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Some elements. carbon or other elements. becomes stronger. boron and hydrogen. Carbon has a major role in a steels mechanical properties and its intended use as illustrated in Figure 1. form interstitial solutions with iron whereas others such as manganese and silicon form substitutional solutions. in general.1 ROLE OF CARBON IN STEEL Steels are alloys of iron with generally less than 1% carbon plus a wide range of other elements. namely carbon. harder but less ductile. Beyond the limit of solubility these elements may also form intermetallic compounds with iron or other elements. Elements may be present in solid solution or combined as intermetallic compounds with iron. This is an important factor when a steel is required to be welded by joining or surfacing. Some of these elements are added deliberately to impart special properties and others are impurities not completely removed (sometimes deliberately) during the steel making process. As the carbon concentration is increases carbon steel. nitrogen.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY 1 INTRODUCTION Steels form the largest group of commercially important alloys for several reasons: ♦ The great abundance of iron in the earth’s crust ♦ The relative ease of extraction and low cost ♦ The wide range of properties that can be achieved as a result of solid state transformation such as alloying and heat treatment 1. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 12 October 1999 4 of 69 .

nickel and copper are welded extensively. welding process. quench and tempered (Q&T) steels.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 1 Role of Carbon in Steel 1. or pressure. fitness-for-purpose etc. and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service.2 WELDABILITY OF STEELS When considering a weld. high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels. A sound knowledge of what is meant by the word “weld” is essential to an understanding of both welding and weldability. Plain carbon steels. the engineer is concerned with many factors such as design. suitably designed structure. The great majority of steels welded today consist of low to medium carbon WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 12 October 1999 5 of 69 . which can conveniently be summarized as the base materials “weldability”. with or without the use of filler metal. fabrication and maintenance costs. physical properties. Weldability can be defined as “the capacity of a metal to be welded under the fabrication conditions imposed into a specific. stainless steels. restraint. A weld can be defined as a union between pieces of metal at faces rendered plastic or liquid by heat. cast irons. Welds in which melting occurs are the most common. or both. as well as a great many non-ferrous alloys such as aluminium.” Welding is one of the most important and versatile means of fabrication and joining available to industry. because it is one of the most important tools available to engineers in his efforts to reduce production.. Welding is of great economic importance.

) ♦ Metallurgical changes (grain growth etc. heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal itself.15%C can be easily welded by nearly all welding processes with generally high quality results.4%C). A steels weldability can be categorized by its carbon content as shown in Table 1. low carbon steels of less than 0. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 12 October 1999 6 of 69 .) In the completed weld these effects may change the intended base metal characteristics such as strength.) ♦ Compositional changes (diffusion effects etc. The application of heat. Effects include: ♦ Expansion and contraction (thermal stresses etc. and inclusions in the base metal. Additionally.Practical experience over many years has proved that not all steels are welded with ease. The welding of higher carbon steels or relatively thick sections may or may not require extra precaution. For example. produces a variety of structural. thermal and mechanical effects on the base metal being welded and on the filler metal being added in making the weld. It is important to realize that the suitability of a repair weld on a component or structure for a specific service condition depends upon several factors: ♦ Original design of the structure. including welded joints ♦ The properties and characteristics of the base metal near to and away from the intended welds ♦ The properties and characteristics of the weld material ♦ Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) may not be possible As discussed.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY steel (less than 0. a steels weldability will be dependent upon many factors but the amount of carbon will be a principal factor. The degree of precaution necessary to obtain good quality welds in carbon and alloy steels varies considerably. porosity. The welding procedure has to take into consideration various factors so that the welding operation has minimal affect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the base metal. the completed weld may include defects such as cracks. ductility. These effects of welding on any given steel are minimized or eliminated through changes in the detailed welding techniques involved in producing the weld. notch toughness and corrosion resistance. generally considered essential in a welding operation.

30 0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Table 1 Common Names and their Typical Uses for Carbon Steel COMMON NAME Low C steel Mild Steel Medium C Steel %C <0. Good plate. tools Fair (preheat & postheat normally required. Figure 2 Transformation of crystal structure for iron showing contraction occurring at 910°C. bar Machine parts. Between 910°C and 1390°C iron changes to a facecentred cubic (fcc) structure.15 – 0.50 – 1. rails Poor – Fair (preheat and post heat.00 40 Rc Structural shapes. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 12 October 1999 7 of 69 .50 TYPICAL HARDNESS 60 Rb 90 Rb 25 Rc TYPICAL USE Sheet. Below 910°C the structure is body-centred cubic (bcc). a basic understanding of the metallurgy of steels is necessary. dies.30 – 0. low H2 recommended) Springs. low H2 recommended) In order to understand the physical and chemical changes that occurs in steels when they are welded. 2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE Iron has the special property of existing in different crystallographic forms in the solid state. strip. plate WELDABILITY Excellent High C Steel 0.15 0.

1 SOLUBILITY OF CARBON The solubility of carbon in the bcc form of iron is very small. The face-centred cubic form is a closepacked structure being more dense than the body-centred cubic form.02 wt. ` WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 8 of 69 . Since steels nearly always have more carbon than this. Figure 5 shows there is negligible solubility of carbon in iron at ambient temperature (less than 0. Consequently iron will actually contract as it is heated above 910°C when the structure transformation takes place. the maximum solubility being only about 0.%).FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 3 BCC Crystal Structure Figure 4 FCC Crystal Structure Above 1390°C and up to the melting point at 1534°C the structure reverts back to body-centred cubic form. 2.% at 723°C. the excess carbon is not in solution but present as the intermetallic compound iron-carbide Fe3C known as cementite. These are known as allotropic forms of iron.0001 wt.

Since the carbon in steels is normally present as iron carbide. We will now consider several important features of this diagram. it is this system that is considered. The way in which carbon is obliged to redistribute itself upon cooling back below the transformation temperature is the origin of the wide range of properties achievable in steels. The diagram commonly studied is actually the metastable iron – iron carbide system. well in excess of the usual carbon content of steels. 3 IRON . A steel can therefore be heated to a temperature at which the structure changes from bcc to fcc and all the carbon goes into solution.IRON CARBIDE PHASE DIAGRAM Fundamental to a study of steel metallurgy is an understanding of the iron – iron carbide phase diagram. Figure 7 shows the iron – iron carbide system up to 6 wt. but except for cast irons this only occurs after prolonged heating.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 5 Solubility of carbon in α (bcc) iron as a function of temperature In contrast the fcc form of iron dissolves up to 2% carbon.% carbon. The true stable form of carbon is graphite. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 9 of 69 .

dissolves up to 2% carbon. At 1147°C liquid of this composition will transform to two solid phases (austenite + cementite) on cooling.1 AUSTENITE (γ) This region in which iron is fcc.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 6 The iron-iron carbide equilibrium phase diagram A eutectic is formed at 4. This phase is termed austenite or gamma phase. 3.3% carbon.8% carbon it starts at 723°C. normalizing). With no carbon present it begins at 910°C on heating but with 0.e. identified in Figures 7 and 8. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 10 of 69 . When a steel is heated into the austenite region all carbon and most other compounds dissolve to form a single phase (i. This region is important when discussing cast irons but is not relevant to steels.

Here again the solubility for carbon is low.1 wt.16% carbon having the appearance of an inverted eutectoid is called a peritectic.3 PERITECTIC The region at the top left portion of the phase diagram enlarged in Figure 10 is where the iron reverts back to the bcc structure known as delta ferrite. Figure 8 The ferrite region of the iron-iron carbide diagram 3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 7 The austenite region of the iron-iron carbide diagram showing maximum solubility of up to 2%C 3.% at 1493°C.02% carbon at 723°C. but it should be recognized since it has been invoked to explain various hot cracking phenomena in welding. only 0. extending to only 0.2 FERRITE (α) The region shown in Figure 9 where carbon is dissolved in bcc iron is very narrow. Although the carbon content of ferrite is very low other elements may dissolve appreciably in it so ferrite cannot be considered as “pure iron”. This phase is termed ferrite or alpha phase. This portion of the phase diagram will not be discussed in detail. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 11 of 69 . At this point a two phase mixture of liquid and solid (austenite) transforms on cooling to a single phase solid of austenite. The part of the diagram at 0.

