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DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DESIGN 1.1 Introduction: The economic future of India depends on our ability to design, make and sell competitive products. Excellent design and effective manufacture are the pre-requisites of a successive industry. There is a general impression that the quality of Indian products can still be improved. The fact that consumers have lost their confidence on Indian-made products cannot be denied. This problem can be solved only by designing and manufacturing better products through improved methodology. Keeping this in view, the subject “Design and manufacturing” purpose to present the methods and procedures of design and manufacture. Although engineers are not the only people who design things, the professional practice of engineering is largely concerned with design. It is usually said that design is the essence of engineering. The ability to design is both a science and an art. The science can be learned through procedures developed by eminent scholars. But the art can be learned only by doing design. • Types of Products A product is the tangible end result of a manufacturing process and is meant for satisfying human needs. The product can be classified as follows: • Convenience goods These are less expensive and are clustered around shops and restaurants. These can be purchased at consumer's convenience. E.g. Cigarette, Candy, Magazines etc. 2. Shopping goods These are expensive and people buy it less frequently. E.g. Jewelry garments etc. 3. Specialty goods These are purchased, taking extra pain. E.g. Rare objects like stamps. 4. Industrial goods.
These are items used in the production of other items. Eg: Raw materials. Another way of classifying products is into, (a) Continuous Products, and (b) Discrete products The continuous products are those which are produced in a continuous fashion. For example, plates, sheets, tubes and bars etc are produced in very long lengths, and then these are cut into desired lengths. On the other hand, discrete products are produced one after another, each in separate units. On the basis of the output product, the Industry is usually named as continuous industry and discrete industry. 1.3 Requirements in a good product • Customer Satisfaction • Profit How to achieve customer satisfaction? -The product should function properly. -It must have desired accuracy -It must have desired reliability -It must be easy to operate -It must be serviceable -It must make minimum space utilization -It must withstand rough handling -Pleasant appearances. -Reasonable price. How can it be profitable? -It must be easy to manufacture -The raw material must be cheap and easily available
-The manufacturing process has to the decided on the basis of quantity to be produced -It must use standard parts -It must be easy to pack and distribute. 1.4 Definition of Design: (S ‘94) Designing is such a vast field that it is defined in several ways. Various definitions of designing as pronounced by well-known designers are “Design is that which defines solutions to problem which have previously been solved in a different way” “Design is the conscious human process of planning physical things that display a new form in response to some pre-determined need”. “Design is an act of collecting all pertinent information for the production of goods and services to meet some human need”. The design of any component includes two things, • Product design • Process design The product design involves the development of specification for a product that will be functionally sound, good in appearance, and will give satisfactory performance for an adequate life. The process design involves developing methods of manufacture of the products so that the component can be produced at a reasonably low cost. 1.5 History of Design Process • Design by Single Person • Over-the-wall design • Simultaneous Engineering • Concurrent Engineering • Integrated design and Manufacture. In olden times one person could design and manufacture an entire product. Even for a large project such as the design of a ship or a bridge, one person had sufficient knowledge of the Physics, Materials and manufacturing processes to manage all aspects of the design and construction of the project. This period is referred to as the period of design by single person in the history of design.
In this method each functional departments were separated from others. design.the goal was the simultaneous development of the product and the manufacturing process. This system makes a good use of technologies such as CAD/CAM. This was accomplished by assigning manufacturing representatives to be members of design team. The Engg. Thus. Engineering Design and production department. The computer integrated manufacturing . This is due to lack of interaction between the different departments. There was only one-way communications between Customer. The marketing department may throw the customer needs to the design department. In fact. Design department may conceive a design and hands it over to the manufacturing sections. much design work is still done with pencil and paper. This philosophy emphasized simultaneous development of the manufacturing process. often what is manufactured by a company using over-the-wall process is not what the customers had in mind. one person could not handle all aspects of design and manufacturing. FMS etc. Marketing. The result was a completely integrated design and manufacturing system. In concurrent engineering the primary focus is on the integration of teams of people having a stake in the product. at all stages of product development. so that they could interact with the design engineers throughout the designs process. With the advent of computer technology. Unfortunately. Tools and techniques connect the teams with the information. design tools. product specification.By the middle of the 20th century products and manufacturing processes became so complex that. concurrent engineering is 80% company culture and 20% computer support. this single direction over-the-wall approach is inefficient and costly and may result in poor quality products. This situation led to over-the-wall design process. The customers ‘throw' their needs to marketing department. The manufacturing department interprets that design and makes the product according to what they think suitable. process and equipment etc. orally. in many instances. as shown by wall. A short definition of concurrent engineering is the simultaneous progression of all aspects. Although many of the tools are computer-based. In the 1980's the simultaneous design philosophy was broadened and called concurrent engineering. By the early 1980's the concept of simultaneous engineering emerged. drastic changes have taken place in the field of design and manufacturing. and techniques and information about the product and the processes used to develop and manufacture it.
