidity created by overhead irrigation.


Field crops and horticulture
Indigenous Knowledge and African vegetables
1. Overview
Indigenous Knowledge (IK) is the unique, traditional, local knowledge existing within and developed around specific conditions of women and men indigenous to a particular geographic area. In some instances external or scientific knowledge is combined with indigenous knowledge during the innovation process. Consequently indigenous knowledge is dynamic and continually evolves and changes as it develops, influencing and being influenced by both internal and external circumstances and interaction with other knowledge systems. Given this state of affairs Indigenous knowledge is better termed as local knowledge; i.e. knowledge developed in a specific locality and knowledge that is not entirely traditional, although this might form the base, given external influences. • At present, the vast majority of sub-Saharan Africans depend on resource-poor agriculture, without modern inputs, and rely almost exclusively on locally available resources for their livelihoods. • Approximately 80% of the African population use traditional medicines to meet their health care needs. • IK can help to alleviate poverty if it is effectively applied in agriculture and supported by appropriate technology interventions that consider peoples’ circumstances.

Given the resource constraints experienced by research and extension officials and the distances they need to travel, many rural farmers and household producers rely heavily on their indigenous knowledge and local innovations in order to ensure some measure of food security and livelihood. Some of the plants they collect or produce using this knowledge are known as African vegetables. IK includes many aspects e.g. pottery and sculpture, games, baskets, mats, mural decorations etc. In this chapter we will be looking at the food security value. See separate chapter for an overview of the medicinal value. “It is not an issue of increased agricultural production, but rather of allowing people who suffer from hunger to be in a better position to get, in whole or in part, their own food” (Former Italian Minister of Agriculture and Forestry Giani Allemanno) Based on our experience, I firmly believe traditional African vegetables could be an important factor in strategies to alleviate food-shortages in rural and peri-urban settings and have useful applications following an ‘ecohealth’ approach (which takes into account human as well as ecosytem health). According to the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), household food-security comprises not only food adequacy, but should also comply with nutrient and safety requirements as well as cultural preferences. In my view, reliable strategies to reduce food-insecurity in rural settings should acknowledge Africa’s indigenous food culture which is based on the utilisation of naturally-occurring food-plants and subsistence cropping of traditional vegetables.
Source: Dr Retha van der Walt, Morogo Research Programme at North West University. Write to her at


2. African vegetables
Many rural communities in South Africa rely on foods that are harvested from plants growing in the wild or which occur as volunteer crops, by selfsowing themselves in household gardens and fields as seasonal volunteer crops. Depending on one’s perspective some of these plants are construed as being weeds as they occur in places where they are not wanted. Occasionally these plants are actively cultivated. Many of these plants are indigenous to Africa while others originated in other parts of the world but given their suitability to local social and environmental conditions they have been “naturalised” and internalised as important elements of local food culture and livelihood resources. The different parts of the plants that are used as foodstuffs include roots, tubers, stems, rhizomes, leaves, flowers, fruits, nuts, gums, berries, cereals and legumes. Generally, at least two parts of the plant can be eaten of which the leaves are almost always eaten. In South Africa local people formerly ate a diet of meat, milk, wild cereals and wild plants, but the Pedi proverb “Meat is a visitor, but morogo a daily food” (morogo is the siPedi name for relish made from African leafy vegetables) has now become a reality for most rural people. Table 1 provides the common and scientific names of a number of African vegetables found in South Africa along with the parts of the plants that can be consumed. Common Name Bambara groundnut Groundnuts/Peanuts Cowpea Mung Bean Pigeon Peas Taro/cocoyam Cassava Marama bean Livingstone potato Zulu round potato/ Hausa potato Sweet potato Pigweed/Amaranth Cat’s whiskers / Spiderflower Common labsquater Ethiopian Mustard / Ethiopian kale Black jack Ethiopian/black nightshade Jute/Jews Mallow Pumpkin Scientific Name Vigna subterranea Arachis hypogaea Vigna unguiculata Vigna radiata Cajanus cajan Colocasia esculenta Manihot esculenta Tylosema esculentum Solenostemon rotundifolius Ipomoea batatas Amaranthus hybridus Cleome gynandra Chenopodium album Brassica juncea Brassica carinata Bidens pilosa Solanum nigrum Corchorus tridens Cucurbita maxima Edible Parts Dried nuts/seeds Nuts/seeds Leaves and seeds Seeds Leaves and seeds Tubers and leaves Leaves and root Tubers and seeds Tubers Leaves and tubers Leaves Leaves Leaves Young leaves Leaves Leaves Leaves Young leaves, young fruit, old fruit and flowers Young leaves and ripe fruit