8% carbon and 723°C a eutectoid is formed as illustrated in Figure 11.about 1150 Hv – but when mixed with the soft ferrite layers to form pearlite. Cementite (iron carbide) itself is very hard . Figure 10 The eutectoid point on the iron-iron carbide diagram WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 12 of 69 . Note that pearlite is only one of many phases that can be produced from ferrite and cementite (depending on cooling rate). Figure 12 shows how the two phase constituents that make up pearlite are formed. the average hardness of pearlite is considerably less. This is similar to the eutectic transformation but involves a solid phase transforming into two different phases on cooling (ferrite and cementite). This eutectoid mixture is called pearlite.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 9 Peretectic region of the iron-iron carbide diagram 3.4 PEARLITE At 0.

carbon atoms must diffuse to the growing cementite plates as shown in Figure 13. In pearlite the two phases ferrite and cementite are mixed closely together in fine layers. As the ferrite contains very little carbon while the cementite has 6.8 wt.1 PEARLITE GROWTH A steel with 0.7%.4. it will be recalled.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 11 Schematic View of how pearlite is formed in an approx.8%) is of the most interest to a study of steels and their weldability which will be discussed in more detail later.% carbon. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 13 of 69 .4%C steel This region of the phase diagram (where carbon concentration is less than 0. 3. 0. transforms on cooling through 723°C to the two phase eutectoid constituent pearlite.

This ferrite is called pro-eutectoid ferrite because it transforms first on cooling as illustrated in Figure 15.% carbon (termed hypo-eutectoid steel) ferrite will be formed first from the austenite. At 723°C the steel comprises ferrite and the remaining austenite (which contains 0.8 wt.4%C Steel 14 of 69 WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 . A fast growth rate means less time for diffusion and a finer pearlite results.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 12 Schematic View of different pearlite growth rates The distance they can diffuse. the austenite then transforms to pearlite producing a final structure in the steel of pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite.8wt.% carbon).5 PRO-EUTECTOID FERRITE If the steel has less than 0. depends on how fast the pearlite is growing. The example in Figure 15 shows a steel of 0. Figure 14 Phase Transformation on Cooling a 0. the remaining austenite becomes richer in carbon.% carbon. Mag:X1500 3. As transformation continues and the temperature drops. Figure 14 shows a typical pearlite microstructure. and hence the spacing of the plates. Figure 13 Typical Lamellar Appearance of Pearlite. With further cooling.4 wt.

% carbon (from 0. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 15 of 69 .e. Figure 15 Phase Transformation on Cooling a 1. Ferrite continues to form and grow until the final transformation of remaining austenite to pearlite. The ferrite does not always appear as neat. pro-eutectoid carbide) with the remaining austenite forming pearlite as shown in Figure 16.4 wt. travel speed). Since each region of ferrite becomes an individual grain.% up to 1.8 wt.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY The amounts of pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite can be estimated by application of the lever rule (see references for more detailed information). nucleation taking place at several points around each austenite grain.e.% carbon steel. its grain size will be very much smaller than that of the parent austenite.% carbon steel about 50% will be ferrite and 50% pearlite. This can occur quite markedly from the welding process due to the cooling rates imposed by the heat input (i. but can occur as long spikes from the grain boundaries or even nucleate within the austenite grain. For a 0.8 wt.6wt.8 wt.% carbon is termed hyper-eutectoid steel) first transforms to cementite (i. You can see that the pro-eutectoid ferrite has formed initially at the austenite grain boundaries.2%C Steel 3. equiaxed grains as shown in Figure 17.6 PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN LOW ALLOY STEELS Figure 17 shows the appearance of a polished and etched section of an approximately 0. Similarly a steel of more than 0.

The final size of the austenite grains depends not only on the temperature reached but also on the type of steel. Fine grained steels are tougher and are more commonly specified for most structural applications. It shows that although grain growth is restricted in a fine grain steel. Thus at sufficiently high temperature. Steels can be deliberately made as coarse grain or fine grain.% carbon. at a sufficiently high temperature the precipitates dissolve and the steel behaves as a coarse grain steel.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 16 Prior Austenite Boundaries Showing Pro-Eutectoid Ferrite On reheating the steel the process reverses and the pearlite and ferrite grains transform back into single phase austenite to form completely new grains.7 GRAIN GROWTH Heating to higher temperatures than those necessary to get complete transformation causes the austenite grains to grow. grain growth can occur with subsequent loss of toughness. 3. This is an important consideration in the HAZ associated with welding. The temperature required to get complete transformation depends on the carbon level as seen from the phase diagram (see Figures 7 and 15)and ranges from 910°C for zero carbon to 723°C for 0.8 wt. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 16 of 69 . These are known as fine grained steels. Some steels containing small precipitates such as aluminium and vanadium nitride retain small grain size up to high temperatures. The effect of austenizing temperature on grain size is shown in Figure 18.

8 NON-EQUILIBRIUM COOLING The phases and microstructures predicted by the iron – iron carbide diagram occur in steels cooled very slowly. In addition the diagram assumes that carbon is the only alloying element present in the steel. silicon. Figure 18 Effect of Various Element Additions on the Recrystallization Temperature For example the presence of alloy elements changes the recrystallization (eutectoid) temperature as shown in Figure 19. With the addition of other common alloying elements such as manganese. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 17 of 69 . nickel.% manganese) and the basic iron – iron carbide phase diagram is not distorted very much from equilibrium conditions. molybdenum. In structural steels the concentration of alloys is generally quite small (austenitic manganese steels are an exception containing over 12 wt. the phase diagram can still be used except that it will be distorted and the lines may move to slightly different locations. chromium etc.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 17 Schematic Effect of Temperature on Grain Growth for Coarse and Fine Grained Steels 3.. titanium.

for example. Alternative microstructures form with their exact morphology depending on just how quickly the steel cools. This in turn affects the hardness of the martensite as shown in Figure 22.9 MARTENSITE . a process which takes time. We saw how a faster cooling rate produced finer pearlite. Under the microscope as shown in Figure 21 martensite has the appearance of a mass of needles. With even faster cooling rates less time is available for diffusion and pearlite cannot form. The reason is that the transformation of austenite to pearlite requires the diffusion of carbon to the sites of growing carbon. This is called martensite. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 18 of 69 . as indicated in Figure 20.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 3. In a water quench. the cooling rate is so rapid there is no time for any diffusion. Figure 19 Schematic Transformation of Austenite (BCC) To Martensite (Tetragonal) With Increasing %C The amount of carbon influences the amount of distortion in the crystal structure as shown in Figure 20. and the carbon remains trapped in the same place as it was in the austenite. rather than a true cubic structure.EFFECT OF RAPID COOLING The rate of cooling has a major effect on the types of microstructures formed and unless the steel cools slowly the iron – iron carbide phase diagram cannot be used. A rapid quench cannot suppress the crystal structure change from fcc to bcc but the presence of trapped carbon in the bcc phase distorts it to a tetragonal shape.

and a slow cool producing pearlite. Figure 21 Effect of Carbon and Alloying on the Hardness of Martensite The formation of martensite can occur in the HAZ adjacent to a weld deposit due to the fast cooling rates imposed by the welding process. other constituents may form particularly in alloy steels. The most important of these is bainite. This is discussed in more detail in Section !! 3.10 BAINITE Intermediate between a rapid quench that produces martensite. The hardness depends almost exclusively on the carbon content with other elements having little effect as illustrated in Figure 22.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 20 Martensite Microstructure Martensite can be very hard and brittle when it contains appreciable amounts of carbon. Figure 22 Microstructure of lower bainite (X1000) WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 19 of 69 .