. CIMS is necessary for better quality. efficiency and productivity... Discuss the role of creativity in the design process (S'94.…………get first preference in design Ans.. (S'99. QUESTIONS • How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design. 8M) • The design of product is …...customer expectations. Functional requirements (S'93) • Explain the meaning of • Conceptual design • Functional design (iii) Production design. (S'03) ..systems (CIMS) moves towards the ‘Factory of the future'. Give suitable examples for each... S'94) • .
2 TYPES OF DESIGNS 2.1 The design can be classified in many ways.g.2 On the basis of the nature of design problem. the designs are broadly classified into three types • Adaptive Design (W 95. the final product may be entirely different from the original product. For making original designs. Here a new technology is adopted. 98 ‘00) • Variant Design (S 97. In this case.g. Thus. design may be classified as • Selection design • Configuration design • Parametric design • Original design • Re-design . 97. 2. a lot of research work.CHAPTER . These are called adaptive designs . skill and creativity required in the designing process. these are also called creative designs. knowledge and creativity are essential. E. it is also called new design or innovative design. Since this type of design demands maximum creativity from the part of the designer. though the designer starts from the existing designs. converting mechanical watches into quartz watches. converting mechanical watches into a new shape. in order to modify the existing designs into a new idea. • Original Design Here the designer designs something that did not exist previously. 99) • Original Design • Adaptive Design In most design situations the designer's job is to make a slight modification of the existing design. by adopting a new material or a different method of manufacture. E. On the basis of knowledge. A company thinks of new design when there is a new technology available or when there is enough market push. This type of design needs no special knowledge or skill. • Variant Design This type of design demands considerable scientific training and design ability.
It involves choosing one or more items from a list of similar items. -Selection of a bearing from a bearing catalogue -Selection of a fan for cooling equipment -Selecting a shaft. power supply. all the components have been designed and the problem is how to assemble them into the completed product. • Configuration / Layout / Packaging Design (W 97. a floppy disk drive and room for two extension boards.• Selection Design. Each component is of known design and has certain constraints on its position. A laptop computer has a keyboard. This type of design is similar to arranging furniture in a living room. a hard disk drive. the extension slots must be adjacent to the main circuit board and the keyboard must be in front of the machine. We do this by using catalogues. S'02) In this type of problem. Consider the packing of electronic components in a laptop computer. Eg. For example. Keyboard Main Circuit board Extension slots . a main circuit board.
we back up and try again. If a conflict arises. Consider a simple example – We want to design a cylindrical storage tank that must hold 4 m 3 of liquid. . Two potential configurations are shown above. or all the components are in the case. Then we select and place a second component. The designer's aim is to find. This procedure is continued until we reach a conflict. how to fit all the components in a case? Where do we put what? One method for solving such problems is to – select a component randomly from the list and position it in the case so that all the constraints on that component are met.Floppy drive Power supply The different components are shown above. Let's take keyboard first. • Parametric Design Parametric design involves finding values for the features that characterize the object being studied. It is placed in the front.
the designer designs something in such a way that the cost of producing the product is minimum. an original design in the development of an assembly or component that did not exist before. If the customer needs a cylinder 0. Suppose a manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders makes a product that is 0.273 We can see a number of values for the radius and length. On the basis of the objective or strategy the designs are of following main types. a production designer is concerned with the ease with which something can be produced. Each combination-values of r and l gives a possible solution for the design problem. r2l . That is. Hence. Given V = 4 m 3 = r 2 l = 1.3. the manufacturer might lengthen the outer cylinder and the piston rod to meet this special need. It is same as adaptive design. the aim is at designing a part or member so as to meet the expected performance level. 2. radius 'r'.The volume is given by V= r2l The tank is described by the parameters. • Production Design • Functional Design • Optimum Design • Production Design In production design . the first responsibility of the designer is reduction of production cost. • Original Design As described in an earlier section. • Functional Design W93 In functional design .25m long. Most design problems solved in industry are for the redesign of an existing product. and length l .3m long. that will satisfy this equation. • Redesign The redesign is a modification of an existing product to meet new requirements. and that at a minimum cost.
. the following types are important.but the same may the unproducible or costly to produce. The characteristic features are: • The total number of parts used in the design must be minimum. • Assembly/sub-assembly design [S 93] In the design of Assembly/sub-assembly the major criterion is the fulfillment of functional requirements.4 On the basis of the field/ area or the domain of design.Functional design is a way of achieving given requirements. under the specified constraints. then. has to consider the production aspects also. The assembly has to be designed to meet broad technical parameters and purpose for which it was meant. • Optimum Design [W 95] It is the best design for given objective function. A good designer. to solve problems and needs of society. • Standard parts may be used. A product designed without keeping all these aspects into account.or machine to perform prescribed functions with maximum economy and efficiency. 2. • Sub-assemblies should be capable of being built separately in order to give maximum manufacturing flexibility. • Machine Design It is the process of achieving a plan for the construction of a machine. money and efforts. technical information and imagination in the design of a structure. wastes time. • Mechanical Design • Machine Design • System Design • Assembly/sub-assembly design • Computer aided design • Mechanical Design It means use of scientific principles.. • System Design System Design is an iterative decision making process to conceive and implement optimum systems.
