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ME304
KDM.1
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
L09: POSITION ANALYSIS OF
MECHANISMS
Dr. Murali Damodaran
murali@iitgn.ac.in
Spring Semester of AY20112012
ME304: KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS
OF MACHINES
MD/AY20112012
ME304
KDM.2
LECTURE 09
23 January 2012
ME304: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines
Introduction to Mechanisms.
..continuing with Kinematic Fundamentals
Position, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis. (Kinematics)
Analytical Method for Position Synthesis
(The basis for computer modeling and synthesis of linkages)
Design of Cam Follower Mechanisms.
Gear tooth profiles, Spur gears and Helical gears,Epicyclic Gear Trains
Belt drives
Dynamic Analysis of Mechanisms (Dynamics)
Balancing
Analysis and Applications of Discrete and Continuous System Vibration
Course Website @ https://sites.google.com/a/iitgn.ac.in/me304/
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Analysis of
Planar Mechanism
• Converting between the two
• Position Difference, Relative position
– Difference (one point, two times)
– relative (two points, same time)
R
BA
=R
B
R
A
X
Y
R
B
R
A
A
B
R
BA
( )
2 2
arctan
A X Y
Y X
R R R
R R u
= +
=
cos
sin
X A
Y A
R R
R R
u
u
=
=
( )
,
Cartesian:
Polar: ( , )
X Y
A
R R
R u
o
o
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Position Analysis of Fourbar
Linkage Mechanism
2 4
2
3 4
Given :
The lengths of links
, , and
position of the ground link O O
and the angle
Objective: Find and
a b c d
u
u u
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Graphical Analysis of Fourbar
Linkage
• Draw an arc of radius b, centered
at A
• Draw an arc of radius c, centered
at O
4
• The intersections are the two
possible positions for the linkage,
open and crossed
a
d
u
2
b
c
u
3
u
4
A
O
2
O
4
B
1
B
2
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
2
2
Coordinates of Point
cos
sin
A:
x
y
A a
A a
u
u
=
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2 2
Solve these equations to
Coordinates of Point B
See Page 17
fin
71
d
a
78 for solution
nd
x x y y
x y
x y
b B A B A
c B d B
B B
= ÷ + ÷
= ÷ +
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Analysis of
Planar Mechanism
Coordinate Systems:
GCS = Global Coordinate System, (X, Y)
LNCS = Local NonRotating Coordinate System , (x, y)
LRCS = Local Rotating Coordinate System , (x’, y’)
x’
y’
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Coordinate Systems for Airplane
Fight Dynamics
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Nonplanar Linkages3D
Spherical Linkages
http://synthetica.eng.uci.edu/~mcca
rthy/Linkages.html
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Representation of Position
Vectors
• For planar motion complex numbers on the realimaginary plane
can be used to model position vectors
• Euler identity e
±iθ
=cos θ ± i sin θ (NoteNorton uses j instead of i in
his text book i.e. e
±jθ
=cos θ ± j sin θ )
• Cartesian form: R
A
cos θ + i R
A
sin θ
• Polar form: R
A
e
i θ
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Representation of Position
Vectors
Multiplying a vector by e
iu
corresponds
to rotating the vector through u
2 i i i
A A
R e e R e
u u u
× =
2
For a rotation
through 90 degrees
cos sin
2 2
i
e i i
t
t t
= + =
cos sin
i
A
Re
R iR
R R
u
u u +
=
B
R iR =
2
C
R i R R = = ÷
3
D
R i R iR = = ÷
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
Write the vector loop equation:
(Positive from tail to tip)
Substitute with complex vectors
Split the knowns on one side and the unknowns on the other.
Call the knowns Z
2 3 4 1
0 R R R R + ÷ ÷ =
3 2 4 1
0
i i i i
ae be ce de
u u u u
+ ÷ ÷ =
2 1
3 4 2 1
known
i i i
i i
i
be ce ae de Z
Z ae de
u u
u
u u
u
÷ = ÷ + =
= ÷ +
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
3 4 2 1
i i i i
be ce ae de Z
u u u u
÷ = ÷ + =
3 4
3 4
Define and
i i
i i
s e t e
be c bs c Z e t
u u
u u
= =
÷ = = ÷
3 4
1 1
Define = and i.e. conjugates
and a conjugate based on known link lengths
1
noting that
i i
b c
Z
s
s e t e
s t
bs ct Z
Z
t Z
u u ÷ ÷
= = =
÷ =
= ÷ =
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
1
no ting that
bs ct Z
b c
Z
s Z t
Z
÷ =
÷ = =
bs ct Z
b c
Z
s t
= +
= +
( )
2
2 2
2 2 2
c
b ct Z Z
t
c
b c ctZ Z ZZ
t
b t c t ct Z cZ tZZ
 
