Archaic Phrases

jwr Occasionally I feel to dig into the etymological treasury of my memories. Only few of us seem to enjoy the revival of lost words, but I do. A great number of strange etymological anomalies may be identified in remote areas, such as colonies, islands mountains and other remote territories. I remember those strange south-African words which had been invented by the colonists to describe new objects, animals and situations. The naming conventions used Dutch words which in their combinations turn out to be most inventive: peuselhappie 1, hijsbakkie2, moltrein3, papwiel4. Usually these newly created words are rather long. In contrast the archaic words will often be the shortest words in a dictionary. In studying the shortest and probably also oldest words I identified æ as a multifunctional word, which may have been a root for may other words and symbols. This root-word may be identified as a basic principle in Germanic, especially in Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon dialects. The tree's common English name, ash, goes back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. Both words also meant "spear" in their respective languages.

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I'm taking it from her'. Germanic peoples seem to apply and concentrate this “Æ”-vowel for some of the most important words such as the ego-pronoun. The problems start when Danes speak.(class) A.Your Say . 10 5 The Danish language's irritable vowel syndrome 6 linguist at the Center for Child Language at the University of Southern Denmark 7 8 9 10 BBC . the unity-symbol “one”.am. u. says Dorthe Bleses6. e.I. such as in the sentence: “æ æ å æ ø i æ å” which may be interpreted as: “jeg er på øen i åen” (“I am on the island at the river's shore”). Another sample of a genuine vowel-based sentence is given by a blogger Troels: In my local Danish dialect.in. we have this sentence: A æ u å æ ø i æ å. depending upon where the vowels are placed in words and sentence strings. too. "I am in (class) A". all one letter words9.Languages . is. me too!" See here the meaning of the single words: æ . Then he asks back: "But what about you?" His friend answers: Å. Danish actually has some 40 vowel sounds. eu i-o iau meaning 'that sheep is hers. In the Central Norwegian dialect words have been so shortened that it's possible to construct sentences entirely made of vowels.Weird words . o. me.Your Say . æ i å u å æ ø i æ å? It means: I am on the island in the river. “law”. According to the linguist.SirJibby 2008-01-06 . "oh. In spoken speech.Weird words . ø. I am in (class) A. are you also on the island in the river? All vowels. The bipolarity may have been based on the Ask and Embla Antipodes in Scandinavian mythology. “marriage”. “to be”. are. lit. Romanian This reminds of a Romanian sentence composed only of vowels: Oaia aia e a ei. lit.Troels . A .Vowel-based languages Danish An overabundance of vowel sounds makes Danish a difficult language to learn – even for Danish children5. even consonants belong to the vowels: a. Famous jokes have been formulated: A school kid is walking home after his first day at school. “tradition”. representing Adam and Eve.Sent by: Magne æ (The Creation Legend encoded in a Singular Vowel) BBC . He meets a friend who asks: "Which class do you attend?" The child answers: Æ e i A.Languages .7 In some Danish dialects the æ-phoneme may be used in various applications.Your Say .2008-01-06 BBC . æ.Languages . å oh.8 These most important themes have all been packed inside the bipolar “AE”-sequence and probably the vowel “Æ” also played an important role in their mythology and linguistic concept. But written Danish is not the issue. i. æ e i A æ å!.. Generally Scandinavian dialects have been shortened to use concentrated sequences of vowels. å and y. e . The code may have been designed for some special purpose such as a philosophical/religious principle. In Danish..Weird words . i . it takes Danish children with Danish parents until they are nine or ten years old – in the third or fourth grade – to “crack the code” of the Danish language.

God is the wisdom and law of world-dwellers. • 11 Æ . Norwegian: huset. law”). • In western and southern Jutish dialects of Danish. These dialects are rarely committed to writing but some dialect literature exists. Icelandic. water. Old German êwa. • • • • The æ is named æsc "ash tree" after the Anglo-Saxon ᚫ rune.The multifunctional word Æ In studying the shortest and probably also oldest words I identified æ as a multifunctional word. êwe. mostly found in Trøndelag. Cognate with North Frisian ia (“river”). Icelandic á (“stream. river”). stream. it is written as æ when these dialects are rendered in writing11. and it is thus a normal spoken word. tradition. river”). northern Norway. Ol Frisian ewa. marriage God is wisdom and æ woruldbuendra. ǣwnian = to marry. stream”). river. flowing water”). flood”). from Proto-IndoEuropean *akʷā. • • ae (Danish) = fondle. æ is also the proclitic definite article: æ hus (the house). êa. from Old English ēa (“running water. Swedish. êha. æ has a significant meaning: the first person singular pronoun I. custom.(“water. and parts of western and southern Norway and in the western Danish dialects of Thy and Southern Jutland. Latin aqua (“water”). *aiwaz (“law”). creek”). from Proto-IndoEuropean *oiw. ceremony.the ego-pronoun) • In Norwegian dialects. ê (German Ehe). caress. ê. Dutch. Swedish å (“stream. German Ache (“water. Eastern Frisian äi (“river”). from Proto-Germanic *ahwō (“waters. Frisian: aaien • • ēa (old English) = river. symbolizing: • æ (Norwegian) = I (first-person singular personal pronoun . The old-Dutch word “ee” (law) is still found in “eega” (spouse). as opposed to Standard Danish and all other Nordic varieties which have enclitic definite articles (Danish. running water.kindly. Cognate with Old Saxon êo. ǣw (old English) = law. stream. stroke lightly . scripture . Faroese: húsið (the house)). Dutch aa (“water. â. Etymology: From Proto-Germanic *aiwō. wed Etymology: From Middle English. river”). æ . usually.(“custom.