Explain the meaning of • Conceptual design. adoptive design and variant design. computers have become an indispensable tool. Sciences [W '94] 8. analyze and evaluate data etc. What are the three main types of design? Give a comparative analysis. the designer takes into account the variations of such parameters. [W'93] 3. [S'02 W'98] • Designing for function involves the use and knowledge of ……………. In modern design. Ans. In probabilistic design.. W '97] • Explain the difference between creative design. the external load acting on a body. [S0'3] 10. ergonomics and production aspects. 5M] 2. Explain layout design. Eng. (ii) Functional design and (iii) production design. Distinguish between functional design and industrial design. the properties of materials etc are liable to vary. assembly/sub-assembly design and component design? Explain briefly with the help of examples. Questions 1. [W'00. creative design. • Computer aided design [CAD] It is a design methodology in which the designs take the advantages of digital computer to draw concepts. Give suitable example of each. Discuss the meanings of conceptual design. [S'93. What are the characteristics features of system design. Industrial Design [W 93] It is the design made by considering aesthetes. adoptive design and variant design. as they are easily damaged during handling and assembly. Other types of designs are Probabilistic Design Industrial Design Probabilistic Design [S 96] It is a design approach in which design decisions are made using statistical tools.• Flexible parts should be avoided. [S'97] 4. Computers are largely used in a design office for simulation and prototype study. Generally. [S0'2] .
there is conversion of resources such as time. Decision-making is essential for a designer to select one out of several. In each phase. A satisfactory conclusion can be reached on. Rather than making a detailed study. whether important or unimportant is the starting point of design.2. 3. In any design process. All designs are aimed at satisfying some human need. only after a number of trials. materials and other natural resources. designer has to make the best decision. • Iteration • Decision-making • Conversion of resources • Satisfaction of need Design is completed in many phases. • Design by evolution (Traditional Design) • Design by innovation (Modern Design) • Design by evolution .3. In such conflicting situations.Chapter 3 DESIGN PROCESS AND ITS STRUCTURES 3. repeated attempts are required to accomplish the aim. Introduction Developing a manufacturable product is not an easy job. talent. This chapter presents some methods that help achieve quality products. Needs. 3. Features of design process The following features can be observed in a design process. money. only an overview of designing process is attempted here.1. How a design is born? In a broad sense there are two methods by which a design comes into existence. A designer often comes across several equally acceptable alternatives to meet some end.
. But in the modern world. implements. They were concerned about only one component /product. any penalty of a wrong design will cost great loss. 1. which did not exist yet. nowadays almost all designs are made by innovation.. As a result. Even today this process is being used to some extent. this evolutionary process is very slow. Thus the penalty of a wrong design was tolerable. in the present time. He has to make predictions regarding its performance. i. The main reason for this slow evolutionary process of design was the absence of proper information and design data records. Traditional design methods cannot cope with competitive requirements of the modern world. However. He has to collect and evaluate information on a product. Due to the above reasons modern design problem cannot be handled by traditional methods. 5. Requirements of the customers of today's world changes so frequently.e. which is non-existing yet. In modern design situations the evolutionary methods are not adequate because of the following reasons. the existence of one product is dependent on another in some way or other. Bicycles. Necessity of analyzing complicated interaction of components. took a long time to acquire their present form. Things changed gradually with the passage of time. Traditional design lags behind the advanced product & process technologies available today. production was on small scale. 2. Here the designer's task is greatly magnified.This implies the traditional method of design in which the objects and articles that we see around has taken its present form by gradual change of time. 2. steam locomotives etc. calculators. The traditional designing did not consider the interdependence of products. Here he tries to solve the design problem in a systematic and orderly manner. In the past. developments of a product by following scientific and purposeful effort. If one looks at history it can be seen that most of the tools. production is on large-scale basis. equipments. 3. an innovative designer faces the following difficulties.e. But. 1. it took a very long period of time to occur even a slight modification. i. computers. • Design by Innovation Since the traditional design method failed to cope with modern design requirements. This approach is similar to analytical problem solving. 3. . However. Each change was made to rectify some defects or difficulties faced by the users. The innovative design is entirely different from the past practice of evolutionary design. He has to design and create something. all went through a process of evolution in which designers tried one concept after another.
