This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

DRAFT

Lecture Notes

Introduction to

CONTINUUM MECHANICS

and Elements of

Elasticity/Structural Mechanics

c VICTOR

E. SAOUMA

Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428

Draft

0–2

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

0–3

PREFACE

Une des questions fondamentales que l’ing´nieur des Mat´riaux se pose est de connaˆ le comportee e itre ment d’un materiel sous l’eﬀet de contraintes et la cause de sa rupture. En d´ﬁnitive, c’est pr´cis´ment la e e e r´ponse ` c/mat es deux questions qui vont guider le d´veloppement de nouveaux mat´riaux, et d´terminer e a e e e leur survie sous diﬀ´rentes conditions physiques et environnementales. e L’ing´nieur en Mat´riaux devra donc poss´der une connaissance fondamentale de la M´canique sur le e e e e plan qualitatif, et ˆtre capable d’eﬀectuer des simulations num´riques (le plus souvent avec les El´ments e e e Finis) et d’en extraire les r´sultats quantitatifs pour un probl`me bien pos´. e e e Selon l’humble opinion de l’auteur, ces nobles buts sont id´alement atteints en trois ´tapes. Pour e e commencer, l’´l`ve devra ˆtre confront´ aux principes de base de la M´canique des Milieux Continus. ee e e e Une pr´sentation d´taill´e des contraintes, d´formations, et principes fondamentaux est essentiel. Par e e e e la suite une briefe introduction a l’Elasticit´ (ainsi qu’` la th´orie des poutres) convaincra l’´l`ve qu’un ` e a e ee probl`me g´n´ral bien pos´ peut avoir une solution analytique. Par contre, ceci n’est vrai (` quelques e e e e a exceptions prˆts) que pour des cas avec de nombreuses hypoth`ses qui simpliﬁent le probl`me (´lasticit´ e e e e e lin´aire, petites d´formations, contraintes/d´formations planes, ou axisymmetrie). Ainsi, la troisi`me e e e e et derni`re ´tape consiste en une briefe introduction a la M´canique des Solides, et plus pr´cis´ment e e ` e e e au Calcul Variationel. A travers la m´thode des Puissances Virtuelles, et celle de Rayleigh-Ritz, l’´l`ve e ee sera enﬁn prˆt ` un autre cours d’´l´ments ﬁnis. Enﬁn, un sujet d’int´rˆt particulier aux ´tudiants en e a ee e e e Mat´riaux a ´t´ ajout´, a savoir la R´sistance Th´orique des Mat´riaux cristallins. Ce sujet est capital e ee e ` e e e pour une bonne compr´hension de la rupture et servira de lien a un ´ventuel cours sur la M´canique de e ` e e la Rupture. Ce polycopi´ a ´t´ enti`rement pr´par´ par l’auteur durant son ann´e sabbatique a l’Ecole Polye ee e e e e ` technique F´d´rale de Lausanne, D´partement des Mat´riaux. Le cours ´tait donn´ aux ´tudiants en e e e e e e e deuxi`me ann´e en Fran¸ais. e e c Ce polycopi´ a ´t´ ´crit avec les objectifs suivants. Avant tout il doit ˆtre complet et rigoureux. A e eee e tout moment, l’´l`ve doit ˆtre ` mˆme de retrouver toutes les ´tapes suivies dans la d´rivation d’une ee e a e e e ´quation. Ensuite, en allant a travers toutes les d´rivations, l’´l`ve sera ` mˆme de bien connaˆ les e ` e ee a e itre limitations et hypoth`ses derri`re chaque model. Enﬁn, la rigueur scientiﬁque adopt´e, pourra servir e e e d’exemple a la solution d’autres probl`mes scientiﬁques que l’´tudiant pourrait ˆtre emmen´ ` r´soudre ` e e e ea e dans le futur. Ce dernier point est souvent n´glig´. e e Le polycopi´ est subdivis´ de fa¸on tr`s hi´rarchique. Chaque concept est d´velopp´ dans un parae e c e e e e graphe s´par´. Ceci devrait faciliter non seulement la compr´hension, mais aussi le dialogue entres ´lev´s e e e e e eux-mˆmes ainsi qu’avec le Professeur. e Quand il a ´t´ jug´ n´cessaire, un bref rappel math´matique est introduit. De nombreux exemples ee e e e sont pr´sent´s, et enﬁn des exercices solutionn´s avec Mathematica sont pr´sent´s dans l’annexe. e e e e e L’auteur ne se fait point d’illusions quand au complet et a l’exactitude de tout le polycopi´. Il a ´t´ ` e ee enti`rement d´velopp´ durant une seule ann´e acad´mique, et pourrait donc b´n´ﬁcier d’une r´vision e e e e e e e e extensive. A ce titre, corrections et critiques seront les bienvenues. Enﬁn, l’auteur voudrait remercier ses ´lev´s qui ont diligemment suivis son cours sur la M´canique e e e de Milieux Continus durant l’ann´e acad´mique 1997-1998, ainsi que le Professeur Huet qui a ´t´ son e e ee hˆte au Laboratoire des Mat´riaux de Construction de l’EPFL durant son s´jour a Lausanne. o e e `

Victor Saouma Ecublens, Juin 1998

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

0–4

PREFACE

One of the most fundamental question that a Material Scientist has to ask him/herself is how a material behaves under stress, and when does it break. Ultimately, it its the answer to those two questions which would steer the development of new materials, and determine their survival in various environmental and physical conditions. The Material Scientist should then have a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of Mechanics on the qualitative level, and be able to perform numerical simulation (most often by Finite Element Method) and extract quantitative information for a speciﬁc problem. In the humble opinion of the author, this is best achieved in three stages. First, the student should be exposed to the basic principles of Continuum Mechanics. Detailed coverage of Stress, Strain, General Principles, and Constitutive Relations is essential. Then, a brief exposure to Elasticity (along with Beam Theory) would convince the student that a well posed problem can indeed have an analytical solution. However, this is only true for problems problems with numerous simplifying assumptions (such as linear elasticity, small deformation, plane stress/strain or axisymmetry, and resultants of stresses). Hence, the last stage consists in a brief exposure to solid mechanics, and more precisely to Variational Methods. Through an exposure to the Principle of Virtual Work, and the Rayleigh-Ritz Method the student will then be ready for Finite Elements. Finally, one topic of special interest to Material Science students was added, and that is the Theoretical Strength of Solids. This is essential to properly understand the failure of solids, and would later on lead to a Fracture Mechanics course. These lecture notes were prepared by the author during his sabbatical year at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne) in the Material Science Department. The course was oﬀered to second year undergraduate students in French, whereas the lecture notes are in English. The notes were developed with the following objectives in mind. First they must be complete and rigorous. At any time, a student should be able to trace back the development of an equation. Furthermore, by going through all the derivations, the student would understand the limitations and assumptions behind every model. Finally, the rigor adopted in the coverage of the subject should serve as an example to the students of the rigor expected from them in solving other scientiﬁc or engineering problems. This last aspect is often forgotten. The notes are broken down into a very hierarchical format. Each concept is broken down into a small section (a byte). This should not only facilitate comprehension, but also dialogue among the students or with the instructor. Whenever necessary, Mathematical preliminaries are introduced to make sure that the student is equipped with the appropriate tools. Illustrative problems are introduced whenever possible, and last but not least problem set using Mathematica is given in the Appendix. The author has no illusion as to the completeness or exactness of all these set of notes. They were entirely developed during a single academic year, and hence could greatly beneﬁt from a thorough review. As such, corrections, criticisms and comments are welcome. Finally, the author would like to thank his students who bravely put up with him and Continuum Mechanics in the AY 1997-1998, and Prof. Huet who was his host at the EPFL.

Victor E. Saouma Ecublens, June 1998

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

Contents

I CONTINUUM MECHANICS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0–9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–1 1–1 1–2 1–4 1–4 1–5 1–6 1–6 1–8 1–8 1–10 1–10 1–10 1–10 1–11 1–11 1–11 1–11 1–11 1–13 1–13 1–13 1–14 1–14 1–14 1–15 2–1 2–1 2–3 2–4 2–5 2–6 2–7 2–8 2–9 2–9 2–10 2–10 2–11 2–11

1 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES; Part I Vectors and Tensors 1.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Coordinate Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.1 †General Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.1.1 †Contravariant Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.1.2 Covariant Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2.2 Cartesian Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Indicial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Tensor Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.1 Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.2 Multiplication by a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.3 Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4 Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.1 Outer Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.2 Inner Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.3 Scalar Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.4.4 Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2.5 Product of Two Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Dyads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.4 Rotation of Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.5 Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.6 Inverse Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.7 Principal Values and Directions of Symmetric Second Order Tensors 1.2.8 Powers of Second Order Tensors; Hamilton-Cayley Equations . . . . 2 KINETICS 2.1 Force, Traction and Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane; Cauchy’s Stress Tensor E 2-1 Stress Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Symmetry of Stress Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors . . . . . 2.5 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-2 Principal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-3 Stress Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4–8 . . . . .3. . . . .2. . 2. .3. . . . . . . . 4–16 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .5. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . Part II VECTOR 3. . . . . . . . . .1 Arch . . . . . . . . .4 Strains. 4–10 . . . 4 KINEMATIC 4. . . 4–6 . . . . . . .2 Displacements. . . . .1 † Change of Area Due to Deformation . . . .1 Elementary Deﬁnition of Strain . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .1 Scalar . . . . . . . . u∇x ) . . . . . . . .1. . . . 4. . . .4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Eulerian/Almansi’s Tensor . . . . . . . E 4-4 Material Deformation and Displacement Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 3-3 Gradient of a Scalar . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–4 . . . . x(X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft 0–2 2. . . . . .2 Strain Tensor . . 4–15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–12 . 2–13 2–15 2–15 2–16 2–19 3–1 3–1 3–1 3–3 3–4 3–4 3–6 3–7 3–8 3–8 3–8 3–9 3–10 3–11 3–12 3–12 3–13 3–13 DIFFERENTIATION . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–1 . . 4–12 . . . . . . 4. . . . . .4. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4–9 . t). . (dx)2 − (dX)2 . . . . . . . .2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. . . . . . . . . . .6. X∇x ) . 4–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-6 Lagrangian Tensor . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 E 2-4 Mohr’s Circle in Plane Stress . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .2 Second-Order Tensor .2 Eulerian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor . . . . 4–15 . . . . . . . . . . Small Deformation Theory 4. . . . . . 3. . . t) . .1 Finite Strain Tensors . 4. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Vector . . .2 Derivative WRT to a Scalar . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .1 Lagrangian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lagrangian/Green’s Tensor . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Curl . . . . . . . 4–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–13 .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mathematica Solution .1 Cauchy’s Deformation Tensor. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 2. . . .4. .2 † Change of Volume Due to Deformation . . . . . .2 Plates .2 Gradients . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (x. . . . . . 4–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Divergence . . . . . . . . .1 Vector . . . . . . . . . .2. 4–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–13 . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 3-2 Divergence . . . . . . .2 Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensors. . . . . . 2. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Saouma . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Position and Displacement Vectors. . . . . . 4–2 . . . . .1. .1 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Deformation. 3. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . (x∇X . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3 Deformation Tensors . . . E 3-5 Gradient of a Vector Field . . .1. . . . . . .1. .2 Small Strains in 2D . . . . . (dx)2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 3-4 Stress Vector normal to the Tangent of a Cylinder . . . . Stress Resultants . . E 3-1 Tangent to a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 4–3 . . . . . 4. . . . . . X) . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3 Examples . . . . 4–10 . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Gradient . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Some useful Relations . . . . . 4–14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . .2 Green’s Deformation Tensor. . . . . . . . . 3. (dX)2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. 3. . . . . .4. . . . X(x. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 4–8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 4–14 . . . . . . 4–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-2 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 4–5 . (u∇X . E 4-1 Displacement Vectors in Material and Spatial Forms . . . . . . 3. . . . . 4. . E 4-5 Green’s Deformation Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .1. . . E 4-3 Change of Volume and Area . . . . . .3 †Mohr’s Stress Representation Plane Simpliﬁed Theories. . .1 Small and Finite Strains in 1D . . 4–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . E 3-6 Curl of a vector . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .1 Conservation Laws . . . . 4–17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohr Circle . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Compatibility Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–24 .1 Small Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spatial Form . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . † Experimental Measurement of Strain . . . . . . . . . . 4–38 . . . . . . 4–24 . . . . 4–40 .1 Wheatstone Bridge Circuits . . . Strain Invariants. . . . . . 4. . Gradient Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-8 Relative Displacement along a speciﬁed direction .1 Symmetry of the Stress Tensor . . . .1 Small Strain . . . 4–24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–43 . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–26 . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial or Thermal Strains . . . . . . . .1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–36 . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Finite Strain. . . . . . . . . . . Polar Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Linear Momentum Principle. . . . . . . Lagrangian Stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–1 5–1 5–1 5–2 5–2 5–2 5–2 5–3 6–1 6–1 6–1 6–2 6–3 6–3 6–4 6–5 6–5 6–6 6–7 6–7 4. . . . . . . . . . 4–16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lagrangian Formulation . . .4. 4. . . 4–34 . Divergence Theorem . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stretch Ratio . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor . . . . . 6. . . . . . E 4-7 Lagrangian and Eulerian Linear Strain Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 4–21 . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotation vector . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .6. . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . .1 First . . . . . . . . . Equation of Motion . . . . E 5-1 Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem . .2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–23 . . . . . . . . . . . 4–25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .2. . . . . . . . .6. . . .3.6 4. 4–38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . 4. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–38 . . . . . 4. . . . . Principal Strains. . . . . . . .3 Examples . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . 4–29 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .3. . . . . . . . E 4-16 Mohr’s Circle . . E 6-1 Equilibrium Equation . . . . E 4-12 Polar Decomposition III . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–42 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 †Explicit Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Saouma . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS 6.3. . . . . . . 6. .5 Stoke’s Theorem . . . E 4-11 Polar Decomposition II . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–37 . . . . . . . . . .6 Linear Strain and Rotation Tensors . . . . . E 4-13 Strain Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 4–27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .2 Moment of Momentum Principle . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 4–29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-14 Piola-Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors . . . . 4–35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Integration by Parts . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 4–17 . . . . . 4.4 Gauss. .1 Introduction . . . 4–43 . .6. . . . . 4. .Draft CONTENTS 4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Quarter Bridge Circuits . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2. . 5. . . 4–16 . . . . . . . . E 4-15 Strain Invariants & Principal Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-9 Linear strain tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Eulerian Formulation . . Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Strain . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piola Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Conservation of Mass. . . . . . . 4–45 . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . 4. . . linear rotation tensor. . 4–27 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Summary and Discussion .5. . . . . .2 Line Integral . . . . . . . .2. . . . 4. . . . . 4–36 . . .2. . . . . . 0–3 . . . .5 4. . . . . 4–45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 5 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. . . . .1 Integral of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–21 .2. . . . . . . .2 Material Form . . . . . E 4-10 Polar Decomposition I . . .2 Second . . . . . . . . . .1 Momentum Principle . 4–19 . . . . .2 Finite Strain. . .2 Fluxes .6 Green. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Linear Thermoelasticity . . . . . . .4 Transversely Isotropic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equation of State. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 7. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Navier-Cauchy Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Isotropic Case . . . .1 State Variables . . . . . .1. . . . . .1. 7. .1 Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . .3. . Part I LINEAR 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Simple 2D Derivation .3. . . .2 Experimental Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 6–8 6–8 6–8 6–10 6–11 6–11 6–11 6–12 6–13 6–14 6–15 6–16 7–1 7–1 7–1 7–2 7–3 7–3 7–4 7–5 7–6 7–6 7–7 7–7 7–8 7–9 7–9 7–10 7–12 7–12 7–12 7–13 7–14 7–15 7–15 7–15 7–16 7–16 7–16 7–17 7–18 8–1 7 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bulk Modulus . . . .2 †Generalized Derivation . . . First Principle of Thermodynamics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1 Anisotropic . .5. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .1. . .5. . . . . . . .1 Hooke’s Law . .4 Thermodynamic Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity .1 Engineering Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Updated Balance of Equations and Unknowns . . . . .5. . . . . . .7.5. .2 Bulk’s Modulus. . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Isotropic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 8–3 . . .2 Special 2D Cases . . . . † Elements of Heat Transfer . 7. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Classical Thermodynamics . .7. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Statistical Mechanics . . . . .4 6. . . . .3 Plane Stress . . . . . .2 Axisymmetry . . .3. . . . . . . .3. 7.1. .5 6. .5. . . . . . . 9–1 9–1 9–1 9–4 9–4 9–5 9 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spatial Gradient of the Velocity . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . Balance of Equations and Unknowns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .1 † Thermodynamic Approach . . . . . . . . .1 Preliminary Considerations . .3 Orthotropic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .3.4 Compacted Forms . . . Volumetric and Deviatoric Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Young’s Modulus .3. . . . . . . .5 Fourrier Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2 Gibbs Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Clausius-Duhem Inequality . .3. . .1. . . . . . . . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . .3 Thermal Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . 9. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .Draft 0–4 6. . . . . . . . . . 8 INTERMEZZO II ELASTICITY/SOLID MECHANICS ELASTICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Boundary Value Problem Formulation 9. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .2 Transversly Isotropic Case . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .6 6. . . . Second Principle of Thermodynamics . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 Monotropic Material . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2. . . . . . . . . .5.5 Elastic Potential or Strain Energy Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Restriction Imposed on the Isotropic Elastic Moduli 7. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Conservation of Energy. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .5. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .2 First Principle . 7. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .

. . . . . 10.6 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . .2 Airy Stress Functions . . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinates . . 11–3 . . .4. . . . . . .3 Example: Thick-Walled Cylinder . . . . . . . .2. . . . 10–11 11–1 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 12–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . 11. . 9. . . . Griﬃth Theory . . . .2 Ideal Strength in Terms of Engineering Parameter . . . . . . 12–6 . . . . . . . . . . . E 12-1 Simply Supported Beam .1 Ideal Strength in Terms of Physical Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 12-2 Simple Shear and Moment Diagram .4. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniqueness of the Elastostatic Stress and Strain Field Saint Venant’s Principle . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . .3. . . . Circular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–3 .2 Axially Symmetric Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–7 . . . . . . . . . 12–10 . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2 ΣM = 0. .3. 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Shear. . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Shear & Moment Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 10–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 10–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–2 . . 10–6 .2 Reactions . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . Neutral Axis . 12–5 . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 11.4 Beam Formula . . . . . .2. 12–4 . .1 ΣFx = 0. . . . . . . . . . . 11–1 . . . .1 Cartesian Coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . 12. 9. . . . . . . . . . . 12–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Strains . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . 12–12 . . . . . . . . . .3 Stress-Strain Relations . .4. Hole . . 12. . . . .3. . .8. .1 Design Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . .7 9. 10–9 . . 11–6 12–1 . . . . . . 10–1 . . . . . . . 12–12 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Beam Theory . . .2 Theoretical Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–6 . . . .2. . . . . . 12–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beltrami-Mitchell Equations . . .8. . . . . 12. . . . . . Strain Energy and Extenal Work . . . . . 12–13 11 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS 11. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . .8. . . 12 BEAM THEORY 12. . Moment Relations . . . . . . . . . 12. .1 Basic Kinematic Assumption.1 Introduction . . . 10–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Geometric Instability . . . .2. . 12–3 . . . . . .8 9. . .3 Internal Equilibrium. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Static Determinacy . . . . . . . . Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example: Torsion of a Circular Cylinder . . . . . 10.2 Load. . . .2. . 10. . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 12–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section Properties 12. . . . . . . . .2. . a . . . . . . . .3 Size Eﬀect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–13 .4. . . . .1 Equilibrium . . . . . . . .3. 12. 12–4 . . . . . . . . . . .2 Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example: Cantilever Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Plane Strain Formulation . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . in a Plate 10–1 . . . . . . . . . .2 Equilibrium . . . . 10–8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Examples . . . . . . . . . 10–3 .4. . . . . . . . . . .8. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . .4 Example: Hollow Sphere . . . . . .3 Equations of Conditions . . . . . . . . . . 12–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. .2 Stress-Strain Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . .1.1 Semi-Inverse Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .3 Ellipticity of Elasticity Problems . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–1 . . . . . . .5 Example: Stress Concentration due to . . . . . . . . . . .Draft CONTENTS 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . 12–1 . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvature 12. . . . . 0–5 9–5 9–5 9–5 9–6 9–6 9–7 9–8 9–9 9–10 9–11 9–11 10 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Polynomial Approximation 13. . 13. . .2 External Work . . . . .4 Complementary Virtual Work . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–14 E 12-3 Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–5 . . . . . .1 Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 13–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Euler Equation . . . 13–6 . . . . . . . E 13-1 Tapered Cantiliver Beam. . . . . . . .2 Principle of Complementary Virtual Work . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–1 . . . . .1. . .3. . . 13–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Principle of Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–7 . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Potential Energy . . E C-2 Flexure of a Beam . . . Virtual Displacement . . . C–1 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Preliminary Deﬁnitions . . . .5 Limitations of the Beam Theory . . . . . . . . . . .6 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . 13–8 . . . . . . . E C-1 Extension of a Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–12 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Internal Virtual Work . . . . . . . . 13. . . . E 13-3 Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam. . 13–6 . . .4. . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D MID TERM EXAM E MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION CONTENTS 12. 13–17 –1 A–1 B–1 Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS C–1 . . . . . . . 13–11 . . . . . . . .1 Internal Strain Energy . . 13–10 . .4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 14 INELASTICITY (incomplete) A SHEAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 13–1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rayleigh-Ritz Method . . . . . . . . 13. . . . C–6 D–1 E–1 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . .2 External Virtual Work δW . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . 13–4 . . C–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Virtual Work . . . . . 13–14 . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS B SECTION PROPERTIES C MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. . . . . . . .3. . . . 12–14 . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Potential Energy . . . . . . . .1. . 13. . . . .1. .1. . . . . . . . . E 13-2 Tapered Cantilivered Beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–16 . .Draft 0–6 13 VARIATIONAL METHODS 13. . . . . . . . . . Virtual Force . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 12–14 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–12 . . 13. 13–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . .5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Gradient of a Vector .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–16 . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate Transformation .12 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. .12 4. . . 2–17 . . . . . Cross Product of Two Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerentiation of position vector p . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. Plane Stress Mohr’s Circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inﬁnitesimal Element for the Evaluation of the Divergence Mathematica Solution for the Divergence of a Vector . 2–2 . . . . . . . . . . Flux Through Area dA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. .5 4. . . . . . 1–2 1–2 1–3 1–4 1–5 1–7 1–8 Stress Components on an Inﬁnitesimal Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vectors of Stress Couples Stresses and Resulting Forces in a Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . Undeformed and Deformed Conﬁgurations of a Continuum Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arbitrary 3D Vector Transformation Rotation of Orthonormal Coordinate . .6 1. Curvature of a Curve .10 3. . . 2–18 . . . . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2. . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Cauchy’s Tetrahedron . . . . . . . . . . . .10 2. . Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stresses as Tensor Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit Sphere in Physical Body around O . . . 2–19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematica Solution for the Tangent to a Curve in 3D . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . Diﬀerential Shell Element. . . . . Numerical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Field Crossing a Solid Region . . 2–6 . . . . Vector . . . . . . . . Vector Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerential Shell Element. . . . Radial Stress vector in a Cylinder . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–7 . . . . . . . System . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–2 3–2 3–3 3–4 3–5 3–5 3–6 3–7 3–9 3–11 3–12 3–14 4–1 4–2 4–3 4–11 4–18 4–21 4–31 4–40 Examples of a Scalar and Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . Elementary Deﬁnition of Strains in 2D . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohr Circle for Strain . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . Relative Displacement du of Q relative to P . . . 2–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2. . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . 2–15 . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Principal Stresses . . . . . Strain Deﬁnition . . . . . 2–17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position and Displacement Vectors .6 3. . . 2–2 . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . Stresses . . .7 2. . . . . . . .8 Direction Cosines (to be corrected) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elongation of an Axial Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohr Circle for Plane Stress . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . 2–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mathematica Solution for the Gradients of a Scalar and of Mathematica Solution for the Curl of a Vector . . Mohr Circle for Stress in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross Product of Two Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–14 . . . . . a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬀerential Shell Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces . . . . . .

*Strain Energy and Complementary Strain Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . 10–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 12. . . . . . . . .6 Bonded Resistance Strain Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–11 . . . . . . Equilibrium of Stresses. . .6 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stresses in Polar Coordinates . Pressurized Hollow Sphere . . . . .1 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inclined Roller Support . . . . . .4 12. . . . . . . . . visﬂ . . . .2 12. . . . . . . . . . . . 13–2 13–8 13–11 13–13 13–14 13–16 13–18 13–19 –1 –2 –2 –3 –3 –3 Elliptical Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate . . Types of Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . Deformation of a Beam under Pure Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tapered Cantilevered Beam Analysed by the Virtual Force Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . visﬂ . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 13. . . . Quarter Wheatstone Bridge Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . 11–3 . . . . . . . . . . . test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 13. . . . . . . . . . . Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems Fundamental Equations in Solid Mechanics St-Venant’s Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniformly Stressed Layer of Atoms Separated by a0 Energy and Force Binding Two Adjacent Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 4. .9 4. . .4 11. . . . Pressurized Thick Tube . . . Free Body Diagram of an Inﬁnitesimal Beam Segment . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 14. . . . . . . Duality of Variational Principles . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tapered Cantilivered Beam Analysed by the Vitual Displacement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–4 . . . . . . Graphical Representation of the Potential Energy . .5 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Griﬃth’s Experiments . . .2 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–3 . . . . . . . . . .1 6. .4 9. . . . . . . 6–3 6–6 6–15 6–16 6–17 9–2 9–3 9–4 9–7 9–7 9–8 9–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft 0–2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cartesian Coordinates Flux vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . .1 6. *Flow through a surface Γ . . . . . . . . . . . .2 11. . 11–1 . . . . . . . 12–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9.2 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single DOF Example for Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 14.3 10. . . .4 11. . . . . . . Polar Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions . . . Stress Strain Relation at the Atomic Level . . . . .4 13. . Torsion of a Circular Bar . . . . . 12–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . .3 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 13. mod1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 5. . . 4–43 4–44 4–45 4–46 Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem . . . . .1 11. . . . . . Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam Analyzed by the Rayleigh-Ritz Method Summary of Variational Methods . . . . . . . . . .10 4. . . . . . . . . . 12–4 . . . . . .7 13. . . . . . . . . v-kv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–7 . . . .8 14. 10–12 . . Strain Gage Rosette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . .5 13. . . . . . . . . . Wheatstone Bridge Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . comp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . .1 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flux Through Sides of Diﬀerential Element . . . . . Flux Through Area dS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . . . .

. . . . –3 14. . . . . .7 epp . . . . . . . . . . .8 ehs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Variational and Diﬀerential Operators . . . . . . . . . . . C–2 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . –4 C. . . . . . . . . .Draft LIST OF FIGURES 0–3 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Draft 0–4 LIST OF FIGURES Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

IIE Second stress and strain invariants IIIσ . Stress vector Speciﬁed tractions along Γt Displacement vector Θ K N Kg −1 M T −3 L−1 M T −2 L−1 M T −2 L W m−2 Pa Pa m Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .D. IIIE Third stress and strain invariants Θ Temperature TENSORS order 1 b b q t t u Body force per unit massLT −2 Base transformation Heat ﬂux per unit area Traction vector.D.D. N. L−1 M T −2 N. L−1 M T −2 L2 T −2 L2 T −2 L4 L−1 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L L−1 M T −2 L2 M T −3 M T −3 L−4 L2 T −2 Θ−1 M L2 T −2 Θ−1 T Θ L2 T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 L2 M T −2 Θ−1 L−1 M T −2 N. IE IIσ .D.Draft Symbol LIST OF FIGURES 0–5 NOTATION Dimension L2 N.D. L−1 M T −2 L−1 M T −2 L2 M T −2 SI Unit m2 Pa JKg −1 JKg −1 m4 Pa J m Pa W W m−6 JKg −1 K −1 JK −1 s K JKg −1 J J J J J T −1 Pa Kgm−3 Pa Pa Pa J Deﬁnition SCALARS A Area c Speciﬁc heat e Volumetric strain E Elastic Modulus g Specicif free enthalpy h Film coeﬃcient for convection heat transfer h Speciﬁc enthalpy I Moment of inertia J Jacobian K Bulk modulus K Kinetic Energy L Length p Pressure Q Rate of internal heat generation r Radiant heat constant per unit mass per unit time s Speciﬁc entropy S Entropy t Time T Absolute temperature u Speciﬁc internal energy U Energy U∗ Complementary strain energy W Work W Potential of External Work Π Potential energy α Coeﬃcient of thermal expansion µ Shear modulus ν Poisson’s ratio ρ mass density γij Shear strains 1 Engineering shear strain 2 γij λ Lame’s coeﬃcient Λ Stretch ratio µG Lame’s coeﬃcient λ Lame’s coeﬃcient Φ Airy Stress Function Ψ (Helmholtz) Free energy First stress and strain invariants Iσ . M L−3 N.

OPERATORS Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor N. VOLUMES L−1 M T −2 Pa C S Γ Γt Γu ΓT Γc Γq Ω. Material displacement gradient N. metric tensor. Spatial deformation gradient N. Linear lagrangian rotation tensor Initial strain vector Conductivity Curvature Cauchy stress tensor L−1 M T −2 Deviatoric stress tensor L−1 M T −2 Linear Eulerian rotation tensor Linear Eulerian rotation vector TENSORS order 4 W m−1 K −1 - Pa Pa Pa Pa D Constitutive matrix CONTOURS. Lagrangian Stress Tensor L−1 M T −2 Second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor L−1 M T −2 Right stretch tensor Left stretch tensor Spin tensor. qn are speciﬁed L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L3 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m3 FUNCTIONS.D. Green’s deformation tensor. Rate of deformation tensor.D. Strain deviator N.D.D.D.D. Eulerian (or Almansi) ﬁnite strain tensor N. T T Ω ω LIST OF FIGURES L L L L L−1 M T −2 L−1 M T −2 m m m m Pa Pa Cauchy’s deformation tensor N. vorticity tensor. Stretching tensor N.D. Material deformation gradient N. V Contour line Surface of a body Surface Boundary along which Boundary along which Boundary along which Boundary along which Boundary along which Volume of body surface tractions. T are speciﬁed convection ﬂux. Lagrangian (or Green’s) ﬁnite strain tensor N.Draft 0–6 u(x) u x X σ0 σ(i) Speciﬁed displacements along Γu Displacement vector Spatial coordinates Material coordinates Initial stress vector Principal stresses TENSORS order 2 B−1 C D E E∗ E F H I J k K L R T0 ˜ T U V W ε0 k κ σ. qc are speciﬁed ﬂux. Idendity matrix N.D.D. SURFACES.D.D. Spatial gradient of the velocity Orthogonal rotation tensor First Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor. t are speciﬁed displacements. u are speciﬁed temperatures. Thermal conductivity LM T −3Θ−1 Spatial displacement gradient N.

u = ∂ux + ∂yy + ∂x Laplacian Operator ∂uz ∂z Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . (gradient operator) on vector (div . (gradient operator) on scalar ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ T ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂u Divergence.Draft u ˜ δ L ∇φ ∇·u ∇2 LIST OF FIGURES 0–7 Neighbour function to u(x) Variational operator Linear diﬀerential operator relating displacement to strains Divergence.

Draft 0–8 LIST OF FIGURES Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft Part I CONTINUUM MECHANICS .

Draft .

since both vectors and tensors transform from one coordinate system to another in such a way that if the law holds in one coordinate system. with corresponding unit vector triad i. Part I Vectors and Tensors 1 Physical laws should be independent of the position and orientation of the observer.2) where vx vy vz = = = v·i = v cos α v·j = v cos β v·k = v cos γ (1. For this reason. spherical or curvilinear systems).1 Vectors 2 A vector is a directed line segment which can denote a variety of quantities.3-b) (1. e3 ) such that: i×j = k.Draft Chapter 1 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.1-c) i·i = j·j = k·k = 1 i·j = j·k = k·i = 0 Such a set of base vectors constitutes an orthonormal basis. a force. 1. it holds in any other coordinate system. j×k = i. . j. 4 5 An arbitrary vector v may be expressed by v = vx i + vy j + vz k (1.1-a) (1. k (or e1 . such as position of point with respect to another (position vector). Fig. The rectangular system is often represented by three mutually perpendicular axes Oxyz. (1. but some are more suitable than others (axes corresponding to the major direction of the object being analyzed).3-a) (1. The rectangular Cartesian coordinate system is the most often used one (others are the cylindrical. 3 A vector may be deﬁned with respect to a particular coordinate system by specifying the components of the vector in that system. k×i = j.1-b) (1. or a traction.1. The choice of the coordinate system is arbitrary. physical laws are vector equations or tensor equations.3-c) are the projections of v onto the coordinate axes. 1. e2 .