There are two types: ♦ Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) curves where the steel sample is held at a constant temperature until transformation is complete. Some steels in the bainitic condition may possess ductility and toughness superior to that shown by the same steel in the Q&T condition. alternative diagrams for determining the constituents present in a more rapidly cooled steel have been developed.1 TIME TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS Consider heating a sample of steel until it is fully austenitic then quenched to some temperature below the equilibrium transformation temperature as shown in Figure 24. The delay depends on the temperature at WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 20 of 69 .. The carbides in lower bainite are Fe2. This is termed lower bainite. Bainite formed above 300°C contains relatively coarse particles of the Fe3C form of iron carbide (cementite) and is termed upper bainite. Figure 23 Schematic Representation of TTT If we hold the steel at this temperature we find there is a delay before transformation begins and a further elapse of time while transformation takes place. Although these diagrams are principally designed for the foundry metallurgist and heat treater etc. 4. they are an excellent tool for use by welding engineers where fast cooling rates need to be evaluated near to the welded area.4C known as epsilon (ε) carbide. When formed below 300°C bainite has a much finer structure with the carbides tending to form striations across the ferrite laths. ♦ Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) curves where the steel sample is cooled from the austenitic region at different cooling rates. 4 TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS Since the iron – iron carbide phase diagram is only valid for very slow cooling rates.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Bainite is still a two phase mixture of ferrite and iron carbide but unlike the cementite plates in pearlite the carbide in bainite is spherical.

Note that at high temperatures (Figure 26) the steel transforms to pro-eutectoid ferrite followed by pearlite. Figure 25 TTT Curve Illustrating High Temperature Transformation of Pro-Eutectoid Ferrite WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 21 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY which the steel is held and we can plot this information on a diagram of temperature against time for a given steel composition. Figure 24 Schematic TTT Curve for Carbon Steel An example of such a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for a carbon steel is shown in Figure 25.

If the composition of the steel is known. taking a longer time for lower temperatures (Figure 28). Figure 27 TTT Curve Illustrating Transformation to Bainite At a sufficiently fast cooling down to low temperature martensite can begin to form (Figure 29). At about 550°C the pearlite forms in the shortest time and there is no pro-eutectoid ferrite (Figure 27).FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY At lower temperatures less pronounced pro-eutectoid ferrite is formed and the pearlite is finer. For each steel specification there is a fixed temperature Ms at which martensite starts to form and a fixed temperature Mf at which transformation is complete. Note that it forms almost instantaneously and does not grow as a function of time. the Ms temperature can be calculated WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 22 of 69 . The percentage of martensite formed therefore depends only on the temperature to which the steel is rapidly cooled and not on how long it is held there. Figure 26 TTT Curve Illustrating Pearlite Transformation Cooling down to below this range (approximately 450°C) transformation to bainite occurs.

Figure 29 Cooling Curves Superimposed onto TTT Curve for Typical Carbon Steel WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 23 of 69 .2 CONTINUOUS COOLING TRANSFORMATION (CCT) DIAGRAMS Now consider the case of continuous cooling. We may superimpose a cooling curve on the TTT diagram as illustrated in Figure 30 in order to get an idea of what microstructures form.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY (see Section !!!). but it is more accurate to use a diagram established under continuous cooling conditions. The CCT diagram is slightly different from the TTT curve. Note that for some compositions the Mf temperature can be below ambient temperature. Figure 28 TTT Curve Illustrating Martensite Formation 4.

CCT diagrams are available for numerous carbon and alloy steels and if desired can even be established for specific weld metal.2. The bainite region is tucked under the pearlite area so a cooling curve either hits the pearlite curve or misses it completely as shown in Figure 30. to longer times. This will be discussed in more detail in Section 8. for example.2 DETERMINING CCT DIAGRAMS The exact shape of a CCT curve depends on the chemistry of the steel and on the heating and cooling cycles. 4.e.2. Chromium and molybdenum. shift the top (pearlite) part of the curve to the right i.3 EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS Alloy elements have significant effects on the shape of the CCT and TTT diagrams which allow different microstructures to be produced in alloy steels. thus exposing the bainite region. Steels containing these elements such as 4135 can produce bainite on continuous WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 24 of 69 . At cooling rates fast enough to miss the nose of the curve martensite is formed.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 4. This is an important concept since the cooling rate at which martensite can form in a HAZ strongly influences the risk of cracking during welding and gives an indication of a steels “weldability”. 4.1 CRITICAL COOLING RATES You should note that in plain carbon steels bainite generally will not form during continuous cooling because of the shape of the TTT diagram.

for example. This increases the “hardenability” of the steel.10×%Mo . but also increases the risk of cracking from welding if proper precautions are not taken.17×%Ni -10×%Cu . 4. Increasing the carbon content.4 MS AND MF TEMPERATURES The other notable effect of alloy element addition is to change the martensite start (Ms) and martensite finish (Mf) temperatures. if the Mf is below ambient temperature. Figure 31 Schematic Diagram Showing the Influence of %C on Martensitic Start Temperature Other elements affect martensite formation and the combined affect can be approximated by the following equation: Ms (°C) = 550 – 350 ×%C . Figure 30 CCT Curve for 4135 Steel The entire TTT curve may also shift to the right with additions of certain elements (e. This is important when designing a steel for not only hardenability but also its weldability.20×%Cr . for example. martensite transformation is not completed and the steel contains retained austenite. Note that since the product of various alloy element additions affects the Ms. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 25 of 69 . depresses the Ms to lower temperatures as shown in Figure 32.g.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY cooling. we can affect a steels hardenability by using small quantities of several alloy elements rather than a large quantity of one element. carbon.40×%Mn . vanadium.35×%V .5×%W + 15×%Co + 30×%Al As mentioned earlier. molybdenum and others) to greater times allowing martensite to form at much slower cooling rates. chromium.

Thus the microstructure formed in the surface region could be martensitic with high hardness and the interior could be pearlitic with no hardening at all. Hardness tests are commonly used on Jominy samples to determine that steels hardenability. This is important. Thus the microstructure and hardness can be correlated on the one diagram. when considering mechanical properties and weldability of such a steel. which is heated to the austenitic region (above 910°C) then placed in a fixture where it is quenched by water or brine impinging on one end. The fastest cooling rate occurs at the bar surface in contact with the water jet with progressively slower cooling rates being experienced away from the end. the measured hardness curve has been superimposed over WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 26 of 69 . If we add alloying elements that allows deeper hardening. The depth to which a steel hardens is a measure of its hardenability.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 5 HARDENABILITY / WELDABILITY OF STEELS Figure 32 Correlation of CCT and TTT Diagrams With Jominy Hardenability Test Data for an 8630 Type Steel The hardenability of steels can be determined by performing a Jominy end quench test. then that steel is said to have higher hardenability. The alloy steel test specimen is a cylinder one inch diameter and four inches long. Figure 33 illustrates the TTT diagram for a common chrome-molybdenum steel (4137) with a Jominy end quench test superimposed. The cooling rate curves represent the same cooling rate conditions located along the Jominy endquench test bar. At the top of Figure 33. for example.

D) along the bar have been related to the representative cooling curves(CCT) and isothermal transformation (TTT) curves. Cr.45%C Low Alloy Steels Several formulae have been developed which assign a contributing factor to each element addition and its effect on hardenability and conversely weldability. The data is plotted as shown in Figure 34 for a 0. C. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 27 of 69 . Four representative locations (A. Figure 33 Typical End-Quench Curves for Several 0. The addition of alloying elements (for example Mo.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY a schematic of the end-quenched bar. however. The maximum hardness attainable (and therefore its weldability characteristics) in carbon and low-alloy steels. is still almost exclusively dependent upon the carbon content. B. Thus location A on the bar experienced a fast cooling rate resulting in austenite transforming to martensite producing the high hardness indicated. Mn) to steel increases the hardenability by slowing down the rate of austenite transformation.45%C steel with different alloying additions. Similar cooling rate effects need to be considered from a weldability viewpoint.