Problem-solving Methodology Knowingly or unknowingly we follow six basic actions when we try to find solution of any problem. . Design Process. The best way in which any problem can be solved is to break up the problem and to try for a solution in an analytical method. 1. Evaluate the alternatives. 4. Dieter etc have attempted to systematize the design process. 3. Plan how to solve this problem 3. Establish or convince ourselves that there ‘is' a problem.Simplified Approach A simplified approach to designing as outlined by Morris Asimow is given below. This approach of problem solving is also adopted in the Morphology of design. It is a methodology of design by which ideas about things are converted into physical objects.5. According to him the entire design process in its basic forms consists of five basic elements as given below. 6. Generate alternative solutions. Or we decide the requirements. By analyzing the problem we decide what is actually required from the problem-solver. Morphology of design refers to the time based sequencing of design operations. 5.6. This systematized steps in design process is called Morphology of Design . The logical order of different activities or phases in a design project is called the morphology of design.4. 3.4. there are eminent experts like Morris Asimow.E. Or we understand that a solution is needed. Present the acceptable solution. Morphology of Design. Notwithstanding the above difficulties. Shigly. 3. He has to ensure the technical and economical feasibility of the product. 2. Morphology means ‘a study of form or structure'. J.
But in order to carryout the above processes (i. Once the designer has obtained the necessary information he can start design operations. design operations) a lot of information is required. etc. Scientific Laws Information on market trends etc. The outcome may be in the form of Computer print outs. Information on manufacturer's catalogue Materials science handbook etc.Design operations imply the various processes done during designing. The design operations give outcome s. 2 . General Information E.g. The required informations may be broadly classified into two. Specific information . E. . • Formulating a model for analysis purpose..g. 1. • Materials selection. or drawings. These include • Searching for possible alternatives systems to satisfy a need.e.
This stage is also called conceptual design. The purpose of evaluation is to decide whether this outcome is able to meet the need.Next stage is the evaluation of this outcome.e. aesthetics etc. The purpose and activities during feasibility study are • To ascertain there really exists a need [ie the existence of need must be supported by necessary evidences. rather than the outcome of one's fancy] • Search for a number of possible solutions • Evaluate the solutions i. Morphology of design refers to the collection of these time phases. . Here a comparison between the capabilities of the outcome and the need is carried out. quality strength. Phase 1. otherwise the design operation is repeated 3. The important activities done at this stage are: • Model building & testing • Study the advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. A design project always begins with a feasibility study. is it physically realisable? Is it economically worthwhile? Is it within our financial capacity? Phase 2 Preliminary (Embodiment) Design. Feasibility Study. It consists of seven phases.7 Detailed Morphology of Design A design project goes through a number of time phases. The morphology of design as put forward by Morris Asimow can be elaborated as given below. the designer goes on to next step. • Check for performance. This is the stage art which the concept generated in the feasibility study is carefully developed. If the outcome is sufficient to meet the need.
• Specify tools & machine requirements. Also. i. Phase IV: Planning for manufacture This phase includes all the production planning and control activities necessary for the manufacture of the product. the materials to be used and the manufacturing process to be adopted etc. the document containing a sequential list of manufacturing processes. complete prototype is tested.e. . Finally. from. • Specify the condition of row materials. The main tasks at this phase are • Preparation of process sheet. The arrangement. dimensions. are decided.Phase III: Detail Design Its purpose is to furnish the complete engineering description of the tested product. tolerances and surface properties of all individual parts are determined. • Estimation of production cost.
• Planning advertisement techniques • Designing the product for effective distribution in the prevailing conditions. • Planning for production control. • Planning effective and economic warehousing systems. The various steps are • Design for maintenance • Design for reliability • Design for convenience in use • Design for aesthetic features • Design for prolonged life • Design for product improvement on the basis of service data.• Specify the requirement in the plant. Hence. Phase VII: Planning for Retirement.oriented features. • Planning for information flow system etc. this phase aims at planning an effective distribution system. This is the phase that takes into account when the product has reached the end of useful life. Different activities of this phase are • Designing the packing of the product. A product may retire when • It does not function properly • Another competitive design emerges • Changes of taste or fashion The various steps in this phase are . Phase VI Planning for Consumption/use The purpose of this phase is to incorporate in the design all necessary user. Phase V: Planning for Distribution The economic success of a design depends on the skill exercised in marketing. • Planning QC systems.
• Design by creative design route • Engineering Design • Design by creative routs [Creative Design] This is a design method that demands maximum ‘creativity' from the part of the designer. • Ability to manipulate knowledge . S03] Majority of designs belong to variant design. W95. Hence.8. Creativity [S94. systematized and logical approach for solving a design problem. a creative designer has the following qualities. A creative designer is distinguished by his ability to synthesize new combinations of ideas and concepts into meaningful and useful forms. S03] The creative designer is generally a person of average intelligence. a hard worker and a constructive non-conformist with average knowledge about the problem at hand. 3. where the designer simply modifies an existing system. But the success of engineering design depends on the modes of thinking and acting distinctively different from others. Hence this method is also called creative design. S00. Methods of Innovative Design As we know. they must have knowledge of past designs. they make minor modifications of what they already know –or. Generally. There are two design methods for innovative design. a visualiser. creative designers create new ideas out of bits of old designs they had seen in the past.• Design for several levels of use • Design to reduce the rate of obsolescence. W98. • Examine service-terminated products to obtain useful information. • Knowledge All designers start their job with what they know. Design is commonly thought of as a creative process involving the use of imagination and lateral thinking to create new and different products. Qualities of a creative designer [S96. Here the designer finds solutions to problems by allowing his creativity aspects grow in a particular manner. Creative designers have good ability to visualize. innovative design is an organized. to generate and manipulate visual images in their heads. • Visualization ability. During designing.