êwa +Ohd. ich. Middle Dutch nieuwe. ê). Russian novyi. éwe. Danish and Swedish ny. recent."new" (cf. êha. inexperienced. aieí = altijd. Onfra. Old Frisian nie. Old Church Slavonic novu. Gothic niujis "new"). Old Irish nue. Persian nau. Ofri. ǽ. ewe. Dutch nieuw. at any time. êwa (Mhd. Old High German niuwl. fresh.kindly. custom. from PIE *newo. niowe. I. iew (Mnl. new aaien (Dutch and fondle. henceforth. ævum = tijdperk. Hittite newash. ee ie. marriage From Proto-Germanic *aiwiOld High German ēwa life aa (Dutch) ewe. *newjaz (cf.Gmc. earlier niwe "new. ic (old) German/ (old) Dutch ih.) eeuwig (Dutch) (running) water eternal. 14 Etymos Dictionary Danish-English 15 new (adj. ǽ12 å evig æ. eternity13 adv ever. Oier. Welsh newydd "new"). ik Explanations and Remarks I ego-pronoun proclitic definite article law. novel. Go. Gr. aiws lange tijd. Mnl. Sanskrit navah. stroke lightly . ætas. ê ee (Dutch) Ehe (German) Y. ǣw êwa. untried." from P. constantly. êa. ook ieder). Ags. jeg æ ægte (vie) æ . aiṓn = eeuw. êwe. . ee. ceremony. perpetually. unheard-of. scripture. âyus = leven. ēa ǽ ǽfre ae 14 ny niwe. eeuwigheid + Skr. Lat. caress Frisian) nie (Old Frisian) new (-> not eternal)15 nij (old-Dutch) nieuw (Dutch) 12 oeme_dictionaries 13 eeuw v.. Latin novus. always. German neu. Old Saxon niuwi. Greek neos. different from the old. aes = leeftijd (z. Lithuanian naujas.Overview of the multifunctional word Æ in a Table Scandinavian (old) English Jutish Danish æ. ic.) Old English neowe.

The archaic society considered the oldest constructs as the most valuable . a tributary of Lake Lucerne in Switzerland Aabach (Afte). ǽ. a river in northern France Aa River (Meuse). Germany Aa (Nethe). éwe. Pluim (1911). ætas. The Wiktionary claims that in Maastricht dialect ieuw18 is to be translated as a “eeuw” (century). aiṓn = century. Germany Münstersche Aa. a river in Drenthe and Groningen. ewe. Ae.or to be precise anything that has been created after the world's creation. Belgium which joins the Nete River Engelberger Aa. êwe. aiws a long time. It must be noted that all names essentially are vowelcombinations or pure vowels. ee. a river in Lower Saxony. âyus = life. eeuw v.. Germany Aa. formerly called the Große Aa. êwa (Mhd. of IJ such as in A-and E-rivernames. eternity + Skr. a river in North Rhine-Westphalia. a river in North Brabant. Netherlands Drentsche Aa. Onfra.more than newer designs. a river in Germany. Vercoullie (1925). aieí = always. Mnl. An overview listed in AA-rivernames defines the following subset of a voluminous overview listing additional names such as Aa. a river in Obwalden and Nidwalden. a river in North Rhine-Westphalia. a river in Antwerp. or Ustermer Aa. aes = age17. which is less than 100 years old . Gr. one of several Westphalian rivers called Aa Sarner Aa.Wiktionary . although originally “eeuw” is an unlimited period of time (eternity). Netherlands Aabach (Greifensee). a river in North Rhine-Westphalia. Lat. Keur van Nederlandsche woordafleidingen geciteerd in eeuw 17 J. The Anglo-Saxon word is ǽ. And for the word “new” might have to be considered as a negation of “ew”. a river in Switzerland Sarner Aa.Archaic roots Rivier names (subset) The oldest Dutch names may have been rivers and waters. a river in North Brabant. Go. Ie. Ofri. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aa River (France). Nieuw (new) Therefore “new” is describing anything. In Dutch language a city's name like Nijmegen (“New Market”) and Nijkerk („nije Kercke“ = new church) also use the “nij” for new. Beknopt etymologisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal. 16 T. Germany Aa (Werre). êwa +Ohd. E. ævum = era. geciteerd in eeuw 18 ieuw . a river in Germany Aa (Möhne). Ee. Ags. Oier. In Danish the word for “new” is “ny”. Switzerland Große Aa. a river in Obwalden. Netherlands Aa of Weerijs. ê). Switzerland Ieuw (ew) In Gothic the word iew = an unlimited period of time (eternity)16.