1.4) 6 Since v is arbitrary. 7 The length or more precisely the magnitude of the vector is denoted by v = 2 2 2 v1 + v2 + v3 . 1. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1.2.1: Direction Cosines (to be corrected) The unit vector in the direction of v is given by ev = v = cos αi + cos βj + cos γk v (1.1.Draft 1–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. Analytically the sum vector will have components a1 + b1 a2 + b2 a3 + b3 . it follows that any unit vector will have direction cosines of that vector as its Cartesian components. 1.1 Operations Addition: of two vectors a + b is geometrically achieved by connecting the tail of the vector b with the head of a. u θ u+v v Figure 1. Part I Vectors and Tensors Y V β γ α X Z Figure 1. Fig. 8 We will denote the contravariant components of a vector by superscripts v k . and its covariant components by subscripts vk (the signiﬁcance of those terms will be clariﬁed in Sect.2.2: Vector Addition Scalar multiplication: αa will scale the vector into a new one with components Vector Multiplications of a and b comes in three varieties: αa1 αa2 αa3 . 1.

b) = i=1 ai b i where cos θ(a.3. The dot product measures the relative orientation between two vectors.8) (1.6) Cross Product (or vector product) c of two vectors a and b is deﬁned as the vector c = a×b = (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )e1 + (a3 b1 − a1 b3 )e2 + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )e3 which can be remembered from the determinant expansion of a×b = e1 a1 b1 e2 a2 b2 e3 a3 b3 (1.10) and is equal to the area of the parallelogram described by a and b. a·b ≡ a (1.b)=||a x b|| b a Figure 1.Draft 1.1 Vectors 3 1–3 Dot Product (or scalar product) is a scalar quantity which relates not only to the lengths of the vector.11) (1. 1.3: Cross Product of Two Vectors A(a. Fig.5) b cos θ(a.7) The dot product of a with a unit vector n gives the projection of a in the direction of n. but also to the angle between them. b) = a×b Victor Saouma (1. The dot product is both commutative a·b = b·a and distributive αa·(βb + γc) = αβ(a·b) + αγ(a·c) (1. axb A(a.9) (1. The dot product of base vectors gives rise to the deﬁnition of the Kronecker delta deﬁned as ei ·ej = δij where δij = 1 0 if if i=j i=j (1.12) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . b) is the cosine of the angle between the vectors a and b.

j.1. and c is desgnated by (a×b)·c and it corresponds to the (scalar) volume deﬁned by the three vectors.2.Draft 1–4 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.2. Each unit vector in one basis must be a linear combination of the vectors of the other basis bj = ap bp and bk = bk bq q j (1.1 9 Coordinate Transformation †General Tensors Let us consider two bases bj (x1 .1.18) Vector Triple Product is a cross product of two vectors. Fig.5.3 is 1 → 2 → 3 → 1. n=a x b ||a x b|| c c. k) are in cyclic order 0 if any of (i.13) Triple Scalar Product: of three vectors a. x3 ) and bj (x1 . one of which is itself a cross product. x2 x3 ). A cyclic permutation of 1. a×(b×c) = (a·c)b − (a·b)c = d and the product vector d lies in the plane of b and c. b. an acyclic one would be 1 → 3 → 2 → 1. j.16) The triple scalar product of base vectors represents a fundamental operation 1 if (i.20) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . but satisﬁes the condition of skew symmetry a×b = −b×a The cross product is distributive αa×(βb + γc) = αβ(a×b) + αγ(a×c) (1. x2 . k) are in acyclic order (1. 1. 1. we can rewrite c = a×b ⇒ ci = εijk aj bk (1.4. c) = = (a×b)·c = a·(b×c) ax ay az bx by bz cx cy cz (1. k) are equal (ei ×ej )·ek = εijk ≡ −1 if (i.15) (1.14) (1. (1.2 1. Fig.4: Cross Product of Two Vectors V (a.n b a Figure 1.19) 1. j. b. Using this notation.17) The scalars εijk is the permutation tensor. Part I Vectors and Tensors The cross product is not commutative.

1 †Contravariant Transformation 12 The vector representation in both systems must be the same v = v q bq = v k bk = v k (bq bq ) ⇒ (v q − v k bq )bq = 0 k k (1. 1.24) showing that the forward change from components v k to v q used the coeﬃcients bq of the backward k change from base bq to the original bk . 11 It is important to note that so far. the coeﬃcients of bq must all be zero hence v q = bq v k and inversely v p = ap v j j k (1.21) 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 e3 b1 b2 b3 e3 e3 a1 a2 a3 e3 3 3 3 X2 X2 X1 2 cos a1 -1 X1 X3 X3 Figure 1. superscript old) and bk are the coeﬃcients q j for the forward and backward changes respectively from b to b respectively. a Contravariant Tensor of order one (recognized by the use of the superscript) transforms a set of quantities rk associated with point P in xk through a coordinate transformation into Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . Explicitly 1 1 1 1 b 1 b 2 b 3 e1 a1 a2 a3 e 1 e1 e1 1 1 e2 e2 e2 e2 = b2 b2 b2 and = a1 a2 a3 (1. spherical or cylindrical.Draft 1.1. curvilinear. the coordinate systems are completely general and may be Cartesian. 13 Generalizing. This is why these components are called contravariant.1.22) diﬀerent from zero (the superscript is a label and not an exponent).2.23) since the base vectors bq are linearly independent.5: Coordinate Transformation The transformation must have the determinant of its Jacobian ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x3 10 J= =0 (1.1 Vectors 1–5 (summed on p and q respectively) where ap (subscript new.

30) 18 To determine the relationship between the two sets of components. those values are nothing else than the cosines of the angles between the nine pairing of base vectors.2 Covariant Transformation 15 Similarly to Eq.24.28) (1.) 20 Thus.32) which arise from the dot products of base vectors as the direction cosines. a covariant component transformation (recognized by subscript) will be deﬁned as v j = ap vp and inversely vk = bk v q q j (1. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1. any vector v can be expressed in one system or the other v = vj ej = v j ej (1. the Contravariant tensors of order two requires the tensor components to obey the following transformation law r ij = ∂xi ∂xj rs r ∂xr ∂xs (1. 16 Finally transformation of tensors of order one and two is accomplished through rq r ij = = ∂xk rk ∂xq r ∂x ∂xs rrs ∂xi ∂xj (1. the covariant transformation uses the same transformation coeﬃcients as the ones for the base vectors. one set of vector components can be expressed in terms of the other through a covariant transformation similar to the one of Eq. e2 .27) We note that contrarily to the contravariant transformation. 1. we consider the dot product of v with one (any) of the base vectors ei ·v = v i = vj (ei ·ej ) (1.25) 14 By extension. Part I Vectors and Tensors a new set r q associated with xq rq = ∂xq k r ∂xk bq k (1.31) (since v j (ej ·ei ) = v j δij = v i ) 19 We can thus deﬁne the nine scalar values aj ≡ ei ·ej = cos(xi .2 17 Cartesian Coordinate System If we consider two diﬀerent sets of cartesian orthonormal coordinate systems {e1 . e3 } and {e1 .1.26) 1. e3 }. (Since we have an orthonormal system.Draft 1–6 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.1. 1.2.2. e2 .29) 1. xj ) i (1.27.

Because of the orthogonality of the unit vector we have as as = δpq and am an = δmn . Y and Z x x x • aj = (ay X. Y and Z y y y • aj = (az X. and β = 2 matrix becomes π 2 − α. z).6: Arbitrary 3D Vector Transformation Eq. aZ ) direction cosines of z with respect to X. then cos γ = − sin α and cos β = sin α. 1.34) we note that the free index in the ﬁrst and second equations appear on the upper and lower index respectively.35) 23 (1.7. aZ ) direction cosines of y with respect to X. aY . y. Y and Z z z z 24 Finally.1 Vectors vj vk = = 21 22 1–7 ap vp j bk v q q (1.Draft 1. let us consider the transformation of a vector V from (X.6: Figure 1. Z) coordinate system to (x. the transformation matrix is written as T = a1 1 a1 2 a2 1 a2 2 = cos α cos β cos γ cos α (1. p q r r As a further illustration of the above derivation. aY . Y. for the 2D case and from Fig.37) but since γ = π + α. Fig. thus the transformation T = cos α sin α − sin α cos α (1.38) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .36) and aj is the direction cosine of axis i with respect to axis j i • aj = (ax X. aZ ) direction cosines of x with respect to X.33 would then result in Vx = aX VX + aY VY + aZ VZ x x x or X ax Vx Vy = aX y Vz aX z aY x aY y aY z aZ VX x aZ VY y VZ aZ z (1.33) (1. 1. 1. aY .

We designate this operation by T·v or simply Tv. Thus we can have diﬀerent types of linear transformations ui ui = Tij v j .1 32 Indicial Notation Whereas the Engineering notation may be the simplest and most intuitive one.j vj . Part I Vectors and Tensors X X2 2 α β γ α X1 X1 Figure 1.7: Rotation of Orthonormal Coordinate System 1.Draft 1–8 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. ui = Ti.39-a) (1.2. Alternatively. which essentially exists to operate on vectors v to produce other vectors (or on tensors to produce other tensors!). the tensor and the dyadic form will lead to shorter and more compact forms.j . A Tensor of order zero is speciﬁed in any coordinate system by one coordinate and is a scalar. the contravariant components T ij and the mixed comi ponents T. Tensors frequently arise as physical entities whose components are the coeﬃcients of a linear relationship between vectors.2 Tensors 25 We now seek to generalize the concept of a vector by introducing the tensor (T). A tensor is classiﬁed by the rank or order. hence it is a vector.39-b) 27 † In general the vectors may be represented by either covariant or contravariant components vj or v j . Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . A force and a stress are tensors of order 1 and 2 respectively.40) involving the covariant components Tij . 26 We hereby adopt the dyadic notation for tensors as linear vector operators u = T·v or ui = Tij vj u = v·S where S = TT (1.j or Ti. 28 Whereas a tensor is essentially an operator on vectors (or other tensors).j v j (1. it often leads to long and repetitive equations. independent of any particular coordinate system yet speciﬁed most conveniently by referring to an appropriate system of coordinates. In general 3-D space the number of components of a tensor is 3n where n is the order of the tensor. 29 30 31 1. A tensor of order one has three coordinate components in space. it is also a physical quantity. ui = = T ij vj i T.

If there is one letter index. i.41) a3 assuming that n = 3. Fikk . For example: ∂Φ ∂xi 35 a1 a2 a3 (1. δij uk vk . 3 (1. Hence. the summation was over a repeated index (i in our example). For instance: xi = cij zj (1.42) a1i xi = a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 3. For instance: a1 a2 ai = ai = a1 a2 a3 = i = 1.j ∂Ti.46) this simple compacted equation. 4. and that when the summation involved a product of two terms.j ∂xk = Ti. An index that is not repeated is called free index and assumed to take a value from 1 to 3.k (1. this so called indicial notation is also referred to Einstein’s notation.Draft 1. Derivatives of tensor with respect to xi is written as .47-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2 Tensors 33 34 1–9 While working on general relativity. and the resulting tensors summed. and thus any repeated index is a dummy index and is summed over the range 1 to 3.j. The following rules deﬁne indicial notation: 1. that index goes from i to n (range of the tensor). D11 D22 D13 Dij = D21 D22 D23 D31 D32 D33 other examples Aijip . Einstein got tired of writing the summation symbol with its range of summation below and above (such as n=3 aij bi ) and noted that most of the time the upper range i=1 (n) was equal to the dimension of space (3 for us. when expanded would yield: x1 x2 x3 Similarly: Aij = Bip Cjq Dpq Victor Saouma (1.i ∂vi ∂xi = vi.48) = = = c11 z1 + c12 z2 + c13 z3 c21 z1 + c22 z2 + c23 z3 c31 z1 + c32 z2 + c33 z3 (1. Hence.43) (1. For instance: (1. εijk uj vk • Second order tensor (such as stress or strain) will have two free indeces. he decided that there is no need to include the summation sign if there was repeated indices (i).44) = Φ.i ∂vi ∂xj = vi. • A fourth order tensor (such as Elastic constants) will have four free indeces. Tensor’s order: • First order tensor (such as force) has only one free index: ai = ai = other ﬁrst order tensors aij bj . 4 for him). A repeated index will take on all the values of its range.45) 36 Usefulness of the indicial notation is in presenting systems of equations in compact form. 2.

52) 1. there is one free index p thus there are three equations..Draft 1–10 A11 A12 A21 A22 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.2.51) we note that in the second equation.sn Eij ak Ampr qs → → → → → Tii .s .50) a·b = ai bi and of the cross product a×b = εpqr aq br ep (1. thus each equation has nine terms. we make two of the indeces equal (or in a mixed tensor.49-a) 37 Using indicial notation. there are two repeated (dummy) indices q and r.2. we may rewrite the deﬁnition of the dot product (1.3 40 Contraction In a contraction.1 38 Tensor Operations Sum The sum of two (second order) tensors is simply deﬁned as: Sij = Tij + Uij (1.2 1.2 39 Multiplication by a Scalar The multiplication of a (second order) tensor by a scalar is deﬁned by: Sij = λTij (1.2.53) 1. ui vi . .. qr 2 2 4 3 5 → → → → → 0 0 2 1 3 (1.sm Eij ai = cj .2.54) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2. thus producing a tensor of order two less than that to which it is applied.2. we make a ubscript equal to the superscript). For example: Tij ui vj Amr . 1. Part I Vectors and Tensors = B11 C11 D11 + B11 C12 D12 + B12 C11 D21 + B12 C12 D22 = B11 C11 D11 + B11 C12 D12 + B12 C11 D21 + B12 C12 D22 = B21 C11 D11 + B21 C12 D12 + B22 C11 D21 + B22 C12 D22 = B21 C21 D11 + B21 C22 D12 + B22 C21 D21 + B22 C22 D22 (1. r Amr = B. mp Ampr = Bq .2.

k A Bj i = Tij = C i.k Ai Bi → ai b i → ai Eik = fk → Eij Fjm = Gim . For example ai b j ai Ejk Eij Fkm .55-b) (1.j = Sijk (1.56-d) 1.2.58-a) (1.55-a) (1.Draft 1.2.56-a) (1.4 Tensor Product 45 Since a tensor primary objective is to operate on vectors.2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 Scalar Product 43 The scalar product of two tensors is deﬁned as (1.2.2.58-b) (1.55-c) vi Tjk 1.2. the tensor product of two vectors provides a fundamental building block of second-order tensors and will be examined next.1 Products Outer Product 41 1–11 The outer product of two tensors (not necessarily of the same type or order) is a set of tensor components obtained simply by writing the components of the two tensors beside each other with no repeated indices (that is by multiplying each component of one of the tensors by every component of the other).k → Ai Bi = Dk (1.2.4.2 Inner Product 42 The inner product is obtained from an outer product by contraction involving one index from each tensor.2.2 Tensors 1.2. For example ai b j .4.4 1.58-c) (1.4.2.56-b) (1.57) T : U = Tij Uij in any rectangular system.56-c) (1.k .58-d) 1. 44 The following inner-product axioms are satisﬁed: T:U T : (U + V) α(T : U) T:T = U:T = T:U+T:V = (αT) : U = T : (αU) > 0 unless T = 0 (1.4.

64) 50 The identity tensor I leaves the vector unchanged Iv = v and is equal to I ≡ ei ⊗ ei (1.65) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .62) i=1 j=1 which when combined with Eq. With three base vectors. 1.60-b) (1. the result (right hand side) is a vector that points along the direction of u.61) 49 Now we can see how the second order tensor T operates on any vector v by examining the components of the resulting vector Tv: Tv = 3 3 Tij [ei ⊗ ej ] 3 3 3 3 vk ek k=1 = i=1 j=1 k=1 Tij vk [ei ⊗ ej ]ek (1.60-d) = (ej ·ek )ei = δjk ei 3 = i=1 Tik ei Thus Tik is the ith component of Tek .59) In other words when the tensor product u ⊗ v operates on w (left hand side). or the original length of u times the dot (scalar) product of v and w. We can thus deﬁne the tensor component as follows Tij = ei ·Tej (1.60-c) (1. we have a set of nine second order tensors which provide a suitable basis for expressing the components of a tensor.63) which is clearly a vector. and has length equal to (v·w)||u||.60-c yields 3 3 Tv = i=1 j=1 Tij vj ei (1.Draft 1–12 46 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. we started with base vectors which themselves provide a basis for expressing any vector. Part I Vectors and Tensors The Tensor Product of two vectors u and v is a second order tensor u ⊗ v which in turn operates on an arbitrary vector w as follows: [u ⊗ v]w ≡ (v·w)u (1. The ith component of the vector Tv being 3 (Tv)i = i=1 Tij vj (1. Again. and now the tensor product of base vectors in turn provides a formalism to express the components of a tensor. 48 The second order tensor T can be expressed in terms of its components Tij relative to the base tensors ei ⊗ ej as follows: 3 3 T = i=1 j=1 3 3 Tij [ei ⊗ ej ] Tij [ei ⊗ ej ] ek i=1 j=1 (1. 47 Of particular interest is the tensor product of the base vectors ei ⊗ ej .60-a) Tek [ei ⊗ ej ] ek Tek = (1.

39-a From Eq.4 55 Rotation of Axes The rule for changing second order tensor components under rotation of axes goes as follow: ui = = = aj u j i aj Tjq vq i aj Tjq aq v p p i From Eq.68-a) (1. To convince ourselves that the vector Pv lies on the plane.71) But we also have ui = T ip v p (again from Eq.70) 1.68-e) T·(R + U) = (R + U)·T = α(T·U) = 1T = Note again that some authors omit the dot. the operation is not commutative 1. √ its dot product with n must be zero.2.Draft 1.39-a) in the barred system. accordingly Pv·n = v·n − (v·n)(n·n) = 0 . 53 The following axioms hold (T·U)·R = T·(U·R) T·R + t·U R·T + U·T (αT)·U = T·(αU) T·1 = T (1. Finally.72) i p hence T ip Tjq Victor Saouma = aj aq Tjq in Matrix Form [T ] = [A]T [T ][A] i p = aj aq T ip in Matrix Form [T ] = [A][T ][A]T i p (1.69) D = a1 b1 + a2 b2 · · · an bn The conjugate dyadic of D is written as Dc = b1 a1 + b2 a2 · · · bn an (1. 1.3 Dyads 54 The indeterminate vector product of a and b deﬁned by writing the two vectors in juxtaposition as ab is called a dyad. 1.33 From Eq.74) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .68-c) (1.68-d) (1. 1.5 52 Product of Two Second-Order Tensors The product of two tensors is deﬁned as P = T·U. equating these two expressions we obtain T ip − (aj aq Tjq )v p = 0 (1.66) the action of P on v gives Pv = v − (v·n)n. Pij = Tik Ukj (1.68-b) (1.2. A dyadic D corresponds to a tensor of order two and is a linear combination of dyads: (1.67) in any rectangular system.73) (1.2 Tensors 51 1–13 A simple example of a tensor and its operation on vectors is the projection tensor P which generates the projection of a vector v on the plane characterized by a normal n: P≡I−n⊗n (1. 1.33 (1. 1.2.2.

higher order tensors can be similarly transformed from one coordinate system to another.75-b) (1.7 59 Principal Values and Directions of Symmetric Second Order Tensors Since the two fundamental tensors in continuum mechanics are of the second order and symmetric (stress and strain).2. For every symmetric tensor Tij deﬁned at some point in space. From Eq. there is associated with each direction (speciﬁed by unit normal nj ) at that point.Draft 1–14 56 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.76) Tyy cos2 θ −2 sin θ cos θ sin2 θ = T yy Txy − sin θ cos θ cos θ sin θ cos2 θ − sin2 θ T xy 1.75-d) alternatively. a vector given by the inner product vi = Tij nj (1.5 57 Trace The trace of a second-order tensor. using sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α and cos 2α = cos2 α−sin2 α.6 58 Inverse Tensor An inverse tensor is simply deﬁned as follows T−1 (Tv) = v and T(T−1 v) = v (1. If we consider the 2D case.2. denoted tr T is a scalar invariant function of the tensor and is deﬁned as tr T ≡ Tii Thus it is equal to the sum of the diagonal elements in a matrix. 1.79) 60 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .75-a) (1. (1. or Tik Tkj = δij and Tik Tkj = δij 1.75-c) 1 2 (− sin 2αTxx + sin 2αTyy + 2 cos 2αTxy sin2 αTxx + cos α(cos αTyy − 2 sin αTxy 0 0 0 0 (1. Part I Vectors and Tensors By extension. this last equation can be rewritten as sin2 θ 2 sin θ cos θ cos2 θ T xx Txx (1.38 cos α sin α 0 A = − sin α cos α 0 0 0 1 Txx Txy 0 T = Txy Tyy 0 0 0 0 T xx T xy 0 T = AT T A = T xy T yy 0 0 0 0 2 2 cos αTxx + sin αTyy + sin 2αTxy = 1 (− sin 2αTxx + sin 2αTyy + 2 cos 2αTxy 2 0 (1.77) 1.78) −1 −1 alternatively T−1 T = TT−1 = I. we examine some important properties of these tensors.2.

the quare of the tensor Tij is given by the inner product Tik Tkj . 1.87) are called the ﬁrst. Hamilton-Cayley Equations When expressed in term of the principal axes. the inner product may be expressed as Tij nj = λni (Tij − λδij )nj = 0 which represents a system of three equations for the four unknowns ni and λ.81) (1. Since ni = δij nj .86) (1. |Tij − λδij | = 0 (1.88) 0 0 λ(3) 65 By direct matrix multiplication. the principal values are also real. If those values are distinct. the tensor array can be written in matrix form as 0 0 λ(1) 0 λ(2) T = 0 (1.Draft 1. the three principal directions are mutually orthogonal. (T11 − λ)n1 + T12 n2 + T13 n3 T21 n1 + (T22 − λ)n2 + T23 n3 T31 n1 + T32 n2 + (T33 − λ)n3 = 0 = 0 = 0 1–15 (1.80) and the direction ni is called principal direction of Tij . Therefore the nth power of Tij can be written as 0 0 λn (1) λn 0 (1. the cube as Tik Tkm Tmn .82-a) To have a non-trivial slution (ni = 0) the determinant of the coeﬃcients must be zero. this can be rewritten as (1.85) (1.84) the roots are called the principal values of Tij and IT IIT IIIT = Tij = tr Tij 1 (Tii Tjj − Tij Tij ) = 2 = |Tij | = det Tij (1.89) Tn= 0 (2) 0 0 λn (3) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .8 64 Powers of Second Order Tensors.2. second and third invariants respectively of Tij . 62 It is customary to order those roots as λ1 > λ2 > λ3 63 For a symmetric tensor with real components.83) 61 Expansion of this determinant leads to the following characteristic equation λ3 − IT λ2 + IIT λ − IIIT = 0 (1.2 Tensors If the direction is one for which vi is parallel to ni .

84.90) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Part I Vectors and Tensors Since each of the principal values satisﬁes Eq. then the tensor itself will satisfy Eq. (1. T 3 − IT T 2 + IIT T − IIIT I = 0 where I is the identity matrix.84 and because the diagonal matrix form of T given above. 1. 1. This equation is called the Hamilton-Cayley equation.Draft 1–16 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.

3 4 A stress. 2 The surface force per unit area acting on an element dS is called traction or more accurately stress vector. When the vectors acting at a point on three such mutually perpendicular planes is given. σ22 .1) Most authors limit the term traction to an actual bounding surface of a body. σ13 ).1 1 Force.1 is a second order cartesian tensor. the stress vector at that point on any other arbitrarily inclined plane can be expressed in terms of the ﬁrst set of tractions. σ33 ) which correspond to . Traction and Stress Vectors There are two kinds of forces in continuum mechanics body forces: act on the elements of volume or mass inside the body. dF = ρbdV ol. and the second one (j) to the direction of component force. σ23 ).g. (σ31 . electromagnetic ﬁelds. tdS = i S S tx dS + j S ty dS + k S tz dS (2. and use the term stress vector for an imaginary interior surface (even though the state of stress is a tensor and not a vector). σ12 . The traction vectors on planes perpendicular to the coordinate axes are particularly useful. e. Fig 2. gravity. (σ21 . σij where the 1st subscript (i) refers to the direction of outward facing normal. surface forces: are contact forces acting on the free body at its bounding surface.Draft Chapter 2 KINETICS Or How Forces are Transmitted 2. Those will be deﬁned in terms of force per unit area. t1 σ11 σ12 σ13 σ = σij = σ21 σ22 σ23 = t2 (2. σ32 .2) t σ31 σ32 σ33 3 5 In fact the nine rectangular components σij of σ turn out to be the three sets of three vector components (σ11 .

Draft 2–2 σ13 KINETICS X3 σ33 σ 32 σ31 σ σ σ 11 ∆X2 X1 σ 23 21 ∆X3 X2 σ 22 12 ∆X1 Figure 2.2: Stresses as Tensor Components 6 The state of stress at a point cannot be speciﬁed entirely by a single vector with three components.2. x2 and x3 faces (It should be noted that those tractions are not necesarily normal to the faces.1: Stress Components on an Inﬁnitesimal Element the three tractions t1 . 2. In other words. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . stresses are nothing else than the components of tractions (stress vector). X3 X3 V3 σ33 t3 σ31 σ13 σ σ 11 t1 12 σ 32 V σ 23 t2 σ 21 V2 X2 σ 22 X2 V1 X1 (Components of a vector are scalars) X 1 Stresses as components of a traction vector (Components of a tensor of order 2 are vectors) Figure 2. Fig. it requires the second-order tensor with all nine components. and they can be decomposed into a normal and shear traction if need be). t2 and t3 which are acting on the x1 .

3. or ∆Si = ∆Sni . Cauchy’s Stress Tensor 2–3 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane. ∆S3 = ∆Sn3 .5) which when combined with the preceding equation yields ∆S1 = ∆Sn1 . n3 = cos( CON).3) The altitude ON. 2.2 2. The negative sign appears because t∗ denotes the average i Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . 10 ∆S2 = ∆Sn2 .3 are also shown the average values of the body force and of the surface tractions (thus the asterix). of length h is a leg of the three right triangles ANO.2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane.Draft 2. n2 = cos( BON). BNO and CNO with hypothenuses OA. Hence h = OAn1 = OBn2 = OCn3 9 ∆V * Figure 2. (2.6) In Fig. t2 and t3 . Cauchy’s Stress Tensor 7 Let us now consider the problem of determining the traction acting on the surface of an oblique plane (characterized by its normal n) in terms of the known tractions normal to the three principal axis.3: Cauchy’s Tetrahedron (2. This will be done through the so-called Cauchy’s tetrahedron shown in Fig. OB and OC.4) The volume of the tetrahedron is one third the base times the altitude 1 1 1 1 ∆V = h∆S = OA∆S1 = OB∆S2 = OC∆S3 3 3 3 3 (2. 2. X2 -t 1 B ∆ * 1 S n -t * 3 ∆ S3 * tn ∆ S O C h N A X1 -t 2 ∆ S2 * X3 ρb * 8 The components of the unit vector n are the direction cosines of its direction: n1 = cos( AON). (2. t1 .

this is equal to v∗ ∆m where v∗ is average value of the velocity.3. The total momentum is vdm. the momentum principle yields t∗ ∆S + ρ∗ b∗ ∆V − t∗ ∆S1 − t∗ ∆S2 − t∗ ∆S3 = ρ∗ ∆V n 1 2 3 dv∗ dt (2.7) Substituting for ∆V .8) n 1 2 3 3 3 dt and now we let h → 0 and obtain tn = t1 n1 + t2 n2 + t3 n3 = tini (2. This principle states that the vector sum of all external forces acting on the free body is equal to the rate of change of the total momentum1 .9) We observe that we dropped the asterix as the length of the vectors approached zero. 14 15 Note that this stress tensor is really deﬁned in the deformed space (Eulerian). This equation is a vector equation. Cauchy’s stress tensor. ∆m does not change with time and ∆m dv = ρ∗ ∆V dv where ρ∗ is the average dt dt density. We seek to determine t∗ . Since we are considering the momentum of a given collection of ∗ ∗ particles.10) We have thus established that the nine components σij are components of the second order tensor.Draft 2–4 11 KINETICS traction on a surface whose outward normal points in the negative xi direction. dividing throughout by ∆S and rearanging we obtain dv 1 1 t∗ + hρ∗ b∗ = t∗ n1 + t∗ n2 + t∗ n3 + hρ∗ (2. By the ∆m mean-value theorem of the integral calculus. n We invoke the momentum principle of a collection of particles (more about it later on) which is postulated to apply to our idealized continuous medium. and the corresponding algebraic equations for the components of tn are tn1 tn2 tn3 Indicial notation tni dyadic notation tn = = = = = σ11 n1 + σ21 n2 + σ31 n3 σ12 n1 + σ22 n2 + σ32 n3 σ13 n1 + σ23 n2 + σ33 n3 σji nj n·σ = σ T ·n 13 (2. ∆Si from above. 4. Hence. and this issue will be revisited in Sect. 12 It is important to note that this result was obtained without any assumption of equilibrium and that it applies as well in ﬂuid dynamics as in solid mechanics. Example 2-1: Stress Vectors 1 This is really Newton’s second law F = ma = m dv dt Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft

2.3 Symmetry of Stress Tensor

2–5

**if the stress tensor at point P is given by
**

t1 7 −5 0 σ = −5 3 1 = t2 t 0 1 2 3

(2.11)

We seek to determine the traction (or stress vector) t passing through P and parallel to the plane ABC where A(4, 0, 0), B(0, 2, 0) and C(0, 0, 6). Solution: The vector normal to the plane can be found by taking the cross products of vectors AB and AC: e1 e2 e3 N = AB×AC = −4 2 0 −4 0 6 = 12e1 + 24e2 + 8e3 The unit normal of N is given by 6 2 3 n = e1 + e2 + e3 7 7 7 Hence the stress vector (traction) will be

3 7 6 7 2 7

(2.12-a) (2.12-b)

(2.13)

7 −5 0 −5 3 1 = 0 1 2

−9 7

5 7

10 7

(2.14)

and thus t = − 9 e1 + 5 e2 + 7 7

10 e 7 3

2.3

16

Symmetry of Stress Tensor

From Fig. 2.1 the resultant force exerted on the positive X1 face is σ11 ∆X2 ∆X3 σ12 ∆X2 ∆X3 σ13 ∆X2 ∆X3 (2.15)

similarly the resultant forces acting on the positive X2 face are σ21 ∆X3 ∆X1 σ22 ∆X3 ∆X1 σ23 ∆X3 ∆X1

17

(2.16)

We now consider moment equilibrium (M = F×d). The stress is homogeneous, and the normal force on the opposite side is equal opposite and colinear. The moment (∆X2 /2)σ31 ∆X1 ∆X2 is likewise balanced by the moment of an equal component in the opposite face. Finally similar argument holds for σ32 .