= + +

\ .
= + + +
= + + +
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
( )
2 2 2 2
0 c t ct Z t c b ZZ cZ + + ÷ + + =
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
Solve 0 for
4
2
c b ZZ
ct Z t c b ZZ cZ
c b ZZ c ZZ
t
t
cZ
+
÷ ÷ +
÷ + +
÷ + ÷
=
±
=
ct Z
s
b
+
=
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
3 4
3 4
3 4
and
conjugate of
1
noting that
i i
i i
i i
s e t e
Z be ce
Z be ce Z
Z
Z
u u
u u
u u ÷ ÷
= =
= ÷
= ÷ ÷
=
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2
4
2
c b ZZ c b ZZ c ZZ
t
cZ
÷ ÷ + ± ÷ + ÷
=
ct Z
s
b
+
=
( )
2 2 2
Solve 0 ct Z t c b ZZ cZ + ÷ + + =
Solve this in Matlab/Octave
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage in Octave
MD/AY20112012
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KINEMATICS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Software Systems for
Analysis of Various Linkages
R L NORTON’s SUITE OF PROGRAMS
ACCOMPANYING THE TEXTBOOK
Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery
FOURBAR
FIVEBAR
SIXBAR
SLIDER
DYNACAM
ENGINE
All are student SI editions
COMMERCIAL SOFTWARES FOR
LINKAGE MECHANISMS
WORKING MODEL 2D
SAM
(Synthesis and Analysis of Mechanisms)
MATLAB Simechanics Toolbox
Ch MECHANISMS Toolkit
AutoDesk Inventor
InMotion Module
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
FOURBAR
Program
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
FOURBAR
Program
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis
CrankSlider Linkage
• Given: link lengths a, b
and c, θ
1
, θ
2
(the motor
position)
• Find: the unknown angle
θ
3
and length d
2 3 4 1
0 R R R R ÷ ÷ ÷ =
3 2 4 1
0
i i i i
ae be ce de
u u u u
÷ ÷ ÷ =
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis
CrankSlider Linkage
3 2 4 1
2 3 4 1
2 3 4 1
1
Using Euler Equivalents, collecting
real and imaginary terms and setting
each to zero results in:
cos cos cos cos 0
sin sin sin sin 0
As 0, these eq a io
0
u t
i i i i
ae be ce
a b c d
de
a b c d
u u u u
u u u u
u u u u
u
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷
=
÷ =
÷ ÷
÷
=
÷
2 3 4
2 3 4
cos cos c
ns simplify to
os 0
si
:
n sin sin 0
a b c d
a b c
u u u
u u u
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
1
2 4
3
sin sin
sin
a c
b
u u
u
÷
÷
¬
 
=

\ .
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1
1
2 4
3
1
2
3
4
2 3
Here is the offset.
Initial set up of coordinate system
for slider block such that
0 and 90
Hence one solution i
sin sin
sin
sin
sin
cos c
s:
os
a c
b
a c
c
b
d a b
u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
÷
÷
÷
 
=

\ .
÷

= =

=

\ .
= ÷
1
2
3
2 3
The next valid solution taking into
account the multivalued
sin
sin
cos
ness of arcsin
i
c
s
os
a c
b
d a b
u
u t
u u
÷
÷
 
= ÷ +

\ .
= ÷
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1 2
3
2 3
Hence one solution i
sin
sin
:
cos
s
cos
a c
b
d a b
u
u
u u
÷
÷
 
=

\ .
= ÷
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Linkages with more than 4 bars
1 2
3
2 3
sin
sin
cos cos
a c
b
d a b
u
u t
u u
÷
÷
 
= ÷ +

\ .
= ÷
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted CrankSlider Linkage
• Given: link lengths a, c and d,
u
1
, u
2
(the motor position),
and ¸
the angle between the
slider and rod
• Find: the unknown angles u
3
and u
4
and length b
u
2
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted CrankSlider Linkage
Write the vector loop equation:
(Positive from tail to tip)
Substitute with complex vectors
2 3 4 1
0 R R R R ÷ ÷ ÷ =
( )
3 2 4 1
4
2 4 1
3 4
0
Since
0
i i i i
i
i i i
ae be ce de
ae be ce de
u u u u
u ¸
u u u
u u ¸
+
÷ ÷ ÷ =
= +
÷ ÷ ÷ =
u
2
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted CrankSlider Linkage
u
2
• Grouping knowns and unknowns
• Denoting
• Taking the conjugate to get the
second equation
( )
4
2 4 1
0
i
i i i
ae be ce de
u ¸
u u u
+
÷ ÷ ÷ =
( )
4
4 2 1
2 1
known
i
i i i
i i
be ce ae de Z
Z ae de
u ¸
u u u
u u
+
+ = ÷ =
= ÷
4
,
i i
s e t e
u ¸
= =
( )
4
4
4 4
i
i
i i i
Z be ce
Z be e ce bst cs
u ¸
u
u u ¸
+
= +
= + = +
1 b
Z bst cs c
s t
 