Edison tried hundreds of different light bulb designs before he found the carbon filament. Constructive non-conformists are those who take a firm stand. But the obstructive non-conformists will only slow down the design process. till they reach a satisfactory solution. • Non-conformist There are two types of non-conformists:-constructive and obstructive. Creative designers are constructive non-conformists. Roadblocks to Creativity • Fear of making a mistake • Unwillingness to think and act in a way other than the accepted norm. • Motivation They always motivate others in the design team. • Risk taking A person who does not take the risk of making mistakes cannot become a good designer. and they want to do things in their own way. • Willingness to practice Creativity comes with practice. In such a favourable environment creativity is further enhanced. Creative designers are ready to practice for a long enough period.The ability to use the same knowledge in a different way is also an important quality of a designer. • Technique Creative designers have more than one approach to problem solving. They are prepared to try alternative techniques. The constructive non-conformists might generate a good idea. For example. Obstructive non-conformists are those who take a stand just to have an opposing view. • Unwillingness to try new approaches • Fear of criticism • Lack of knowledge • Overconfidence due to past experience • Unwillingness to reject old solutions • Fear of authority . • Desire to conform to standard solutions. because they think they are right.
9'00] Creative design route is the procedure through which a creative design is born. . Intuition [S'01] Intuition means sudden ideas or flashes of inspiration and involves complex associations of ideas. The success of this design lies with the creativity of the designer. Creative design route can be practiced by following the sequences shown in figure. Creative Design Route [W95. elaborated in subconscious mind. 98.• Difficulty in visualization • Inability to distinguish between cause and effect • Inability to collect complete information • Unwillingness to be different Methods to enhance Creativity • Use of analogy • Asking question from different view points • Memories of past designs • Competitive products • Deliberate day-dreaming • Reading science fictions. the designer analyses the need and collect all the necessary information required at various stages. etc. During preparation period. 94. Intuitive ideas lead to a large number of good and even excellent solutions.
For a designer using creative methods for design. Apart from creativity-approach. testing and inspection of the design is done and the details are completed. The designer relaxes away from the problem for some time. Illumination is the sudden insight and throwing up with a solution. The different steps in Engg. (ii) ENGINEERING DESIGN (W 96) Another procedure for obtaining innovative design is Engg. this is a logical and intellectual attempt to solve design problems. Design.Concentration is the period when the designer digests all the aspects of the problem situation and tries various possible combinations. Now. The next step is the incubation period. habitual or familiar methods must be avoided. design process is given below: - Recognition of need Definition of the problem . The final step is the verification. It largely depends on discoveries and laws of science.
6. the next step is to define the design problem . journals. cost aesthetics etc is valued. The next step is collecting information. definitions of any special technical terms. The required information can be obtained from textbooks. the best design is emerged. what the design is intended to accomplish. the development of a new technology or the desire to improve an existing product. finding several design ideas to meet the given need. This final design with every detail is furnished in last stepie communicating the design.Gathering of Information Conceptualization Evaluation of concepts Communication of the design Since all design projects are meant for satisfying some need. . The need for a design is initiated by either a market requirement. Once the need has identified. Inventiveness and creating is very important in this step. The advantages and disadvantages of each idea against its performance.4) The conceptualization step involves. Need Analysis is the technique used to define the problem(Chapter 6). The definition of the problem expresses as specifically as possible. This is the most critical step in the design process. The success of a design project depends on the clarity in the definition of the problem. The different ideas conceived are weighted and judged in the evaluation step. any design work starts withRecognition of the need . the constraints on the design and the criteria that will be used to evaluate the designs. After evaluation. or other agencies (See Art. It should include objectives and goals. In many phases of deign process a large quantity of information may be required.