18

The net moment about the X3 axis is thus M = ∆X1 (σ12 ∆X2 ∆X3 ) − ∆X2 (σ21 ∆X3 ∆X1 ) (2.17)

**which must be zero, hence σ12 = σ21 .
**

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

2–6

19 20

KINETICS

We generalize and conclude that in the absence of distributed body forces, the stress matrix is symmetric, σij = σji (2.18)

A more rigorous proof of the symmetry of the stress tensor will be given in Sect. 6.3.2.1. 2.3.1 Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem

21 If we consider t1 as the traction vector on a plane with normal n1 , and t2 the stress vector at the same point on a plane with normal n2 , then

t1 = n1 ·σ and t2 = n2 σ or in matrix form as {t1 } = n1 [σ] and {t2 } = n2 [σ]

(2.19) (2.20)

If we postmultiply the ﬁrst equation by n2 and the second one by n1 , by virtue of the symmetry of [σ] we have (2.21) [n1 σ]n2 = [n2 σ]n1 or t1 ·n2 = t2 ·n1

22

(2.22)

**In the special case of two opposite faces, this reduces to
**

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 n 1 0 1 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 1 000 0 1 0 1 11 1 0 00 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 000 1 111 1 0 000 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 000 1 0 1 1 0 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 1 0 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 111 000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 00 111 000 11 00 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 00 1111 0000 11111111111111111111111 00000000000000000000000 11 1 00 0 11 00 11111111111111111111111 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 Γ00000000000000000000000 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 1 0 1111 111 0000 000 1 0 11 111 00 000 1 0 11 111 00 000 111 000 1 0 111 000 1 0 1 0 1 0 -n 1 0 1 0

n 1 0

t

Ω

t

Γ

t

-n

Figure 2.4: Cauchy’s Reciprocal Theorem

tn = −t−n

Victor Saouma

(2.23)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

23

2.4 Principal Stresses

2–7

We should note that this theorem is analogous to Newton’s famous third law of motion To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

2.4

24

Principal Stresses

Regardless of the state of stress (as long as the stress tensor is symmetric), at a given point, it is always possible to choose a special set of axis through the point so that the shear stress components vanish when the stress components are referred to this system of axis. these special axes are called principal axes of the principal stresses.

25 To determine the principal directions at any point, we consider n to be a unit vector in one of the unknown directions. It has components ni . Let λ represent the principal-stress component on the plane whose normal is n (note both n and λ are yet unknown). Since we know that there is no shear stress component on the plane perpendicular to n,

σ 12 σ 11

Initial (X1) Plane

tn σ = t 12 n2

n

σ 11= t

n1 n2 n1

tn σ s t t n2

n1

n

σ s =0

n

σn

σ=tn n

t n2

Arbitrary Plane

tn1

Principal Plane

Figure 2.5: Principal Stresses

**the stress vector on this plane must be parallel to n and tn = λn
**

26

(2.24)

From Eq. 2.10 and denoting the stress tensor by σ we get n·σ = λn (2.25)

in indicial notation this can be rewritten as nr σrs = λns or (σrs − λδrs )nr = 0 in matrix notation this corresponds to n ([σ] − λ[I]) = 0

Victor Saouma

(2.26) (2.27)

(2.28)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

2–8

27

KINETICS

where I corresponds to the identity matrix. We really have here a set of three homogeneous algebraic equations for the direction cosines ni . Since the direction cosines must also satisfy n2 + n2 + n2 = 1 1 2 3 (2.29)

they can not all be zero. hence Eq.2.28 has solutions which are not zero if and only if the determinant of the coeﬃcients is equal to zero, i.e σ11 − λ σ12 σ13 σ21 σ22 − λ σ23 = 0 (2.30) σ31 σ32 σ33 − λ |σrs − λδrs | = 0 (2.31) |σ − λI| = 0 (2.32)

28

For a given set of the nine stress components, the preceding equation constitutes a cubic equation for the three unknown magnitudes of λ. Cauchy was ﬁrst to show that since the matrix is symmetric and has real elements, the roots are all real numbers.

29

30 The three lambdas correspond to the three principal stresses σ(1) > σ(2) > σ(3) . When any one of them is substituted for λ in the three equations in Eq. 2.28 those equations reduce to only two independent linear equations, which must be solved together with the quadratic Eq. 2.29 to determine the direction cosines ni of the normal ni to the plane r on which σi acts.

31

The three directions form a right-handed system and n3 = n1 ×n2 (2.33)

32

**In 2D, it can be shown that the principal stresses are given by: σ1,2 = σx + σy ± 2 σx − σy 2
**

2 2 + τxy

(2.34)

2.4.1

33

Invariants

The principal stresses are physical quantities, whose values do not depend on the coordinate system in which the components of the stress were initially given. They are therefore invariants of the stress state. When the determinant in the characteristic Eq. 2.32 is expanded, the cubic equation takes the form λ3 − Iσ λ2 − IIσ λ − IIIσ = 0 (2.35)

34

where the symbols Iσ , IIσ and IIIσ denote the following scalar expressions in the stress components:

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

2.5 Stress Transformation

2–9

Iσ = σ11 + σ22 + σ33 = σii = tr σ 2 2 2 IIσ = −(σ11 σ22 + σ22 σ33 + σ33 σ11 ) + σ23 + σ31 + σ12 1 1 2 1 (σij σij − σii σjj ) = σij σij − Iσ = 2 2 2 1 2 = (σ : σ − Iσ ) 2 1 IIIσ = detσ = eijk epqr σip σjq σkr 6

(2.36) (2.37) (2.38) (2.39) (2.40)

35

In terms of the principal stresses, those invariants can be simpliﬁed into Iσ = σ(1) + σ(2) + σ(3) (2.41) IIσ = −(σ(1) σ(2) + σ(2) σ(3) + σ(3) σ(1) ) (2.42) IIIσ = σ(1) σ(2) σ(3) (2.43)

2.4.2

36

Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors

If we let σ denote the mean normal stress p 1 1 1 σ = −p = (σ11 + σ22 + σ33 ) = σii = tr σ 3 3 3 (2.44)

then the stress tensor can be written as the sum of two tensors: Hydrostatic stress in which each normal stress is equal to −p and the shear stresses are zero. The hydrostatic stress produces volume change without change in shape in an isotropic medium. σhyd −p 0 0 −p 0 = −pI = 0 0 0 −p

(2.45)

Deviatoric Stress: which causes the change in shape. σdev σ11 − σ σ12 σ13 σ22 − σ σ23 = σ21 σ31 σ32 σ33 − σ (2.46)

2.5

37

Stress Transformation

From Eq. 1.73 and 1.74, the stress transformation for the second order stress tensor is given by σ ip = aj aq σjq in Matrix Form [σ] = [A]T [σ][A] (2.47) i p σjq = aj aq σ ip in Matrix Form [σ] = [A][σ][A]T i p (2.48)

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

2n2 + n2 + n2 = 0 1 2 3 1 n2 − n2 + 2n2 = 0 ⇒ n2 = √ . Example 2-3: Stress Transformation Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 2 6 1 n1 = − √ 3 6 (2. IIσ and IIIσ . 1 2 3 1 1 n + 2n1 − 4n1 = 0 6 1 2 3 1 n1 = − √ . 2 2 1 n3 = − √ 3 2 (2. 2.Draft 2–10 38 KINETICS For the 2D plane stress case we rewrite Eq. we can convince ourselves that the two stress tensors have the same invariants Iσ . We also note that those are the three eigenvalues of the stress tensor.76 σ xx σ yy σ xy σxx cos2 α sin2 α 2 sin α cos α 2 2 cos α −2 sin α cos α σyy sin α = − sin α cos α cos α sin α cos2 α − sin2 α σxy (2. −n1 + n1 + n1 = 0 1 2 3 2 n1 − 4n1 + 2n1 = 0 ⇒ n1 = − √ .54) Finally.50) (2. thus the roots are σ(1) = 4.52) Similarly If we let x2 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of σ(2) and n2 be the i direction cosines of this axis.51) Or upon expansion (and simpliﬁcation) (λ + 2)(λ − 4)(λ − 1) = 0. 1 2 3 1 n3 + 2n3 + 2n3 = 0 1 2 3 1 n3 = √ . then from Eq. Solution: From Eq. 2 3 1 n2 = − √ 3 3 (2.49) Example 2-2: Principal Stresses The stress tensor is given at a point by 3 1 1 σ= 1 0 2 1 2 0 determine the principal stress values and the corresponding directions. 1.32 we have 3−λ 1 1 1 0−λ 2 =0 1 2 0−λ (2. 1 2 3 1 2 n + 2n2 − n2 = 0 3 1 2 3 1 n2 = − √ .28 we have (3 + 2)n3 + n3 + n3 = 0 1 2 3 n3 + 2n3 + 2n3 = 0 ⇒ n3 = 0. If we let x1 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of σ(3) and n3 be the i direction cosines of this axis.2. if we let x3 axis be the one corresponding to the direction of σ(1) and n1 be the i direction cosines of this axis. σ(2) = 1 and σ(3) = −2.53) Finally.

2.57-a) (2.49 and after some algebraic manipulation we obtain σ xx = σ xy 1 1 (σxx + σyy ) + (σxx − σyy ) cos 2α + σxy sin 2α 2 2 1 = σxy cos 2α − (σxx − σyy ) sin 2α 2 (2.56) 42 into Eq.5. 0] are plotted in the stress representation of Fig. (σxx . 2.1 39 Plane Stress Plane stress conditions prevail when σ3i = 0.Draft 2.2 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress Conditions 41 The Mohr circle will provide a graphical mean to contain the transformed state of stress (σ xx .6.57-b) 43 Points (σxx . 0) and [(σxx + σyy )/2.47 σ = 0 1 √ 3 2 − √6 1 √ 2 1 − √3 1 − √6 −2 0 0 = 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 2 √ − √2 − √6 3 1 1 0 3 1 1 1 1 − √3 1 0 2 √2 − √3 − √6 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 − √6 − √2 − √3 − √6 (2.55-a) (2. (σyy . σyy .58-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5. σxy ). 40 Plane stress condition prevail in (relatively) thin plates. σxy ). i.e when one of the dimensions is much smaller than the other two. Then we observe that 1 (σxx − σyy ) = R cos 2β 2 σxy = R sin 2β Victor Saouma (2. Solution: From Eq. σxy ) at an arbitrary plane (inclined by α) in terms of the original one (σxx .55-b) 2. and thus we have a biaxial stress ﬁeld.5 Stress Transformation 2–11 Show that the transformation tensor of direction cosines previously determined transforms the original stress tensor into the diagonal principal axes stress tensor. 2.58-a) (2. 0). 2. Substituting sin2 α = 1−cos 2α cos2 α = 1+cos 2α 2 2 2 2 cos 2α = cos α − sin α sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α (2. σ yy .

Draft 2–12 KINETICS σyy y σyy y y y A τyx x τyx τxy σxx α x τxy σxx Q α x σxx x τxy τyx B σyy σxx τxy τyx σyy (a) (b) τn τ xy σxx σxx τxy x O X( σxx τ xy ) .6: Mohr Circle for Plane Stress Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .σ ) xx yy 2 1(σ -σ ) 1 2 2 (c) (d) Figure 2. 2 β − 2α τxy τyx σyy σxx σ1 σn τyx 1 ( σ +σ ) xx yy 2 1 ( σ +σ ) 1 2 2 1 (σ . R σ2 D σ yy C 2α 2β α X( σxx τ xy ) .

σyy . 4. R and β are 2 deﬁnite numbers for a given state of stress. σyy = 5 and τxy = 4. Using the Mohr’s circle determine: a) the stresses acting on an element rotated through an angle θ = +40o (counterclockwise).59-a) (2. σ xy ). 2 2. 0). The corresponding angle on the circle is 2α + π measured clockwise from the reference line CX.61) (2. Plot the points (σxx . consider the plane whose normal makes an angle α + 1 π with the 2 positive x axis in the physical plane.59-b) then after substitution and simpliﬁation. To determine σ yy . The coordinates of D are (σ yy . since σxx . and c) the maximum shear stresses. 0]. lay oﬀ angle 2α clockwise from CX. the graphical solution for the state of stresses at an inclined plane is summarized as follows 1. 3.57-b would result in σ xx = σ xy We observe that the form of these equations. σxy ). Draw the line CX. 2. this will be the reference line corresponding to a plane in the physical body whose normal is the positive x direction. 44 By eliminating the trigonometric terms. (σyy .57-a and 2. Furthermore.Draft where 2. the Cartesian equation of the circle is given 1 [σ xx − (σxx + σyy )]2 + σ 2 = R2 xy 2 (2. indicates that σ xx and σ xy are on a circle centered at 1 (σxx + σyy ) and of radius R. b) the principal stresses. Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements. This locates point D which is at the opposite end of the diameter through X.62) by 45 Finally. −σ xy ) Example 2-4: Mohr’s Circle in Plane Stress An element in plane stress is subjected to stresses σxx = 15.5 Stress Transformation 2–13 1 2 (σxx − σyy )2 + σxy 4 2σxy tan 2β = σxx − σyy R = 1 (σxx + σyy ) + R cos(2β − 2α) (2. 5. and X : (σxx .7: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 2. the previous equations provide a graphical solution for the evaluation of the rotated stress σ xx and σ xy for various angles α. Solution: With reference to Fig. 0). The terminal side CX of this angle intersects the circle in point X whose coordinates are (σ xx . Draw a circle with center C and radius R = CX. C : [ 1 (σxx + σyy ). Eq.60) 2 = R sin(2β − 2α) (2. To determine the point that represents any plane in the physical body with normal making a counterclockwise angle α with the x direction.

8 ⇒ 2β = 38.7 o 4 4 4 X(15. The center of the circle is located at 1 1 (σxx + σyy ) = (15 + 5) = 10.64-b) (2.4 o 19.403 cos −41.3 o σn 4 4 5 4 θ=40 θ=90 10 o o θ=64.64-a) β = 19.3 5 o 3.23 Victor Saouma (2.6 5.34 o 80 15 15 θ=19.00 o Figure 2.81 o 10.66 41.403 sin(180o − 41. 2 2 2.4 o θ=109. The stresses acting on a plane at θ = +40o are given by the point making an angle of −80o (clockwise) with respect to point X(15.34o with respect to the axis.66-a) (2.40 25.19 14.34o = 14.65-a) (2.23 16.66-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .4) θ=0 o 6.34o) = 5.7 10.Draft 2–14 5 KINETICS τn θ=−25.403 cos(180o − 41.3 15 o 5 o 38. The radius and the angle 2β are given by 1 (15 − 5)2 + 42 = 6.23 o (2.66o = −41.7: Plane Stress Mohr’s Circle.34o) = 4. 4.3 6. Numerical Example 1. 4) or −80o + 38.34 = −4. Thus. the stresses at the face y are given by σ yy = 10 + 6. by inspection the stresses on the x face are σ xx = 10 + 6.403 sin −41.65-b) 5.00 40 4. Similarly.81 τ xy = 6.403 4 2(4) = 0.66o.19 τ xy = 6.33o (2. tan 2β = 15 − 5 R = (2.63) 3.

The principal stresses are simply given by σ(1) = 10 + 6.66 2+180 = 109.4 = 16.4 at an angle of 90o − 38. 2. Stress Resultants 2–15 6. Stress Resultants For many applications of continuum mechanics the problem of determining the threedimensional stress distribution is too diﬃcult to solve. in many (civil/mechanical)applications.6 Simpliﬁed Theories. each characterized by their own normal vector along ON.3o with respect to the x axis.6 48 Simpliﬁed Theories. 7.4 = 3.3 †Mohr’s Stress Representation Plane 46 There can be an inﬁnite number of planes passing through a point O.8: Unit Sphere in Physical Body around O 47 It can be shown that all possible sets of σn and τn which can act on the point O are within the shaded area of Fig. Y σII B H E G β F O γ N α A J C Z σIII Figure 2.66o = 25. To each plane will correspond a set of σn and τn . and o o σ(2) acts at an angle of 38.6 (2. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .4 σ(2) = 10 − 6.5.e 6.68) 2 2. However.8.67-b) σ(1) acts on a plane deﬁned by the angle of +19. D 2. The maximum and minimum shear stresses are equal to the radius of the circle. 2.67-a) (2.3o clockwise from the x axis.Draft 2.70 (2. i.9. Fig.

we solve for certain stress resultants (normal. The resulting forces in turn are shown in Fig. and engineering theories prove to be either too restrictive or inapplicable.σ ) Ι ΙΙΙ 2 1 ( σ. We consider separately two of those three cases. and Moments and torsions) resulting from an integration over the body.σ ) ΙΙ ΙΙΙ 2 σ III KINETICS τn O C I σ CII II σ I 1 ( σ. In those problems. 2.12. The net resultant forces Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we can use numerical techniques (such as the Finite Element Method) to solve the problem.σ ) Ι ΙΙ 2 σn C III 1 ( σ +σ ) ΙΙ ΙΙΙ 2 1 ( σ +σ ) Ι ΙΙΙ 2 Figure 2.11 and for simpliﬁcation those acting per unit length of the middle surface are shown in Fig. 2.1 Arch 51 Fig. if a continuum solution is desired. 49 In those cases. 2.9: Mohr Circle for Stress in 3D one or more dimensions is/are small compared to the others and possess certain symmetries of geometrical shape and load distribution. plates or beams. instead of solving for the stress components throughout the body. 50 Alternatively. 2.6. shear forces.10 illustrates the stresses acting on a diﬀerential element of a shell structure. we may apply “engineering theories” for shells.Draft 2–16 1 ( σ.

Forces Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Stresses Figure 2. Stress Resultants 2–17 Figure 2.11: Diﬀerential Shell Element.6 Simpliﬁed Theories.Draft 2.10: Diﬀerential Shell Element.

Draft 2–18 KINETICS Figure 2. Vectors of Stress Couples are given by: Membrane Force +h 2 −2 +h 2 −h 2 +h 2 −h 2 +h 2 −h 2 Nxx = Nyy = Nxy = Nyx = σxx 1 − h σyy σxy σxy N = +h 2 z σ 1− dz r −h 2 z ry z 1− rx z 1− ry z 1− rx dz dz dz dz Bending Moments Mxx = Myy Mxy Myx M = +h 2 z σz 1 − dz h r −2 Transverse Shear Forces Q = +h 2 z dz ry z = σyy z 1 − dz rx −h 2 +h z 2 = − h σxy z 1 − dz ry −2 +h z 2 = σxy z 1 − dz h rx −2 −h 2 +h 2 +h 2 σxx z 1 − (2.69) z τ 1− dz r −h 2 Qx = Qy = +h 2 −h 2 +h 2 −h 2 τxz 1 − τyz z dz ry z 1− dz rx Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .12: Diﬀerential Shell Element.

Stress Resultants 2–19 Plates Considering an arbitrary plate.13.Draft 2. we ignore the eﬀect of the membrane forces. and resultants per unit width are given by Figure 2. 2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .6.6 Simpliﬁed Theories.70-a) σyy zdz σxy zdz Membrane Force N = t 2 t −2 σdz t −2 t 2 t −2 t 2 Bending Moments M = t 2 t −2 t −2 t 2 σzdz t −2 t 2 t −2 Transverse Shear Forces V = t 2 −2 τ dz t t −2 t 2 τxz dz τyz dz t −2 53 Note that in plate theory. those in turn will be accounted for in shells. the stresses and resulting forces are shown in Fig.2 52 2.13: Stresses and Resulting Forces in a Plate t 2 t −2 t 2 Nxx = Nyy = Nxy = Mxx = Myy = Mxy = Vx = Vy = t 2 σxx dz σyy dz σxy dz σxx zdz (2.

Draft 2–20 KINETICS Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

1) 3 We also note that there are as many ways to diﬀerentiate a vector ﬁeld as there are ways of multiplying vectors. Fig.2 is deﬁned by p(u + ∆u) − p(u) dp ≡ lim du ∆u→0 ∆u (3.2 4 Derivative WRT to a Scalar The derivative of a vector p(u) with respect to a scalar u. 2 We ﬁrst introduce the diﬀerential vector operator “Nabla” denoted by ∇ ∇≡ ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂z (3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 3. Multiplication u·v dot u×v cross u ⊗ v tensor Diﬀerentiation ∇·v divergence ∇×v curl ∇v gradient Tensor Order ❄ ✲ ✻ Table 3. Vector Field v(x). 3.1 or Tensor Field T(x).1 1 Introduction A ﬁeld is a function deﬁned over a continuous region. Scalar Field g(x).1. the analogy being given by Table 3. 3.2) . Fig. This includes.1: Similarities Between Multiplication and Diﬀerentiation Operators 3.Draft Chapter 3 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.

−2. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION m−fields. 2<.Draft 3–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. ContourShading −> FalseD 2 1 0 -1 -2 -2 Ö ContourGraphics Ö Plot3D@Exp@−Hx ^ 2 + y ^ 2LD.1: Examples of a Scalar and Vector Fields ∆ p=p (u+∆ u). 8y.nb 1 ‡ Scalar and Vector Fields ContourPlot@Exp@−Hx ^ 2 + y ^ 2LD. −2. 2<. −2.75 0. 8x.p(u) C ) ∆u (u+ p p (u) Figure 3.2: Diﬀerentiation of position vector p Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .25 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 -2 Ö SurfaceGraphics Ö 2 1 0 -1 Figure 3. 8y. 8x. −2. 2<. 2<. FaceGrids −> AllD -1 0 1 2 1 0.5 0.

If u is the time t. and if u is the curvilinear coordinate s measured from any point along the curve.2 Derivative WRT to a Scalar 3–3 If p(u) is a position vector p(u) = x(u)i + y(u)j + z(u)k. if we consider a curve C deﬁned by the function p(u) then is a vector tangent ot C. then dp is a unit tangent vector to C T.4) (3.6) (3. Fig. z = 2t2 − 6t for t = 2.3: Curvature of a Curve following relations dp = T ds dT = κN ds B = T×N κ curvature 1 Radius of Curvature ρ = κ we also note that p· dp = 0 if ds dp ds (3. then dp dx dy dz = i+ j+ k du du du du (3. Solution: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . y = 4t − 3.3. 3.8) = 0.Draft 5 6 3. and we have the ds dp du N T C B Figure 3.5) (3. then dp dt is the velocity 7 In diﬀerential geometry.7) (3.3) is a vector along the tangent to the curve. Example 3-1: Tangent to a Curve Determine the unit vector tangent to the curve: x = t2 + 1.

4: Mathematica Solution for the Tangent to a Curve in 3D 3. Fig.9-b) (3.Draft 3–4 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.9-d) ‡ Parametric Plot in 3D ParametricPlot3D@8t ^ 2 + 1. The volume of the body is v(B). 3. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5 is deﬁned by considering that each point of the surface has a normal n.9-c) (3. 8t.9-a) (3.3. 0.4 m−par3d. 4<D 10 5 0 5 0 0 5 10 15 Ö Graphics3D Ö Figure 3. 3.3 3. 4 t − 3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION d dp = (t2 + 1)i + (4t − 3)j + (2t2 − 6t)k = 2ti + 4j + (4t − 6)k dt dt dp = (2t)2 + (4)2 + (4t − 6)2 dt 2ti + 4j + (4t − 6)k T = (2t)2 + (4)2 + (4t − 6)2 2 4i + 4j + 2k 2 1 = i + j + k for t = 2 = 3 3 3 (4)2 + (4)2 + (2)2 Mathematica solution is shown in Fig.1 8 Divergence Vector The divergence of a vector ﬁeld of a body B with boundary Ω. and that the body is surrounded by a vector ﬁeld v(x). 2 t ^ 2 − 6 t<.nb 1 (3.

6 This volume is then equal to the base of the n dA v Ω v.∆x3 →0 lim 1 ∆x1 ∆x2 ∆x3 ∆x2 ∆x3 [v(x + ∆x1 e1 )·e1 + v(x)·(−e1 )]dx2 dx3 (3. however we can gain an insight into the divergence by considering a rectangular parallelepiped with sides ∆x1 .10) where v. then the contribution (from Eq.10) of the two surfaces with normal vectors e1 and −e1 is 11 ∆x1 .3 Divergence 3–5 n Ω B v(x) Figure 3. If we also consider the corner closest to the origin as located at x.n Figure 3.7. and ∆x3 .Draft 3.∆x2 . We note that the streamlines which are tangent to the boundary do not let any ﬂuid out. Fig.11) or ∆x1 . ∆x2 . 10 The divergence thus measure the rate of change of a vector ﬁeld. The deﬁnition is clearly independent of the shape of the solid region. 3. 3. 3.6: Flux Through Area dA cylinder dA times the height of the cylinder v·n. Fig. and with normal vectors pointing in the directions of the coordinate axies. while those normal to it let it out most eﬃciently.∆x3 →0 lim 1 ∆x2 ∆x3 v(x + ∆x1 e1 ) − v(x) ·e1 dx2 dx3 = ∆x1 ∆x2 ∆x3 ∆x1 →0 lim ∆v (3.12-a) ·e1 ∆x1 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5: Vector Field Crossing a Solid Region 9 The divergence of the vector ﬁeld is thus deﬁned as div v(x) ≡ lim 1 v(B)→0 v(B) v·ndA Ω (3.n is often referred as the ﬂux and represents the total volume of “ﬂuid” that passes through dA in unit time.∆x2 .

13) 12 ∂ ∂ ∂ e1 + e2 + e3 )·(v1 e1 + v2 e2 + v3 e3 ) (3.17-a) (3.14) ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂v2 ∂v3 ∂vi ∂v1 + + = = ∂i vi = vi. 1).i (3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION x3 e3 -e 2 -e 1 ∆ x3 e2 x2 ∆ x2 ∆ x1 e1 -e 3 x1 Figure 3.15) = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂xi 13 The divergence of a vector is a scalar. −1.16) 14 Example 3-2: Divergence Determine the divergence of the vector A = x2 zi − 2y 3 z 2 j + xy 2 zk at point (1.ii (3. we can generalize div v(x) = or alternatively div v = ∇·v = ( ∂v(x) ·ei ∂xi ∂v ·e1 ∂x1 (3.12-b) (3. We note that the Laplacian Operator is deﬁned as ∇2 F ≡ ∇∇F = F.17-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 3–6 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. Solution: ∇·v = ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j + k ·(x2 zi − 2y 3z 2 j + xy 2 zk) ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 3 2 ∂xy 2 z ∂x z ∂ − 2y z + + = ∂x ∂y ∂z (3.7: Inﬁnitesimal Element for the Evaluation of the Divergence = hence.

Cartesian@x. AxesLabel −> 8"X".8 m−diver. 10<. zDD 0 Figure 3. −2 y ^ 3 z ^ 2.17-c) (3.3 Divergence 3–7 = 2xz − 6y 2z 2 + xy 2 = 2(1)(1) − 6(−1)2 (1)2 + (1)(−1)2 = −3 at (1. −1. the divergence of a second-order tensor ﬁeld T is ∇·T = div T(x) ≡ lim 1 v(B)→0 v(B) T·ndA Ω (3. 8y.18) which is the vector ﬁeld ∇·T = ∂Tpq eq ∂xp (3. Axes −> Automatic. 1) (3. zDD -6 z2 y2 + x y2 + 2 x z << Graphics‘PlotField3D‘ PlotVectorField3D@8x ^ 2 z. 3.nb 1 ‡ Divergence of a Vector << Calculus‘VectorAnalysis‘ V = 8x ^ 2 z. x y ^ 2 z<.Draft 3. −10.3. x y ^ 2 z<. zDD. Cartesian@x. 8z.8: Mathematica Solution for the Divergence of a Vector 3. −10.10. y. Div@V.2 15 Second-Order Tensor By analogy to Eq.17-d) Mathematica solution is shown in Fig. −2 y ^ 3 z ^ 2. y. −10. 10<. 3. "Y". 10<. 8x.19) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . "Z"<D Y 0 -5 -10 10 10 10 5 5 Z 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 0 X 5 10 Ö Graphics3D Ö Div@Curl@V. y. Cartesian@x.

4 Gradient Scalar 3. the directional derivative dg/ds in the direction of v is given by dg = ∇g·v ds (3. The length of the vector ||∇g(x)|| is perpendicular to the contour lines.21-a) (3. Solution: ∇φ = ∇(x2 yz + 4xz 2 ) = (2xyz + 4z 2 )i + (x2 zj + (x2 y + 8xz)k Victor Saouma (3. ds The gradient is thus a vector invariant.1 16 The gradient of a scalar ﬁeld g(x) is a vector ﬁeld ∇g(x) such that for any unit vector v. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 3. 19 Example 3-3: Gradient of a Scalar Determine the gradient of φ = x2 yz + 4xz 2 at point (1. 17 To ﬁnd the components in any rectangular Cartesian coordinate system we use dp dxi = ei ds ds dg ∂g dxi = ds ∂xi ds v = which can be substituted and will yield ∇g = ∂g ei ∂xi (3.Draft 3–8 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.23-a) (3.21-b) or ∇φ ≡ ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j+ k φ ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ i+ j+ k = ∂x ∂y ∂z (3.24-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . the gradient is pointing along the normal to the plane tangent to the surface).20) where v = dp We note that the deﬁnition made no reference to any coordinate system. 18 The physical signiﬁcance of the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld is that it points in the direction in which the ﬁeld is changing most rapidly (for a three dimensional surface. ∇g(x)·n gives the rate of change of the scalar ﬁeld in the direction of n.23-b) and note that it deﬁnes a vector ﬁeld.22) (3. −1) along the direction 2i − j − 2k.4. −2.

24-d) Since this last value is positive. −2.26) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Example 3-4: Stress Vector normal to the Tangent of a Cylinder The stress tensor throughout a continuum is given with respect to Cartesian axes as 3x1 x2 5x2 0 2 0 2x2 σ = 5x2 2 3 0 2x3 0 (3.9.24-b) 1 2 j− k 3 3 = 37 16 1 20 + + = 3 3 3 3 (3. 3. 1.25) √ Determine the stress vector (or traction) at the point P (2.9: Radial Stress vector in a Cylinder Solution: At point P . φ increases along that direction. 3) of the plane that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x2 + x2 = 4 at P . 2 3 x3 n x2 P 2 1 3 x1 Figure 3.Draft 3. the stress tensor is given by 6 5 0 √ 0 σ= 5 √ 2 3 0 2 3 0 Victor Saouma (3.24-c) (3. −1) 2 2i − j − 2k = i− n = 3 (2)2 + (−1)2 + (−2)2 1 2 2 ∇φ·n = (8i − j − 10k)· i − j − k 3 3 3 (3.4 Gradient 3–9 = 8i − j − 10k at (1. Fig.

29) Thus the traction vector will be determined from 6 5 0 √ 0 5/2 1/2 3 0 σ= 5 √ 2 3 √ = √ 3/2 3 0 2 3 0 √ or tn = 5 e1 + 3e2 + 3e3 2 3.2 Vector (3. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION The unit normal to the surface at P is given from ∇(x2 + x2 − 4) = 2x2 22 + 2x3 e3 2 3 (3. then the gradient of the vector ﬁeld v(x) is a second order tensor deﬁned by 1 (3. In matrix representation. √ ∇(x2 + x2 − 4) = 222 + 2 3e3 2 3 √ 3 1 e3 n = e1 + 2 2 and thus the unit normal at P is (3.28) At point P . Fig. it can be shown that ∇x v(x) = ∂vi (x) [ei ⊗ ej ] ∂xj (3.31) ∇x v(x) ≡ lim v ⊗ ndA v(B)→0 v(B) Ω and with a construction similar to the one used for the divergence.27) (3.Draft 3–10 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 3.30) 20 We can also deﬁne the gradient of a vector ﬁeld.34) that is [∇v]ij gives the rate of change of the ith component of v with respect to the jth coordinate axis. Note the diference between v∇x and ∇x v. 21 The components of ∇x v are simply the various partial derivatives of the component functions with respect to the coordinates: [∇x v] = [v∇x ] = ∂vx ∂x ∂vx ∂y ∂vx ∂z ∂vx ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vz ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vy ∂y ∂vy ∂z ∂vx ∂y ∂vy ∂y ∂vz ∂y ∂vz ∂x ∂vz ∂y ∂vz ∂z ∂vx ∂z ∂vy ∂z ∂vz ∂z (3. 22 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .33) (3.5.32) where summation is implied for both i and j. one is the transpose of the other.4. If we consider a solid domain B with boundary Ω.