1 CARBON EQUIVALENT (CE) & WELDABILITY Depth of hardening is not a relevant concept in a welding situation.72 0. Figure 34 Linear Correlation of CE and Cooling Rate for a Fixed HAZ Hardness Another linear model has been used to predict the hardness of the HAZ for different cooling rates in low alloy steels and is illustrated in Figure 36. 1400 1200 1000 Hv 800 600 400 200 0 0.62 WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 Hv@50deg/sec Hv@100deg/sec Hv@200deg/sec Hv@500deg/sec 0.02 28 of 69 . but we are interested in the hardness produced at a given cooling rate or the critical cooling rate to produce a given hardness in the HAZ of a weld.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 5. There are several models that have been developed to calculate hardenability from a welding process. Figure 35 shows a reasonable correlation between the CE plotted against critical cooling rate from 540°C to give a hardness of 350Hv in the HAZ. The simplest model is one in which the effects of individual alloying elements are added together (a linear model) to produce a carbon equivalent (CE) which in turn relates to a critical cooling rate to produce a given hardness.82 CE 0.92 1.

PWHT not practicable. can be critical to successful repair welding. With enough time and at sufficiently high temperatures cementite (Fe3C) forms. In practice. These factors can be summed up as a materials weldability. Using an engineering/analytical approach becomes very useful when confronted with unknown material compositions. Several different formulae have been developed and some are even incorporated into national codes and specifications. One of the most commonly used formulas for calculating the CE is the IIW formula (shown in Figure 36): CE = C + Mn Cr + Mo + V Ni + Cu + + 6 5 15 It must be stated that low carbon steel and carbon – manganese steels generally behave in a predictable manner and are successfully welded with preheat and PWHT criteria outlined in codes such as AWS D1. In general terms. The CE is not usually evaluated on these materials. The toughness may be improved by a process of tempering. 5. Review of the literature indicates no less than a dozen different formulas have been developed. but as spherical particles. One of the popular methods for determining weldability is to review the hardenability of the base material. however. this means generally using higher preheats until cracking and restraint problems are overcome. This involves reheating the steel to below the transformation temperature (723°C). As discussed earlier the CE formula(s) have been developed as a convenient method of normalizing the chemical composition of a material into a single number to indicate its hardenability. and PWHT feasibility. then cooling to ambient temperature as illustrated in Figure 37. restraint. Structural Welding Code – Steel. Medium carbon. and it is these factors that will be considered in Section 8. Carbon atoms diffuse and precipitate as small carbides. and Q&T Steels. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 29 of 69 . present different challenges where consideration of CE. size.1.9). service conditions. The engineering approach may involve evaluating composition. as the carbon content increases. This microstructure is known as bainite(see section 3. holding for a period of time. so does the difficulty in weldability. HSLA.2 TEMPERING – EFFECTS OF REHEATING As discussed earlier martensite produced in a quenched steel is hard and brittle and in most cases the steel is unusable in that form. not as plates as in pearlite. weld heat input etc. other factors being equal.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 35 Correlation of HAZ Hardness and CE as a Function of Cooling Rate CE’s are used widely in industry as measures of weldability. and weld repairs can become challenging where reverse engineering must be utilized to develop a repair procedure. weld filler chemistry mismatch. hardenability. hydrogen control. During tempering the carbon trapped as an interstitial in the martensitic tetragonal structure is released. restraint conditions.

Figure 37 Alloying Effect on Secondary Hardening 30 of 69 WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 . and tungsten combining with carbon to form alloy carbide precipitates in certain temperature ranges.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 36 TTT Curve illustrating Q&T process to form Bainite Improvement in toughness is accompanied by a loss of hardness which is a function of both temperature and time (however temperature is more effective – the higher the temperature the faster the tempering transformation as illustrated in Figure 37). When considering a weld repair on such steels. 5. This behavior of secondary hardening is put to good use in the tempering of tool steels such as high speed tool steels. chromium. the preheat and interpass temperatures is normally selected at a temperature below the secondary(or tempering) temperature. particularly if PWHT is not practical. This is known as secondary hardening and is caused by strong carbide forming elements such as molybdenum.3 SECONDARY HARDENING In some steels containing specific alloy elements tempering may actually cause an increase in hardness as the tempering temperature is raised as shown in Figure 38. The temperatures typically selected for post weld heat treating or stress relieving welded steel are generally high enough to cause rapid tempering of the HAZ.


hydrogen is considered to diffuse preferentially to the region of greatest strain i. ferro-alloys. The most crack-sensitive microstructure is high carbon martensite. the region most susceptible to hydrogen cracking is that which is hardened to the highest degree (areas where the welding residual stresses is greatest) although regions of coarse grain growth can be a contributing factor. the catastrophic failure of the welded Liberty ships).existing crack and a tensile stress applied. important to note that the method or welding procedure adopted as well as the type of electrode flux used can affect the hydrogen content in a weld or HAZ. Where hydrogen cracking is a risk. The electrodes are baked after coating. Some electrode coatings may pick up moisture if exposed at ambient conditions (basic coated electrodes). WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 32 of 69 . bentonite (a clay) and sodium silicate. The level of preheat or other precautions necessary to avoid cracking will depend on which region is the more sensitive. The term hot cracking is used to signify that cracking has occurred at elevated temperature while cold cracking is used to generally signify cracking in low alloy steel at ambient temperature. It was during World War 2 that it was realized that hydrogen dissolved in weld metal was one of the causes of cold cracking in low alloy steel welded joints (i. Hydrogen cracking can subsequently occur at some later time (sometimes days) once a weld repair is complete. In practice. generally at service temperatures between – 100°C and 200°C. In welding. discontinuity or pre . for example. With hot cracking. They can originate. Of much greater importance in welding is hydrogen entrapped in the weld or HAZ causing embrittlement. organic matter. It is. or base metal and be either transverse or longitudinal to the weld axis. HAZ. This embrittlement is due to physical interactions between hydrogen and the crystal lattice structure of the steel and is reversible by removal of hydrogen by stress relieving allowing the ductility of the steel to revert back to normal. welding specifications stipulate the allowable moisture content. Hydrogen pickup is derived from hydrogen containing chemical compounds that are dissociated in the arc column. The presence of a relatively large concentration of hydrogen reduces the cohesive energy of the crystal lattice structure to the extent that fracture occurs at or near the stress concentrator. In carbon . however.manganese medium strength steels the HAZ is usually the more critical region and weld metal rarely causes a problem.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 6 HYDROGEN CRACKING RELATED TO WELDABILITY Hydrogen can embrittle a steel at both elevated and ambient temperatures.e. Cracking due to dissolved hydrogen is now thought to occur by decohesion. from contamination on the workpiece or from moisture in the welding flux. This view is consistent with observations that cracking can occur slowly (the crack velocity being dependent on the diffusion rate of hydrogen) and is quite often discontinuous. and iron powder bonded with. and the higher the baking temperature the lower the final moisture content of the coating. Where there is a defect. It is the hydrogen sourced from electrode coatings or fluxes which is the most important. Electrode coatings consist of minerals. near to the stress concentration such as near a crack tip. for example. Hydrogen cracking can occur in either the weld metal. embrittlement occurs in carbon and low alloy steels by a chemical reaction occurring between hydrogen and carbides which causes irreversible damage – either decarburization or cracking or both.e. These failures led to the development of low hydrogen electrodes which made possible successful welding of the alloy steels used today. special flux coatings are used to maintain low hydrogen content.

