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# MD/AY2011-2012

ME304
KDM.1
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
L09: POSITION ANALYSIS OF
MECHANISMS

Dr. Murali Damodaran
murali@iitgn.ac.in

Spring Semester of AY2011-2012
ME304: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS
OF MACHINES
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.2
LECTURE 09
23 January 2012
ME304: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines

Introduction to Mechanisms.
..continuing with Kinematic Fundamentals
Position, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis. (Kinematics)
Analytical Method for Position Synthesis
(The basis for computer modeling and synthesis of linkages)
Design of Cam Follower Mechanisms.
Gear tooth profiles, Spur gears and Helical gears,Epicyclic Gear Trains
Belt drives
Dynamic Analysis of Mechanisms (Dynamics)
Balancing
Analysis and Applications of Discrete and Continuous System Vibration

MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.3
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Analysis of
Planar Mechanism

• Converting between the two

• Position Difference, Relative position
– Difference (one point, two times)
– relative (two points, same time)
R
BA
=R
B
-R
A

X
Y
R
B
R
A
A

B

R
BA
( )
2 2
arctan
A X Y
Y X
R R R
R R u
= +
=
cos
sin
X A
Y A
R R
R R
u
u
=
=
( )
,
Cartesian:
Polar: ( , )
X Y
A
R R
R u
o
o
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.4
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Position Analysis of Fourbar
2 4
2
3 4
Given :
, , and
position of the ground link O O
and the angle
Objective: Find and
a b c d
u
u u
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.5
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Graphical Analysis of Fourbar
• Draw an arc of radius b, centered
at A

• Draw an arc of radius c, centered
at O
4

• The intersections are the two
open and crossed

a
d
u
2

b
c
u
3

u
4

A
O
2

O
4

B
1

B
2

MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.6
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
2
2
Coordinates of Point
cos
sin
A:
x
y
A a
A a
u
u
=
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
Solve these equations to
Coordinates of Point B
See Page 17
fin
7-1
d
a
78 for solution
nd
x x y y
x y
x y
b B A B A
c B d B
B B
= ÷ + ÷
= ÷ +
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.7
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Analysis of
Planar Mechanism
Coordinate Systems:
GCS = Global Coordinate System, (X, Y)
LNCS = Local Non-Rotating Coordinate System , (x, y)
LRCS = Local Rotating Coordinate System , (x’, y’)
x’
y’
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.8
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Airplane
Fight Dynamics
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.9
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
http://synthetica.eng.uci.edu/~mcca
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.10
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Representation of Position
Vectors
• For planar motion complex numbers on the real-imaginary plane
can be used to model position vectors

• Euler identity e
±iθ
=cos θ ± i sin θ (Note-Norton uses j instead of i in
his text book i.e. e
±jθ
=cos θ ± j sin θ )

• Cartesian form: R
A
cos θ + i R
A
sin θ

• Polar form: R
A
e
i θ

MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.11
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Representation of Position
Vectors
Multiplying a vector by e
iu
corresponds
to rotating the vector through u
2 i i i
A A
R e e R e
u u u
× =
2
For a rotation
through 90 degrees
cos sin
2 2
i
e i i
t
t t
= + =
cos sin
i
A
Re
R iR
R R
u
u u +
=
B
R iR =
2
C
R i R R = = ÷
3
D
R i R iR = = ÷
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.12
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Write the vector loop equation:

(Positive from tail to tip)
Substitute with complex vectors

Split the knowns on one side and the unknowns on the other.
Call the knowns Z

2 3 4 1
0 R R R R + ÷ ÷ =
3 2 4 1
0
i i i i
ae be ce de
u u u u
+ ÷ ÷ =
2 1
3 4 2 1
known
i i i
i i
i
be ce ae de Z
Z ae de
u u
u
u u
u
÷ = ÷ + =
= ÷ +
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.13
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
3 4 2 1
i i i i
be ce ae de Z
u u u u
÷ = ÷ + =
3 4
3 4
Define and
i i
i i
s e t e
be c bs c Z e t
u u
u u
= =
÷ = = ÷
3 4
1 1
Define = and i.e. conjugates
and a conjugate based on known link lengths
1
noting that
i i
b c
Z
s
s e t e
s t
bs ct Z
Z
t Z
u u ÷ ÷
= = =
÷ =
= ÷ =
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.14
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
1
no ting that
bs ct Z
b c
Z
s Z t
Z
÷ =
÷ = =
bs ct Z
b c
Z
s t
= +
= +
( )
2
2 2
2 2 2
c
b ct Z Z
t
c
b c ctZ Z ZZ
t
b t c t ct Z cZ tZZ
| |
= + +
|
\ .
= + + +
= + + +
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.15
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
( )
2 2 2 2
0 c t ct Z t c b ZZ cZ + + ÷ + + =
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
Solve 0 for
4
2
c b ZZ
ct Z t c b ZZ cZ
c b ZZ c ZZ
t
t
cZ
+
÷ ÷ +
÷ + +
÷ + ÷
=
±
=
ct Z
s
b
+
=
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.16
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
3 4
3 4
3 4
and
conjugate of
1
noting that
i i
i i
i i
s e t e
Z be ce
Z be ce Z
Z
Z
u u
u u
u u ÷ ÷
= =
= ÷
= ÷ ÷
=
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2
4