If we consider two points a and b that are near to each other (i. We can interpret the gradient of a vector geometrically.35) v(x+∆ s m ) -v(x) v(x+∆ s m ) x3 v(x) a ∆ sm b x2 x1 Figure 3.e ∆s is very small).4 Gradient 23 24 3–11 The gradient of a vector is a tensor of order 2. Thus.Draft 3. then we get the rate of change as we move in the speciﬁed direction. The value of the vector ﬁeld at a is v(x) and the value of the vector ﬁeld at b is v(x + ∆sm). Since the vector ﬁeld changes with position in the domain. 3. we obtain ∆s→0 lim v(x + ∆sm) − v(x) ≡ Dv(x)·m ∆s (3. Example 3-5: Gradient of a Vector Field Determine the gradient of the following vector ﬁeld v(x) = x1 x2 x3 (x1 e1 +x2 e2 +x3 e3 ). Fig.36-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . if we divide this change by ∆s. Finally. and let the unit vector m points in the direction from a to b. Solution: ∇x v(x) = 2x1 x2 x3 [e1 ⊗ e1 ] + x2 x3 [e1 ⊗ e2 ] + x2 x2 [e1 ⊗ e3 ] 1 1 2 +x2 x3 [e2 ⊗ e1 ] + 2x1 x2 x3 [e2 ⊗ e2 ] + x1 x2 [e2 ⊗ e3 ] 2 +x2 x2 [e3 ⊗ e1 ] + x1 x2 [e3 ⊗ e2 ] + 2x1 x2 x3 [e3 ⊗ e3 ] 3 3 2 x1 /x2 x1 /x3 2 x2 /x3 = x1 x2 x3 x2 /x1 x3 /x1 x3 /x2 2 Victor Saouma (3. The vector connecting the heads of v(x) and v(x + ∆sm) is v(x + ∆sm) − v(x). then we compare the diﬀerences between those two vectors. If we now transport a copy of v(x) and place it at b. taking the limit as ∆s goes to zero. the change in vector.10: Gradient of a Vector The quantity Dv(x)·m is called the directional derivative because it gives the rate of change of the vector ﬁeld as we move in the direction m.36-a) (3. those two vectors are diﬀerent both in length and orientation.10.

x2.11. x1 x2 x32 < x1 3. Cartesian@x. -1<. 8z. -10. m−grad. 8x2. -10. the result is a vector.= 3 3 3 Gradf . -2< Sqrt@4 + 1 + 4D 2 1 2 9 .4. 8y.5 26 Curl When the vector operator ∇ operates in a manner analogous to vector multiplication.11: Mathematica Solution for the Gradients of a Scalar and of a Vector 8 2 x2 x3. zDD 8 x3+ 2 x y z. AxesLabel -> 8"x1". vect 37 3 Gradient of a Vector vecfield = x1 x2 x3 8x1. 0<D -10 -10 0 x1 Graphics3D MatrixForm@Grad@vecfield.nb Gradient Scalar PlotVectorField3D@vecfield. 8x3. "x2". x3DDD i2 x1 x2 x3 x12 x3 x12 x2 y z j z j z j z j j z j x22 x3 2 x1 x2 x3 x1 x22 z z j z j z j z j z j 2 2 x1 x3 2 x1 x2 x3 { k x2 x3 10 Graphics3D x = 1. -1. 8x1. x2 z. x3< Figure 3. x2. 3. 0. 2<. Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION 3.3 25 Mathematica Solution Mathematica solution of the two preceding examples is shown in Fig. -3. Cartesian@x1.. Axes -> Automatic. y x2 + 8 z x< 4 z2 0 << Graphics‘PlotField3D‘ PlotGradientField3D@f. x1 x22 x3. 10<. 10<. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . y. 8x. -10. z = -1. "x3"<D 2 1 x2 0 -10 10 f = x ^ 2 y z + 4 x z ^ 2. -2. y = -2. curl v called the curl of the vector ﬁeld v (sometimes called the rotation).Draft 3–12 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.. vect = 82. 10 Gradf = Grad@f. 10<..

41-h) (3.37) v1 v2 v3 ∂v2 ∂v3 ∂v1 ∂v3 ∂v1 ∂v2 − e1 + − e2 + − e3 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 = eijk ∂j vk (3.40-a) −2x yz 2yz 4 ∂ ∂y 2 ∂ ∂z (3.41-i) (3.41-c) (3.41-a) (3. −1.41-b) (3.41-k) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .12.6 27 Some useful Relations Some useful relations d(A·B) d(A×B) ∇(φ + ξ) ∇×(A + B) ∇·v ∇·(φA) ∇·(A×B) ∇(A·B) A·dB + dA·B A×dB + dA×B ∇φ + ∇ξ ∇×A + ∇×B v∇ (∇φ)·A + φ(∇×A) B·(∇×A) − A·(∇×B) (B·∇)A + (A·∇)B + B×(∇×A) + A×(∇×B) ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ + 2 + 2 Laplacian Operator ∇·(∇φ) ≡ ∇2 φ ≡ ∂x2 ∂y ∂z ∇·(∇×A) = 0 ∇×(∇φ) = 0 = = = = = = = = (3.39) Example 3-6: Curl of a vector Determine the curl of the following vector A = xz 3 i − 2x2 yzj + 2yz 4 k at (1. 1).38) (3.41-d) (3. Solution: ∇×A = = ∂ ∂ ∂ i+ j + k ×(xz 3 i − 2x2 yzj + 2yz 4 k) ∂x ∂y ∂z i j k xz = ∂ ∂x 3 (3.40-c) k ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y = (2z 4 + 2x2 y)i + 3xz 2 j − 4xyzk (3.41-e) (3. −1.41-g) (3.6 Some useful Relations 3–13 e1 v = ∇×v = = ∂ ∂x1 e2 ∂ ∂x2 e3 ∂ ∂x3 (3.40-e) Mathematica solution is shown in Fig.41-j) (3. 1) (3.41-f) (3.Draft curl 3. 3. 3.40-b) ∂2yz 4 ∂ − 2x2 yz ∂xz 3 ∂2yz 4 ∂ − 2x2 yz ∂xz 3 − − − i+ j+ (3.40-d) = 3j + 4k at (1.

AxesLabel −> 8"x". Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION m−curl. Axes −> Automatic. Cartesian@x.5 x Ö Graphics3D Ö Div@CurlOfA. 0<. y = −1. 8x. y. -4 x y z< << Graphics‘PlotField3D‘ PlotVectorField3D@CurlOfA.5 1 1.5 -1 -1. 8y.5 0 0 0. 2<.12: Mathematica Solution for the Curl of a Vector Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 3–14 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. CurlOfA = Curl@A. y. 3.5 -2 2 2 1. zDD 0 x = 1. 2<. Cartesian@x.nb 1 ‡ Curl << Calculus‘VectorAnalysis‘ A = 8x z ^ 3. 0. 0. zDD 82 z4 + 2 x2 y. CurlOfA 80.5 z 1 0. 4< 2 Figure 3. 3 x z2 . −2 x ^ 2 y z. z = 1. 2 y z ^ 4<. 8z. −2. "z"<D 0 y -0. "y".

6 Some useful Relations 3–15 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 3.

Part II VECTOR DIFFERENTIATION Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 3–16 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.

4. l0 l ∆l Figure 4.1: Elongation of an Axial Rod We seek to quantify the deformation of the rod and even though we only have 2 variables (l0 and l).1. Fig. Following this a mathematically rigorous derivation of the various expressions for strain will follow.1 20 Elementary Deﬁnition of Strain We begin our detailed coverage of strain by a simpliﬁed and elementary set of deﬁnitions for the 1D and 2D cases.Draft Chapter 4 KINEMATIC Or on How Bodies Deform 4. . We ﬁrst deﬁne the stretch of the rod as 22 λ≡ l l0 (4.1) This stretch is one in the undeformed case.1 Small and Finite Strains in 1D 21 We begin by considering an elementary case. there are diﬀerent possibilities to introduce the notion of strain. 4. an axial rod with initial lenght l0 . and subjected to a deformation ∆l into a ﬁnal deformed length of l.1. and greater than one when the rod is elongated.

We have used capital letters to represent the coordinates in the initial state. we used tan θ ≈ θ which is applicable as long as θ is small compared to one radian. 4.3-d) In the limit as both ∆X and ∆Y approach zero.2) E∗ ≡ 1− 1 λ2 we note the strong analogy between the Lagrangian and the engineering strain on the one hand. 4.2 Small Strains in 2D 25 The elementary deﬁnition of strains in 2D is illustrated by Fig. and lower case letters for the ﬁnal or current position coordinates (x = X + ux ).3-a) (4. ∂Y 1 1 εxy = γxy = 2 2 ∂ux ∂uy + ∂Y ∂X (4.Draft 4–2 23 KINEMATIC Using l0 . ∂X εyy = ∂uy .1. then εxx = ∂ux . l and λ we next introduce four possible deﬁnitions of the strain in 1D: Engineering Strain ε Natural Strain η Lagrangian Strain E Eulerian Strain ≡ = ≡ l−l0 l0 l−l0 l 2 2 1 l −l0 2 2 l0 2 l2 −l0 1 2 l2 = λ−1 1 = 1− λ = 1 (λ2 − 1) 2 = 1 2 (4.2: Elementary Deﬁnition of Strains in 2D εxx ≈ εyy γxy εxy ∆ux ∆X ∆uy ≈ ∆Y π − ψ = θ2 + θ1 = 2 1 1 ∆ux ∆uy γxy ≈ + = 2 2 ∆Y ∆X (4. and the Eulerian and the natural strain on the other.3-b) (4. This corresponds to the Lagrangian strain representation.3-c) (4.4) We note that in the expression of the shear strain.2 and are given by Uniaxial Extension Pure Shear Without Rotation ∆ uy ∆Y ∆X ∆Y ∆ ux θ2 ψ ∆X ∆ ux θ1 ∆ u y Figure 4. 24 The choice of which strain deﬁnition to use is related to the stress-strain relation (or constitutive law) that we will later adopt. 26 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

2 27 28 4.3: Position and Displacement Vectors 1 t=t P u i3 o i1 X2 x1 x i2 Spatial x2 X I2 Material b 30 In the initial conﬁguration P0 has the position vector X = X 1 I 1 + X2 I 2 + X3 I 3 (4. x Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . X3 ).2 Strain Tensor 4–3 Strain Tensor Following the simpliﬁed (and restrictive) introduction to strain.3 we will derive expressions for the position and displacement vectors of a single point P from the undeformed to the deformed state. with reference to Fig. Then.1 Position and Displacement Vectors.3 the undeformed conﬁguration of a material continuum at time t = 0 together with the deformed conﬁguration at coordinates for each conﬁguration. First.6) 32 The relative orientation of the material axes (OX1 X2 X3 ) and the spatial axes (ox1 x2 x3 ) is speciﬁed through the direction cosines aX .Draft 4. 4. 4.2. we will use some of the expressions in the introduction of the strain between two points P and Q. 4. (4. the particle P0 has now moved to the new position P and has the following position vector 31 x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 which is expressed in terms of the spatial coordinates. X2 . In the deformed conﬁguration. we now turn our attention to a rigorous presentation of this important deformation tensor. x3 X3 t=0 U P0 I3 O I X1 Figure 4. (x. X) 29 We consider in Fig.5) which is here expressed in terms of the material coordinates (X1 . The presentation will proceed as follow.

10-a) (4.Draft 4–4 33 KINEMATIC The displacement vector u connecting P0 ann P is the displacement vector which can be expressed in both the material or spatial coordinates U = Uk Ik u = uk ik (4.9) Example 4-1: Displacement Vectors in Material and Spatial Forms With respect to superposed material axis Xi and spatial axes xi . Determine the displacement vector components in both the material and spatial form. Determine the displaced location of material particles which originally comprises 2 2 the plane circular surface X1 = 0. The displacement ﬁeld can be written in matrix form as (4.10-c) x1 1 0 0 X1 x2 = 0 1 A X2 x 0 A 1 X3 3 or upon inversion (4.10-b) (4. and X3 = (x3 − Ax2 )/(1 − A2 ). Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .12) that is X1 = x1 . 2. Solution: 1. Substituting k above we obtain (4. and x3 = AX2 + X3 where A is constant.7-b) again Uk and uk are interrelated through the direction cosines ik = aK IK . From Eq. X2 = (x2 − Ax3 )/(1 − A2 ). x2 = X2 + AX3 . X2 + X3 = 1/(1 − A2 ) if A = 1/2.7-a) (4.8) u = uk (aK IK ) = UK IK = U ⇒ UK = aK uk k k 34 The vector b relates the two origins u = b + x − X or if the origins are the same (superimposed axis) uk = xk − Xk (4.11) X1 X 2 X 3 x1 1 − A2 0 0 1 0 1 −A x2 = 1 − A2 x 0 −A 1 3 (4. the displacement ﬁeld of a continuum body is given by: x1 = X1 .9 the displacement ﬁeld can be written in material coordinates as u1 = x1 − X1 = 0 u2 = x2 − X2 = AX3 u3 = x3 − X3 = AX2 2. 4. 1.

13-a) (4. Xi = Xi (x1 . t) and (x. x3 . t) (4.Draft 4.1 35 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions. with continuous partial derivatives. X3 . the particles in the continuum move along various paths which can be expressed in either the material coordinates or in the spatial coordinates system giving rise to two diﬀerent formulations: Lagrangian Formulation: gives the present location xi of the particle that occupied the point (X1 X2 X3 ) at time t = 0. 2 3 4.13-b) (4. xi = xi (X1 . t) are the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables respectivly. 37 If X(x. and 2 2 X3 = (x3 − Ax2 )/(1 − A2 ) in X2 + X3 = 1/(1 − A2 ).15) (X. t) is linear. x(X. t) When the continuum undergoes deformation (or ﬂow). The displacement ﬁeld can be written now in spatial coordinates as u1 = x1 − X1 = 0 A(x3 − Ax2 ) u2 = x2 − X2 = 1 − A2 A(x2 − Ax3 ) u3 = x3 − X3 = a − A2 (4. x2 . 36 (4. t).13-c) 4. x2 . t) or x = x(X. and by direct substitution of X2 = (x2 − Ax3 )/(1 − A2 ). X(x. X2 . 38 For both formulation to constitute a one-to-one mapping.2. and is a mapping of the current conﬁguration into the initial one. t) and the independent variables are the coordinates xi and t. and is a mapping of the initial conﬁguration into the current one. t) or X = X(x.16) |J| = ∂Xi Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . For the circular surface. they must be the unique inverses of one another. then the deformation is said to be homogeneous and plane sections remain plane. x3 ) at time t.2 Strain Tensor 4–5 3.1. A necessary and unique condition for the inverse functions to exist is that the determinant of the Jacobian should not vanish ∂xi =0 (4. 3 5x2 − 8x2 x3 + 5x2 = 3 . the circular surface becomes 2 2 the elliptical surface (1 + A )x2 − 4Ax2 x3 + (1 + A2 )x2 = (1 − A2 ) or for A = 1/2.14) Eulerian Formulation: provides a tracing of its original position of the particle that now occupies the location (x1 .

21) = ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 = ∂xi ∂Xj (4.18) Example 4-2: Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions The Lagrangian description of a deformation is given by x1 = X1 + X3 (e2 − 1).1 39 Gradients Deformation.19) 1 0 (e2 − 1) 0 1 (e2 − e−2 ) 2 0 0 e X1 = x1 + (e−2 − 1)x3 1 0 (e−2 − 1) = 0 1 (e−4 − 1) ⇒ X2 = x2 + (e−4 − 1)x3 X = e−2 x 0 0 e−2 3 3 (4.2. (x∇X .2. and x3 = e2 X3 where e is a constant. Show that the jacobian does not vanish and determine the Eulerian equations describing the motion. In symbolic notation ∂xi /∂Xj is represented by the dyadic F ≡ x∇X = The matrix form of F is x1 F = x2 x 3 ∂ ∂X1 ∂ ∂X2 ∂ ∂X3 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂xi e1 + e2 + e3 = ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X3 ∂Xj ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X1 (4.20) 4. X3 = x3 1 − et − e−t 1 − et − e−t (4. x2 = X1 (e−t − 1) + X2 .17) has the inverse Eulerian description given by X1 = −x1 + x2 (et − 1) x1 (e−t − 1) − x2 .2 4.Draft 4–6 KINEMATIC For example.22) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . the Lagrangian description given by x1 = X1 + X2 (et − 1).2. X2 = .14 with respect to Xj produces the tensor ∂xi /∂Xj which is the material deformation gradient. X∇x ) Partial diﬀerentiation of Eq. x2 = X2 + X3 (e2 − e−2 ). 4. x3 = X3 (4. Solution: The Jacobian is given by 1 0 (e2 − 1) 0 1 (e2 − e−2 ) = e2 = 0 0 0 e2 Inverting the equation −1 (4.

30) Fe3 ·dA = dA0 (Fe3 ·Fe1 ×Fe2 ) det(F) or e3 ·FT n = Victor Saouma dA0 det(F) dA (4.28-b) where the orientation of the deformed area is normal to Fe1 and Fe2 which is denoted by the unit vector n. and c. Thus.24) The material and spatial deformation tensors are interrelated through the chain rule ∂Xi ∂xj ∂xi ∂Xj = = δik ∂Xj ∂xk ∂xj ∂Xk (4.23) ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ∂x2 ∂ ∂x3 = ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X3 ∂x3 = ∂Xi ∂xj (4. dX(1) deforms into dx(1) = FdX(1) and dX(2) into dx(2) = FdX(2) .27) At time t.15 with respect to xj produces the spatial deformation gradient H = X∇x ≡ The matrix form of H is X1 H = X2 X 3 41 ∂X ∂X ∂X ∂Xi e1 + e2 + e3 = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂xj ∂X1 ∂x ∂X1 2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x1 (4.Draft 40 4.2. b. 4.2 Strain Tensor 4–7 Similarly. 4. (4.28-a) (4. the rectangular area formed by them at the reference time t0 is 43 dA0 = dX(1) ×dX(2) = dX1 dX2 e3 = dA0 e3 44 (4. diﬀerentiation of Eq.26) In order to facilitate the derivation of the Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor later on.29) and recalling that a·b×c is equal to the determinant whose rows are components of a.1 42 † Change of Area Due to Deformation If we consider two material element dX(1) = dX1 e1 and dX(2) = dX2 e2 emanating from X. Fe1 ·dAn = Fe2 ·dAn = 0 (4.2.1. we need to derive an expression for the change in area due to deformation.25) and thus F −1 = H or H = F−1 (4. and the new area is dA = FdX(1) ×FdX(2) = dX1 dX2 Fe1 ×Fe2 = dA0 Fe1 ×Fe2 = dAn (4.31) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

1.2. ﬁnd the deformed volume for a unit cube and the deformed area of the unit square in the X1 − X2 plane.34) (4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .36) (4. 46 We observe that if a material is incompressible than det F = 1.2. x2 = −λ3 X3 .Draft 4–8 KINEMATIC and FT n is in the direction of e3 so that FT n = dA0 det Fe3 ⇒ dAn = dA0 det(F)(F−1 )T e3 dA (4. and x3 = λ2 X2 .39) and thus the Jacobian is a measure of deformation.33) If we consider an inﬁnitesimal element it has the following volume in material coordinate system: 4.38) and J is called the Jacobian and is the determinant of the deformation gradient F J= ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X1 ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 (4.37) (4.2 45 † Change of Volume Due to Deformation dΩ0 = (dX1 e1 ×dX2 e2 )·dX3 e3 = dX1 dX2 dX3 in spatial cordiantes: dΩ = (dx1 e1 ×dx2 e2 )·dx3 e3 If we deﬁne Fi = then the deformed volume will be dΩ = (F1 dX1 ×F2 dX2 )·F3 dX3 = (F1 ×F2 ·F3 )dX1 dX2 dX3 or dΩ = det FdΩ0 ∂xi ei ∂Xj (4.35) (4. Example 4-3: Change of Volume and Area For the following deformation: x1 = λ1 X1 . A generalization of the preceding equation would yield dAn = dA0 det(F)(F−1 )T n0 (4.32) which implies that the deformed area has a normal in the direction of (F−1 )T e3 .

42) 48 Similarly.44) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .40-b) (4.2.40-c) (4.43) = δij − or K ≡ u∇x = I − H ∂xj ∂xj The matrix form of K is u1 K = u2 u 3 ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ∂x2 ∂ ∂x3 = ∂u1 ∂x ∂u1 ∂x2 1 ∂u3 ∂x1 ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x2 ∂u3 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂x3 ∂u2 ∂x3 ∂u3 ∂x3 = ∂ui ∂xj (4.40-g) (4. Partial diﬀerentiation of Eq.2 Displacements.9 with respect to xj produces the spatial displacement gradient ∂Xi ∂ui (4.40-d) (4. diﬀerentiation of Eq.2. 4.9. 4. u∇x ) 47 We now turn our attention to the displacement vector ui as given by Eq.40-f) (4. (u∇X . 4.40-a) (4.41) = − δij or J ≡ u∇X = F − I ∂Xj ∂Xj The matrix form of J is u1 J = u2 u 3 ∂ ∂X1 ∂ ∂X2 ∂ ∂X3 = ∂u1 ∂X1 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u2 ∂X2 ∂u3 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂X3 ∂u2 ∂X3 ∂u3 ∂X3 = ∂ui ∂Xj (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–9 [F] = det F ∆V ∆A0 n0 ∆An = = = = = = ∆An = λ1 λ2 e2 λ1 0 0 0 0 −λ3 0 λ2 0 λ1 λ2 λ3 λ1 λ2 λ3 1 −e3 (1)(det F)(F−1 )T 1 0 0 0 0 λ1 1 0 = λ1 λ2 λ1 λ2 λ3 0 0 − λ3 0 −1 1 0 λ2 0 (4.Draft Solution: 4.9 with respect to Xj produces the material displacement gradient ∂ui ∂xi (4.40-e) (4.40-h) 4.

47-c) We observe that the two second order tensors are related by J = F − I. X2 . determine the material deformation gradient F and the material displacement gradient J.47-a) = 2X1 X2 0 ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂X1 ∂X2 2 1 + X3 (4. 4. Fig.3 49 Deformation Tensors ∂x Having derived expressions for ∂Xij and ∂Xji we now seek to determine dx2 and dX 2 ∂x where dX and dx correspond to the distance between points P and Q in the undeformed and deformed cases respectively.2.47-b) 0 2X1 X3 2 1 + X1 0 2 2X2 X3 1 + X2 (4.2.4.46) and thus F = x∇X ≡ = ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂xi e1 + e2 + e3 = ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X3 ∂Xj ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 (4. 50 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . We consider next the initial (undeformed) and ﬁnal (deformed) conﬁguration of a continuum in which the material OX1.45-b) Since x = u + X.3 Examples KINEMATIC Example 4-4: Material Deformation and Displacement Gradients 2 2 2 A displacement ﬁeld is given by u = X1 X3 e1 + X1 X2 e2 + X2 X3 e3 . and verify that J = F − I.45-a) 0 2X1 X3 2 X1 0 2 X2 2X2 X3 (4. Solution: The material deformation gradient is: ∂ui = J = u∇x = = ∂Xj ∂uX 1 ∂X ∂uX1 2 ∂X1 = 2X1 X2 0 ∂uX3 ∂X1 2 X3 ∂uX1 ∂X2 ∂uX2 ∂X2 ∂uX3 ∂X2 ∂uX1 ∂X3 ∂uX2 ∂X3 ∂uX3 ∂X3 (4. Neighboring particles P0 and Q0 in the initial conﬁgurations moved to P and Q respectively in the ﬁnal one. the displacement ﬁeld is also given by 2 2 2 x = X1 (1 + X3 ) e1 + X2 (1 + X1 ) e2 + X3 (1 + X2 ) e3 x1 x2 x3 (4. 4.Draft 4–10 4.2. X3 and spatial coordinates ox1 x2 x3 are superimposed.

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . x 1 Figure 4. 4.6.Draft 4.4: Undeformed and Deformed Conﬁgurations of a Continuum 4. 4.3. The square of the diﬀerential element connecting Po and Q0 is (dX)2 = dX·dX = dXi dXi (4. 52 This tensor is the inverse of the tensor B which will not be introduced until Sect.50-b) in which the second order tensor −1 Bij = ∂Xk ∂Xk or B−1 = ∇x X·X∇x ∂xi ∂xj Hc ·H (4.2.51) is Cauchy’s deformation tensor.1 51 Cauchy’s Deformation Tensor.49) thus the squared length (dX)2 in Eq.50-a) (4. B−1 (alternatively denoted as c) gives the initial square length (dX)2 of an element dx in the deformed conﬁguration.48 may be rewritten as (dX)2 = ∂Xk ∂Xk −1 dxi dxj = Bij dxi dxj ∂xi ∂xj = dx·B−1 ·dx (4. x 2 X 1. introduced by Cauchy in 1827.48) 53 however from Eq.15 the distance diﬀerential dXi is dXi = ∂Xi dxj or dX = H·dx ∂xj (4.2. x3 t=0 Q 0 t=t Q u +du dX dx u x P X+ dX X P 0 O X 2.3.2 Strain Tensor 4–11 X 3 . 4. (dX)2 The Cauchy deformation tensor.

Draft 4–12 4.21 as F = ∂xi ∂Xj 1 0 0 = 0 1 A 0 A 1 (4.52 may be rewritten as (dx)2 = ∂xk ∂xk dXi dXj = Cij dXidXj ∂Xi ∂Xj = dX·C·dX (4. 55 The square of the diﬀerential element connecting Po and Q0 is now evaluated in terms of the spatial coordinates (dx)2 = dx·dx = dxi dxi (4.54-b) in which the second order tensor Cij = ∂xk ∂xk or C = ∇X x·x∇X ∂Xi ∂Xj Fc ·F (4. and x3 = X3 + AX2 where A is a constant.52) however from Eq.55) is Green’s deformation tensor also known as metric tensor.55 C = Fc ·F where F was deﬁned in Eq.54-a) (4. x2 = X2 + AX3 .51 and Eq. 4.2. C (alternatively denoted as B−1 ). or deformation tensor or right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. gives the new square length (dx)2 of the element dX is deformed. introduced by Green in 1841.57-a) (4.14 the distance diﬀerential dxi is dxi = ∂xi dXj or dx = F·dX ∂Xj (4. 4. 4. Solution: From Eq.2 54 KINEMATIC Green’s Deformation Tensor.57-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 4. 4.55 yields C−1 = B−1 or B−1 = (F−1 )T ·F−1 (4. referred to in the undeformed conﬁguration. 4. 56 Inspection of Eq.53) thus the squared length (dx)2 in Eq.56) Example 4-5: Green’s Deformation Tensor A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 .3. Determine the deformation tensor C. (dx)2 The Green deformation tensor.

we substitute Eq.60) is called the Lagrangian (or Green’s) ﬁnite strain tensor which was introduced by Green in 1841 and St-Venant in 1844.Draft and thus 4.2 Strain Tensor 4–13 C = Fc ·F = 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 2A 0 1 A 0 1 A = 0 1+A 0 2A 1 + A2 0 A 1 0 A 1 T (4.54-a and 4. 4. Lagrangian/Green’s Tensor 4. (dx)2 − (dX)2 With (dx)2 and (dX)2 deﬁned we can now ﬁnally introduce the concept of strain through (dx)2 − (dX)2 .59-b) in which the second order tensor Eij = 1 2 ∂xk ∂xk − δij ∂Xi ∂Xj 1 or E = (∇X x·x∇X −I) 2 Fc ·F=C (4.2. and after some simple algebraic manipulations. the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor can be rewritten as Eij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk + + ∂Xj ∂Xi ∂Xi ∂Xj 1 or E = (u∇X + ∇X u + ∇X u·u∇X ) 2 J+Jc Jc · J (4.1 59 The diﬀerence (dx)2 − (dX)2 for two neighboring particles in a continuum is used as the measure of deformation. 4.2. 4.61) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .58-b) 4.4 57 Strains.1 58 Finite Strain Tensors We start with the most general case of ﬁnite strains where no constraints are imposed on the deformation (small).41 in the preceding equation.4.48 this diﬀerence is expressed as (dx)2 − (dX)2 = ∂xk ∂xk − δij dXidXj = 2Eij dXi dXj ∂Xi ∂Xj = dX·(Fc ·F − I)·dX = 2dX·E·dX (4. 60 To express the Lagrangian tensor in terms of the displacements.1. Using Eqs.58-a) (4.4.59-a) (4.2.

2. the diﬀerence (dx)2 − (dX)2 for the two neighboring particles in the continuum can be expressed in terms of Eqs. (4.62-a) (4.50-b this same diﬀerence is now equal to 61 (dx)2 − (dX)2 = ∂Xk ∂Xk ∗ dxi dxj = 2Eij dxi dxj ∂xi ∂xj = dx·(I − Hc ·H)·dx = 2dx·E∗ ·dx δij − (4.63-c) 4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 4–14 KINEMATIC or: E11 ∂u1 ∂u1 1 = + ∂X1 2 ∂X1 2 ∂u2 + ∂X1 2 ∂u3 + ∂X1 2 (4.65) is called the Eulerian (or Almansi) ﬁnite strain tensor.62-b) (4.52 and 4.2 Eulerian/Almansi’s Tensor Alternatively.2.63-a) (4.2.4.63-b) (4.3. Solution: 1 0 0 2A C = 0 1 + A2 2 0 2A 1+A 1 E = (C − I) 2 0 0 0 1 = 0 A2 2A 2 0 2A A2 Note that the matrix is symmetric.1.64-a) (4.62-c) E12 = 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 + 2 ∂X2 ∂X1 ··· = ··· + 1 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u2 ∂u3 ∂u3 + + 2 ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X1 ∂X2 ∂X1 ∂X2 Example 4-6: Lagrangian Tensor Determine the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor E for the deformation of example 4.64-b) in which the second order tensor ∗ Eij = 1 ∂Xk ∂Xk δij − 2 ∂xi ∂xj 1 or E∗ = (I − ∇x X·X∇x ) 2 Hc ·H=B−1 (4. 4.

2 Strain Tensor 4–15 For inﬁnitesimal strain it was introduced by Cauchy in 1827. for = 10−3 and 10−1 . the ﬁnite strain tensors in Eq.2. If the displacement gradients are small. which may be expressed in terms of the displacement gradients by inserting Eq. 4.64-b reduce to inﬁnitesimal strain tensors and the resulting equations represent small deformations. 4.66 into 4.4.43 in the preceding equation. Small Deformation Theory The small deformation theory of continuum mechanics has as basic condition the requirement that the displacement gradients be small compared to unity. we substitute 4.001 and 0. The fundamental measure of deformation is the diﬀerence (dx)2 − (dX)2 .66) 64 Expanding ∗ E11 ∂u1 1 ∂u1 = − ∂x1 2 ∂x1 2 ∂u2 + ∂x1 2 ∂u3 + ∂x1 2 (4.59-b and 4.2. the Eulerian ﬁnite strain tensor can be rewritten as ∗ Eij = 1 2 ∂uk ∂uk ∂ui ∂uj + − ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj 1 or E∗ = (u∇x + ∇x u − ∇x u·u∇x ) 2 K+Kc K c ·K (4.61 if the displacement gradient components ∂Xij are each small compared to unity.001001 ≈ 0.4. then we would obtain 0. then the third term are negligible and may be dropped. The resulting tensor is the Lagrangian inﬁnitesimal strain tensor denoted by 67 Eij = or: 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂Xj ∂Xi 1 or E = (u∇X + ∇X u) 2 J+Jc (4. To express the Eulerian tensor in terms of the displacements. and for ﬁnite strain by Almansi in 1911.11 respectively. 4. For instance. in the other it is not. 66 4.67-a) (4.64-b respectively.68) E11 = Victor Saouma ∂u1 ∂X1 (4. In the ﬁrst case 2 is “negligible” compared to .59-b and 4.Draft 62 63 4.61 and 4. if we were to evaluate + 2 .67-b) (4. and after some simple algebraic manipulations.67-c) ∗ E12 = 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 + 2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ··· = ··· − 1 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u2 ∂u3 ∂u3 + + 2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 4.2 65 Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensors.69-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1 Lagrangian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor ∂u In Eq.2.