Figure 38 Minimizing Heat Input by Multi-Pass Welding In single pass welds and root runs of multiple pass welds the root pass may provide a stress concentration which can lead to longitudinal cracks in the weld metal. sometimes running through the weld itself since the maximum cooling rate is along the weld axis. i. hydrogen content. Many HSLA steels in critical repair situations where PWHT is impracticable are welded using a filler metal of good toughness and ductility and in such cases the HAZ may be more crack sensitive. hydrogen content. restraint. stress concentrations.) ♦ Developing a non-sensitive weld microstructure WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 33 of 69 . High dilution of the root run (high heat input) can often result in a harder weld bead more likely to crack (this is commonly seen in such applications as pipeline welding). and heat input. The risk of hydrogen-induced cold cracking in the weld can be minimized by: ♦ Reducing hydrogen pick-up (low hydrogen flux chemistries) ♦ Maintaining a low carbon content ♦ Avoiding excessive restraint ♦ Control of welding procedures (preheat.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Hot or cold cracking in the weld metal or HAZ depends on the same fundamental factors as in the base metal. microstructure and residual stress. In heavy multiple – pass welds cracking will generally be transverse to the weld direction. Figure 40 illustrates the physical appearance of hydrogen cracking in welds. In practice the controlling variables are usually strength. Figure 39 Schematic View of Typical Weld Cracks Figure 40 Cracking Caused By Lack Of Fusion in Weld In Figure 41 the crack has initiated at the root of the weld where a lack of fusion can be seen. PWHT etc. The crack has then traveled through the HAZ mainly in the coarse grained region. heat input.e.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY In carbon or carbon-manganese steels (i. In such cases. size. Figure 41 Effect of Moderate Postheat on Hydrogen Content in a Cooled Weld The freedom of selecting a suitable welding solution is sometimes limited. heavy sections etc. other steps must be taken to prevent cracks. In low alloy steels or those where a hard HAZ cannot be avoided. This could include preheat. Further constraints may be applied by the job such as base metal condition.1 LAMELLAR TEARING Lamellar tearing is a form of cracking that occurs in the base metal of a weldment due to the combination of high localized stress and low ductility of the base metal. tee and corner joints. These often involve applying preheat and interpass temperatures to allow the diffusion of hydrogen out of the weld metal. It is associated with regions under severe restraint. PWHT not practicable.. Figure 43 shows that quite moderate temperatures are highly effective in removing hydrogen. slow cooling etc.e. high heat input welding. 6. the welding engineer may need to consider the steels CE and Ms temperature by referring to its TTT and CCT curves in providing a weld procedure. The solution must be practicable and economic. Figure 42 Example of Lamellar Tearing from Welding WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 34 of 69 . for example. equipment availability etc. location. those with steep hardening curves as shown in Figure 35!!) welding conditions can be selected to avoid the cooling rates at which martensite is produced.

but in plain carbon steels of low hardenability. There is no correlation between heat input and the incidence of lamellar tearing. hydrogen increases the susceptibility to lamellar tearing quite markedly due to HAZ stresses. PWHT etc. but in the presence of hydrogen a low heat input might tip the balance towards hydrogen cracking because of a lack of time for hydrogen to dissipate away from the weld area. In HSLA steels that form martensite in the HAZ.) WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 35 of 69 . heat input. in principle.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY The cracks appear close to or a few millimetres away from the HAZ at right angles to the weld interface as shown in Figure 44. Lamellar tearing may. hydrogen induced cold cracking will generally form preferentially. be avoided by: ♦ Design modification ♦ Buttering weld runs and temper bead welding ♦ Control of welding procedures (preheat.

or may be sub-surface. an unfused root run. Factors that contribute to reheat cracking are: ♦ Susceptible alloy chemistry ♦ Susceptible HAZ microstructure ♦ High level of triaxial residual strain ♦ Temperature in the strain relaxation (creep) range Most alloy steels suffer some degree of embrittlement in the coarse-grained region of the HAZ when heated at elevated temperatures (e. If the degree of strain exceeds the ductility of the grain boundary regions. Mo.1%C) or high chromium (>1.g. Reheat cracks may also form: ♦ When welding dissimilar steels due to differential thermal expansion coefficients WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 36 of 69 . Cu. Cracking is due to the combined effects of embrittlement and strain. the deformation is concentrated at the weld boundaries. At elevated temperature. This formula does not work for low carbon(<0. When the residual welding strain relaxes. stress relief treatment. precipitation occurs within the HAZ grains but not at the grain boundaries. The use of low heat-input processes (MMAW or GMAW) and a weld metal of high yield strength and a high degree of toughness are important benefits.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 7 REHEAT CRACKING IN THE HAZ During PWHT.5%Cr). They may start at high stress points such as the toe of welds. these steels being resistant to reheat cracking. and Ti. where there is a denuded zone. Consequently. the interior of the grain is relatively hard and the boundary region relatively soft. 600°C). or during service at elevated temperature ( generally higher than 400°C) reheat cracking may occur in the HAZ of welds in alloy steel. B. Elements that promote such embrittlement are Cr. Cracks are intergranular and follow the prior austenite boundaries. cracking will take place. Nb. V.1%. Cracking can also occur in highly restrained joints such as in very heavy components. Molybdenum-vanadium and molybdenum-boron steels are particularly susceptible especially if the vanadium content is over 0. The relative effect of the various elements has been expressed quantitatively in one formula due to Ito: Psr = Cr + Cu + 2Mo + 10V + 7Nb + Ti – 2 When Psr is ≥ 0 stress relief or reheat cracks may occur.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY ♦ At elevated service temperature and high stress loading Reheat cracking can be avoided by: ♦ Proper base metal selection (using the Ito formula) ♦ Designing to minimize restraint (eliminate stress concentrators etc.) ♦ Using low heat input weld process ♦ Use higher preheat/interpass temperature ♦ PWHT after part-welded WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 37 of 69 .

All deposited weld metal and the HAZ remain austenitic during the welding operation and transform together on cooling to produce a uniform structure. economics etc.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 8 WELDING STEELS CONSIDERED DIFFICULT Welding of HSLA and Q&T steels may pose several problems and a careful study of the steel and its intended application is necessary before specifying a welding procedure. Additionally PWHT removes hydrogen and lowers residual stresses imposed by the service conditions and the welding operation. The weld repair procedure needs to be carefully considered to minimize the possibility of cracking in service by ensuring that the welded component has “fitness-for-purpose”. matching mechanical properties are obtained (or superior) with HAZ hardness taken into account. it may be impractical to carry out PWHT. if necessary. and the cooling rate required.e.3 THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ) WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 38 of 69 . The weld metal selected must provide adequate strength and toughness and. In the case of a Q&T steel the PWHT must not be higher than the original tempering temperature otherwise a loss of physical properties such as strength could occur dropping it below specification. To reduce the risk of cracking the PWHT may be carried out immediately after welding is completed without letting the component cool down or carried out several times during the weld repair which can be costly. Q&T making it almost impossible to achieve uniform properties across the welded joint. As discussed previously. The preheat and interpass temperatures thus selected must also be below the tempering temperature of the base metal in order to maintain its mechanical properties. 8. In such cases it is preferable to carry out the welding prior to the Q&T operation. the weld metal and repair procedure have to be carefully considered to ensure. 8. To the maintenance engineer this is sometimes not possible to carry out for several reasons such as size. The weld metal in this case must be selected to have matching chemical properties so that as near as possible. uniform properties are achieved after the Q&T heat treatment. 8. Sometimes welding is required after the steel has been heat treated i. In applying this approach the TTT diagram for the steel can be studied to determine the preheat temperature. the maximum allowable time for completion of welding.1 PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS To prevent martensite from forming during welding.2 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT) It is common practice to apply a PWHT or stress relief to temper the welded joint and soften the HAZ. sufficient preheat must be applied to the component to hold it above the Ms temperature until welding is complete. without the benefit of a subsequent PWHT. as near as possible. In these cases. in situ.