emphasising food production and improved access to food in a country and region which is faced with two primary problems: water scarcity and the HIV/Aids pandemic. Water scarcity and periodic drought in parts of the country and the region as a whole indicate that the production of conventional crops, using conventional agricultural practices will encounter greater problems in marginalised areas due to an unfavourable environment and climate. Given their general remoteness and poverty, people in these areas need to be able to produce their own food crops to ensure a measure of local food security which is not entirely dependent on external support. This would overcome many of the problems associated with local access to food. The loss of a household member’s labour due to HIV/Aids related illness and death or even the loss of labour due to caring for afflicted household members affects the household in a number of ways. Often there is a loss of remittances and income due to death or incapacitation or there can be a loss of household labour supply, with the result that household activities have to be spread amongst the remaining able members, who are themselves already engaged in other livelihood activities. The implication is that many households will not be able to carry out all of the existing or increased number of tasks, or at least not without making considerable sacrifices in other livelihoods. In such circumstances crops that are generally drought tolerant, require very little inputs, including labour, to produce sufficient yield, enabling them to grow and yield food in marginal areas become important for household food security, as does their associated indigenous knowledge. The significance of African vegetables for food security is important because fieldwork in two rural villages in a drought prone area of the Limpopo Province indicates that only 5% of the 108 households surveyed did not have any African vegetables growing in their home garden. Absence was generally a result of having recently moved to the area or not having enough money or material to erect a fence to protect food plants and crops, therefore they did not plant any crops. It was also noted that while most of the youth (under the age of 35) who were interviewed said they preferred exotic vegetables such as cabbage, they still consumed African vegetables because these were more readily available if you did not have money to buy cabbage. All households noted that African Vegetables grew easily, without much labour and inputs, and that unlike exotic vegetables they relied exclusively on seasonal rainfall. 100% of those interviewed in the Limpopo Province study indicated that they consumed African vegetables during the previous 12 months, usually at least once a day. During discussions on the importance of these crops for food security, the general feeling was that the attributed importance differed vastly from household to household. Households with many members who do not provide a constant income tend to be more reliant on the African vegetables. This is especially true where unemployment is high and in the older households where children no longer qualify for the child support grants. Food is expensive in winter and the dried African vegetables form the basis of a diverse and nutritious diet in most rural households, contributing up to about 80% of their total (excluding maize) food use in winter. Households try to add some other source of protein (usually in the form of chicken head, necks and feet or tinned fish) to their diet. The regularity of this is dependant upon food resources and income. Most rural households attach importance to African vegetables for their food security, but the label of ‘poverty food’ has negatively affected children and youth’s perception of these foodstuffs. Most youth reported preferring to eat exotic vegetables such as cabbage while acknowledging that they believed that African vegetables were more nutritious. Taste seemed to be a big issue regarding preference. Addressing the status issue would help to increase the acceptability of African vegetables. If the nearest town or food market is far from the rural areas and the taxi services are not easily available there seems to be a strong reliance on African vegetables. Family members usually to go to town once a month to collect social grants and pensions, enabling them to buy staple supplies that keep well (oil, maize flour,