The resulting tensor is the Eulerian inﬁnitesimal strain tensor denoted by 68 ∗ Eij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi 1 or E∗ = (u∇x + ∇x u) 2 K+Kc (4.72-c) (4.69-c) Note the similarity with Eq.4. x2 = X2 + AX3 .73) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2.9 uk = xk − Xk or u1 = x1 − X1 = X1 + AX2 − X1 = AX2 u2 = x2 − X2 = X2 + AX3 − X2 = AX3 u3 = x3 − X3 = X3 + AX1 − X3 = AX1 then from Eq. and compare them for the case where A is very small.4.2. 4. inn Eq.4.71-b) (4.69-b) (4. then the third term are negligible and may be dropped.66 if the displacement gradient components ∂xj are each small compared to unity. 4.3 Examples Example 4-7: Lagrangian and Eulerian Linear Strain Tensors A displacement ﬁeld is given by x1 = X1 + AX2 .71-c) 4. Calculate the Lagrangian and the Eulerian linear strain tensors. 4. Solution: The displacements are obtained from Eq. x3 = X3 + AX1 where A is constant.71-a) (4. Eulerian Inﬁnitesimal Strain Tensor ∂ui Similarly.72-b) (4.2. 4.70) 69 Expanding ∂u1 ∂x1 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∗ + E12 = 2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ··· = ··· ∗ E11 = (4.Draft 4–16 4.72-a) (4.41 0 A 0 J ≡ u∇X = 0 0 A A 0 0 Victor Saouma (4.2 KINEMATIC E12 = 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 + 2 ∂X2 ∂X1 ··· = ··· (4.

76-b) 1 + A3 1 + A3 1 A(x1 − Ax2 + A2 x3 ) = x3 − X3 = x3 − (−Ax1 + A2 x2 + x3 ) = (4.68: 0 A 0 0 0 A 2E = (J + Jc ) = 0 0 A + A 0 0 A 0 0 0 A 0 0 A A = A 0 A A A 0 (4.43 (4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5.9 uk = xk − Xk we obtain u1 = x1 − X1 = x1 − u2 u3 1 A(A2 x1 + x2 − Ax3 ) (x1 − Ax2 + A2 x3 ) = (4.4. then E∗ → E. 4.78-c) as A is very small.74-a) (4. from Eq. A2 and higher power may be neglected with the results.78-a) (4.5 4.2 Strain Tensor 4–17 From Eq.74-b) To determine the Eulerian tensor. 4.66 2E∗ = K + Kc A 1 −A A 1 = −A A2 1 + A3 1 −A A2 2A2 1 − A A 2A2 = 1−A 1 + A3 1 − A 1 − A 2 A −A 1 A A2 −A 1 3 1+A −A 1 A2 1−A 1−A 2 2A 2 (4.76-a) 1 + A3 1 + A3 1 A(−Ax1 + A2 x2 + x3 ) = x2 − X2 = x2 − (A2 x1 + x2 − Ax3 ) = (4.77) Finally. we need the displacement u in terms of x. 4.2.78-b) + (4. 4.Draft 4.1 70 Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor Small Strain We ﬁnally show that the linear lagrangian tensor in small deformation Eij is nothing else than the strain as was deﬁned earlier in Eq.76-c) 1 + A3 1 + A3 A2 1 −A A 1 −A A2 K ≡ u∇x = 3 1+A 1 −A A2 From Eq.4.75) thus from Eq. 4. thus inverting the displacement ﬁeld given above: x1 x 2 x 3 1 A 0 X1 = 0 1 A X2 A 0 1 X3 X1 ⇒ X2 X 3 1 −A A2 x1 1 2 1 −A x2 = A 1 + A3 −A A2 x 1 3 (4.2.

80 becomes (with ui = xi − Xi ): dX dx − dX ∂u2 = E22 = dX ∂X2 Victor Saouma (4. Eq. 4.81) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .59-b as (dx)2 − (dX)2 = (dx − dX)(dx + dX) = 2Eij dXi dXj or 2 2 (dx) − (dX) = (dx − dX)(dx + dX) = dX·2E·dX (4. 4.80) We recognize that the left hand side is nothing else than the change in length per unit original length.Draft 4–18 71 KINEMATIC We rewrite Eq. 4. then the previous equation can be rewritten as du dx − dX dXi dXj = Eij = Eij ξi ξj = ξ·E·ξ dX dX dX 72 (4.5 we consider two cases: normal and shear strain.80 is applied to the diﬀerential element P0 Q0 which lies along the X2 axis. Therefore.79-a) (4.5: Physical Interpretation of the Strain Tensor Normal Strain: When Eq. the result will be the normal strain because since dX1 = dX3 = 0 dX dX and dX2 = 1. dX With reference to Fig. X3 73 P Q0 dX Normal x3 X2 e3 0 M θ n3 n2 X1 Q x 2 P X3 e1 e2 M0 dX P0 dX 2 3 u x 1 Shear Q0 X2 X1 Figure 4. 4. and is called the normal strain for the line element having direction cosines dXi .79-b) but since dx ≈ dX under current assumption of small deformation.

84) (4. and recalling that for small strain theory γ23 is very small it follows that 74 γ23 ≈ sin γ23 = sin(π/2 − θ) = cos θ = 2E23 . Hence the diagonal terms of the linear strain tensor represent normal strains in the coordinate system.5.85) Therefore the oﬀ diagonal terms of the linear strain tensor represent one half of the angle change between two line elements originally at right angles to one another. (4.82-a) (4. After deformation. and M as: n2 = n3 ∂u1 ∂u3 e1 + e2 + e3 ∂X2 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂u2 = e1 + e2 + e3 ∂X3 ∂X3 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u3 + + ∂X2 ∂X3 ∂X3 ∂X2 (4. 4.86) ε33 We note that a similar development paralleling the one just presented can be made for the linear Eulerian strain tensor (where the straight lines and right angle will be in the deformed state).82-b) and from the deﬁnition of the dot product: cos θ = n2 ·n3 = or neglecting the higher order term cos θ = ∂u2 ∂u3 + = 2E23 ∂X3 ∂X2 (4. From Eq. 74 The Engineering shear strain is deﬁned as one half the tensorial shear strain. and the resulting tensor is written as ε11 1 Eij = 2 γ12 1 γ 2 13 75 1 γ 2 12 ε22 1 γ 2 23 1 γ 2 13 1 γ 2 23 (4.96 (dui = ∂ui dXj ) a ﬁrst order approximation gives the unit vector at P in the direction ∂Xj P0 of Q. Stretch Ratio 4.2 Strain Tensor 4–19 Likewise for the other 2 directions. These components are called the shear strains. Shear Strain: For the diagonal terms Eij we consider the two line elements originally located along the X2 and the X3 axes before deformation.2 76 The simplest and most useful measure of the extensional strain of an inﬁnitesimal dx element is the stretch or stretch ratio as dX which may be deﬁned at point P0 in the Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . Finite Strain.2.Draft 4. the original right angle between the lines becomes the angle θ.83) Finally taking the change in right angle between the elements as γ23 = π/2 − θ.

thus Eq. the change in angle γ23 = given in terms of both Λe2 and Λe3 by 81 π 2 − θ is (4.87 and 4. we obtain 1 ∗ = 1 − 2E22 λ2 2 e (4. 1 + 2E22 − 1 (4.87) Thus for an element originally along X2 .5. and Eq.89) Again for an element originally along X2 .Draft 4–20 77 KINEMATIC undeformed conﬁguration or at P in the deformed one (Refer to the original deﬁnition given by Eq.5.90) 79 we note that in general Λe 2 = λe2 since the element originally along the X2 axis will not be along the x2 after deformation.89 show that in the matrices of rectangular cartesian components the diagonal elements of both C and B−1 must be positive. 4. ??) yields Λ22 = C22 = 1 + 2E22 e and similar results can be obtained for Λ21 and Λ23 . Fig. and 1 dx − dX = E(2) = (1 + 2E22 ) 2 − 1 dX which is identical to Eq.85. Hence. Fig.54-a.81.1). 4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5. 2 The unit extension of the element is dx dx − dX = − 1 = Λm − 1 dX dX and for the element P0 Q0 along the X2 axis. the unit extension is 80 (4.92) 1 1 + 2E22 − 1 2 E22 (4.93) For the two diﬀerential line elements of Fig. 4. 4. 4.87 (with Eq. when deformations are small.60 the squared stretch at P0 for the line element dX along the unit vector m = dX is given by Λ2 ≡ m dx dX 2 = Cij P0 dXi dXj or Λ2 = m·C·m m dX dX (4.91) dx − dX = E(2) = Λe2 − 1 = dX for small deformation theory E22 << 1. e e 78 (4. 4. while the elements of E must be greater than − 1 and those of E∗ must 2 be greater than + 1 . Furthermore Eq. from Eq. the reciprocal of the squared stretch for the line element at P along the unit vector n = dx is given by dx 1 ≡ λ2 n dX dx 2 −1 = Bij P 1 dxi dxj or 2 = n·B−1 ·n dx dx λn (4. 4.94) sin γ23 = 2E23 2E23 √ =√ Λe2 Λe3 1 + 2E22 1 + 2E33 Again. 4. m = e2 and therefore dX1 /dX = dX3 /dX = 0 and dX2 /dX = 1. 4.50-b. 4. 4.88) Similarly from Eq. this equation reduces to Eq.

1 Lagrangian Formulation 85 Neglecting higher order terms. Thus the general problem is to express the strain in terms of the displacements by separating oﬀ that part of the displacement distribution which does not contribute to the strain.2.6.1. A solid material will resist such relative displacement giving rise to internal stresses.2 Strain Tensor 4–21 Linear Strain and Rotation Tensors Strain components are quantitative measures of certain type of relative displacement between neighboring parts of the material. Small Strains 4.95) is called the relative displacement vector of the particle originally at Q0 with respect to the one originally at P0 .96) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .6 the displacements of two neighboring particles are represented by the vectors uP0 and uQ0 and the vector dui = uQ0 − uP0 or du = uQ0 − uP0 i i (4. Q u Q0 Q0 du dx dX u P0 Figure 4.1 84 From Fig. 4.Draft 4.2.6: Relative Displacement du of Q relative to P P0 p 4. Not all kinds of relative motion give rise to strain (and stresses). and through a Taylor expansion dui = ∂ui ∂Xj dXj or du = (u∇X )P0 dX P0 (4.6.2. If a body moves as a rigid body. the rotational part of its motion produces relative displacement.6 82 83 4.

the relative displacement at that point will be an inﬁnitesimal rigid body rotation.Draft 4–22 86 87 KINEMATIC We also deﬁne a unit relative displacement vector dui /dX where dX is the magnitude of the diﬀerential distance dXi .103) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .100) 0 −1 2 ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂X3 1 2 W = −1 2 − − ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X1 − 0 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 1 2 1 2 −1 2 ∂u2 ∂X3 − ∂u1 ∂X3 ∂u2 ∂X3 − − 0 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 (4. or dXi = ξi dX.97) ∂u The material displacement gradient ∂Xij can be decomposed uniquely into a symmetric and an antisymetric part.98-b) or E= 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 ∂X1 ∂u1 ∂X2 ∂u1 ∂X3 + + (4.99) 1 2 We thus introduce the linear lagrangian rotation tensor Wij = in matrix form: 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂Xj ∂Xi or W = 1 (u∇X − ∇X u) 2 (4.102) w = −W23 e1 − W31 e2 − W12 e3 (4.98-a) 1 1 du = (u∇X + ∇X u) + (u∇X − ∇X u) ·dX 2 2 E W 1 2 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u1 + ∂X2 ∂u2 ∂X2 ∂u2 + ∂X3 ∂u2 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 + ∂X3 ∂u2 + ∂X3 ∂u3 ∂X3 ∂u3 ∂X1 ∂u3 ∂X2 (4.101) In a displacement for which Eij is zero in the vicinity of a point P0 . we rewrite the previous equation as dui = or 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj 1 + + ∂Xj ∂Xi 2 Eij ∂ui ∂uj − ∂Xj ∂Xi Wij dXj (4. then dui ∂ui dXj ∂ui du = = = u∇X ·ξ = J·ξ ξj or dX ∂Xj dX ∂Xj dX (4. It can be shown that this rotation is given by the linear Lagrangian rotation vector 88 wi = or 1 2 ijk Wkj 1 or w = ∇X ×u 2 (4.

106-b) or E= 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 ∂x1 ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂x3 1 2 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x1 1 2 + + ∂u1 + ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x2 ∂u2 + ∂x3 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 1 2 1 2 ∂u1 + ∂x3 ∂u2 + ∂x3 ∂u3 ∂x3 ∂u3 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 (4.104) ∂xj The unit relative displacement vector will be dui = ∂ui ∂ui dxj du = = u∇x ·η = K·β ηj or ∂xj dx ∂xj dx ∂ui ∂xj 90 (4. Hence.1.2 Strain Tensor Eulerian Formulation 4–23 The derivation in an Eulerian formulation parallels the one for Lagrangian formulation.109) and the linear Eulerian rotation vector will be ωi = 1 2 ijk ωkj 1 or ω = ∇x ×u 2 (4. ∂ui dui = dxj or du = K·dx (4.6.110) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2 89 4.106-a) 1 1 du = (u∇x + ∇x u) + (u∇x − ∇x u) ·dx 2 2 ∗ E Ω (4.108) in matrix form: 0 −1 2 ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u1 ∂x3 1 2 W = −1 2 − − ∂u1 ∂x2 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x1 − 0 ∂u2 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 1 2 1 2 −1 2 ∂u2 ∂x3 − ∂u1 ∂x3 ∂u2 ∂x3 − − 0 ∂u3 ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂x2 (4.2.Draft 4.107) 92 We thus introduced the linear Eulerian rotation tensor wij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi or Ω = 1 (u∇x − ∇x u) 2 (4.105) 91 The decomposition of the Eulerian displacement gradient 1 2 results in dxj dui = or ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi ∗ Eij 1 + 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi Ωij (4.

114-c) (4. a displacement ﬁeld is given by u = (x1 − x3 )2 e1 + (x2 + x3 )2 e2 − x1 x2 e3 . Example 4-9: Linear strain tensor. Q3 (1.112) (4. 15/8. 7/4.75e3 ) uQ3 − uP = 4 1 (−e1 − e2 + 3. −1).114-b) (4. the linear rotation tensor and the rotation vector at point P (0. J = u∇X or 2 2X1 X2 X1 0 ∂ui 0 1 −2X3 = ∂Xj 2 0 2X2 X3 X2 (4. Determine the relative displacements uQi − uP for Q1 (1. Q2 (1.114-d) and it is clear that as Qi approaches P .114-a) (4.Draft 4–24 4.41. 4. 1. 2. 4. Determine the linear strain tensor. −1). Solution: From Eq.96 du = (u∇X )P dX in the direction of −X2 or 4 1 0 0 {du} = 0 1 2 −1 0 −4 4 0 By direct calculation from u we have uP = 2e1 + e2 − 4e3 uQ1 = e1 − e3 thus uQ1 − uP = −e1 − e2 + 3e3 1 (−e1 − e2 + 3. −1). linear rotation tensor.2. 2. −1) and Q4 (1. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . rotation vector Under the restriction of small deformation theory E = E∗ . −1). Determine the relative displacement vector du in the direction of the −X2 axis at P (1.5e3 ) uQ2 − uP = 2 1 (−e1 − e2 + 3. the direction of the relative displacements of the two particles approaches the limiting direction of du.113-a) (4. 3/2.113-b) (4. −1) and compute their directions with the direction of du.6.875e3 ) uQ4 − uP = 8 −1 = −1 4 (4.111) thus from Eq.2 Examples KINEMATIC Example 4-8: Relative Displacement along a speciﬁed direction 2 2 2 A displacement ﬁeld is speciﬁed by u = X1 X2 e1 + (X2 − X3 )e2 + X2 X3 e3 .

117) Finite Strain.6.115-a) (4. we will have a multiplicative decomposition. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Eq. we have ﬁrst a rigid body translation to x.119) and we observe that in the ﬁrst form the deformation consists of a sequential stretching (by U) and rotation (R) to be followed by a rigid body displacement to x. ∂ui 4. 94 Thus in this case. We apply this decomposition to the deformation gradient F: Fij ≡ ∂xi = Rik Ukj = Vik Rkj or F = R·U = V·R ∂Xj (4. then we no longer can decompose ∂Xij (Eq. the orders are reversed. Polar Decomposition ∂u When the displacement gradients are ﬁnite. rather than having an additive decomposition. and U and V are positive symmetric tensors known as the right stretch tensor and the left stretch tensor respectively.103 w = −W23 e1 − W31 e2 − W12 e3 = −1e1 4.2. 4.118) 96 where R is the orthogonal rotation tensor. 95 we call this a polar decomposition and it should decompose the deformation gradient in the product of two tensors.Draft Solution: 4.104) into a unique sum of symmetric and skew parts (pure strain and pure rotation). while the other is a symmetric positive-deﬁnite tensor.3 93 (4. followed by a rotation (R) and ﬁnally a stretching (by V).2 Strain Tensor 4–25 the matrix form of the displacement gradient is 2(x1 − x3 ) 0 −2(x1 − x3 ) ∂ui 0 2(x2 + x3 ) 2(x2 + x3 ) ] = [ ∂xj −x1 0 −x2 ∂ui ∂xj 2 0 −2 = 0 2 2 −2 0 0 (4.96) or ∂xj (Eq. one of which represents a rigid-body rotation.116) (4. 4. In the second case.115-b) P Decomposing this matrix into symmetric and antisymmetric components give: 2 0 −2 0 0 0 [Eij ] + [wij ] = 0 2 1 + 0 0 1 −2 1 0 0 −1 0 and from Eq. 97 The interpretation of the above equation is obtained by inserting the above equation ∂x into dxi = ∂Xij dXj dxi = Rik Ukj dXj = Vik Rkj dXj or dx = R·U·dX = V·R·dX (4.

120) Recalling that R is an orthonormal matrix. and thus RT = R−1 then we can compute the various tensors from √ U = FT F (4.121 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 U2 = FT F = 0 0 2 0 0 −3 = 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 −3 0 0 0 9 thus 1 0 0 U= 0 2 0 0 0 3 From Eq. x2 = −3X3 .123 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 V = FRT = 0 0 −3 0 0 1 = 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 −1 0 0 0 2 ∂x1 ∂X1 ∂x2 ∂X1 ∂x3 ∂X1 ∂x1 ∂X2 ∂x2 ∂X2 ∂x3 ∂X2 ∂x1 ∂X3 ∂x2 ∂X3 ∂x3 ∂X3 1 0 0 = 0 0 −3 0 2 0 (4. Solution: From Eq.129) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .123) V = FRT 99 It can be shown that U = C1/2 and V = B1/2 (4. the right stretch tensor U.125) (4.122) (4. 4.122 R = FU−1 Finally.124) Example 4-10: Polar Decomposition I Given x1 = X1 . 4. x3 = 2X2 .Draft 4–26 98 KINEMATIC To determine the stretch tensor from the deformation gradient FT F = (RU)T (RU) = UT RT RU = UT U (4.127) 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 = 0 0 −3 0 1 0 = 0 0 −1 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 (4.22 F= From Eq.128) (4. 4.121) R = FU−1 (4. the rotation tensor R.126) (4. from Eq. ﬁnd the deformation gradient F. and the left stretch tensor V. 4.

2 Strain Tensor 4–27 Example 4-11: Polar Decomposition II For the following deformation: x1 = λ1 X1 . Solution: λ1 0 0 [F] = 0 0 −λ3 0 λ2 0 [U]2 = [F]T [F] λ1 0 0 λ1 0 0 λ2 0 0 1 0 λ2 0 0 −λ3 = 0 λ2 0 = 0 2 0 0 λ2 0 −λ3 0 0 λ2 0 3 λ1 0 0 [U] = 0 λ2 0 0 0 λ3 [R] = [F][U]−1 λ1 0 0 λ 1 = 0 0 −λ3 0 0 λ2 0 0 1 (4.133) 0 1 λ2 0 0 1 0 0 0 = 0 0 −1 (4. Example 4-12: Polar Decomposition III Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .134) 1 0 1 0 λ3 Thus we note that R corresponds to a 90o rotation about the e1 axis.130) (4. ﬁnd the rotation tensor.132) (4.Draft 4. and x3 = λ2 X2 .131) (4. x2 = −λ3 X3 .

4D 0 0y i 2. v2. Ueigen the principal values of Given x1 =XU_e = . 1.828 0 0y 0 0 1. 4D z j z j z j In[10]:= .Draft 4–28 m−polar. 80. 1<< 0. CST . { k Out[8]= In[3]:= In[9]:= Out[3]= Eigenvectors N@Eigenvalues@CSTDD Ueigenminus1 = Inverse@UeigenD 81. 1. z 0. y j z j z j 1 2 0 y 0.92388 0 y i 0.707 0.4142 0 z j z j Eigenvalues and z Determine j z 0 0 1. 0.414 j z j z j j z 0 0. vnormalized. 3DC and the corresponding directions.707 z j z z j Determine U with respect z z j2 5 0z j Out[2]= 0. i 0.707 0.707 2.707 0. z j z j z j z 0.0x{ =X3 .707 0.707 0. { k In[6]:= vnormalized = GramSchmidt@8v3. y i z j j Polar Decomposition Using Mathematica z j -2. z j z j y i j z z 1. 5. d) Obtain the matrix U and U -1 with respect to the ei bas obtain the matrix R with respect to the ei basis.707 0. vnormalized.414 1. y z j LinearAlgebra‘Orthogonalization‘ z j In[5]:= << j 0. 1. a) -1 matrix U and U with respect to the principal directions. c) the 1 0. y i 0.4142 1. 0 z z j Out[4]= U_einverse = N@Inverse@%D. 0<. 2. z 0. 4DD j j z Determine R 0 0.382683 j z j z j 0.12 0. { z j k In[8]:= to the principal directions z j z j k0 0 1{ Ueigen = N@Sqrt@CSTeigenD. 3D F = 881. %. 0. 0<. v3< = N@Eigenvectors@CSTD. 0.82843< 0.92388 -0.707 0. z z j Out[10]= z j z j z j 0.414214 j z j z j j z 0. 80. 0.N@vnormalizedObtain C. { k R = N@F . 1..382683 0 z j 2.171573. { j k j z j z k0 0 1{ CSTeigen = Chop@N@vnormalized . { k Out[9]= Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 2.707 y 0. F i 0.12 -0.1716 0 z to the ei basis with respect j z j z Out[7]= j z j z Solve for C j z In[12]:= In[2]:= i 5. z j z j1 2 0 0 0 j k -0.nb 2 In[4]:= KINEMATIC m− 8v1. b). 1. z { z j i z j z z j z j0 1 0z z j z 0. −v2. v1<D Determine the F matrix In[11]:= In[1]:= Out[6]= Out[11]= Out[1]= In[7]:= Determine U and U -1 with respect to the ei basis 0 0 1. 0. 3 k +2X2 x2 =X2 . z j z Out[12]= i -0. 3D CST = Transpose@FD .41421 0.

this section will present a “gentler” approach to essentially the same results albeit in a less “elegant” mannser. but the displacements are large.2 Strain Tensor 4–29 Summary and Discussion From the above.137-b) (4.137-c) 105 Substituting these equations into Eq. 4.8 101 †Explicit Derivation If the derivations in the preceding section was perceived as too complex through a ﬁrst reading. point A moves to A . If both the displacement gradients and the displacements are large. 2. we deduce the following observations: 1.7. If both the displacement gradients and the displacements themselves are small. 4. If the displacement gradients are small. then ∂ui ∂ui ≈ ∂xj and thus the Eulerian and the Lagrangian inﬁnitesimal strain tensors may ∂Xj ∗ be taken as equal Eij = Eij . but the displacements are small. The previous derivation was carried out using indicial notation. use the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain representation. 4. If the displacements gradients are large.2.137-a) (4.136. 3. 2 2 2 2 ds = dx + dy + dz (4.Draft 4. 12. Considering two points A and B in a 3D solid.2. Similarities between the two approaches is facilitated by Table 4.138) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2. Fig.135) 102 103 As a result of deformation. and B to B the distance between the two points is ds . we should use the Eulerian inﬁnitesimal representation. the distance between them is ds ds2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 (4.7 100 4. use the Eulerian ﬁnite strain representation. we obtain ds = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 +2dudx + 2dvdy + 2dwdz + du2 + dv 2 + dw 2 ds2 2 (4. in this section we repeat the derivation using explicitly.136) 104 The displacement of point A to A is given by u = x − x ⇒ dx = du + dx v = y − y ⇒ dy = dv + dy w = z − z ⇒ dz = dw + dz (4.

x3 t=t P u i3 o i1 X2 x1 x t=t Q t=0 u +du dX dx Q x2 0 u x P X X+ d X I2 Material b i2 Spatial X P 0 O X 2. x 2 X 1. t) F = x∇X ≡ ∂ui ∂Xj ∂xi ∂Xj EULERIAN Spatial X = X(x. t) GRADIENTS H = X∇x ≡ ∂Xji ∂x H = F−1 ∂ui ∂Xi ∂xj = δij − ∂xj or K ≡ u∇x = I − H TENSOR dx2 = dX·C·dX Green ∂x ∂x Cij = ∂Xk ∂Xk or i j C = ∇X x·x∇X = Fc ·F C−1 = B−1 STRAINS Eulerian/Almansi dx2 − dX 2 = dx·2E∗ ·dx ∗ Eij = ∂x = ∂Xi − δij or j J = u∇X = F − I Deformation dX 2 = dx·B−1 ·dx Cauchy −1 k k Bij = ∂Xi ∂Xj or ∂x ∂x B−1 = ∇x X·X∇x = Hc ·H Lagrangian dx2 − dX 2 = dX·2E·dX Finite Strain Eij = E= 1 2 1 2 (∇X x·x∇X −I) ∂xk ∂xk ∂Xi ∂Xj − δij or E = ∗ Fc ·F ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u Eij = 1 ∂Xi + ∂Xji + ∂Xk ∂Xk or 2 j i j E = 1 (u∇X + ∇X u + ∇X u·u∇X ) 2 Hc ·H ∂u ∂ui ∗ Eij = 1 ∂xj + ∂xj − ∂uk ∂uk or 2 ∂xi ∂xj i E∗ = 1 (u∇x + ∇x u − ∇x u·u∇x ) 2 ∂Xk ∂Xk 1 2 δij − ∂xi ∂xj 1 2 (I − ∇x X·X∇x ) or Small Deformation Small deformation Finite Strain J+Jc +Jc ·J K+Kc −Kc ·K ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂ui ∗ Eij = 1 ∂Xi + ∂Xji Eij = 1 ∂xj + ∂xj 2 2 j i E = 1 (u∇X + ∇X u) = 1 (J + Jc ) E∗ = 1 (u∇x + ∇x u) = 1 (K + Kc ) 2 2 2 2 ROTATION TENSORS ∂u ∂u [ 1 ∂Xi + ∂Xji + 1 ∂Xi − ∂Xji ]dXj 2 2 j j 1 1 [ (u∇X + ∇X u) + (u∇X − ∇X u)]·dX 2 2 E W ∂u ∂u dxj 1 1 [ (u∇x + ∇x u) + (u∇x − ∇x u)]·dx 2 2 + E∗ 1 2 ∂ui ∂xj ∂uj ∂xi + 1 2 ∂ui ∂xj − ∂uj ∂xi Ω F = R·U = V·R STRESS TENSORS Piola-Kirchoﬀ T T0 = (det F)T F−1 T ˜ T = (det F) F−1 T F−1 Cauchy First Second Victor Saouma Table 4. x 1 LAGRANGIAN Material Position Vector Deformation Displacement x = x(X.1: Summary of Major Equations Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 4–30 x3 X3 t=0 U P0 I3 O I X1 1 KINEMATIC X 3 .

u3 Eij Explicit x. y . z. y. w εij Table 4. v. ds x . x3 . dx u1 . z .7: Strain Deﬁnition Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2: Tensorial vs Explicit Notation Figure 4. x2 .2 Strain Tensor 4–31 Tensorial X1 . X3 . dX x1 . u2 . ds u. X2 .Draft 4.

Hence ds 2 − ds2 can be selected as an appropriate measure of the deformation of the solid.139-b) (4.Draft 4–32 106 KINEMATIC From the chain rule of diﬀerrentiation ∂u ∂u ∂u dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂v ∂v ∂v dv = dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂w ∂w dx + dy + dz dw = ∂x ∂y ∂z du = Substituting this equation into the preceding one yields the ﬁnite strains ds − ds2 2 (4.e.139-a) (4.139-c) 107 ∂u 1 = 2 + ∂x 2 ∂x 1 ∂u + + 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 1 ∂u + + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z + 2 ∂w ∂v ∂u 2 ∂v + ∂x + ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂z 2 ∂w + ∂x + ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂z 2 2 2 2 + + dx2 2 dy 2 2 dz 2 2 ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + dxdy ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + + 2 dxdz ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + dydz + 2 ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z (4. rigid body motion). otherwise the solid is strained. and we deﬁne the strain components as 108 ds − ds2 = 2εxx dx2 + 2εyy dy 2 + 2εzz dz 2 + 4εxy dxdy + 4εxz dxdz + 4εyz dydz where 2 (4.141) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .140-a) We observe that ds 2 − ds2 is zero if there is no relative displacement between A and B (i.

and the resulting strains are referred to as the Almansi strain which is the preferred one in ﬂuid mechanics. Alternatively we could have expressed ds 2 − ds2 in terms of coordinates in the deformed state. The strains have been expressed in terms of the coordinates x. in the Lagrangian coordinate which is the preferred one in structural mechanics.e. i.147) ∂v 1 ∂u + = ∂y 2 ∂y 2 2 ∂w 1 ∂u + = ∂z 2 ∂z 1 2 1 = 2 1 = 2 2 2 2 εxy = εxz εyz or ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z 1 (ui.j ) 2 εij = From this equation.143) (4. εik is the Green-Lagrange strain tensor. We deﬁne the engineering shear strain as γij = 2εij (i = j) (4. 5. 4. If the strains are given. In most cases the deformations are small enough for the quadratic term to be dropped.148) 1. z in the undeformed state.142) (4. y. Eulerian coordinates x . then these strain-displacements provide a system of (6) nonlinear partial diﬀerential equation in terms of the unknown displacements (3).149) 2. y .146) (4. we note that: (4. 6.144) (4.145) (4. i. the resulting equations reduce to Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .j + uj.i + uk.Draft 4. 3.e.2 Strain Tensor 2 2 2 4–33 2 εxx εyy εzz ∂u 1 ∂u + = ∂x 2 ∂x ∂v + ∂x ∂v + ∂y ∂v + ∂z ∂w + ∂x ∂w + ∂y ∂w + ∂z (4. z .iuk.

154) (4.i) then we have six diﬀerential equations (in 3D the strain ten2 sor has a total of 9 terms. Hence the system is overdetermined.150) (4.i) 2 (4.Draft 4–34 KINEMATIC εxx = εyy = εzz = γxy = γxz = γyz = or εij = which is called the Cauchy strain 109 ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂w ∂z ∂v ∂u + ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂u + ∂x ∂z ∂w ∂v + ∂y ∂z (4. 111 It can be shown (through appropriate successive diﬀerentiation of the strain expression) that the compatibility relation for strain reduces to: ∂ 2 εik ∂ 2 εjj ∂ 2 εjk ∂ 2 εij + − − = 0.2.156) In ﬁnite element. the strain is often expressed through the linear operator L ε = Lu (4.151) (4.153) (4.157) or εxx εyy εzz εxy εxz εyz ε = ∂ ∂x 0 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂z 0 ∂ ∂y 0 ∂ ∂x 0 ∂ ∂z L 0 0 ∂ ∂x ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂y 0 0 ux uy uz u (4.k + uk.j + uj.159) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . or ∇x ×L×∇x = 0 ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xk (4.9 110 Compatibility Equation If εij = 1 (ui.155) 1 (ui. there are 6 independent ones) for determining (upon integration) three unknowns displacements ui . but due to symmetry. and there must be some linear relations between the strains.152) (4.158) 4.