Fig. grain growth is resisted except in the narrow region immediately adjacent to the weld fusion boundary where temperatures are very high. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 39 of 69 75mm . niobium. and the coarser the grain size. Steels containing grain refining additions such as titanium. and aluminium are exceptions in that a fine HAZ grain size may be achieved right up to the fusion boundary. Grain growth is an important factor in the HAZ and the weld.10 shows an example of grain growth in a welded joint.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY The HAZ undergoes a complete thermal cycle which determines the microstructure. In the HAZ of a coarse grained steel there is a wide region where grain growth has occurred but in a fine grained steel. This can be advantageous with high heat input welds such as submerged arc welding. Figure 44 illustrates four welds in a carbon steel that have been welded with different heat inputs.7. vanadium. Figure 43 Macrosection of High Input Weld Showing Coarse Grain Size The type of microstructure formed in the coarse-grained region of a steel depends upon: ♦ The carbon content ♦ The alloy content ♦ The time at elevated temperature ♦ The cooling rate For any given steel. the greater the weld heat input the longer the time spent above the grain coarsening temperature of the steel. Titanium nitride is very stable and may not completely dissolve in the HAZ even at the temperatures immediately adjacent to the fusion boundary.

WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 40 of 69 . Figure 45 Effect of Welding on Grain growth Relative to the Iron – Iron Carbide Phase Diagram At some distance away from the fusion zone the temperature is not sufficient to cause any microstructural changes although other effects such as strain aging (plastic deformation) may occur. For the large. martensite is formed. In Figure !!. The hardness of the HAZ is much higher in those welds in which martensite is present as illustrated.38. For higher heat input welds. for the small rapidly cooled welds. In between a range of mixed structures may be observed as illustrated in Fig.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Figure 44 Correlation of Heat Input and HAZ Hardness Alongside each weld the HAZ transforms to a microstructure dependent on the cooling rate of that weld. Adjacent to the weld the base metal undergoes various changes according to peak temperature and cooling rate experienced at various locations away from the weld joint. the cooling rate will be slower. Close to the fusion zone the peak temperature will be high enough to cause complete transformation to austenite and some grain growth. slowly cooled welds the HAZ structure is pearlite.

can result in lower toughness.). weaving etc. In practical terms.1 LOSS OF TOUGHNESS IN THE HAZ The microstructure itself may have an effect on the crack sensitivity or toughness in the HAZ. 8. arc process.4 PREHEAT & CARBON EQUIVALENT The preheat temperature required depends on the susceptibility of the HAZ to hydrogen cracking. Other restrictions such as preheat.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY The austenite grain size in the HAZ is controlled mainly by the weld heat input1 but it is also influenced by the shape of the fusion zone. Again precipitation is encouraged by high heat input because of the longer times at high temperatures and the slower cooling rates. interpass temperature. restrictions on heat input may mean some welding processes such as electroslag. and much research has been done to find compositional formulae to indicate this. Grain size is determined largely by heat input and base metal chemistry. ♦ Post weld heat treatment (stress relief) of micro-alloyed steel can cause a considerable amount of precipitation of fine carbides with a substantial decrease in toughness in the HAZ. ♦ Heat Input – An increasing heat input caused by welding amperage. 8. and width of weave would need to be considered also. ♦ Plastic Deformation – The contraction of a cooling weld may cause plastic deformation in certain parts of the HAZ. sulfides etc. with consequent loss of toughness. ♦ Precipitation Hardening – From the presence of micro-alloy elements. Indeed some high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels specify heat input requirements for weld joining. Certain factors are known to lower the toughness of the HAZ: ♦ Grain size – An increasing austenite grain size in the HAZ is likely to result in lower toughness.3. particularly around any residing defects (such as nitrogen. and flux-cored arc cannot be used. submerged arc. One formula for calculating the preheat for welding of structural low alloy steels is given below: CE = C + Mn Cr + Mo + V Ni + Cu + + 6 5 15 HeatInput WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 = V × A × 1000 mm / sec 1 41 of 69 .

55 0. 6 0. 35 0. and restraint in calculating preheat. 75 0. 3 0. 45 0. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 42 of 69 . 8 0.25) ( ) PREHEAT TEMPERATURE FOR LOW ALLOY STEELS ONLY 350 300 P(TEMP) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0. 9 0. 25 0. 7 0.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY PTEMP o C = 350 (CE − 0. 43 takes into account CE.1 SEFERIAN GRAPH The Seferian graph shown in Fig. 85 0.4. 65 0. 95 1 CE Figure 46 Preheat Temperature as a Function of CE 8. 4 0. 5 0.


and good welding behavior have evolved to depend less on carbon content as a strengthening agent and more on fine grain size and precipitation hardening. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 44 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 9 SUMMARY Modern structural steels with their demands for strength. This has meant that welding (specifically weld repair) procedures may now have to utilize consumables which meet stringent property requirements as well as avoiding cracking and other defects during welding. toughness.

For example if the wearing parts of a machine are replaced only every month it is unsatisfactory to increase wearing life to six weeks as this does not correspond to the shutdown time. The wear resistant alloy can also often be applied in such a manner as to physically entrap the wearing media thus giving a situation where the wearing media is itself the wear protection overlay. The main ones being: ♦ Cause and Type of Wear? ♦ Base Metal? ♦ Area/Thickness? ♦ Facilities Available? ♦ Preheat? (Depends upon the base metal and its thickness) These are perhaps the five most obvious questions that must be asked and answered. it is pointless using a wear resistant alloy that would increase working life by 12 months. Conversely if a machine is to be replaced in two months time.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 10 GENERAL ASPECTS CONCERNED WITH WEAR PROTECTIVE COATINGS There are a series of questions that must be asked when approaching the subject of wear surfacing. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 45 of 69 . for example large rocks will produce more impact. its selection must be based on the type or wear and/or wearing media. The size of the wearing media will also affect the type of wear. In this case it will be necessary to select an alloy that doubles the working life as a minimum requirement to the present situation. and where applicable spacing of the pattern in which the wear resistant alloy is applied. There is also the question of suiting the wear resistant alloy to practical aspects and to give optimum economic reward. For the wear protective alloy to offer optimum protection. The function of a wear resistant alloy is to provide a more wear resistant surface to the type of wear being experienced by the base metal.

Stick .Operator skill required .Process available .Powder .work hardening .Dimensions/location of component. What are the metallurgical implications of wear surfacing? Welding Skills/Availability .heat resistant What are the Service Conditions? What is Causing the Wear? What is the Desired Life? What is the Present Solution? Method of Application .E+C CADB/TeroLink WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 46 of 69 .thick .Compatibility? Base Metal Considerations .Susceptibility to cracking .Wire .Compatible with wear facing solution .Pre/post heat treatment? .Time for repair Is the Solution Cost Effective? Evaluate Prior Experience .Epoxy .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 11 SELECTING THE OPTIMUM WEAR RESISTANT SOLUTION Assess mode of failure or wear type(s) WHAT NEXT? Establish the Facts Properties of Deposit? .

etc.e. arc welding. low dilution Faster than MMAW. Similar to GMAW but no gas or flux required. . . WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 47 of 69 . (2) Non-fusion surfacing . High quality.g. low dilution. On-site use.base metal. no slag.e. heavy sections. (1) Fusion surfacing . High quality.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 12 METHODS OF DEPOSITION For convenience. Automated. selection of wear facing type can be divided into two families.5-5 2-4 <2 3-6 FCAW 15-30% 2-4 3-8 SAW PTAW 15-40% 2-10% 3-5 2-4 5-30 1-5 Check compatibility of process with deposit requirements. Typical Characteristics Of Fusion Coatings Process Dilution Thickness mm Deposition Rate kg/hr Typical Uses MMAW 15-30% 3 1-4 Quick.g. ceramic sprayed coating. Automated. easy and local repairs.type of wear. GTAW GMAW 5-10% 15-30% 1.

journal reclamation. W2C/Co composites.5-5 WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 48 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Typical Characteristics Of Non-Fusion Coatings Process Dilution Thickness (mm) Deposition Rate (kg/hr) Typical Uses Flame Spray n/a HVOF Arc Spray . High quality.0-20 0.Plasma n/a n/a n/a n/a <3 <3 1. ceramics.Wire .1-1.0-10 Zn/Al corrosion protection. Shaft.5 1. Aerospace industry. 2-5 0.0-20 1.