= + = +

\ .
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted CrankSlider Linkage
u
2
2 2
Multiply and to g
1
et:
1
Z Z
Z bst cs
b
Z bst cs c
s t
ZZ b bc t c
t
= +
 
=
 
= + + +

\
+

\
.
= +
.
2 2
1
Solve 0 for b c t b c ZZ b
t
 
+ + + ÷ =

\ .
( )
2
2 2
1 1
4
2
c t c t c ZZ
t t
b
   
÷ + ± + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
=
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.32
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted CrankSlider Linkage
2 2
1
Solve 0 for b c t b c ZZ b
t
 
+ + + ÷ =

\ .
( )
2
2 2
1 1
4
2
c t c t c ZZ
t t
b
   
÷ + ± + ÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
=
u
2
From Z bst cs
Z
s
bt c
= +
=
+
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Inverted CrankSlider Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.34
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
• Consider Geared fivebar linkage
• Write vector loop equation
• Apply complex number representation
2 3 4 5 1
0 R R R R R + ÷ ÷ ÷ =
3 5 2 4 1
0
i i i i i
ae be ce de fe
u u u u u
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
5 2
5 2
Gear Ratio: will relate and v
via a phase angle as follows:
ì u u

u ìu  = +
3 2 4 2 1
( )
0
i i i i i
ae be ce de fe
u u u ìu  u +
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.35
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
3 2 4 2 1
3 4 2 2 1
3 4
( )
( )
Separate unknowns and know
Denot
n
e
s
0
i i i i i
i i i i i
i i
Z
ae be ce de fe
be ce ae de fe Z
be ce
u u u ìu  u
u u u ìu  u
u u
+
+
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
3 4
3 4
Form Conjugate
Define and
i i
i i
s be t
bs
c
ct Z
b c
Z bs ct
e
be ce
s t
u u
u u
= =
÷ = ÷ =
= ÷ = ÷
The remaining analysis follows exactly
the same way as shown for the fourbar linkage
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.36
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Geared Fivebar Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.38
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Watt’s Sixbar Linkage
• Watt’s sixbar can be solved as 2 fourbar linkages
• R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
, then R
5
R
6
R
7
R
8
• R
4
and R
5
have a constant angle between them
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.39
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Watt’s Sixbar Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.40
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Watt’s Sixbar Linkage
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.41
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Stephenson’s Sixbar Linkage
• Stephenson’s sixbar can sometimes be solved as a fourbar and
then a fivebar linkage
• R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
, then R
4
R
5
R
6
R
7
R
8
• R
3
and R
5
have a constant angle between them
• If motor is at O
6
you have to solve eqns. simultaneously
MD/AY20112012
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POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Finding the position of any
point on a linkage
• Once the unknown angles have been found it is easy to
find any position on the linkage (relative to pivot O
2
)
• For point S
R
s
=se
i(u
2
+o
2
)
• For point P
R
P
=ae
i u
2
+pe
i (u
3
+o
3
)
• For point U
R
U
=d
+ue
i (u
4
+o
4
)
a
b
d
c
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.43
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Algebraic Position Analysis of
Fourbar Linkage
x’
y’
R
p
R
A
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.44
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Transmission
Angles of Fourbar Linkage
• Extreme value of transmission angle when links 1 and 2
are aligned.
( )
2
2 2
1
arccos
2
b c d a
bc
µ
(
+ ÷ ÷
= (
(
¸ ¸
( )
2
2 2
2
arccos
2
b c d a
bc
µ t
(
+ ÷ +
= ÷ (
(
¸ ¸
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.45
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Toggle Positions
of Fourbar Linkage
• Caused by the collinearity of links 3 and 4.
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
cos 0
2
toggle toggle
a d b c bc
ad ad
u u t
÷
  + ÷ ÷
= ± s s

\ .
u
2
u
2
2
3
4
4
3
2
Overlapped
Extended
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.46
POSITION ANALYSIS
OF MECHANISMS
Analysis of Toggle Positions
of a Fourbar Linkage
• Caused by the collinearity of links 3 and 4.
• For a nonGrashof linkage, only one of the values of
will be between –1 and 1
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
cos 0
2
toggle toggle
a d b c bc
ad ad
u u t
÷
  + ÷ ÷
= ± s s

\ .
2 2 2 2
2
a d b c bc
ad ad
  + ÷ ÷
±

\ .
MD/AY20112012
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KDM.47
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