3. That activity wherein the concept is converted into physical object is termed as transformation phase. Divergence. • Creative design involves phases like incubation. The problem definition. • Creative person is highly intuitive and independent in thinking and usually resists working in group – but engineering designers like teamwork. • Testing and inspection is applicable for both designs. these activities belong to the Divergence phase. .Common features between Creative Design & Engg. by eliminating unwanted ideas. Designs (W 94) • Intelligence is not a must for creative design-but the same is desirable in Engg. habits and traditions are enemies of creativity – but the same are required in engineering design. • Customs. Design (W.10. Transformation and Convergence phases. illumination – but no such philosophy is followed in engineering designs. The convergence is a narrowing process. need analysis and conceptualization etc. Transformation & Convergence (S'97 5M) The entire design process can be said to have composed of three distinct phases Viz. • For both deigns.9. • Creative design is based on use of analogy and synthesis of alternatives – but engineering design is based on proven laws and past experience. Difference between Creative Designs & Engg. where the best optimal solution is tried for. aims at generating as many ideas as possible to solve a given design problem. the success depends on the clarity with which the need statement is prepared. Divergence. but not in making fundamental design decisions. such as drafting and analyzing. Design Process Using Advanced Technology (W”00) Although Engineering is a major sector of the economy in a developing country. Engineers still use computers only in peripheral tasks. • In both design methods brainstorming and Synetics can be applied. It has not been benefited greatly from advances in computer technology. Both steps deal with analyzing the need. 3. Design is more or less common. Current computer tools such as ‘computer-aided drafting' are restricted to the end of the design process and play no fundamental role in aiding design. Design. • Reviewing is applicable in both design methods.94) • The preparation phase in creative design and need analysis in Engg. Thus. It aids only in the final drafting of the specifications.
The CAD allows the designer to conceptualize objects more easily. Discuss the role of creativity in the designs process. (S. Explain why some stages are repeated several times. 8M) • The mechanical design process normally has six stages and amongst them the three stage are ----.Computer-aided Design.95) • The three stages of design are………… (W 96) • State the different phases that are involved in morphology of design (S. (CAD) means a class of tools for crating drawing.(S99. The design process in CAD system consists of the following stages. 6M) • What makes the design process tortuous? Explain (W 99. QUESTIONS • How can you explain the term design? Explain the process of mechanical design.96) • Briefly discuss the concept of creativity as applicable for solving design problems (W 98.93. • Geometric modeling • Analysis and optimization • Evaluation • Documentation and drafting. (W 95) • What do you understand by intuition (S 01) • Draw a flow-chart showing different stages of engineering design. CAD systems have been sophisticated and 2D and 3D models are available. or the physical description of the object. S94. Use examples to explain. 6M) • The creative design process can be considered to be ……… (S93) • Discuss creativity and creative design.----.5M) . 1 M) • What is morphology of design? Explain the various steps with the help of block diagram (W. (S94.------.
--------. Design (S'01) • What major steps are involved in design process? Briefly explain each one (W'01). and convergence phases in the design of a new product. compare ‘Design by evolution' and ‘Design by innovation'. (W'93) • The process of design by evolution adopted by craftsman is a …………. (S'97) • What are the three different stages in the design process? Explain with example. Explain these in brief. Ans. (S'97. (W'99) • What are the most important steps involved in the design process? Explain? (W'00) • What are the methods currently being adopted for design process using advanced technology? (W'00) • Name various phases in design morphology. (S '02). (S'02) . Explain the basics procedure of design synthesis giving suitable examples. (S'01) • Explain Engg. (S'00). Analysis and Synthesis. (S'93) • Define creative design routes. (S'00) • Explain the process involved in creativity. transformation.• What feedback loops provide information for the redesign of products and the productive systems. • What do you mean by creative design routes.. Design process and explain (W'96) • Justify the statement with reasons ‘Modern design problems cannot be handled by traditional methods'. Explain these in brief. What are the various qualities of creative designer? Give the brief description of these. Write down the different statements about creativity and creative designers. Slow process of design development (W'94) • With suitable examples. Ans. • What do you understand by the design process? List out the various phases involved and explain them briefly. (S'01) • Compare the design synthesis and design analysis. What are the stages of these routes. Explain briefly with the help of examples. W'98) • Good design requires both-----. • What are the common features and differences between creative design activities and Engg? Design activities. (S 96) • Enumerate the steps in Engg. (W'94) • Discuss the divergence.
(W'98) • ___ is one of the most powerful aids to creativity in design. Illustrate the steps followed with the help of a figure.• Give the checklist for an engg. Design problem. (W '05. (W 05. • Discuss the stages in engineering design process with the help of example. (Use of analogy) (W '94). • What do you understand by the term “creativity”? What are its requirements? ('03). 8M) . preliminary design and detailed design. 8M) • What do you understand by ‘morphology of design'? Discuss the phases of feasibility study. (S 05) • Explain ‘Design processes. Also explain the flow of work during the design process.
protection against danger. sleep etc. Identification/Recognition of Needs (W 96) The beginning of any design process is the recognition of need or problem. the next dominant need is social need. Physiological needs .2. What is a need? A need can be defined as a personnel unfulfilled vacancy which determines and organizes all psychological and behavioral activities in the direction of fulfilling the vacancy A product can be product and marketed only if it is ‘needed' by the customer.1. When the sales personnel observes that their customers are always complaining of poor .CHAPTER 4 IDENTIFICATION OF NEED 4. These include.For example. These examples show that needs are nothing but a scarcity or problem or wants felt by a person. 5. 3. he want to be “in group”. creativity. and for recognition. sex. threat etc. device or a system. Hierarchy of Human needs (W' 96) Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs as given below 1. Social needs Once the physiological and safety needs are met. For example he/she want to love and be loved. thirst. A patient ‘needs' something that can cure his illness. and self-expression. the lathe requires repair. etc.These are the basic needs of the body. 4.3. 2. When a turner hears an awkward noise from some part of the lathe he identifies/ recognises a need. hunger. 4. Self-fulfillment needs These are the needs for the realisation of one's full potential through self-development. the new emerging needs are safety needs. Safety and security needs For a person whose physiological needs are met. i.esteem. A person buys a pen because he ‘needs' to write. In fact a designer's goal is to find solutions to such problems 4.e. Psychological needs These are the needs for self-respect and self.