1 BASE METAL CONSIDERATIONS Recognize potential problems such as: HAZ embrittlement Loss of strength hardness in Q&T steels Reduction in corrosion resistance Porosity generation from base metal chemistry Contraction cracking Consequence of fracture Locate specification Spark analysis Component function 13.1 Weldability Factors Other factors for consideration: Cost Weldability of base metal Preheat Postheat Base metal properties WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 49 of 69 .1.Surfacing consumable .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 13 WELDING PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES Choose .Welding process WHAT NEXT? 13.

60 >0. previously cracked and damaged “hardfacing” may be present. therefore preheat is advisable. and thickness of the base metal. Alternatively. this may cause chipping of the deposit while in service. the method of application needs evaluation. gouging. Included in this is the preparation of the base metal. If the component has not previously been wear protected.45 0. 14.2 PREHEAT This will depend upon the type. see Section 7. Preheat will also depend upon available facilities and if a highly alloyed buttering layer is used which reduces (although not usually eliminates) the need for preheat.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 14 APPLICATION OF WEAR PROTECTIVE COATINGS Once the wear resistant alloy type and process have been selected. If the old hardfacing is left on and covered.6 Good Fair Care Optional 150-250oC >250oC Optional Preferable Necessary WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 50 of 69 .1 BASE METAL PREPARATION The preparation will depend upon the condition of the base metal. if the part is large there is a greater heat sink effect therefore more likelihood of hardening and crack susceptibility of the heat affected zone. (e. Preheating carbon steels is usually based on the Carbon Equivalent When to Preheat CE Weldability Preheat Postheat <0. never preheat 13% manganese steel). etc. i. depending upon extent.45-0.g. if that area is to be surfaced. All sharp corners and edges should be radiused. which should be removed by grinding. 14. only slight mechanical cleaning may be necessary.e.

With frictional/adhesive wear the smoother the surface the better the wear life. certain investigators have reported an increase in wear life with smoother surface finishes. In some instances where a lot of build up is required.4 APPLICATION TECHNIQUE See Section 10 . WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 51 of 69 .Wear Patterns. earth moving tracks).FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 14.6 FINISHING In certain wear systems. 14. quicker. which should usually be limited to three layers maximum or in some cases only one layer. and more economical than rebuilding with arc welding (grouser bar may be wear faced). (e. surface finish can affect wear life. build up layer(s) may be necessary prior to a layer(s) of the harder abrasion resistant alloy. grouser bars are welded onto the track as it is usually easier. With erosive wear. 14. 14. In other cases. a smooth surface eliminates the possibility of differential aeration which results in accelerated attack.g. In corrosive environments.3 BUILD-UP The extent of the build up will vary. A buttering layer of a highly alloyed electrode may sometimes be necessary with harder more highly alloyed base metals to tolerate the dilution without cracking. If more than this is deposited cracking or spalling may occur.5 COOLING PROCEDURE If the base metal is hardenable the part should be cooled slowly after welding to avoid cracking.

rocks. Let us consider the type of wearing media and then suggest possible wear patterns. Wear patterns are normally associated with abrasion.1 WEAR PATTERNS FOR ABRASIVE AND IMPACT WEAR The type of wear patterns used is dependent upon the type and size of the wearing media and to some extent the base material. or it must encourage the wear media to become entrapped inside the pattern thus preventing further contact with the base metal. and (iii) It may encourage a self sharpening action. Large Particle Wear. or lines of wear facing material suitably spaced to prevent contact. (ii) A wear pattern can encourage entrapment of the wearing media and thus act as a wear protective coating or it may encourage easy flow of material across the face of the part. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 52 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 15 WEAR PATTERNS AND PRODUCT SELECTION It is often advantageous to apply a wear protective coating in a pattern or in a selected area rather than covering the whole part with the alloy because: (I) It can be deposited in less time.e. (see later). It is not possible to entrap rocks in a wear pattern to provide protection. i. 15. Therefore we must consider either complete coverage of the base metal to prevent contact. The patterns must either prevent contact from the wearing media with the base metal by itself providing the barrier. impact or abrasive/impact wear and only these conditions will be considered.

WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 53 of 69 . Direction of Flow An important aspect is the correct spacing of the weld deposits.g. i. e. “speed dash”. The weld deposit must also be resistant to impact and abrasion.e. The lines of the weld metal must be sufficiently close as to prevent the ingress of wear between them. The rocks will then ride along the weld deposit and will not come in contact with the base. Direction of Flow There are variations of this type of pattern to increase deposition coverage.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY The recommended type of wear pattern is to deposit weld material resistant to impact (and usually abrasion) in parallel lines to the flow of material.

Direction of Flow The spacing between the weld beads will be dependent upon the size of the wearing media and the amount of moisture present in the material. A “wet” wearing media will compact and become entrapped between the wear pattern more easily than a “dry” wearing media. With this type of wear it is normally possible to employ a wear pattern to entrap the wearing media. rocks and sand.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Fine Particle Wear. sand. etc. etc. this being a “diamond” “waffle” or “crosshatch” configuration. Large and Fine Particle Wear. and varying sizes of rock. Direction of Flow The fine wearing media should become entrapped in the pattern with only parts of the wearfacing exposed. With this type of wear a material to resist severe abrasion is required. stone.g. A recommended wear pattern is weld beads across the direction of flow of material. The recommended wear pattern is a mixture of that needed to resist fine particle wear and large particle wear. THE SPACING MUST BE SMALL ENOUGH TO ENCOURAGE ENTRAPMENT WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 54 of 69 . e.g. sand. earth. e. If the material does not become entrapped in between the wear pattern then the benefit of the wear protective overlay is largely wasted. This is the most commonly experienced wearing media in the open cast mining industry ⇒ a mixture of fine earth.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY This technique is well highlighted in the picture below: However. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 55 of 69 . the wear pattern is often applied incorrectly as shown below: The spacing of the pattern is too large and material has not become entrapped over the whole surface. e. 2 inch square “waffle”.g. only in isolated areas. The solution here is to reapply a wear protective coating but with a smaller spacing.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY To protect the lip of the bucket it is recommended to completely cover with weld beads at right angles to the direction of flow. The “quick dot” pattern is usually used either to prevent contact of the wearing media or to encourage entrapment of the wearing media by placing inside a “crosshatch” pattern. “QUICK DOT” PATTERN This is a method of covering a large surface fairly rapidly and with a minimum of heat input (particularly advantageous with 12-14% manganese steel). If the quick dot pattern is used to prevent contact it must be placed closely together and not as shown below: WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 56 of 69 . Direction of Flow With a mixture of fine and large particle wearing media a weld protective overlay to resist abrasion and impact is required.

SAND (Fine) With impact conditions which occur when moving large rocks. The spacing will depend upon the size of the rocks. Spacing must be close enough to encourage entrapment. a wear pattern parallel to the direction of flow is recommended so that the rock rolls along the weld beads and does not come in contact with the teeth.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY BUCKET/DIGGER TEETH Taking bucket/digger teeth as an example of a typical wear protective coating application. With conditions of abrasion only. typically 25-50cms. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 57 of 69 . such as moving sand/earth it is generally accepted that a wear pattern at right angles to the direction of flow is optimum and encourages entrapment between the weld beads. it can be used to show the importance of not only which “wear pattern” to use but also where the pattern should be applied.


ROCKS (Large)


With conditions of fine and large particle wear a combination of the two patterns is recommended, i.e. the diamond, cross-hatch or waffle pattern. As shown on the above examples, the “quick-dot” pattern can be used in a variety of wear conditions and is often easier and quicker to deposit particularly on vertical faces. SHOULD ALL OF THE TOOTH BE COATED? If the entire surface of the tooth is covered with wear protective coating, the nose of the tooth will eventually wear on all faces resulting in a blunt tooth, reducing the working efficiency. ALL


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If only the bottom surface of the tooth is coated the top will wear until there is insufficient support for the base which will then break. BOTTOM ONLY

The generally accepted technique is to coat only the Top and Sides, such that the base will preferentially wear (but not excessively) and maintain the correct profile for its digging action. TOP SIDES

This self sharpening action can be applied to many industrial components working in abrasion and abrasion/impact conditions.