2
c b ZZ c b ZZ c ZZ
t
cZ
÷ ÷ + ± ÷ + ÷
=
ct Z
s
b
+
=
( )
2 2 2
Solve 0 ct Z t c b ZZ cZ + ÷ + + =
Solve this in Matlab/Octave
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.17
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.18
KINEMATICS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.19
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Software Systems for
R L NORTON’s SUITE OF PROGRAMS
ACCOMPANYING THE TEXTBOOK
Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery

FOURBAR
FIVEBAR
SIXBAR
SLIDER
DYNACAM
ENGINE

All are student SI editions
COMMERCIAL SOFTWARES FOR

WORKING MODEL 2D

SAM
(Synthesis and Analysis of Mechanisms)

MATLAB Simechanics Toolbox

Ch MECHANISMS Toolkit

AutoDesk Inventor
In-Motion Module
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.20
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
FOURBAR
Program
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.21
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
FOURBAR
Program
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.22
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.23
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis
• Given: link lengths a, b
and c, θ
1
, θ
2
(the motor
position)
• Find: the unknown angle
θ
3
and length d

2 3 4 1
0 R R R R ÷ ÷ ÷ =
3 2 4 1
0
i i i i
ae be ce de
u u u u
÷ ÷ ÷ =
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.24
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis
3 2 4 1
2 3 4 1
2 3 4 1
1
Using Euler Equivalents, collecting
real and imaginary terms and setting
each to zero results in:
cos cos cos cos 0
sin sin sin sin 0
As 0, these eq a io
0
u t
i i i i
ae be ce
a b c d
de
a b c d
u u u u
u u u u
u u u u
u
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷
=
÷ =
÷ ÷
÷
=
÷
2 3 4
2 3 4
cos cos c
ns simplify to
os 0
si
:
n sin sin 0
a b c d
a b c
u u u
u u u
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
1
2 4
3
sin sin
sin
a c
b
u u
u
÷
÷
¬
| |
=
|
\ .
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.25
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1
1
2 4
3
1
2
3
4
2 3
Here is the offset.
Initial set up of coordinate system
for slider block such that
0 and 90
Hence one solution i
sin sin
sin
sin
sin
cos c
s:
os
a c
b
a c
c
b
d a b
u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
÷
÷
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
÷
|
= =
|
=
|
\ .
= ÷
1
2
3
2 3
The next valid solution taking into
account the multi-valued
sin
sin
cos
ness of arcsin
i
c
s
os
a c
b
d a b
u
u t
u u
÷
÷
| |
= ÷ +
|
\ .
= ÷
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.26
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1 2
3
2 3
Hence one solution i
sin
sin
:
cos
s
cos
a c
b
d a b
u
u
u u
÷
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
= ÷
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.27
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1 2
3
2 3
sin
sin
cos cos
a c
b
d a b
u
u t
u u
÷
÷
| |
= ÷ +
|
\ .
= ÷
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.28
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
• Given: link lengths a, c and d,
u
1
, u
2
(the motor position),
and ¸

the angle between the
slider and rod

• Find: the unknown angles u
3

and u
4
and length b

u
2

MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.29
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Write the vector loop equation:

(Positive from tail to tip)

Substitute with complex vectors

2 3 4 1
0 R R R R ÷ ÷ ÷ =
( )
3 2 4 1
4
2 4 1
3 4
0
Since
0
i i i i
i
i i i
ae be ce de
ae be ce de
u u u u
u ¸
u u u
u u ¸
+
÷ ÷ ÷ =
= +
÷ ÷ ÷ =
u
2

MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.30
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
u
2