164-b) (4.164-c) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . but only six are distinct ∂ 2 ε11 ∂ 2 ε22 + ∂x2 ∂x2 2 1 2 2 ∂ ε22 ∂ ε33 + ∂x2 ∂x2 3 2 2 2 ∂ ε33 ∂ ε11 + ∂x2 ∂x2 1 3 ∂ ∂ε23 ∂ε31 ∂ε12 − + + ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ε23 ∂ε31 ∂ε12 ∂ − + ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ε23 ∂ε31 ∂ε12 ∂ + − ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 = 2 = = = = = ∂ 2 ε12 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂ 2 ε23 2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ 2 ε31 2 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂ 2 ε11 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ 2 ε22 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂ 2 ε33 ∂x1 ∂x2 (4.2 Strain Tensor 4–35 There are 81 equations in all. it yields: ∂ 2 σ11 ∂σ22 2 ∂ 2 σ22 ∂ 2 σ11 ∂ 2 σ21 −ν + −ν = 2 (1 + ν) ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 2 2 1 1 (4.160-a) (4.164-a) (4.160-f) In 2D. this results in (by setting i = 2.161) When he compatibility equation is written in term of the stresses.160-b) (4.163) does there exist a single-valued continuous displacement ﬁeld? Solution: 2 2 2 ∂E11 (X 2 + X2 ) − X2 (2X2 ) X2 − X 1 = − 1 = 2 2 2 2 ∂X2 (X1 + X2 )2 (X1 + X2 )2 2 2 2 2 ∂E12 (X1 + X2 ) − X1 (2X1 ) X2 − X 1 2 = = 2 2 2 2 ∂X1 (X1 + X2 )2 (X1 + X2 )2 ∂E22 = 0 2 ∂X1 (4.Draft 4.162) Example 4-13: Strain Compatibility For the following strain ﬁeld 1 2 X1 2 +X 2 ) 2(X1 2 − X 2X2 2 +X 0 X1 2 2 2(X1 +X2 ) 0 0 0 0 0 (4.) 112 (4. j = 1 and l = 2): ∂ 2 γ12 ∂ 2 ε11 ∂ 2 ε22 + = ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 2 1 (recall that 2ε12 = γ12 .160-c) (4.160-d) (4.160-e) (4.

3. there are certain advantages in referring all quantities back to the undeformed conﬁguration (Lagrangian) of the body because often that conﬁguration has geometric features and symmetries that are lost through the deformation. Hence the Cauchy stress tensor was really deﬁned in the Eulerian space. The deformed conﬁguration being the natural one in which to characterize stress.169) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .168) dA t dA0 and for which df = t0 dA0 = tdA ⇒ t0 = Victor Saouma (4.165) to which we could add the rigid body displacement ﬁeld (if any).167) where t0 is a pseudo-stress vector in that being based on the undeformed area. it can be easily veriﬁed that the unique displacement ﬁeld is given by u1 = arctan X2 . if we were to deﬁne the strain in material coordinates (in terms of X). however it has the same direction as Cauchy’s stress vector t. Thus.1 First 115 The ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor T0 is deﬁned in the undeformed geometry in such a way that it results in the same total force as the traction in the deformed conﬁguration (where Cauchy’s stress tensor was deﬁned). we need also to express the stress as a function of the material point X in material coordinates.2 the discussion of stress applied to the deformed conﬁguration dA (using spatial coordiantesx). u3 = 0 (4.166-a) (4.166-b) (note the use of T instead of σ).Draft 4–36 KINEMATIC ⇒ ∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12 √ + = 2 2 2 ∂X2 ∂X1 ∂X1 ∂X2 (4. it does not describe the actual intensity of the force.164-d) Actually. 2. we deﬁne 116 df ≡ t0 dA0 (4.3 113 Lagrangian Stresses. that is the one where equilibrium must hold. Piola Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors In Sect. Hence. X1 u2 = 0. 4. 117 The ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor (also known as Lagrangian Stress Tensor) is thus the linear transformation T0 such that t0 = T0 n0 (4. 4. Hence we had df = tdA t = Tn (4. 114 However.

4.175) thus the preceding equations can be combined to yield ˜ df = FTn0 dA0 we also have from Eq.Draft 4. 118 4.174-b) where d˜ is the pseudo diﬀerential force which transforms. therefore T0 = (det F)T F−1 1 1 T0 FT or Tij = (T0 )im Fjm T = (det F) (det F) T T n0 (4.177) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 120 ˜ The second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor is a linear transformation T such that ˜ = Tn0 t ˜ (4.166-b and 4.3. we solve for T0 ﬁrst. Piola Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors 4–37 using Eq. the (actual) diﬀerential force df at the deformed position (note similarity with dx = FdX). T is formulated diﬀerently.167 and 4. Instead of the ˜ related to the force df in the same way that actual force df on dA. if we let d˜ f = ˜ 0 tdA and df = Fd˜ f (4. 4.174-a) (4. Thus. To determine the corresponding stress vector. Thus. under the deformation f gradient F. the pseudo vector t is in general in a diﬀernt direction than that of the Cauchy stress vector t.168 the preceding equation becomes T0 n0 = dA TdAn Tn = dA0 dA0 T (4.170) and using Eq.168 df = t0 dA0 = T0 n0 dA0 Victor Saouma (4.172) (4. 4.2 119 Second ˜ The second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor. and ﬁnally t0 = T0 n0 . it gives the force df a material vector dX at X is related by the deformation to the corresponding spatial vector dx at x.171) (4.3 Lagrangian Stresses.173) and we note that this ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor is not symmetric in general. then for dA0 and 1 n0 from dA0 n0 = det F FT n (assuming unit area dA).33 dAn = dA0 (det F) (F−1 ) n0 we obtain T0 n0 = T(det F) F−1 the above equation is true for all n0 .176) (4.

if we deﬁne (4. 2.5 94 Principal Strains. and ﬁnally ˜ = Tn0 . ˜ To determine the corresponding stress vector. Mohr Circle Determination of the principal strains (E(3) < E(2) < E(1) .4) and will not be repeated Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 3 4.4 93 Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Strain The lagrangian and Eulerian linear strain tensors can each be split into spherical and deviator tensor as was the case for the stresses. 121 Finally the relation between the second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor and the Cauchy stress tensor can be obtained from the preceding equation and Eq.Draft 4–38 KINEMATIC and comparing the last two equations we note that ˜ T = F−1 T0 (4.172 ˜ T = (det F) F−1 T F−1 T (4.178) which gives the relationship between the ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor T0 and the ˜ second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor T. Hence.180) 1 1 e = tr E 3 3 then the components of the strain deviator E are given by 1 1 Eij = Eij − eδij or E = E − e1 3 3 (4.179) and we note that this second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor is always symmetric (if the Cauchy stress tensor is symmetric). strain invariants and the Mohr circle for strain parallel the one for stresses (Sect. then for dA0 and 1 T t ˜ n0 from dA0 n0 = det F F n (assuming unit area dA). 4. while the spherical or hydrostatic strain 1 e1 represents the volume change. Strain Invariants. we solve for T ﬁrst.181) We note that E measures the change in shape of an element. 122 Example 4-14: Piola-Kirchoﬀ Stress Tensors 4.

−1 ê 2<. 80.ÄÄÄÄÄ =. 0<< 1 ‡ Pseudo−Stress vector associated with the First Piola−Kirchoff stress tensor ‡ First Piola−Kirchoff Stress Tensor FT n MatrixForm@%D n = 80. respective stressusing t0<. 0. y 0<. 0. x3 =4X3 . -2. 4 We see that this pseudo stress vector is in a different direction from that of the Cauchy stress vector (and we note that the tensor F transforms e2 into e3 ). 80. because the undeformed area is 4 times that of the deformed area F = 881 ê 2. Transpose@FinverseD detF = = Det@FD 880. 0. 100<< 0. 0. ÄÄÄÄÄ =. . 0. 1< i0 0 0y j j 0 0. 0 on n0 we obtain Thus n0 =e2 and tensors =T 90. 80. 80.nb 3 ‡ Second Piola−Kirchoff Stress Tensor Piola−Kirchoff Stress Tensors MatrixForm@Transpose@FD . Strain Invariants. deformed state. 0. its magnitude is one fourth of that of the Cauchy stress vector. 80. 80. 0. 1< z j z 80. 90. 0<= 2 2 tcauchy == MatrixForm@Tsecond 0. 0<< ‡ Pseudo−Stress vector associated with the Second Piola−Kirchoff stress tensor Can be obtained from t=CST n 1 1 99 ÄÄÄÄÄ . Mohr Circle 4–39 m−piola. 0. Tfirst Tsecond i j z j k0{ z j z j 0 0 0 z MPa. 0<= 4 t01st = MatrixForm@Tfirst . 0. 80. 1. Finverse = Inverse@FD y i 0 y i 0 z z j z j 25 z z j 0 z z j ÄÄÄÄÄÄ z z j 4 z j j 100z j z { k 1 0 { 0<. its undeformed area dA0 n0 is given by dA0 n0 = ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ det F TfirstDet@FD CST .Draft m−piola. ‡ Cuchy stress vector 0<. 80. 0 0 z j z j z k 0 25 0 { Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 0<. 0<D ‡ F tensor MatrixForm@%D i 0 y z j j 0 z j z j 0 z0 0 j i 25 z CST = 880. n ê detFD i0y j z The deformed4configuration of a body is described by x1 =X 1 ê 2. If the Cauchy stress tensor is j z j z j z 100 0 0 y = Inverse@FD . 0<. 0.nb 2 4. 0 { We note that this vector is in the0. 1. 0=. 80. 880. 0. What are the corresponding first and second Piola−Kirchoff stress tensors. 4. 80. 1<D 0<D t0second MatrixForm@CST . For a unit area in the deformed state in the e3 direction.0the e3 plane in the 80. 0. x2 =−X2 /2. 0=. 80. 0<= k 982. 0. j z { k j z 25 j z j z j 0 ÄÄÄÄÄÄ 0 z 4 j z j z k 0 0 0<. 80. and calculate the z j given byj z j z z j k 0 0 0{ 25 980.5 Principal Strains. ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ . 0. 25. 0<. 80. 100<< same direction as the Cauchy stress vector. 90. 4. 0. 0<. .

190) IIIE = E(1) E(2) E(3) 96 The Mohr circle uses the Engineering shear strain deﬁnition of Eq.86. IIE and IIIE denote the following scalar expressions in the strain components: IE = E11 + E22 + E33 = Eii = tr E 2 2 2 IIE = −(E11 E22 + E22 E33 + E33 E11 ) + E23 + E31 + E12 1 1 2 1 (Eij Eij − Eii Ejj ) = Eij Eij − IE = 2 2 2 1 2 = (E : E − IE ) 2 1 IIIE = detE = eijk epqr Eip Ejq Ekr 6 95 (4.186) (4. Fig.188) IIE = −(E(1) E(2) + E(2) E(3) + E(3) E(1) ) (4.189) (4.8: Mohr Circle for Strain here.187) In terms of the principal strains. λ3 − IE λ2 − IIE λ − IIIE = 0 (4. 4.Draft 4–40 KINEMATIC γ 2 εIII ε II ε εI Figure 4.8 Example 4-15: Strain Invariants & Principal Strains Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .184) (4.183) (4.185) (4. those invariants can be simpliﬁed into IE = E(1) + E(2) + E(3) (4.182) where the symbols IE . 4.

192-a) (4.192-c) (4.8.6 0 (4.5 Principal Strains.195-c) (4. 2 (4.191) The strain invariants are given by IE = Eii = 2 1 (Eij Eij − Eii Ejj ) = −1 + 3 = +2 IIE = 2 IIIE = |Eij | = −3 The principal strains by Eij − λδij √ 1√ λ − 3 0 = 3 −λ 0 0 0 1−λ √ √ 1 + 13 1 − 13 λ− = (1 − λ) λ − 2 2 √ 1 + 13 = 2. Mohr Circle 4–41 Determine the planes of principal strains for √ 1 3 √ 3 0 0 0 the following strain tensor 0 0 1 (4.8 0.193-b) (4.195-b) n2 (1) 2 = 1 ⇒ n1 = 0.Draft Solution: 4.193-d) (4.196) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 2 √ (4.193-a) (4.195-a) (4.193-c) (4.195-d) ⇒ n(1) = Victor Saouma For the second eigenvector λ(2) = 1: √ (2) n 1 1√ 1 − 3 0 (2) 3 −1 0 n2 (2) 0 0 1 − 1 n3 3n √ (2) 2 (2) = 3n1 − n2 0 √ (2) 0 = 0 0 (4.192-b) (4.194) n3 (1) n(1) ·n(1) √ 1 + 13 (1) √ n2 = 2 3 = 0 √ 1 + 2 13 + 13 +1 = 12 0.193-e) E(1) E(2) E(3) The eigenvectors for E(1) = 1+ 2 13 give the principal directions n(1) : √ √ √ √ 1 − 1+ 13 n(1) + 3n(1) n(1) 1 2 1 − 1+2 13 3 0 1 2 √ √ √ (1) (1) √ (1) 1+ 13 1+ 13 3n1 − n2 3 − 2 0 √ n2 = √ 2 (1) (1) 1+ 13 1+ 13 n3 0 0 1− 2 1− 2 n3 which gives (1) n1 0 = 0 0 (4. Strain Invariants.3 = λ(1) = 2 = λ(2) = 1 √ 1 − 13 = λ(3) = = −1.

6 0 0 0 1 Therefore n(1) 0.3 (4.8 0.8 0.3 0 0 0.197) Finally.6 0 1 3 0 √ 0 1 3 0 0 [a][E][a]T = 0 0.Draft 4–42 KINEMATIC which gives (with the requirement that n(2) ·n(2) = 1) n(2) = 0 0 1 (4.8 0 0. the third eigenvector can be obrained by the same manner.8 0 0 0 1 = 0.6 0 0 1 −0.6e1 − 0.6 0 −0.6 −0.199) 0.8 j ai = n(2) = 0 (3) 0. but more easily from e1 e2 e3 n(3) = n(1) ×n(2) = det 0.6 n and this results can be checked via √ 0.8e2 (4.6 2.201) 2 B 1 2 60o 1 2 3 4 5 6 εn D E Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .8 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 −1.198) 0.200) Example 4-16: Mohr’s Circle Construct the Mohr’s circle for the following plane strain case: 0 0 √ 0 3 5 0 √ 0 3 3 Solution: εs 3 F (4.8 0 (4.

Initial or Thermal Strains Initial (or thermal strain) in 2D: εij = α∆T 0 0 α∆T = (1 + ν) α∆T 0 0 α∆T (4.202) Plane Stress Plane Strain note there is no shear strains caused by thermal expansion. It contains three gages aligned radially from a common point at diﬀerent angles from each other. The strain transformation equations to convert from the three strains a t any angle to the strain at a point in a plane are: a = x cos2 θa + y sin2 θa + γxy sin θa cos θa (4. The most common type of strain gage used today for stress analysis is the bonded resistance strain gage shown in Figure 4.6 Initial or Thermal Strains 4–43 We note that since E(1) = 0 is a principal value for plane strain. ttwo of the circles are drawn as shown. Because the wire has an electrical resistance that is proportional to the inverse of the cross sectional area. patterns. Figure 4.7 98 † Experimental Measurement of Strain Typically. The cross sectional area will increase for compression and decrease in tension. 1 R α A . and resistance. 99 100 Bonded resistance strain gages are produced in a variety of sizes. a measure of the change in resistance can be converted to arrive at the strain in the material. The epoxy acts as the carrier matrix to transfer the strain in the specimen to the strain gage.203) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .9: Bonded Resistance Strain Gage These gages use a grid of ﬁne wire or a metal foil grid encapsulated in a thin resin backing.9. the tiny wires either contract or elongate depending upon a tensile or compressive state of stress in the specimen. as shown in Figure 4.10. The gage is glued to the carefully prepared test specimen by a thin layer of epoxy.6 97 4. As the gage changes in length. the transducer to measure strains in a material is the strain gage.Draft 4. 4. One type of gage that allows for the complete state of strain at a point in a plane to be determined is a strain gage rosette.

state of strain. In addition the principal strains may then be computed by Mohr’s circle or the principal strain equations. Strain gages are produced with diﬀerent temperature expansion coeﬃcients. The change in resistance of bonded resistance strain gages for most strain measurements is very small. The gage factor is deﬁned as the fractional change in resistance ∆R R divided by the fractional change in length along the axis of the gage. are measured at their corresponding angles from the reference axis and substituted into the above equations the state of strain at a point may be solved. The resistance of the gage and the gage factor will change due to the variation of resistivity and strain sensitivity with temperature. low cost. and stability of installation all inﬂuence gage selection. many factors must be considered in choosing the right gage for a particular application. GF = ∆L Common L gage factors are in the range of 1. The transverse sensitivity factor.205) Figure 4. Bonded resistance strain gages are well suited for making accurate and practical strain measurements because of their high sensitivity to strains. In order to avoid this problem. and c . 104 105 A ﬁnal consideration for maintaining accurate strain measurement is temperature compensation. for a strain of 1 µ (µ = 10−6 ) with Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 106 Victor Saouma . Kt . is deﬁned GFtransverse as the transverse gage factor divided by the longitudinal gage factor. and γxy . 102 Due to the wide variety of styles of gages. x . This grid pattern causes the gage to be sensitive to deformations transverse to the gage length. From a simple calculation. and simple operation. If no large temperature change is expected this may be neglected. Operating temperature. Therefore.10: Strain Gage Rosette 101 When the measured strains a .204) (4.Draft 4–44 b c KINEMATIC = = cos2 θb + 2 x cos θc + x sin2 θb + γxy sin θb cos θb 2 y sin θc + γxy sin θc cos θc y (4. The measure of the change in electrical resistance when the strain gage is strained is known as the gage factor. Some gages come with the tranverse correction calculated into the gage factor. Kt = GFlongitudinal These sensitivity values are expressed as a percentage and vary from zero to ten percent.5-2 for most resistive strain gages. y . the expansion coeﬃcient of the strain gage should match that of the specimen. b . corrections for transverse strains should be computed and applied to the strain data. 103 Common strain gages utilize a grid pattern as opposed to a straight length of wire in order to reduce the gage length. namely.

11: Quarter Wheatstone Bridge Circuit 4.11. inductance.2 108 Quarter Bridge Circuits If a strain gage is oriented in one leg of the circuit and the other legs contain ﬁxed resistors as shown in Figure 4. This induced voltage may be measured with a voltmeter or the resistor in the opposite leg may be adjusted to re-balance the bridge. The Wheatstone bridge is described next. Wheatstone Bridge Circuits Due to their outstanding sensitivity. As the resistance of one of the legs changes. This unbalance causes a voltage to appear across the middle of the bridge. it is the fractional change in resistance that is important and the number to be measured will be in the order of a couple of µ ohms. but in order to acquire sensitive measurements in the µΩ range a Wheatstone bridge circuit is necessary to amplify this resistance. Wheatstone bridges are widely used for strain measurements.7. The other legs of the bridge are simply completion resistors with resistance equal to that of the strain gage(s). Wheatstone bridge circuits are very advantageous for the measurement of resistance. the change in resistance produced by the gage is ∆R = 1 × 10−6 × 120 × 2 = 240 × 10−6 Ω. the previously balanced bridge is now unbalanced. The gage circuit is balanced when R1 = RR3 . Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 109 Victor Saouma . When the output voltage is zero. Figure 4.Draft 4. It consists of 4 resistors arranged in a diamond orientation. Furthermore.11. When the circuit is unbalanced Vout = Vin ( R1R1 2 − R2 +R Rgage ). such as a strain gage. In either case the change in resistance that caused the induced voltage may be measured and converted to obtain the engineering units of strain. or excitation voltage. An input DC voltage. One or more of the legs of the bridge may be a resistive transducer. For large strains a simple multi-meter may suﬃce. the circuit is known as a quarter bridge circuit. is applied between the top and bottom of the diamond and the output voltage is measured across the middle. and capacitance.7 † Experimental Measurement of Strain 4–45 a 120 Ω gage and a gage factor of 2. Rgage +R3 Wheatstone bridges may also be formed with two or four legs of the bridge being composed of resistive transducers and are called a half bridge and full bridge respectively. A Wheatstone bridge is shown in Figure 4. the bridge is said to be balanced.7. by a change in strain from a resistive strain gage for example.1 107 4.

This will correspond to the upper Wheatstone bridge conﬁguration of Figure 4. E is the excitation voltage in Volts.12.12: Wheatstone Bridge Conﬁgurations Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . is strain and ν is Poisson’s ratio. Here E0 is the output voltage in mVolts. In order to illustrate how to compute a calibration factor for a particular experiment. The formula then is Figure 4. suppose a single active gage in uniaxial compression is used.Draft 4–46 110 KINEMATIC Depending upon the type of application and desired results. the equations for these circuits will vary as shown in Figure 4.12.

For most measurements a gain is necessary to increase the output voltage from the Wheatstone bridge. The gain relation for the output voltage may be written as V = GE0 (103 ). the calibration factor is simply (2.207 is the calibration factor in units of strain per volt. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Because this term is quite small compared to the other term in the denominator it will be ignored.7 † Experimental Measurement of Strain 4–47 E0 F (10−3 ) = E 4 + 2F (10−6) (4.07. For common 4 values where F = 2.47 microstrain per volt. so Equation 4. E = 5.07)(1000)(5) or 386.206) The extra term in the denominator 2F (10−6) is a correction factor for non-linearity.Draft 111 4. where V is now in Volts.206 becomes F (10−3 ) V = EG(103 ) 4 4 = V F EG 112 (4. Equation 4.207) Here. G = 1000.

Draft 4–48 KINEMATIC Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

1) if a vector S(u) exists such that R(u) = R(u)du = (S(u)). then we deﬁne the contour integral as C A·dr = C A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz (5.4) 23 It can be shown that if A = ∇φ then P2 P1 C A·dr is independent of the path C connecting P1 to P2 along a closed contour line (5. then (5.3) If A were a force.1 20 Integral of a Vector The integral of a vector R(u) = R1 (u)e1 + R2 (u)e2 + R3 (u)e3 is deﬁned as R(u)du = e1 R1 (u)du + e2 d du R2 (u)du + e3 R3 (u)du (5. z) = A1 e1 + A2 e2 + A3 e3 being a vectorial function deﬁned and continuous along C. anf given A(x. then this integral would represent the corresponding work.5-b) A·dr = 0 .5-a) (5. Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS 5.2) d (S(u)) du = S(u) + c du 5. then the integral of the tangential component of A along C from P1 to P2 is given by P2 P1 A·dr = C A·dr = C A1 dx + A2 dy + A3 dz (5.2 21 Line Integral Given r(u) = x(u)e1 + y(u)e2 + z(u)e3 where r(u) is a position vector deﬁning a curve C connecting point P1 to P2 where u = u1 and u = u2 respectively. 22 If the contour is closed. y.Draft Chapter 5 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.

Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS 5.7) That is the integral of the outer normal component of a vector over a closed surface (which is the volume ﬂux) is equal to the integral of the divergence of the vector over the volume bounded by the closed surface. (Rdx + Sdy) = Γ ∂S ∂R − dxdy ∂x ∂y (5. 26 For 2D-1D transformations.6 29 Green. we have ∇·qdA = qT nds s (5. 5. Gradient Theorem Green’s theorem in plane is a special case of Stoke’s theorem.10) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Divergence Theorem The divergence theorem (also known as Ostrogradski’s Theorem) comes repeatedly in solid mechanics and can be stated as follows: ∇·vdΩ = v.6) 5.ndΓ or Γ Ω Ω vi.8) A 27 This theorem is sometime refered to as Green’s theorem in space.Draft 5–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.idΩ = Γ vi ni dΓ (5.9) where S is an open surface with two faces conﬁned by C 5.5 28 Stoke’s Theorem Stoke’s theorem states that A·dr = S C (∇×A)·ndS = S (∇×A)·dS (5.4 25 Gauss.3 24 Integration by Parts The integration by part formula is b a u(x)v (x)dx = u(x)v(x)|b − a b a v(x)u (x)dx (5.

Draft 5.y.6 Green. z) with dimensions ∆x.y. Solution: A ﬂuid has a velocity ﬁeld v(x.1-a.Y. Fig. 5. ∆y. ∆z.13-a) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .11-a) (5. Z D E ∆Z V V Y C V V B ∆Y A P(X.11-b) (5. y. y.Z) H F ∆X G a) X n V∆t dS S dV=dxdydz n dS b) c) Figure 5.11-c) ≈ vx − ∆Vx = = Similarly vx + 1 ∂vx 1 ∂vx ∆x ∆y∆z − vx − ∆x ∆y∆z 2 ∂x 2 ∂x (5.12-b) ∂vx ∆x∆y∆z ∂x ∂vy ∆x∆y∆z ∂y ∆Vy = Victor Saouma (5. Gradient Theorem 5–3 Example 5-1: Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem Provide a physical interpretation of the Divergence Theorem.z ≈ vx + ∆x GHCB 2 ∂x The net inﬂow per unit time across the x planes is vx x−∆x/2.1: Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem vx |x.z ≈ vx 1 ∂vx ∆x AFED 2 ∂x 1 ∂vx vx x+∆x/2.12-a) (5.z (5. z) and we ﬁrst seek to determine the net inﬂow per unit time per unit volume in a parallelepiped centered at P (x.y.

the total amount of ﬂuid crossing a closed v·ndS.1-c.13-b) Hence.14) Furthermore. if we consider the total of ﬂuid crossing dS during ∆t. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . thus surface S per unit time is S V v·ndS = S V ∇·vdV (5. 5. it will be given by (v∆t)·ndS = v·ndS∆t or the volume of ﬂuid crossing dS per unit time is v·ndS. 5. But this is equal to ∇·vdV (Eq.15) which is the divergence theorem. Part III VECTOR INTEGRALS ∆Vz = ∂vz ∆x∆y∆z ∂z (5.14). the total increase per unit volume and unit time will be given by ∂vx ∂x + ∂vy ∂y + ∂vz ∂z ∆x∆y∆z ∆x∆y∆z = div v = ∇·v (5. Fig. Fig.1-b.Draft 5–4 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 5. Thus for an arbitrary volume.

They will apply to any continuous medium.1 20 Introduction We have thus far studied the stress tensors (Cauchy. 6. In this chapter we shall derive diﬀerential equations expressing locally the conservation of mass. A conservation law establishes a balance of a scalar or tensorial quantity in voulme V bounded by a surface S. Only with constitutive equations and boundary and initial conditions would we be able to obtain a well deﬁned mathematical problem to solve for the stress and deformation distribution or the displacement or velocity ﬁelds. we will derive additional diﬀerential equations governing the way stress and deformation vary at a point and with time. We have also obtained only one diﬀerential equation. and yet we will not have enough equations to determine unknown tensor ﬁeld.1.Draft Chapter 6 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS 6. In its most general form. that was the compatibility equation. In general. momentum and energy. such a law may be expressed as d dt AdV + αdS = V Source AdV (6. In this chapter.1 Conservation Laws 21 22 23 24 Conservation laws constitute a fundamental component of classical physics. For that we need to wait for the next chapter where constitututive laws relating stress and strain will be introduced. These diﬀerential equations of balance will be derived from integral forms of the equation of balance expressing the fundamental postulates of continuum mechanics.1) V S Rate of variation Exchange by Diffusion . Piola Kirchoﬀ). those tensors will vary from point to point and represent a tensor ﬁeld. and several other tensors which describe strain at a point.

and α is the rate of surface density of what is lost through the surface S of V and will be a function of the normal to the surface n.Draft 6–2 25 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS where A is the volumetric density of the quantity of interest (mass.. If we assign a positive side to the surface. energy. and to modify A which is the quantity of interest. Hence. we read the previous equation as: The input quantity (provided by the right hand side) is equal to what is lost across the boundary. and take n in the positive sense. and energy. and the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. 6. then the ﬂow is in the negative direction).1 (If v·n is negative.2-b) (6. momentum.2-c) 26 Hence this chapter will apply the previous conservation law to mass. 30 We can generalize this deﬁnition and deﬁne the following ﬂuxes per unit area through dS: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3) where the last form is for rectangular cartesian components. The dimensions of various quantities are given by dim(a) = dim(AL−3 ) dim(α) = dim(AL−2 t−1 ) dim(A) = dim(AL−3 t−1 ) (6. The enunciation of the preceding three conservation laws plus the second law of thermodynamics. linear momentum.) a. 6.2 Fluxes 27 28 Prior to the enunciation of the ﬁrst conservation law.2-a) (6. 29 The ﬂux across a surface can be graphically deﬁned through the consideration of an imaginary surface ﬁxed in space with continuous “medium” ﬂowing through it. A is the rate of volumetric density of what is provided from the outside.1. we need to deﬁne the concept of ﬂux across a bounding surface. equilibrium and symmetry of the stress tensor. Hence. Fig.. then the volume of “material” ﬂowing through the inﬁnitesimal surface area dS in time dt is equal to the volume of the cylinder with base dS and slant height vdt parallel to the velocity vector v. . constitute what is commonly known as the fundamental laws of continuum mechanics. the resulting diﬀerential equations will provide additional interesting relation with regard to the imcompressibiltiy of solids (important in classical hydrodynamics and plasticity theories). we deﬁne the volume ﬂux as Volume Flux = S v·ndS = S vj nj dS (6.

then the preceding equation must eqaul the inﬂow of mass (of ﬂux) through the surface.5) (6. thus the inﬂow will be equal to −v·n.9) where ρ(x. if no mass is created or destroyed inside V .6) (6. ﬁxed in space. Continuity Equation 6–3 v vdt n dS vn dt Figure 6.2 Conservation of Mass. We note that this spatial form in terms of x is most common in ﬂuid mechanics.10) The Law of conservation of mass requires that the mass of a speciﬁc portion of the continuum remains constant. t) is a continuous function called the mass density.2 6.1: Flux Through Area dS Mass Flux Momentum Flux Kinetic Energy Flux Heat ﬂux Electric ﬂux = S ρv·ndS = S ρvj nj dS S (6. 32 The rate of increase of the total mass in the volume is ∂M ∂ρ = dV ∂t V ∂t (6. Hence. then the total mass in V is M= V ρ(x. 33 S (−ρvn )dS = − S ρv·ndS = − V ∇·(ρv)dV (6.1 31 Conservation of Mass. The outﬂow is equal to v·n.7) (6. t)dV (6.8) = S ρv(v·n)dS = 1 2 ρv (v·n)dS = S2 q·ndS = S S ρvk vj nj dS 1 ρvi vi vj nj dS S2 = = = qj nj dS Jj nj dS J·ndS = S S 6. and bounded by a surface S.2.11) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Continuity Equation Spatial Form If we consider an arbitrary volume V .Draft 6.4) (6. If a continuous medium of density ρ ﬁlls the volume at time t.

Draft 6–4 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS ∂M .13) The chain rule will in turn give ∂ρ ∂vi ∂(ρvi ) =ρ + vi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi (6. then we obtain ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂(ρvi ) =0 + ∇·(ρv) or + ∂t ∂t ∂xi 34 (6. implies V0 ρ(X. t0 )dV0 = ρ(x. the conservation of mass.2 38 Material Form If material coordinates X are used. then the continuity equation takes the simpler form ∂vi (6. 4. ∂t must be equal to Thus ∂ρ + ∇·(ρv) dV = 0 ∂t (6.15) dt ∂t ∂t ∂xi where the ﬁrst term gives the local rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of the place of x.17) = 0 or ∇·v = 0 ∂xi this is the condition of incompressibility 6. t)|J|dV0 (6.16) The vector form is independent of any choice of coordinates. while the second term gives the convective rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of a particle as it moves to a place having a diﬀerent density.14) It can be shown that the rate of change of the density in the neighborhood of a particle instantaneously at x by dρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ = + v·∇ρ = + vi (6. while the second term vanishes in a uniform ﬂow. so that the density in the neighborhood of each material particle remains constant as it moves.12) V since the integral must hold for any arbitrary choice of dV .2. 37 If the material is incompressible. This equation shows that the divergence of the velocity vector ﬁeld equals (−1/ρ)(dρ/dt) and measures the rate of ﬂow of material away from the particle and is equal to the unit rate of decrease of density ρ in the neighborhood of the particle. t)dV = V V0 ρ(x.18) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .38 (dV = |J|dV0 ). we obtain the continuity equation ∂vi dρ dρ +ρ + ρ∇·v = 0 = 0 or dt ∂xi dt (6. The ﬁrst term vanishes in a steady ﬂow. 35 36 Upon substitution in the last three equations. and using Eq.