Variety of Needs [S'00] Following are the needs. • Improvements in the existing product. a need to develop a better product is identified.Changing the length of a cylinder. This crucial step is called Recognition/ Identification of need.performance of the products. Eg . Whatever may be the situation.4. -Changing the power of a motor. Such needs can arise. a company has to identify or locate a need before the production of any device. Needs can be identified from. For example. (i). Examples: . • Careful market analysis • Statements made by politicians from their observations • Interpretations of a community's requirements • Trends in other parts of the world 4. which can generate ideas for the development of new products. when -Customers want a new feature or better performance than existing features -A vendor can no longer supply components or materials that had been used so far -Manufacturing or assembly departments identifies a quality improvement -Invention of a new technology that can be incorporated in the existing design. Variation of an existing product. Similarly. a corresponding change in product design may be demanded. a new need is recognised. etc. there is more tendency to buy off-the shelf components for short-run products. This could be a change in a single or a few parameters of an existing product. when the customers are unsatisfied with the present ‘model'. This implies the need to redesign some of the features of an existing product. (iii) A change in production model Whenever the production model changes from job-shop to mass.
expressed in the form of a statement. Personnel Computer “A computing device to accept input data. Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle (ii) Voltage stabilizer (iii) Personnel Computer [S'93] 3. Voltage stabilizer “A solid state noiseless electrical device of adequate power rating to provide continuously an output at constant voltage. [W'96] 2.and be as light as possible. Bicycle: The need statement for a bicycle could be “A device for a common person to travel reasonable distance comfortably with least effort” –“The initial cost should be low. be easy to maintain etc “ (ii). iii). manufacturers in India recognize a need to sell their products at a lower price. have adequate life.5 Need Statement Once the need has recognized. 2. List hierarchy of human needs that motivate individuals.1. The indications for input and output voltage levels may be provided. In other words-It is the objective of design. the next step is to prepare the need statement. Need Statement – Examples *S ‘93+ Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle Voltage stabilizers Personnel Computer i). manipulate it according to a set of instructions and provide the desired output on CRT and printer” Questions 1. Explain the steps involved in identification of a problem by a designer [S'96] . It is a general statement specifying the problem for which a solution is required. the company recognizes a need to re-design it. 4. accepting the input power at varying voltage between the limits__and__volts “. When a company observes that their products do not perform well. With the free-entry of Chinese products to Indian market.
needs [S'97] 5. Ans.4. [S'00] . Enumerate and explain variety of needs which can generate ideas for the Development of new product.of individual or society. Every product is made in response to……….
the purposed design is worthwhile. It must contain the time-as well as resource allocation for each of the products. P 2 and P 3 identifies a need to design a new product ‘N'. In this situation. by considering the revenues from different products. organized. P 2 . 5. For example Boeing 747 aircraft (which has over 50. .2 Feasibility Study. Such plan made by the management is called the product plan. 5. The starting point of a design project is a need. the production volume.CHAPTER 5 PRODUCT PLANNING 5. only if. 5.the necessary resources are available . the company has to decide a time-schedule for the design and manufacture of the new product. say P 1 . the company has to ensure the worth of the project. A plan shows how a project will be initiated. For example assume that a company already manufacturing 3 products.and P 3 may be affected (due to re-allocation of company resources such as raw materials. design work is generally done by a team or group. and hence revenue from products P 1 .Product Planning [S 01] Planning is the process used to develop a scheme for scheduling and committing the resources of time. money and people. it will go for product design. Feasibility study is a preliminary analysis for making a decision regarding the design project. A product plan is a decision-making as regards to the design and manufacture of a product. Once the need has been identified. the project is dropped. the management begins a project for a new product design.1 Introduction Once the top management of an organisation recognized a need to develop a product. Owing to the design and manufacture of the new product. machineries). If the feasibility study reveals that the proposed design project does not bring comfortable revenue.000 components) required over 10 thousand persons' years of design time.the market conditions are favorable in respect of competition. Organisation Of Design Group The complexity of mechanical devices has grown rapidly over the last 200 years. or the design demands huge investments beyond the capacity of the organisation. These show that. co-coordinated and monitored. A design team may include thousands of design and manufacturing .the purposed product will guarantee a handsome profit . . More over it will result in optimum and efficient use of resources. to be forwarded or not. After the product plan in made.3 . Thousands of designers worked over a three-year period on the project.4.