• Grouping knowns and unknowns

• Denoting

• Taking the conjugate to get the
second equation

( )
4
2 4 1
0
i
i i i
ae be ce de
u ¸
u u u
+
÷ ÷ ÷ =
( )
4
4 2 1
2 1
known
i
i i i
i i
be ce ae de Z
Z ae de
u ¸
u u u
u u
+
+ = ÷ =
= ÷
4
,
i i
s e t e
u ¸
= =
( )
4
4
4 4
i
i
i i i
Z be ce
Z be e ce bst cs
u ¸
u
u u ¸
+
= +
= + = +
1 b
Z bst cs c
s t
| |
= + = +
|
\ .
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.31
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
u
2

2 2
Multiply and to g
1
et:
1
Z Z
Z bst cs
b
Z bst cs c
s t
ZZ b bc t c
t
= +
| |
=
| |
= + + +
|
\
+
|
\
.
= +

.
2 2
1
Solve 0 for b c t b c ZZ b
t
| |
+ + + ÷ =
|
\ .
( )
2
2 2
1 1
4
2
c t c t c ZZ
t t
b
| | | |
÷ + ± + ÷ ÷
| |
\ . \ .
=
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.32
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
2 2
1
Solve 0 for b c t b c ZZ b
t
| |
+ + + ÷ =
|
\ .
( )
2
2 2
1 1
4
2
c t c t c ZZ
t t
b
| | | |
÷ + ± + ÷ ÷
| |
\ . \ .
=
u
2

From Z bst cs
Z
s
bt c
= +
=
+
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.33
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.34
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
• Write vector loop equation

• Apply complex number representation

2 3 4 5 1
0 R R R R R + ÷ ÷ ÷ =
3 5 2 4 1
0
i i i i i
ae be ce de fe
u u u u u
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
5 2
5 2
Gear Ratio: will relate and v
via a phase angle as follows:

ì u u
|
u ìu | = +
3 2 4 2 1
( )
0
i i i i i
ae be ce de fe
u u u ìu | u +
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.35
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of

3 2 4 2 1
3 4 2 2 1
3 4
( )
( )
Separate unknowns and know
Denot
n
e
s
0
i i i i i
i i i i i
i i
Z
ae be ce de fe
be ce ae de fe Z
be ce
u u u ìu | u
u u u ìu | u
u u
+
+
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
3 4
3 4
Form Conjugate
Define and
i i
i i
s be t
bs
c
ct Z
b c
Z bs ct
e
be ce
s t
u u
u u
= =
÷ = ÷ =
= ÷ = ÷
The remaining analysis follows exactly
the same way as shown for the fourbar linkage
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.36
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.37
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.38
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
• Watt’s sixbar can be solved as 2 fourbar linkages
• R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
, then R
5
R
6
R
7
R
8
• R
4
and R
5
have a constant angle between them
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.39
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.40
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.41
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
• Stephenson’s sixbar can sometimes be solved as a fourbar and
• R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
, then R
4
R
5
R
6
R
7
R
8
• R
3
and R
5
have a constant angle between them
• If motor is at O
6
you have to solve eqns. simultaneously
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.42
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Finding the position of any
• Once the unknown angles have been found it is easy to
find any position on the linkage (relative to pivot O
2
)
• For point S
R
s
=se
i(u
2
+o
2
)

• For point P
R
P
=ae
i u
2

+pe
i (u
3
+o
3
)
• For point U
R
U
=d

+ue
i (u
4
+o
4
)

a
b
d
c
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.43
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
x’
y’
R
p
R
A
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.44
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Transmission
• Extreme value of transmission angle when links 1 and 2
are aligned.

( )
2
2 2
1
arccos
2
b c d a
bc
µ
(
+ ÷ ÷
= (
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2 2
2
arccos
2
b c d a
bc
µ t
(
+ ÷ +
= ÷ (
(
¸ ¸
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.45
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Toggle Positions
• Caused by the collinearity of links 3 and 4.

2 2 2 2
1
2 2
cos 0
2
toggle toggle
a d b c bc
u u t
÷
| | + ÷ ÷
= ± s s
|
\ .
u
2

u
2

2
3
4
4
3
2
Overlapped
Extended
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.46
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Toggle Positions
• Caused by the collinearity of links 3 and 4.

• For a non-Grashof linkage, only one of the values of

will be between –1 and 1
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
cos 0
2
toggle toggle
a d b c bc
u u t
÷
| | + ÷ ÷
= ± s s
|
\ .
2 2 2 2
2
a d b c bc
| | + ÷ ÷
±
|
\ .
MD/AY2011-2012
ME304
KDM.47

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