Draft

or

6.3 Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion

6–5

V0

[ρ0 − ρ|J|]dV0 = 0

(6.19)

and for an arbitrary volume dV0 , the integrand must vanish. If we also suppose that the initial density ρ0 is everywhere positive in V0 (no empty spaces), and at time t = t0 , J = 1, then we can write ρJ = ρ0 (6.20) or d (ρJ) = 0 dt (6.21)

**which is the continuity equation due to Euler, or the Lagrangian diﬀerential form of the continuity equation.
**

39

We note that this is the same equation as Eq. 6.16 which was expressed in spatial form. Those two equations can be derived one from the other. The more commonly used form if the continuity equation is Eq. 6.16.

40

6.3

6.3.1

41

**Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion
**

Momentum Principle

The momentum principle states that the time rate of change of the total momentum of a given set of particles equals the vector sum of all external forces acting on the particles of the set, provided Newton’s Third Law applies. The continuum form of this principle is a basic postulate of continuum mechanics. tdS +

S V

ρbdV =

d dt

ρvdV

V

(6.22)

Then we substitute ti = Tij nj and apply the divergence theorm to obtain ∂Tij + ρbi dV ∂xj V ∂Tij dvi + ρbi − ρ dV ∂xj dt =

V

ρ

dvi dV dt

(6.23-a) (6.23-b)

= 0

V

or for an arbitrary volume ∂Tij dvi dv + ρbi = ρ or ∇T + ρb = ρ ∂xj dt dt (6.24)

which is Cauchy’s (ﬁrst) equation of motion, or the linear momentum principle, or more simply equilibrium equation.

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

6–6

42

FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS

When expanded in 3D, this equation yields: ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 + + + ρb1 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂T21 ∂T22 ∂T23 + + + ρb2 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂T31 ∂T32 ∂T33 + + + ρb3 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3

(6.25-a)

We note that these equations could also have been derived from the free body diagram shown in Fig. 6.2 with the assumption of equilibrium (via Newton’s second law) considering an inﬁnitesimal element of dimensions dx1 × dx2 × dx3 . Writing the summation of forces, will yield

43

**Tij,j + ρbi = 0 where ρ is the density, bi is the body force (including inertia).
**

σ σyy δ yy d y + δy δ τ yx y d δy σxx + δ σxx d x δx

(6.26)

+ τyx

dy

σ xx τ xy τ yx σyy dx + τxy

δ τ xy x d δx

Figure 6.2: Equilibrium of Stresses, Cartesian Coordinates

**Example 6-1: Equilibrium Equation In the absence of body forces, does the following stress distribution
**

**x2 + ν(x2 − x2 ) −2νx1 x2 0 2 1 x 2 2 2 −2νx1 x2 x1 + ν(x2 − x1 ) 0 0 0 ν(x2 + x2 ) 1 2 where ν is a constant, satisfy equilibrium?
**

Victor Saouma

(6.27)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

Solution:

6.3 Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion

6–7

∂T1j ∂xj ∂T2j ∂xj ∂T3j ∂xj

√ ∂T11 ∂T12 ∂T13 + + = 2νx1 − 2νx1 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 √ ∂T21 ∂T22 ∂T23 = + + = −2νx2 + 2νx2 = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 √ ∂T31 ∂T32 ∂T33 = + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 =

(6.28-a) (6.28-b) (6.28-c)

Therefore, equilibrium is satisﬁed.

6.3.2

44

Moment of Momentum Principle

The moment of momentum principle states that the time rate of change of the total moment of momentum of a given set of particles equals the vector sum of the moments of all external forces acting on the particles of the set. Thus, in the absence of distributed couples (this theory of Cosserat will not be covered in this course) we postulate the same principle for a continuum as (r×t)dS +

S V

45

(r×ρb)dV =

d dt

(r×ρv)dV

V

(6.29)

6.3.2.1

46

Symmetry of the Stress Tensor

We observe that the preceding equation does not furnish any new diﬀerential equation of motion. If we substitute tn = Tn and the symmetry of the tensor is assumed, then the linear momentum principle (Eq. 6.24) is satisﬁed.

47 Alternatively, we may start by using Eq. 1.18 (ci = εijk aj bk ) to express the cross product in indicial form and substitute above:

S

(εrmn xm tn )dS +

V

(εrmn xm bn ρ)dV =

d dt

V

(εrmn xm ρvn )dV

(6.30)

we then substitute tn = Tjn nj , and apply Gauss theorem to obtain εrmn ∂xm Tjn + xm ρbn dV = ∂xj εrmn d (xm vn )ρdV dt (6.31)

V

V

but since dxm /dt = vm , this becomes εrmn xm ∂Tjn + ρbn + δmj Tjn dV = ∂xj εrmn vm vn + xm dvn ρdV dt (6.32)

V

V

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

6–8

FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS

but εrmn vm vn = 0 since vm vn is symmetric in the indeces mn while εrmn is antisymmetric, and the last term on the right cancels with the ﬁrst term on the left, and ﬁnally with δmj Tjn = Tmn we are left with

V

εrmn Tmn dV = 0

(6.33)

or for an arbitrary volume V , εrmn Tmn = 0 at each point, and this yields for r = 1 for r = 2 for r = 3 T23 − T32 = 0 T31 − T13 = 0 T12 − T21 = 0 (6.35) (6.34)

establishing the symmetry of the stress matrix without any assumption of equilibrium or of uniformity of stress distribution as was done in Sect. 2.3.

48

The symmetry of the stress matrix is Cauchy’s second law of motion (1827).

6.4

Conservation of Energy; First Principle of Thermodynamics

49

The ﬁrst principle of thermodynamics relates the work done on a (closed) system and the heat transfer into the system to the change in energy of the system. We shall assume that the only energy transfers to the system are by mechanical work done on the system by surface traction and body forces, by heat transfer through the boundary. 6.4.1 Spatial Gradient of the Velocity

50

We deﬁne L as the spatial gradient of the velocity and in turn this gradient can be decomposed into a symmetric rate of deformation tensor D (or stretching tensor) and a skew-symmeteric tensor W called the spin tensor or vorticity tensor1 . Lij = vi,j or L = v∇x (6.36) L = D+W (6.37) 1 1 (v∇x + ∇x v) and W = (v∇x − ∇x v) (6.38) D = 2 2

**this term will be used in the derivation of the ﬁrst principle. 6.4.2
**

51

First Principle

If mechanical quantities only are considered, the principle of conservation of energy for the continuum may be derived directly from the equation of motion given by

1 Note

similarity with Eq. 4.106-b.

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

6.4 Conservation of Energy; First Principle of Thermodynamics

6–9

Eq. 6.24. This is accomplished by taking the integral over the volume V of the scalar product between Eq. 6.24 and the velocity vi .

V

vi Tji,j dV +

V

ρbi vi dV =

V

ρvi

dvi dV dt

(6.39)

If we consider the right hand side ρvi d dvi dV = dt dt 1 d ρvi vi dV = dt V 2 1 2 dK ρv dV = dt V 2 (6.40)

V

which represents the time rate of change of the kinetic energy K in the continuum. Also we have vi Tji,j = (vi Tji ),j − vi,j Tji and from Eq. 6.37 we have vi,j = Lij + Wij . It can be shown that since Wij is skew-symmetric, and T is symmetric, that Tij Wij = 0, ¨ and thus Tij Lij = Tij Dij . TD is called the stress power.

52 53

If we consider thermal processes, the rate of increase of total heat into the continuum is given by ρrdV (6.41) Q = − qi ni dS +

S V 2 −3

Q has the dimension of power, that is ML T , and the SI unit is the Watt (W). q is the heat ﬂux per unit area by conduction, its dimension is MT −3 and the corresponding SI unit is W m−2 . Finally, r is the radiant heat constant per unit mass, its dimension is MT −3 L−4 and the corresponding SI unit is W m−6 .

54

**We thus have dK + dt
**

V

Dij Tij dV =

V

(vi Tji ),j dV +

V

ρvi bi dV + Q

(6.42)

55

We next convert the ﬁrst integral on the right hand side to a surface integral by the divergence theorem ( V ∇·vdV = S v.ndS) and since ti = Tij nj we obtain dK + dt

V

Dij Tij dV

=

S

vi ti dS +

V

ρvi bi dV + Q (6.43) (6.44)

dK dU + dt dt

=

dW +Q dt

this equation relates the time rate of change of total mechanical energy of the continuum on the left side to the rate of work done by the surface and body forces on the right hand side.

56

If both mechanical and non mechanical energies are to be considered, the ﬁrst principle states that the time rate of change of the kinetic plus the internal energy is equal to the sum of the rate of work plus all other energies supplied to, or removed from the continuum per unit time (heat, chemical, electromagnetic, etc.). For a thermomechanical continuum, it is customary to express the time rate of change of internal energy by the integral expression d dU = dt dt ρudV

V

57

(6.45)

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

and the SI unit is the Joule. collect terms and use the fact that dV is arbitrary to obtain ρ ρ du dt du dt = or = T:D + ρr − ∇·q Tij Dij + ρr − ∂qj ∂xj (6. in general. by several thermodynamic and kinematic state variables. hence if we really need to evaluate this quantity. In terms of energy integrals. Usually state variables are not all independent. Any state variable which may be expressed as a single valued function of a set of other state variables is known as a state function. the ﬁrst principle can be rewritten as Rate of increae Exchange d 1 d ρudV = ti vi dS + ρvi vi dV + dt V 2 dt V S dK dt dU dt dW dt Source V Source V Exchange S ρvi bi dV + ρrdV − Q qi ni dS (6. A change in time of those state variables constitutes a thermodynamic process. The dimension of U is one of energy dim U = ML2 T −2 . we need to have a reference value for which U will be null. In classical mechanics. 61 6. It places no restriction on the direction of the process. 60 In ideal elasticity. This description is speciﬁed. the major part of the input work into a deforming material is not recoverably stored. and functional relationships exist among them through equations of state. maintaining an energy balance. Second Principle of Thermodynamics The complete characterization of a thermodynamic system is said to describe the state of a system (here a continuum).Draft 6–10 58 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS where u is the internal energy per unit mass or speciﬁc internal energy. but dissipated by the deformation process causing an increase in the body’s temperature and eventually being conducted away as heat. heat transfer is considered insigniﬁcant. We note that U appears only as a diﬀerential in the ﬁrst principle.5 62 Equation of State. and all of the input work is assumed converted into internal energy in the form of recoverable stored elastic strain energy. kinetic and potential energy can be easily transformed from one to the other in the absence of friction or other dissipative mechanism. In general. similarly dim u = L2 T −2 with the SI unit of Joule/Kg. 63 The ﬁrst principle of thermodynamics can be regarded as an expression of the interconvertibility of heat and work.47) (6. however. which can be recovered as work when the body is unloaded.48) 59 This equation expresses the rate of change of internal energy as the sum of the stress power plus the heat added to the continuum. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .46) we apply Gauss theorem to convert the surface integral.

69 6. It is found that changes of states are more likely to occur in the direction of greater disorder when a system is left to itself. Hence Boltzman’s principle postulates that entropy of a state is proportional to the logarithm of its probability. Statistical Mechanics 6.Draft 64 6.52) θ rev Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .1. 66 Thus we can write (6. and it will be up to the second principle of thermodynamics to put limits on the direction of such processes. entropy is related to the probability of the occurrence of that state among all the possible states that could occur.e. If thermal processes are involved (friction) dissipative processes are irreversible processes. Entropy is an extensive property.2 70 Classical Thermodynamics In a reversible process (more about that later). the change in speciﬁc entropy s is given by dq ds = (6. θ is a positive quantity.1.5.1 Entropy The basic criterion for irreversibility is given by the second principle of thermodynamics through the statement on the limitation of entropy production. θ is absolute temperature. Second Principle of Thermodynamics 6–11 The ﬁrst principle leaves unanswered the question of the extent to which conversion process is reversible or irreversible. Thus increased entropy means increased disorder.5. the total entropy is in a system is the sum of the entropies of its parts. and for a gas this would give 3 (6.50-b) 67 Entropy expresses a variation of energy associated with a variation in the temperature. and C is a constant and N is the number of molecules.5 Equation of State. and ds(e) > 0 irreversible process ds(i) = 0 reversible process (6. This law postulates the existence of two distinct state functions: θ the absolute temperature and S the entropy with the following properties: 65 1. 6.49) ds = ds(e) + ds(i) (e) (i) where ds is the increase due to interaction with the exterior. 2. V is volume.1 68 In statistical mechanics.5. and ds is the internal increase. i.50-a) (6. k is Boltzman’s constant.51) S = kN[ln V + lnθ] + C 2 where S is the total entropy.

59) Rate of Entropy Increase Q dS = + Γ. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . and Γ > 0 in irreversible ones.v0 θ θ θ0 cv (θ) v dθ + R ln θ v0 (6. 74 v The second principle postulates that the time rate of change of total entropy S in a continuum occupying a volume V is always greater or equal than the sum of the entropy inﬂux through the continuum surface plus the entropy produced internally by body sources.57) or division by θ yields s − s0 = p. then the ﬁrst principle takes the form du = dq − pdv and for constant volume this gives du = dq = cv dθ (6. In this case. 6. The assumption that u = u(θ) implies that cv is a function of θ only and that du = cv (θ)dθ 72 (6. and assuming that the speciﬁc energy u is only a function of temperature θ. entropy is a state function which returns to its initial value whenever the temperature returns to its initial value that is p and v return to their initial values.53) where R is the gas constant.v dq = p0 . Sθ Internal production Exchange Γ ≥ 0 (6.54) wher cv is the speciﬁc heat at constant volume.58) which gives the change in entropy for any reversible process in an ideal gas.2 73 Clausius-Duhem Inequality We restate the deﬁnition of entropy as heat divided by temperature.60) Γ = 0 for reversible processes.Draft 6–12 71 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS If we consider an ideal gas governed by pv = Rθ (6. and write the second principle d dt ρs V = r ρ dV − V θ Sources q ·ndS + Γ . The dimension of ρsdV is one of energy divided by temperature or L2 MT −2 θ−1 . dt θ Γ≥0 (6.56) Hence we rewrite the ﬁrst principle as dq = cv (θ)dθ + Rθ dv v (6.5.55) (6. and the SI unit S = for entropy is Joule/Kelvin.

66) du = T:D + ρr − ∇·q dt (6.Draft 75 6.6 Balance of Equations and Unknowns 6–13 The previous inequality holds for any arbitrary volume. thus after transformation of the surface integral into a volume integral. dρ ∂v + ρ ∂xii = 0 dt ∂Tij + ρbi = ρ dvi ∂xj dt ρ du = Tij Dij + ρr dt Continuity Equation Equation of motion ∂q Coupled 1 3 1 5 Uncoupled 1 3 4 − ∂xj Energy equation j Total number of equations 78 Assuming that the body forces bi and distributed heat sources r are prescribed.63) but since θ is always positive. we obtain T:D − ρ ds du 1 −θ − q·∇θ ≥ 0 dt dt θ (6. Let us count them.64) where −∇·q + ρr is the heat input into V and appeared in the ﬁrst principle Eq. ∇· 1 1 1 1 q = ∇·q − q·∇ = ∇·q − 2 q·∇θ θ θ θ θ θ ρ 1 1 ρr ds ≥ − ∇·q + 2 q·∇θ + dt θ θ θ 1 ds ≥ −∇·q + ρr + q·∇θ dt θ (6.62) thus (6. for both the coupled and uncoupled cases. 6. substituting.47 ρ hence.65) 6.6 77 Balance of Equations and Unknowns In the preceding sections several equations and unknowns were introduced. then we have the following unknowns: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . we obtain the following local version of the Clausius-Duhem inequality which must holds at every point ρ ds dt ≥ ρr q − ∇· θ θ Sources Exchange (6.61) Rate of Entropy Increase 76 We next seek to express the Clausius-Duhem inequality in terms of the stress tensor. ρθ (6.

3.67) (6. this section will provide some elementary concepts of heat transfer. 79 ≥ r θ 1 − ρ div which governs entropy We thus need an additional 16 − 5 = 11 additional equations to make the system determinate. There are three fundamental modes of heat transfer: 83 84 Conduction: takes place when a temperature gradient exists within a material and is governed by Fourier’s Law.3 on Γq : qx = −kx qy Victor Saouma ∂T ∂x ∂T = −ky ∂y (6. 81 6. The energy equation is essentially the integral of the equation of motion. the heat-conduction problem must be solved separately and independently from the mechanical problem.7 82 † Elements of Heat Transfer One of the relations which we will need is the one which relates temperature to heat ﬂux. and a subsequent one will separately discuss thermodynamic equations of state. However to place the reader in the right frame of reference to understand Fourrier’s law. The temperature ﬁeld is regarded as known. The 6 missing equations will be entirely supplied by the constitutive equations. 6. This constitutive realtion will be discussed in the next chapter under Fourrier’s law. We note that for the uncoupled case 1. Fig.Draft 6–14 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS Coupled Density ρ 1 Velocity (or displacement) vi (ui ) 3 Stress components Tij 6 Heat ﬂux components qi 3 Speciﬁc internal energy u 1 Entropy density s 1 Absolute temperature θ 1 Total number of unknowns 16 ds dt Uncoupled 1 3 6 10 q θ and in addition the Clausius-Duhem inequality production must hold. or at most.68) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 2. These will be later on supplied by: 6 3 2 11 constitutive equations temperature heat conduction thermodynamic equations of state Total number of additional equations 80 The next chapter will thus discuss constitutive relations.

which causes the problem to be nonlinear. such as whether convection is natural or forced. It is governed by the Newton’s Law of Cooling q = h(T − T∞ ) on Γc (6. Fig. The fundamental law is the StefanBoltman’s Law of Thermal Radiation for black bodies in which the ﬂux is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature.3: Flux vector where T = T (x. qx and qy are the componenets of the heat ﬂux (W/m2 or Btu/h-ft2). Convection: heat transfer takes place when a material is exposed to a moving ﬂuid which is at diﬀerent temperature.o C or Btu/h-ft2 . and geometry of the body. Radiation: is the energy transferred between two separated bodies at diﬀerent temperatures by means of electromagnetic waves.4 then 1. It depends on various factors. This mode is considered as part of the boundary condition.. 2D diﬀerential body of dimensions dx by dy.69) where q is the convective heat ﬂux. This mode will not be covered. h is the convection heat transfer coeﬃcient or ﬁlm coeﬃcient (W/m2 .7 † Elements of Heat Transfer 6–15 Figure 6. 6. ?? (note similarity Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . T and T∞ are the surface and ﬂuid temperature. Note that heat ﬂows from “hot” to “cool” zones. Rate of heat generation/sink is I2 = Qdxdy (6. laminar or turbulent ﬂow.o F). y) is the temperature ﬁeld in the medium.70) 2.o C or Btu/h-ft-oF) and ∂T . respectively. Heat ﬂux across the boundary of the element is shown in Fig. 6. type of ﬂuid. k is the thermal conductivity (W/m.Draft 6. hence the negative sign.1 85 Simple 2D Derivation If we consider a unit thickness.7. ∂T are the temperature gradients along the ∂x ∂y x and y respectively.

73-a) (6. energy produced I2 plus the net energy across the boundary I1 must be equal to the energy absorbed I3 .Draft 6–16 qx FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS ✻y + q ∂qy ∂y dy ✲ Q qx + ✲ ∂qx ∂x dx ✻ dy ❄ ✻ ✛ qy dx ✲ Figure 6.dxdy (6.7.71) 3. Change in stored energy is dφ .72) dt where we deﬁne the speciﬁc heat c as the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass by one degree.74) where n is the unit exterior normal to Γ.2 87 †Generalized Derivation The amount of ﬂow per unit time into an element of volume Ω and surface Γ is I1 = q(−n)dΓ = Γ Γ D∇φ.4: Flux Through Sides of Diﬀerential Element with equilibrium equation) I1 = qx + ∂qx dx − qx dx dy + ∂x qy + ∂qy ∂qy ∂qx dy − qy dy dx = dxdy + dydx ∂y ∂x ∂y (6. thus 86 I1 + I2 − I3 = 0 ∂qy dφ ∂qx dxdy + dydx + Qdxdy − cρ dxdy = 0 ∂x ∂y dt I1 I2 I3 (6. 6.73-b) 6.ndΓ (6. Fig. I3 = cρ From the ﬁrst law of thermodaynamics.5 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

or I3 = ρc∆φdΩ (6. we deﬁne the speciﬁc heat of a solid c as the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass by one degree. thus 91 Ω I1 + I2 − I3 = 0 ∆φ div (D∇φ) + Q − ρc dΩ = 0 ∆t ∂φ =0 ∂t ∂φ ∂t (6. Note the similarity between this last equation.76) Furthermore.7 † Elements of Heat Transfer 6–17 Figure 6.75) Eq. y. and the equation of equilibrium ∂ 2 ux ∂σxx ∂σxy + + ρbx = ρm 2 ∂x ∂y ∂t ∂σyy ∂σxy ∂ 2 uy + + ρby = ρm 2 ∂y ∂x ∂t Victor Saouma (6.5: *Flow through a surface Γ Using the divergence theorem vndΓ = Γ Ω div vdΩ (6. Thus if ∆φ is a temperature change which occurs in a mass m over a time ∆t. then the total amount of heat/ﬂow produced per unit time is I2 = Q(x.77) Ω 90 Finally. if the instantaneous volumetric rate of “heat” generation or removal at a point x.83-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . z. then the corresponding amount of heat that was added must have been cm∆φ.83-a) (6. y.82) (6. The balance equation. 6. t).Draft 88 6. z. then div (D∇φ) + Q − ρc or div (D∇φ) + Q = ρc This equation can be rewritten as ∂φ ∂qx ∂qy + + Q = ρc ∂x ∂y ∂t (6. t)dΩ (6.80) 1.79-b) but since t and Ω are both arbitrary. Note that another expression of I3 is ∆t(I1 + I2 ).74 transforms into I1 = 89 div (D∇φ)dΩ Ω (6.81) (6. or conservation law states that the energy produced I2 plus the net energy across the boundary I1 must be equal to the energy absorbed I3 .78) Ω where ρ is the density. z inside Ω is Q(x. y.79-a) (6.

Solutions of Laplace equations are termed harmonic functions (right hand side is zero) which is why Eq. the previous equation does not depend on t. it reduces to ∂ ∂φ ∂φ ∂ kx + ky ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y +Q=0 (6.Draft 6–18 FUNDAMENTAL LAWS of CONTINUUM MECHANICS 2. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and for 2D problems. then the previous equation reduces to ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ + 2 + 2 =0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂z (6. ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ Q + 2 + 2 + =0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂z k which is Poisson’s equation in 3D.87) which is a parabolic (or Heat) equation.86) (6.85) which is an Elliptic (or Laplace) equation. For steady state problems.84 is refered to as the quasi-harmonic equation. If the function depends only on x and t. If the heat input Q = 0. 6.84) 3. 5. 4. then we obtain ρc ∂φ ∂ ∂φ = kx +Q ∂t ∂x ∂x (6. For steady state isotropic problems.

1.Draft Chapter 7 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. 1676 Ut tensio sic vis Hooke. Part I LINEAR ceiinosssttuu Hooke. and functional relationships exist among them through equations of state. This assumes that there exists a caloric equation 23 . In ideal elasticity we have nine substate variables the components of the strain or deformation tensors. 21 The time derivatives of these variables are not involved in the deﬁnition of the state. Any state variable which may be expressed as a single valued function of a set of other state variables is known as a state function. 22 The thermodynamic state is speciﬁed by n + 1 variables ν1 . The former have mechanical (or electromagnetic) dimensions. The basic assumption of thermodynamics is that in addition to the n substate variables. Usually state variables are not all independent. this postulate implies that any evolution can be considered as a succession of equilibrium states (therefore ultra rapid phenomena are excluded). A change in time of those state variables constitutes a thermodynamic process. · · · . but are otherwise left arbitrary in the general formulation.1 20 † Thermodynamic Approach State Variables The method of local state postulates that the thermodynamic state of a continuum at a given point and instant is completely deﬁned by several state variables (also known as thermodynamic or independent variables). νn and s where νi are the thermodynamic substate variables and s the speciﬁc entropy. ν2 . just one additional dimensionally independent scalar paramer suﬃces to determine the speciﬁc internal energy u. 1678 7.1 7.

Part I LINEAR of state u = u(s. 7.1. dνp = 0 and ∇θ = 0 for any value of ds thus the coeﬃcient of ds dt dt dt is zero or ∂u θ= (7.8) dνp 1 − q·∇θ ≥ 0 dt θ (7.5) but the second principle must be satisﬁed for all possible evolution and in particular the one for which D = 0.2) where the subscript outside the parenthesis indicates that the variables are held constant. s.7) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . · · · .3) ν 28 substituting into Clausius-Duhem inequality of Eq.1) In general the internal energy u can not be experimentally measured but rather its derivative.66 T:D − ρ 1 ds du − q·∇θ ≥ 0 −θ dt dt θ dνp 1 − q·∇θ ≥ 0 dt θ (7.νi(i=j) j = 1. ν τj ≡ ∂u ∂νj . n (7.4) we obtain T:D + ρ ∂u ds θ− dt ∂s + Ap ν (7.6) ∂s ν thus T:D + Ap and Eq. 25 For instance we can deﬁne the thermodynamic temperature θ and the thermodynamic “tension” τj as θ≡ ∂u ∂s .2 27 Gibbs Relation From the chain rule we can express du = dt ∂u ∂s ds dνp + τp dt dt (7. ν. X) 24 (7. 26 By extension Ai = −ρτi would be the thermodynamic “force” and its dimension depends on the one of νi . 2.Draft 7–2 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. 6. 7.3 can be rewritten as ds dνp du = θ + τp dt dt dt (7.

Eq.11) θ = θ(s.10) s where p is the thermodynamic pressure.Draft 29 7. v (7. Table 7.1: Thermodynamic Potentials Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1 † Thermodynamic Approach 7–3 and if we adopt the diﬀerential notation. νj θ. u = u(θ.3 30 Thermal Equation of State From the caloric equation of state. we obtain Gibbs relation du = θds + τp dνp For ﬂuid. 7.15) The thermal equations of state resemble stress-strain relations. Those potentials are derived through the LegendrePotential Internal energy Helmholtz free energy Enthalpy Free enthalpy u Ψ h g Relation to u u Ψ = u − sθ h = u − τj νj g = u − sθ − τj νj Independent Variables s. the Gibbs relation takes the form du = θds − pdv.2 it follows that the temperature and the thermodynamic tensions are functions of the thermodynamic state: (7. ν) we assume the ﬁrst one to be invertible (7. ν.13) (7. τj = τj (s.1 to obtain an alternative form of the caloric equation of state with corresponding thermal equations of state (obtained by simple substitution). and θ ≡ ∂u ∂s . θ. X) 31 ← (7. 7. τj Table 7.14) (7. τj θ. bX) τi = τi (θ. ν) s = s(θ. Thermodynamic Potentials 7.1. 7. X) νi = νi (θ. four thermodynamic potentials are introduced.1. 7. just as θ is conjugate to s. ν).12) and substitute this into Eq. ν.1. but some caution is necessary in interpreting the tesnisons as stresses and the νj as strains.4 32 Based on the assumed existence of a caloric equation of state. and the thermodynamic tension conjugate to the speciﬁc volume v is −p.9) −p ≡ ∂u ∂v (7.1. νj ← s. and the the deﬁnitions of Eq.

17-d) θ where the free energy Ψ is the portion of the internal energy available for doing work at constant temperature. By means of the preceding equations.18) TIJ = ρ0 ∂EIJ θ hence W = ρ0 Ψ is an elastic potential function for this case.16-d) and from these diﬀerentials we obtain the following partial derivative expressions ∂u . 36 For the fully recoverable case of isothermal deformation with reversible heat conduction we have ∂Ψ ˜ (7.1.νi(i=j) (7. ∂θ ν θ= ∂h . whose derivative with respect to a strain component determines the corresponding stress component.5 35 Elastic Potential or Strain Energy Function Green deﬁned an elastic material as one for which a strain-energy function exists. we have du dΨ dh dg = = = = θds + τj dνj −sdθ + τj dνj ← θds − νj dτj −sdθ − νj dτj (7. =− ∂θ τ θ= τj = τj = ∂u ∂νj ∂Ψ ∂νj (7.17-a) s.17-b) (7. ∂s τ ∂g . 37 Hyperelasticity ignores thermal eﬀects and assumes that the elastic potential function always exists.1. ∂s ν ∂Ψ s=− .19) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .16-b) (7.16-c) (7. 7. the enthalpy h (as deﬁned here) is the portion of the internal energy that can be released as heat when the thermodynamic tensions are held constant.17-c) νj = − νj = − ∂h ∂τj ∂g ∂τj s. Part I LINEAR Fenchel transformation on the basis of selected state variables best suited for a given problem.16-a) (7.νi(i=j) ← θ (7.Draft 7–4 33 34 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. it is a function of the strains alone and is purely mechanical ∂W (E) ˜ TIJ = ∂EIJ (7. while W = ρ0 u is the potential for adiabatic isentropic case (s = constant). a scalar function of one of the strain or deformation tensors. In any actual or hypothetical change obeying the equations of state. any one of the potentials can be expressed in terms of any of the four choices of state variables listed in Table 7. Such a material is called Green-elastic or hyperelastic if there exists an elastic potential function W or strain energy function.

2 41 Experimental Observations We shall discuss two experiments which will yield the elastic Young’s modulus. then we obtain Tij = ∂W ∂Eij (7. the deformation gradient F and the Lagrangian strain tensor E. If the displacement gradients are small compared to unity.21) where c0 is a constant and cij . 38 We assume that the elastic potential is represented by a power series expansion in the small-strain components. the third one refers to the strain energy which corresponds to linear elastic deformation. the simplicity of the experiment is surrounded by the intriguing character of Hooke. and then the bulk modulus. Physically. cijkm. and similarly all the coeﬃcients in the ﬁrst row of the quadratic expansion of W . Thus the elastic potential function is a homogeneous quadratic function of the strains and we obtain Hooke’s law 7. thus c0 = 0. 39 Neglecting terms higher than the second degree in the series expansion. 7. and in the later.2 Experimental Observations 7–5 and W (E) is the strain energy per unit undeformed volume. the second term represents the energy due to residual stresses. then W is quadratic in terms of the strains W = c0 + c1 E11 + c2 E22 + c3 E33 + 2c4 E23 + 2c5 E31 + 2c6 E12 1 2 + 2 c1111 E11 + c1122 E11 E22 + c1133 E11 E33 + 2c1123 E11 E23 + 2c1131 E11 E31 2 + 1 c2222 E22 + c2233 E22 E33 + 2c2223 E22 E23 + 2c2231 E22 E31 2 2 + 1 c3333 E33 + 2c3323 E33 E23 + 2c3331 E33 E31 2 2 +2c2323 E23 + 4c2331 E23 E31 2 +2c3131 E31 + 2c1112 E11 E12 + 2c2212 E22 E12 + 2c3312 E33 E12 + 4c2312 E23 E12 + 4c3112 E31 E12 2 +2c1212 E12 (7.20 to the quadratic expression of W and obtain for instance ∂W = 2c6 + c1112 E11 + c2212 E22 + c3312 E33 + c1212 E12 + c1223 E23 + c1231 E31 (7. then c6 = 0.22) we require that W vanish in the unstrained state. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . and the fourth one indicates nonlinear behavior. cijkmnp denote tensorial properties required to maintain the invariant property of W .20) which is written in terms of Cauchy stress Tij and small strain Eij . 40 We next apply Eq. In the former. the bulk modulus is mathematically related to the Green deformation tensor C.Draft 7.23) ∂E12 T12 = if the stress must also be zero in the unstrained state. 1 1 W = c0 + cij Eij + cijkmEij Ekm + cijkmnp Eij Ekm Enp + · · · 2 3 (7.