Design Engineer. all working over many years. drafters. He is responsible for success of the product in the market. planning.identification. technicians. He knows the best manufacturing process suitable for the production of the particular product. 5. He always sees “whether the customer like this product? 3. In many companies the detailer and the drafter are the same individual. 1. The project is then turned over to detailers who finishes the details. Technician. For that. material scientists. This person is responsible for suggesting ideas for the proposed product. 6. Marketing Manager. The first phase in any design process is identification of needs. Drafter A drafter aids the design engineer and detailer by making drawing of the product. conceptual design and the early stages of product design. Needs may be identified by market survey. Since any design activity consumes company resources like money. purchasing agents. Materials Specialist. The technicians aid the design engineer in developing test-apparatus. Members of Design Team Following is a list of individuals needed in a design team. He is a link between the product and the customer. 2. 7. Their titles may vary from company to company. he must posses both creative and analytical skills. Detailer In many companies the design engineer is responsible for specification development. people and equipments etc. He can give advice on the various manufacturing processes available in the industry. 4. people etc. Manufacturing Engineer.5. . 5. and quality control specialists. He must be an engineering graduate having vast experience in the particular product area. Planning means allocation of resources such as money. Hence. develops manufacturing and assembly documents. The first step in planning is to form a design team. performing experiments etc. he must clearly understand needs for the product as well as its engineering requirements. the desire to improve an existing product or even by the development of a technology.engineers. –the planning of these resources is the next phase after need.
Assembly Manager. 9. they can be organised into different structures. Project Team (16%) . and the responsibility and authority for completing the project rests with functional managers. Functional matrix (26%) It is another organisational structure obtained by combining functional as well as matrix organisations. 10. The number in the bracket shows the percentage of design projects that use that particular organisation structure. the company may purchase components or sub-assemblies from outsources. (28%) It is an organisation structure having the features of project and matrix organisations. Listed below are the five organisational structures. 11.In some products.6 Organisational Structure of Design Teams Since a design project requires individuals with different fields of expertise. A project manager is assigned to oversee the project. Material specialist can give advice on properties of different materials. Project matrix. A quality control specialist observes how well the product meets specifications. As part of product development. In that case. 1. a certain material is to be chosen according to some features of the product. In some other cases. the choice of the material is based on availability. Industrial Engineer. This inspection is done on finished products as well as raw materials purchased from vendors. 3. The assembly manager is responsible for putting the product together. Balanced Matrix (16%) Here the project manager and functional manager work together. Suppliers' Representative. 2. Note that assembly process is an important aspect of product design. 4. Quality Control Specialist. They generally have background in fine arts and in human factor analysis. Industrial designers are responsible for how a product looks and how well it interacts with customers. 8. the representative of the supplier of the specified component must be included in the design team 5.
the different tasks needed to bring the problem from its initial state to the final products are identified. g. c. There are five steps to establish a plan. Step 1 Identify the tasks In the first step of the planning of the design project. Field test prototype No2. Task Clarification [S 01] A project plan is a document that defines the tasks necessary to be completed during a design process. Functional Organisation (13%) Each project is assigned to a relevant functional area or group within a functional area. time. • Develop a sequence for these tasks. • Identify the task • State the objective of each task • Estimate Personnel's. Redesign and produce proto type No2. for the development of a certain product. d. Collect and evaluate customer requirements and competition scenario. A project plan is used to keep the project under control. f. Develop final prototype. Complete production documentation. The tasks are the activities to be performed during the design process.7. b. Given below is a list of tasks drafted by a design team. • Estimate product development cost. .A project manager is put in charge of a project team composed of a core group of personnels from several functional areas or groups assigned on a full time basis. It helps the design team and management to know how the project is actually progressing. 5. 5. resources required. They are. a. e. A functional area focuses on a single discipline. Establish two concepts for product development. Test prototype No1 and select one design for finalisation.
Even though the tasks are initially identified. (True) [S '97] 2. Time & other Resources Required. Develop packaging. l. for the task No. k. Step 3: Estimate the Personnel. Step 4 Develop a Sequence for the tasks The next step is scheduling of tasks-the purpose is to ensure that each task is completed. Develop quality control procedures. two months Concept generation Two designers. before its result is needed. State the objective for each task. Normally design cost is only about 5% of manufacturing cost. Completion of each of the tasks listed above will consume resources such as personnel. the objective is to collect information required for developing specification. Prepare patent applications. Step . The above plan developed in the early stage of the design has to be refined as the project progresses. CPM is the best method to accomplish this. Market research is necessary before starting the production of any product. An estimate of the requirement of resources may look like: Task Personnel/time Collecting data Two market surveyors.2. [S '01] . Write a short note on – Product planning and task classification. Questions 1. two week. Develop marketing plan. (a) above. For example. i. Establish product appearance. the costs for developing the product can be estimated. they need to be refined to ensure that the results of the activities are the stated objectives. time etc. j.h. Step 5 Estimate Product Development Cost On the basis of the above steps.
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