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Wear Plates

This method of wear protection is sometimes suitable for covering large areas that are exposed to abrasion and abrasion/impact. There are two main types of wear plates: (I) (II) Weldable grades of wear plate - these can be welded into a suitable wear pattern Welded wear resistant plates that are covered on one side with a wear resistant overlay - has only to be welded in position (generally using low hydrogen mild steel).

There are various factors to be taken into consideration when choosing between wear plates and a weld protective overlay. ♦ Type of wear. ♦ Increased weight of the bucket/shovel, etc. using wear plates can cause more strain on the equipment and decreased pay load. ♦ Adaptability, welded plates are usually large and not suitable for covering smaller areas or radiused surfaces. ♦ Availability? ♦ Cost, welded wear plates are usually fairly expensive.

15.2.2 Grouser bars (e.g., bars for rebuilding worn EARTH-MOVING TRACKS).

From the Manufacturers - The bars are normally made from medium carbon steel, e.g. EN8 (similar to 1335, a 0.35%C, 1% Mn steel) and then induction hardened to create a more abrasion resistant surface. New bars generally should not be welded as welding onto the hardened layer can cause cracking. Using Locally Available Steel - Use EN8 bar which is tough but weldable and then apply a wear resistant alloy.


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(see Sections 12 and 13). WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 61 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY The EN8 bar should be welded to the track using an electrode designed for welding dissimilar steels and then coated with a wear resistant alloy that is resistant to pressure and abrasion.

1 CHROMIUM CARBIDE WEARFACING ALLOYS Manual Chromium Carbide Arc Electrodes (MMAW) Hardness 57-60 Rc 57-60 Rc Key Characteristics Fine to medium particle abrasion Abrasion/compression/impact Features Can use contact welding Smooth deposit Semi Automatic Welding (FCAW) Hardness 55-60 Rc 55-60 Rc Key Characteristics High resistance to abrasion Impact/abrasion/erosion Features High hardness with one pass Excellent weldability WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 62 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 16 SURFACING ALLOYS 16.

2 WORK HARDENING ALLOYS (AUSTENITIC MANGANESE STEEL) Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW) Hardness 10-15 Rc work hardens: 45-50 Rc Key Characteristics Austenitic deposit with high crack resistance Features Can be flame cut. machinable Semi Automatic Welding (FCAW) Hardness 20-25 Rc Key Characteristics High resistance to cracking Features Machinable work hardens: 45-50 Rc WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 63 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 16.

Ultra hard homogeneous deposits. high temperature oxidation.3 IRON BASED BUILD UP AND WEARFACING ALLOYS Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW) Hardness 28-32 Rc 50-55 Rc 58-62 Rc Key Characteristics Resistance to deformation and severe impact.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 16. build up Crack resistant For edge retention. Fine particle abrasion with only one pass Abrasion/erosion Features Machinable and economic and cushion layer Multi-pass build up Heat treatable 60-65 Rc 58-62 Rc High hardness Minimum dilution WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 64 of 69 .

4 TUNGSTEN CARBIDE WEARFACING ALLOYS Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW) Hardness 68-72 Rc Key Characteristics Homogeneous deposit. Good wettability WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 65 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 16. Features High resistance to abrasion. Torch Brazing/Welding Alloys Hardness matrix: 200BHN carbide: 89-91 Ra Key Characteristics Excellent cutting properties along with abrasion/impact resistance Extreme abrasion self fluxed and easily deposited Features Low bonding temperature. High hardness in one pass.

can also be used with GTAW WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 66 of 69 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 16.5 NI BASED WEARFACING ALLOYS Manual Metal Arc Electrodes (MMAW) Hardness 15-35Rc Key Characteristics Impact. heat and corrosion resistance Features Hot toughness Torch Brazing/Welding Alloys Hardness 55-62 Rc Key Characteristics Non magnetic deposits for wear due to friction and/or corrosion Features Low bonding temperature.

4. clutch parts. impact breaker blow bars. sugarcane and mower blades. dies. 6. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 67 of 69 . expeller worms. etc. Pearlitic Steels Fair abrasion resistance and high impact resistance. Chromium Carbide Austenitic Irons Excellent abrasion resistance. dies. tool joints. drawing. ball mill liners. metal and wood cutting tools. 7. agricultural implements. hammers. beaters. punches. digger teeth subject to extreme shock. Similar to chromium carbide austenitic irons but not in cases where high impact resistance is required. Cobalt Base Alloys Hot and cold shear blades. flanging. wheel treads and tyres. High impact and oxidation resistance.. dry cement pump screws. oil-well fishing tools. 3. etc. shears. pump sleeves and shafts. guillotine blades. acidresistant scrapers. post-hole auger teeth. dishing. etc. Excellent hot hardness.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 17 GRADING OF WEAR RESISTANCE OF HARDFACING ALLOYS TYPE 1. prior to hardfacing. rolling mill guides. corrosion and oxidation resistance. crusher jaws. idlers and driving tumblers. mantles and rolls. rollers. Martensitic Steels Shovel track rollers. Work harden under some conditions. High to medium abrasion and impact resistance. track links and sprockets. forming and trimming dies. rolls. Dredge driving tumblers. pump parts. Austenitic Steels (Manganese and Stainless) Fair abrasion resistance.g. ditcher teeth. guillotine. reclaiming of worn steel parts (other than austenitic steels) prior to hardfacing. Tractor idler wheels. crusher jaws. pugmill knives. tractor idler wheels. hot trimming and punching dies. tap-hole augers. bulldozer arm trunnions. idlers and driving tumblers. carbon steel rails. rollers. augers. Nickel Base Alloys Medium abrasion and high impact resistance. 8. corrosion and oxidation resistance. rolling mill rolls. reclaiming of worn austenitic manganese steel parts. Excellent hot hardness. Excellent impact resistance. coke pusher shoes. mantles. rock drills.. etc. pump. shovel track rollers. etc. 2. 5. flanges and couplings. churn drills. Valve bodies. Medium abrasion and impact resistance. austenitic manganese steel rail points and crossings. cams and tappets. ripper tynes. bulldozer cutting edges and end plates. shovel and dragline teeth. valves and valve seats. e. stems and seats. Martensitic Irons Excellent abrasion resistance. tractor grousers. Tungsten Carbide Composites FEATURE Utmost abrasion resistance and moderate impact resistance TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Sand mixer blades. muller pan tyres and pathways. track links and sprockets. Medium to fair impact and oxidation resistance. Dredge buckets and lips. coal cutter bits and picks.

the alternative solution is to change the surface so making it more wear resistant. ♦ By changing the condition of the wearing media. There are various methods of doing this and by far the most common is the use of surface modification. quenching and tempering of hardenable alloys. ♦ Physical separation by the use of “wear protective overlays”. IMPORTANT For optimum increase in wear life and economic benefit the wear protection should be undertaken in most cases when the part is new or after slight wear. When considering exposed working surfaces and the type of wear.g. WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 68 of 69 . Basic methods of modifying the surfaces include: ♦ By changing the metallurgical composition and/or characteristics.SUMMARY Essentially. e. ♦ Physical separation by the use of “wear plates”. wear surfacing involves placing a barrier between the wearing media and the wearing part.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 18 METHODS OF WEAR PROTECTION .

10th Ed. AWS Metals Handbook. 2002.20:30 69of 69 . Vol. 6. 7th Ed.. 4.. ASM WELDING AND COATING METALLURGY2 22 December. Vol. Metallurgy for Engineers Physical Metallurgy for Engineers Weldability of Steels Welding Handbook.19 REFERENCES Below is a brief list of additional sources of information that you may find valuable .

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