Abram (‫ )אברם‬was to marry Sarai (‫. The symbolism may be identified in Abram's conversion to Abraham.Das heilige Buch der KABBALA.Das heilige Buch der KABBALA. 1: na'arah or na'ara (from: Daniel Chanan Matt .21 According to the Zohar22 the “H” has been symbolized in the Holy Name AHJH (Ehejeh) to join all elements in the “H”-symbol. 15a-16a. The addition of the letter H may have been symbolized in the Dutch verb “Huwen” (to wed). fol.na'arah or na'ara I. If a young woman [that is] a virgin be betrothed unto an husband.” Then God declared Sarai's new name: “Sarah” (‫ )שרה‬and blessed her (Gen 17 EU) .page 285 . fol.)אברהם‬a father of many nations. and lie with her. )שרי‬ Abram is now ninety-nine when God declares Abram's new name: “Abraham (‫ . quoted in DER SOHAR . Ehe (matrimony) As a remarkable feature the German word “Ehe” (matrimony) seems to have been based on the Hebrew letter “He” and the Holy Name Eheje (respectively AHJH). Sarai and Sarah In Biblical history the letter “H” symbolizes a matrimonial link. 19 20 21 22 The Zohar. Na'arah and Na'ara19 Fig.To Wed = Adding an “H” The letter “H” (probably related to the Eta and/or Æ ?) may have played an important role in symbolism. quoted in DER SOHAR . and a man find her in the city. According to the Zohar 20 the letter “H” cannot be applied as long the male and female partners have not been joined.2004) In the fifth book of Mozes (22:23) the word “Na'arah” (girl) has been written without an “H” because she has not been joined to a man. Abraham and Abram. volume 1 . translated by Ernst Müller Deu 22:23 I. 51a-b. translated by Ernst Müller .

IEU." probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse kynda "to kindle.or IOU-based words of the Mediterranean territories seem to have used the complete triad of the Dyēus' IeU-core.1300. young one. produce" (c. marriage. Related: Kindled.1200). custom. The name's etymology may be related to a principal divine name: Odin. from kindel (n.)) + -el. Ygdrasil or Igdrasil23 According to Norse myth the Yggdrasil had been considered as an huge ash tree stabilzing earth. c. + frequentative suffix -le.1200. Some of the Dutch words (“ieuw”. from Uggr a name of Odin. of obscure origin.1400. Correlation to Dyēus The previously described short vowel words may all refer to the central triad of the PIE-sky-god Dyēus. and hell with its roots and branches. In Roman derivate languages the IU-based words describe the ego-pronoun (in Provencal “IeU”) and the law (in “ius” and the divine order in IU-piter). Kindle24 And even kindle may be related to the fire making procedure in which two pieces of wood (one piece of hardwood and one piece of softwood) are being rubbed against each other." Swedish quindla "kindle. which also may be read as “a” or “ae”. ceremony.) "offspring of an animal. In contrast to the Scandinavian words the IU-. The Dutch word “aaien” (“to caress”) may be related to the Danish verb “ae”. The æ-core has been used as a multiple fundamental for the ego-pronoun. to light a fire. Figurative use from c. "bring forth. 23 Igdrasil 24 kindle . waters/rivers and the Danish verb ae for to caress. the law. Intransitive sense "to begin to burn. from yggr. to start on fire. The Scandinavian roots seem to be concentrating on the central vowel “e”. "to set fire to. kindling. '”euwig”/”eeuwig” for “eternal” and “nieuw” for “new”) seem to be related to the Dyēus' IEU-core. Influenced in form. Used especially of rabbits. to catch fire" is from c.Yggdrasil ." of uncertain origin. uggr frightful + drasill horse. [Old Norse (probably meaning: Uggr's horse). heaven." from Old English gecynd (see kind (n. scripture. To kindle is to give birth to young. with kindel "to give birth" (of animals). and sometimes in Middle English in sense. cundel.

................................................................................................................................................2 Romanian..............5 Rivier names (subset)................................................................................................7 Kindle......2 The multifunctional word Æ.....................................................................................7 ......................................... Ygdrasil or Igdrasil...................................................................................................................................................................5 To Wed = Adding an “H”........................................................................................................5 Ieuw (ew)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Archaic roots.............................................7 Correlation to Dyēus .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Abraham and Abram....................................................6 Na'arah and Na'ara..........................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Yggdrasil .......................Inhoud Vowel-based languages................................ Sarai and Sarah.......3 Overview of the multifunctional word Æ in a Table..................................................................................5 Nieuw (new)................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Ehe (matrimony)............................................................2 Danish........................................................

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