Draft

7–6

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS; Part I LINEAR

7.2.1

42

Hooke’s Law

Hooke’s Law is determined on the basis of a very simple experiment in which a uniaxial force is applied on a specimen which has one dimension much greater than the other two (such as a rod). The elongation is measured, and then the stress is plotted in terms of the strain (elongation/length). The slope of the line is called Young’s modulus. Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry many of them through to completion. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in mechanics, and grasped, but did not develop mathematically, the fundamental theory on which Newton formulated the law of gravitation. His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva. It contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies, and was the ﬁrst paper in which the elastic properties of material was discussed. “Take a wire string of 20, or 30, or 40 ft long, and fasten the upper part thereof to a nail, and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with a pair of compasses take the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground or ﬂoor underneath, and set down the said distance, then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the said string, and set them down. Then compare the several stretchings of the said string, and you will ﬁnd that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights do that made them”. This became Hooke’s Law σ = Eε (7.24)

43

44

Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention, he did not publish his law when ﬁrst discovered it in 1660. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram “ceiinosssttuu” in 1676 and the solution was given in 1678. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbols u and v were employed interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v), i.e. extension varies directly with force. 7.2.2 Bulk Modulus

45

If, instead of subjecting a material to a uniaxial state of stress, we now subject it to a hydrostatic pressure p and measure the change in volume ∆V . From the summary of Table 4.1 we know that: = (det F)V0 √ det F = det C = therefore, V + ∆V = V det[I + 2E] (7.26) V (7.25-a) det[I + 2E] (7.25-b)

46

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

7.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity

7–7

we can expand the determinant of the tensor det[I + 2E] to ﬁnd det[I + 2E] = 1 + 2IE + 4IIE + 8IIIE (7.27)

IIE IIIE since the ﬁrst term is linear in E, the second is but for small strains, IE quadratic, and the third is cubic. Therefore, we can approximate det[I + 2E] ≈ 1 + 2IE , hence we deﬁne the volumetric dilatation as ∆V ≡ e ≈ IE = tr E V this quantity is readily measurable in an experiment. (7.28)

7.3

7.3.1

47

**Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity
**

Anisotropic

**From Eq. 7.22 and 7.23 we obtain the stress-strain relation for homogeneous anisotropic material
**

**T11 T22 T33 T12 T23 T31
**

Tij

c1111

c1112 c2222

=

c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212

SYM.

cijkm

c1123 c2223 c3323 c1223 c2323

c1131 c2231 c3331 c1231 c2331 c3131

**E11 E22 E33 2E12 (γ12 ) 2E23 (γ23 ) 2E31 (γ31 )
**

Ekm

(7.29)

**which is Hooke’s law for small strain in linear elasticity.
**

48

We also observe that for symmetric cij we retrieve Clapeyron formula 1 W = Tij Eij 2 (7.30)

49 In general the elastic moduli cij relating the cartesian components of stress and strain depend on the orientation of the coordinate system with respect to the body. If the form of elastic potential function W and the values cij are independent of the orientation, the material is said to be isotropic, if not it is anisotropic.

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

7–8

50

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS; Part I LINEAR

**cijkm is a fourth order tensor resulting with 34 = 81 terms. c1,1,1,1 c1,1,2,1 c1,1,3,1 c2,1,1,1 c2,1,2,1 c2,1,3,1 c3,1,1,1 c3,1,2,1 c3,1,3,1 c1,1,1,2 c1,1,2,2 c1,1,3,2 c2,1,1,2 c2,1,2,2 c2,1,3,2 c3,1,1,2 c3,1,2,2 c3,1,3,2 c1,1,1,3 c1,1,2,3 c1,1,3,3 c2,1,1,3 c2,1,2,3 c2,1,3,3 c3,1,1,3 c3,1,2,3 c3,1,3,3
**

c1,3,1,3 c1,3,2,3 c1,3,3,3 c2,3,1,3 c2,3,2,3 c2,3,3,3 c3,3,1,3 c3,3,2,3 c3,3,3,3 (7.31) But the matrix must be symmetric thanks to Cauchy’s second law of motion (i.e symmetry of both the stress and the strain), and thus for anisotropic material we will have a symmetric 6 by 6 matrix with (6)(6+1) = 21 independent coeﬃcients. 2 By means of coordinate transformation we can relate the material properties in one coordinate system (old) xi , to a new one xi , thus from Eq. 1.27 (vj = ap vp ) we can j rewrite 1 1 1 W = crstu Ers Etu = crstu ar as at au E ij E km = cijkm E ij E km (7.32) i j k m 2 2 2 thus we deduce cijkm = ar as at au crstu (7.33) i j k m

51

c1,2,1,1 c1,2,2,1 c1,2,3,1 c2,2,1,1 c2,2,2,1 c2,2,3,1 c3,2,1,1 c3,2,2,1 c3,2,3,1

c1,2,1,2 c1,2,2,2 c1,2,3,2 c2,2,1,2 c2,2,2,2 c2,2,3,2 c3,2,1,2 c3,2,2,2 c3,2,3,2

c1,2,1,3 c1,2,2,3 c1,2,3,3 c2,2,1,3 c2,2,2,3 c2,2,3,3 c3,2,1,3 c3,2,2,3 c3,2,3,3

c1,3,1,1 c1,3,2,1 c1,3,3,1 c2,3,1,1 c2,3,2,1 c2,3,3,1 c3,3,1,1 c3,3,2,1 c3,3,3,1

c1,3,1,2 c1,3,2,2 c1,3,3,2 c2,3,1,2 c2,3,2,2 c2,3,3,2 c3,3,1,2 c3,3,2,2 c3,3,3,2

that is the fourth order tensor of material constants in old coordinates may be transformed into a new coordinate system through an eighth-order tensor ar as at au i j k m 7.3.2 Monotropic Material

52 A plane of elastic symmetry exists at a point where the elastic constants have the same values for every pair of coordinate systems which are the reﬂected images of one another with respect to the plane. The axes of such coordinate systems are referred to as “equivalent elastic directions”.

**If we assume x1 = x1 , x2 = x2 and x3 = deﬁned through 1 j ai = 0 0
**

53

**−x3 , then the transformation xi = aj xj is i 0 0 1 0 0 −1
**

(7.34)

where the negative sign reﬂects the symmetry of the mirror image with respect to the x3 plane. a1 a1 a2 a3 c1123 1 1 2 3 We next substitute in Eq.7.33, and as an example we consider c1123 = ar as at au crstu = 1 1 2 3 = (1)(1)(1)(−1)c1123 = −c1123 , obviously, this is not possible, and the only way the relation can remanin valid is if c1123 = 0. We note that all terms in cijkl with the index 3 occurring an odd number of times will be equal to zero. Upon substitution,

54

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

we obtain

7.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity

7–9

c1111

c1122 c2222

cijkm =

c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212

0 0 0 0 c2323

SYM.

c2331

0 0 0 0

(7.35)

**c3131 we now have 13 nonzero coeﬃcients. 7.3.3
**

55

Orthotropic Material

If the material possesses three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic symmetry, (that is symmetric with respect to two planes x2 and x3 ), then the transformation xi = aj xj i is deﬁned through 1 0 0 aj = 0 −1 0 (7.36) i 0 0 −1 where the negative sign reﬂects the symmetry of the mirror image with respect to the x3 plane. Upon substitution in Eq.7.33 we now would have

c1111

c1122 c2222

cijkm =

c1133 c2233 c3333

0 0 0 c1212

0 0 0 0 c2323

SYM.

0 0 0 0 0 c3131

(7.37)

We note that in here all terms of cijkl with the indices 3 and 2 occuring an odd number of times are again set to zero.

56

Wood is usually considered an orthotropic material and will have 9 nonzero coeﬃcients. Transversely Isotropic Material

7.3.4

57

A material is transversely isotropic if there is a preferential direction normal to all but one of the three axes. If this axis is x3 , then rotation about it will require that cos θ sin θ 0 aj = − sin θ cos θ 0 i 0 0 1

(7.38)

substituting Eq. 7.33 into Eq. 7.41, using the above transformation matrix, we obtain c1111 = (cos4 θ)c1111 + (cos2 θ sin2 θ)(2c1122 + 4c1212 ) + (sin4 θ)c2222 c1122 = (cos2 θ sin2 θ)c1111 + (cos4 θ)c1122 − 4(cos2 θ sin2 θ)c1212 + (sin4 θ)c2211 +(sin2 θ cos2 θ)c2222 c1133 = (cos2 θ)c1133 + (sin2 θ)c2233

Victor Saouma

(7.39-a) (7.39-b) (7.39-c) (7.39-d)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

7–10

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS; Part I LINEAR

c2222 = (sin4 θ)c1111 + (cos2 θ sin2 θ)(2c1122 + 4c1212 ) + (cos4 θ)c2222 (7.39-e) 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 (7.39-f) c1212 = (cos θ sin θ)c1111 − 2(cos θ sin θ)c1122 − 2(cos θ sin θ)c1212 + (cos θ)c1212 2 2 4 (7.39-g) +(sin θ cos θ)c2222 + sin θc1212 . . .

But in order to respect our initial assumption about symmetry, these results require that c1111 = c2222 c1133 = c2233 c2323 = c3131 1 c1212 = (c1111 − c1122 ) 2 yielding

(7.40-a) (7.40-b) (7.40-c) (7.40-d)

c1111

c1122 c2222

cijkm =

c1133 c2233 c3333

SYM.

0 0 0 1 (c1111 − c1122 ) 2

0 0 0 0 c2323

0 0 0 0 0 c3131

(7.41)

**we now have 5 nonzero coeﬃcients.
**

58

It should be noted that very few natural or man-made materials are truly orthotropic (certain crystals as topaz are), but a number are transversely isotropic (laminates, shist, quartz, roller compacted concrete, etc...). 7.3.5 Isotropic Material

59

An isotropic material is symmetric with respect to every plane and every axis, that is the elastic properties are identical in all directions.

To mathematically characterize an isotropic material, we require coordinate transformation with rotation about x2 and x1 axes in addition to all previous coordinate transformations. This process will enforce symmetry about all planes and all axes.

60 61

**The rotation about the x2 axis is obtained through cos θ 0 − sin θ 1 0 aj = 0 i sin θ 0 cos θ
**

(7.42)

we follow a similar procedure to the case of transversely isotropic material to obtain c1111 = c3333 1 (c1111 − c1133 ) c3131 = 2

Victor Saouma

(7.43-a) (7.43-b)

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

46) with a = 1 (c1111 − c1122 ).44) (7.Draft 62 7.47) (7.45-a) (7. 2 2 2 If we denote c1122 = c1133 = c2233 = λ and c1212 = c2323 = c3131 = µ then from the previous relations we determine that c1111 = c2222 = c3333 = λ + 2µ. 64 Substituting the last equation into Eq.47 is written in terms of the Engineering strains (Eq.49) Or in terms of λ and µ. b = 1 (c2222 − c2233 ).29.45-c) c1111 cijkm = c1133 0 0 0 c2233 0 0 0 c3333 0 0 0 a 0 0 SYM.50) −λ 1 IT + T (7. On the other hand the preceding equations are written in terms of the tensorial strains Eij Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . or 63 cijkm λ 0 0 0 λ 0 0 0 λ + 2µ 0 0 0 = µ 0 0 SYM.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity 7–11 next we perform a rotation about the x1 axis 1 0 0 j ai = 0 cos θ sin θ 0 − sin θ cos θ it follows that c1122 = c1133 1 c3131 = (c3333 − c1133 ) 2 1 c2323 = (c2222 − c2233 ) 2 which will ﬁnally give (7.45-b) (7.51) E= 2µ(3λ + 2µ) 2µ It should be emphasized that Eq. and c = 1 (c3333 − c1133 ).29) that is γij = 2Eij for i = j. Hooke’s Law for an isotropic body is written as Tij = λδij Ekk + 2µEij 1 λ δij Tkk Eij = Tij − 2µ 3λ + 2µ 65 or or T = λIE + 2µE (7. Tij = [λδij δkm + µ(δik δjm + δim δkj )]Ekm (7. µ 0 µ = λδij δkm + µ(δik δjm + δim δkj ) λ + 2µ λ λ + 2µ (7. 7. 7. 7.48) and we are thus left with only two independent non zero coeﬃcients λ and µ which are called Lame’s constants. b 0 c c1122 c2222 (7.

3. we have σ21 = σ12 = τ all other σij = 0 τ 2ε12 = G and the µ is equal to the shear modulus G.3.52-a) (7.56-a) (7.52-b) (7.5.ν = E µ(3λ + 2µ) 2(λ + µ) νE E λ = .56-b) 71 Victor Saouma .3.Draft 7–12 7.1.5.1 7.53-b) ν = − ε11 ε11 then it follows that λ+µ λ 1 = . we adopt the usual engineering notation Tij → σij and Eij → εij 68 If we consider a simple uniaxial state of stress in the x1 direction.55) 70 Similarly in the case of pure shear in the x1 x3 and x2 x3 planes. 7.µ = G = (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 2(1 + ν) (7. Isotropic Case 7.1.1.5. then from Eq.53-a) ε11 = E ε33 ε22 =− (7. Part I LINEAR Engineering Constants The stress-strain relations were expressed in terms of Lame’s parameters which can not be readily measured experimentally. This will be done for both the isotropic and transversely isotropic cases. As such.52-c) ε22 69 Yet we have the elementary relations in terms engineering constants E Young’s modulus and ν Poisson’s ratio σ (7.1 Young’s Modulus 67 In order to avoid certain confusion between the strain E and the elastic constant E.1 66 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. Hooke’s law for isotropic material in terms of engineering constants becomes Introduction to Continuum Mechanics (7.51 λ+µ σ µ(3λ + 2µ) −λ = ε33 = σ 2µ(3λ + 2µ) 0 = ε12 = ε23 = ε13 ε11 = (7. in the following sections we will reformulate those relations in terms of “engineering constants” (Young’s and the bulk’s modulus).54) (7.

59) 73 If we invert this equation.3.Draft σij = εij 72 7. Volumetric and Deviatoric Strains We can express the trace of the stress Iσ in terms of the volumetric strain Iε From Eq.62) K =λ+ µ 3 74 We can provide a complement to the volumetric part of the constitutive equations by substracting the trace of the stress from the stress tensor. we obtain σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx = 1−ν ν ν E ν 1−ν ν (1+ν)(1−2ν) ν ν 1−ν 0 0 G 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) (7.1.63) 3 1 ε ≡ ε − (tr ε)I (7.50 (7.2 Bulk’s Modulus.1. hence we deﬁne the deviatoric stress and strains as as 1 σ ≡ σ − (tr σ)I (7.66) where p ≡ 1 tr (σ) is the pressure.65) (7.64) 3 and the corresponding constitutive relation will be 75 σ = KeI + 2µε p 1 ε = I+ σ 3K 2µ (7. 3 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 7.57) (7.58) When the strain equation is expanded in 3D cartesian coordinates it would yield: εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) = 1 E 1 −ν −ν 0 0 0 −ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 −ν −ν 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx (7.60) 7.61) σii = λδii εkk + 2µεii = (3λ + 2µ)εii ≡ 3Kεii or 2 (7.5. and σ = σ − pI is the stress deviator.3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity 7–13 E ν E ν δij εkk or σ = Iε εij + ε+ 1+ν 1 − 2ν 1+ν 1 − 2ν ν 1+ν ν 1+ν σij − δij σkk or ε = σ − Iσ = E E E E (7.

78 1 2 implies G = µ. 7.3 76 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.3. ν 2µν 1−2ν and 1 K = 0 or elastic incom- λ µ K E ν λ. ν 3Kν 1+ν 3K(1−2ν) 2(1+ν) µ 2µ(1+ν) 3(1−2ν) µ µE 3(3µ−E) K 3K(1 − 2ν) ν E ν 2µ(1 + ν) ν E E 2µ − 1 Table 7.68) substituting p = −Ke and σij = 2GEij . Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 7–14 7. Part I LINEAR Restriction Imposed on the Isotropic Elastic Moduli We can rewrite Eq.2.72) E . 3 From Table 7.70-a) (7. −1 < ν < 1 2 (7.67) but since dW is a scalar invariant (energy). ν νE (1+ν)(1−2ν) E 2(1+ν) E 3(1−2ν) E. µ µ(E−2µ) 3µ−E K. we obtain the following expression for the isotropic strain energy 1 W = Ke2 + GEij Eij 2 and since positive work is required to cause any deformation W > 0 thus 2 λ+ G≡K > 0 3 G > 0 ruling out K = G = 0. and integrating.1.3. we are left with E > 0.1.20 as dW = Tij dEij (7. µ λ µ λ + 2µ 3 µ(3λ+2µ) λ+µ λ 2(λ+µ) E. it can be expressed in terms of volumetric (hydrostatic) and deviatoric components as dW = −pde + σij dEij (7.2: Conversion of Constants for an Isotropic Elastic Material 79 The elastic properties of selected materials is shown in Table 7.70-b) (7. we observe that ν = pressibility.69) 77 The isotropic strain energy function can be alternatively expressed as 1 W = λe2 + GEij Eij 2 (7.71) (7.5.

3. and µ is shear moduli for the plane of isotropy.900 2 60.73) and a11 = 1 .5.5. ν corresponding to the transverse contraction in the plane of isotropy when tension is applied normal to the plane.000 68.2 0.33 0.3.1 For problems involving a long body in the z direction with no variation in load or geometry. E a13 = − a33 = − a44 = − (7.27 7–15 Table 7.3.5 0. Plane Strain 7.2 Transversly Isotropic Case 80 For transversely isotropic. replacing into Eq. Thus.000 ν 0. E 1 µ (7.000 2.34 0.74) where E is the Young’s modulus in the plane of isotropy and E the one in the plane normal to it.2 we obtain 82 σxx σyy σzz τxy Victor Saouma = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 − ν) ν ν (1 − ν) ν ν 0 0 0 0 0 1−2ν 2 εxx εyy γxy (7.000 61. then εzz = γyz = γxz = τxz = τyz = 0.2 81 Special 2D Cases Often times one can make simplifying assumptions to reduce a 3D problem into a 2D one.1. we can express the stress-strain relation in tems of εxx εyy εzz γxy γyz γxz = = = = = = a11 σxx + a12 σyy + a13 σzz a12 σxx + a11 σyy + a13 σzz a13 (σxx + σyy ) + a33 σzz 2(a11 − a12 )τxy a44 τxy a44 τxz ν . µ corresponding to the shear moduli for the plane of isotropy and any plane normal to it. 7.3: Elastic Properties of Selected Materials at 200c 7.Draft 7.4 →0. E 1 . 5.000 60.75) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 Stress-Strain Relations in Generalized Elasticity Material A316 Stainless Steel A5 Aluminum Bronze Plexiglass Rubber Concrete Granite E (MPa) 196. E ν a12 = − .5.2. ν corresponds to the transverse contraction in the plane of isotropy when tension is applied in the plane.3 0.

79) Eij = Eij + Eij where Eij is the contribution from the stress ﬁeld. then τyz = τxz = σzz = γxz = γyz = 0 throughout the thickness.76-a) (7. 5.2.3 = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) 1−ν ν ν ν 1−ν ν ν ν 1−ν ν ν 1−ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1−2ν 2 εrr εzz εθθ γrz (7.76-d) 84 σrr σzz σθθ τrz 7.5.3. the strain componenet of an elementary volume of an unconstrained isotropic body are given by (Θ) (7.78-a) (7. substituting into Eq.2. (T ) (Θ) the contribution from the 87 When a body is subjected to a temperature change Θ−Θ0 with respect to the reference state temperature. we can use a polar coordinate sytem and ∂u εrr = ∂r u εθθ = r ∂w εzz = ∂z ∂u ∂w + εrz = ∂z ∂r The constitutive relation is again analogous to 3D/plane strain (7.77) Plane Stress If the longitudinal dimension in z direction is much smaller than in the x and y directions.76-c) (7. the components of the linear strain tensor Eij may be considered as the sum of (T ) (Θ) (7. and Eij temperature ﬁeld. Part I LINEAR In solids of revolution.2 Axisymmetry 83 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS.5.76-b) (7.4 Linear Thermoelasticity 86 If thermal eﬀects are accounted for.78-b) 7.80) Eij = α(Θ − Θ0 )δij Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2 we obtain: 85 εxx σxx 1 ν 0 1 σyy ν 1 0 εyy = 1 − ν 2 0 0 1−ν γ τ xy xy 2 1 ν(εxx + εyy ) εzz = − 1−ν (7. Again.Draft 7–16 7.3.

83) for linear theory. If we accounted for the temperature change Θ − Θ0 with respect to the reference state temperature. chemical.82 with β = Eα .81) which is known as Duhamel-Neumann relations.82) Alternatively.) The rate of transfer per unit area is q Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 93 Victor Saouma .51) yields Eij = 1 λ Tij − δij Tkk + α(Θ − Θ0 )δij 2µ 3λ + 2µ (7.5 Fourrier Law 7–17 where α is the linear coeﬃcient of thermal expansion.87) 7.22.1.86) and in terms of volumetric stress/strain: p = −Ke + β(Θ − Θ0 ) and e = p + 3α(Θ − Θ0 ) K (7. (Sect. 1−2ν Hence (7.85) Θ Tij = Eα 1 − 2ν 91 In terms of deviatoric stresses and strains we have Tij = 2µEij and Eij = Tij 2µ (7.22 to be zero in order that the stress vanish in the unstrained state. we required the constants c1 to c6 in Eq. 7. if we were to consider the derivation of the Green-elastic hyperelastic equations. 7. 7.. we suppose that βij is independent from the strain and cijrs independent of temperature change with respect to the natural state.84) which is identical to Eq. Finally. Inserting the preceding two equation into Hooke’s law (Eq. we would have ck = −βk (Θ − Θ0 ) for k = 1 to 6 and would have to add like terms to Eq.5 92 Fourrier Law Consider a solid through which there is a ﬂow q of heat (or some other quantity such as mass.5)..Draft 88 7. etc. 7. 89 If we invert this equation. for isotropic cases we obtain Tij = λEkk δij + 2µEij − βij (Θ − Θ0 )δij (7. we obtain the thermoelastic constitutive equation: Tij = λδij Ekk + 2µEij − (3λ + 2µ)αδij (Θ − Θ0 ) (7. 7. leading to 90 Tij = −βij (Θ − Θ0 ) + cijrs Ers (7.

Fick. ν).Draft 7–18 94 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. Darcy’s equation is only valid for laminar ﬂow. 7.88) q = qy ∂y ∂φ q z ∂z D is a three by three (symmetric) constitutive/conductivity matrix The conductivity can be either Isotropic 1 0 0 D = k 0 1 0 0 0 1 Anisotropic kxx kxy kxz D = kyx kyy kyz kzx kzy kzz Orthotropic kxx 0 0 D = 0 kyy 0 0 0 kzz (7.). τj = τj (s. or ion concentration) decreases (Fourrier. piezometric head. Part I LINEAR The direction of ﬂow is in the direction of maximum “potential” (temperature in this case. dρ ∂v + ρ ∂xii = 0 dt ∂Tij + ρbi = ρ dvi ∂xj dt du ρ dt = Tij Dij + ρr Continuity Equation Equation of motion − ∂qj ∂xj Coupled 1 3 1 6 3 2 16 Uncoupled 1 3 6 Energy equation T = λIE + 2µE Hooke’s Law q = −D∇φ Heat Equation (Fourrier) Θ = Θ(s.. Darcy. it would be appropriate to revisit our balance of equations and unknowns. ∂φ qx ∂x = −D ∂φ = −D∇φ (7.. but could be.90) (7.89) (7. ν) Equations of state Total number of equations and we repeat our list of unknowns 10 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .6 95 Updated Balance of Equations and Unknowns In light of the new equations introduced in this chapter.91) Note that for ﬂow through porous media.

96 ≥ r Θ 1 − ρ div which governs entropy Hence we now have as many equations as unknowns and are (almost) ready to pose and solve problems in continuum mechanics.Draft 7.6 Updated Balance of Equations and Unknowns 7–19 Coupled Density ρ 1 Velocity (or displacement) vi (ui ) 3 Stress components Tij 6 Heat ﬂux components qi 3 Speciﬁc internal energy u 1 Entropy density s 1 Absolute temperature Θ 1 Total number of unknowns 16 ds dt Uncoupled 1 3 6 10 q Θ and in addition the Clausius-Duhem inequality production must hold. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Draft 7–20 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS. Part I LINEAR Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

1-d) (8. this handout seeks to summarize the most fundamental relations which you should always remember. Hence. since the complexity of some of the derivation may have eclipsed the ﬁnal results. X3 X3 V3 σ33 t3 σ31 σ13 σ σ 11 t1 12 σ 32 σ 23 t2 σ 22 X2 V1 X1 V V2 X2 σ 21 (Components of a vector are scalars) X 1 Stresses as components of a traction vector (Components of a tensor of order 2 are vectors) Stress Vector/Tensor Strain Tensor ti = Tij nj ∗ Eij = (8. the reader may be at a loss as to what are the most important ones to remember.1-a) (8.1-b) 1 ∂ui ∂uj ∂uk ∂uk + − 2 ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj Engineering Strain Equilibrium 1 ε11 2 γ12 1 γ13 2 1 = 2 γ12 ε22 1 γ23 2 1 1 γ γ ε33 2 13 2 23 γ23 ≈ sin γ23 = sin(π/2 − θ) = cos θ = 2E23 ∂Tij dvi + ρbi = ρ ∂xj dt (8.1-e) .1-c) (8.Draft Chapter 8 INTERMEZZO In light of the lengthy and rigorous derivation of the fundamental equations of Continuum Mechanics in the preceding chapter.

1-k) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1-i) 0 0 0 (8.1-g) 0 0 0 0 0 1 G (8. σzz = 0 (8.1-h) σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τxz 0 0 0 1 G 0 0 0 0 1 G (8.Draft 8–2 INTERMEZZO Boundary Conditions Energy Potential Hooke’s Law Plane Stress Plane Strain Γ = Γu + Γt ∂W Tij = ∂Eij Tij = λδij Ekk + 2µEij 1 ν ν εxx −E −E E 1 ν ν εyy −E −E E ε 1 ν ν − −E E zz = E 0 γxy 0 0 γyz 0 0 0 γ 0 0 0 xz σzz = 0.1-j) (8.1-f) (8. εzz = 0 εzz = 0.

Draft Part II ELASTICITY/SOLID MECHANICS .

Draft .

we must note that: 1. or we know the traction and not the corresponding displacement.e. we must describe what is happening on the surface or boundary of the body.e.2 23 Boundary Conditions In describing the boundary conditions (B. We can never know both a priori. Equations relating the applied tractions and body forces to the stresses (3) ∂Tij ∂ 2 ui + ρbi = ρ 2 ∂Xj ∂t 6 Stress-Strain relations: (Hooke’s Law) T = λIE + 2µE (9. 6 stress components Tij . These extra conditions are called boundary conditions.1) 6 Geometric (kinematic) equations: i. and 6 strain components Eij . .).1 20 Preliminary Considerations All problems in elasticity require three basic components: 3 Equations of Motion (Equilibrium): i.C. Either we know the displacement but not the traction.Draft Chapter 9 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 9. Equations of geometry of deformation relating displacement to strain (6) 1 E∗ = (u∇x + ∇x u) 2 21 (9. 22 In addition to these equations which describe what is happening inside the body. 9.2) (9.3) Those 15 equations are written in terms of 15 unknowns: 3 displacement ui.

For example we can not apply tractions to the entire surface of the body.2. while traction boundary conditions are prescribed on the remainder. Fig. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 27 Victor Saouma . Mixed boundary conditions where displacement boundary conditions are prescribed on a part of the bounding surface. and displacement at another. 9. 24 Properly speciﬁed boundary conditions result in well-posed boundary value problems. Unless those tractions are specially prescribed. Not all boundary conditions speciﬁcations are acceptable. but also to properly deﬁne the appropriate boundary conditions. they may not necessarily satisfy equilibrium. Only the former can be solved. 25 Thus we have two types of boundary conditions in terms of known quantitites. ux . those are suumarized in Table 9.1: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems t Displacement boundary conditions along Γu with the three components of ui prescribed on the boundary. 26 Various terms have been associated with those boundary conditions in the litterature.1: Ω Τ Γu Figure 9. i. while improperly speciﬁed boundary conditions will result in ill-posed boundary value problem. Fig.Draft 9–2 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 2.e tn . Often time we take advantage of symmetry not only to simplify the problem. We note that at some points. traction may be speciﬁed in one direction. The displacement is decomposed into its cartesian (or curvilinear) components. i.e.1. Displacement and tractions can never be speciﬁed at the same point in the same direction. ts . The traction is decomposed into its normal and shear(s) components. 9. uy Traction boundary conditions along Γt with the three traction components ti = nj Tij prescribed at a boundary where the unit normal is n.

Γu Dirichlet Field Variable Essential Forced Geometric t.2 Boundary Conditions 9–3 u. Γt Neuman Derivative(s) of Field Variable Non-essential Natural Static Table 9.Draft 9.1: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity σ D C AB BC CD DE EA x y E A B Γu ux uy ? 0 ? ? ? ? 0 ? ? ? Γt tn ts ? 0 0 0 σ 0 ? 0 0 0 Note: Unknown tractions=Reactions Figure 9.2: Boundary Conditions in Elasticity Problems Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Hence.8) and is illustrated by Fig.3 28 Boundary Value Problem Formulation Hence. This is now a well posed problem.5) (9. ti : Γt Figure 9.3. Essential B.Draft 9–4 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 9.3: Fundamental Equations in Solid Mechanics 9.7) (9. 9.C. there are numerous methods to reformulate the problem in terms of fewer Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .C.4) (9. the boundary value formulation is suumarized by ∂ 2 ui ∂Tij + ρbi = ρ 2 in Ω ∂Xj ∂t 1 (u∇x + ∇x u) E∗ = 2 T = λIE + 2µE in Ω u = u in Γu t = t in Γt (9.6) (9. ui : Γu ❄ Body Forces bi Displacements ui ❄ Equilibrium ∂Tij ∂xj ❄ Kinematics E∗ = 1 (u 2 x + ρbi = ρ dvi dt Ö + Ö u) x ❄ Stresses Tij ❄ ✲ Constitutive Rel. T = λIE + 2µE ✛ Strain Eij ✻ Natural B.4 29 Compacted Forms Solving a boundary value problem with 15 unknowns through 15 equations is a formidable task.

Substituting ti = Tij nj and applying Ω Γ Gauss theorem.j ui + Tij ui.Draft unknows.1 30 9.5 32 Strain Energy and Extenal Work For the isotropic Hooke’s law.ij = − δij ρbp.16) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .j )dΩ (9.i ) (9.3 Ellipticity of Elasticity Problems 9.12) 1+ν 1−ν or 1 ν Tpp.2 31 Beltrami-Mitchell Equations Whereas Navier-Cauchy equation was expressed in terms of the gradient of the displacement. we can follow a similar approach and write a single equation in term of the gradient of the tractions. 9. ∇2 Tij + 1 ν Tpp.pp + (9. and the resulting equation into the equation of motion to obtain three second-order partial diﬀerential equations for the three displacement components known as Navier’s Equation (λ + µ) ∂ 2 uk ∂ 2 ui ∂ 2 ui +µ + ρbi = ρ 2 ∂Xi ∂Xk ∂Xk ∂Xk ∂t or ∂2u (λ + µ)∇(∇·u) + µ∇2 u + ρb = ρ 2 ∂t (9.14) Tij = ∂Eij 1 W = Tij Eij 2 (9. the second term becomes 33 Γ Tij nj uidΓ = Ω (Tij ui ).ij = − δij ∇·(ρb) − ρ(bi.j dΩ = Ω (Tij.10) (9.5 Strain Energy and Extenal Work 9–5 Navier-Cauchy Equations One such approach is to substitute the displacement-strain relation into Hooke’s law (resulting in stresses in terms of the gradient of the displacement).15) hence it follows that The external work done by a body in equilibrium under body forces bi and surface traction ti is equal to ρbi ui dΩ + ti ui dΓ.11) 9.j + bj.4.4.9) (9. Eq. homogeneous quadratic function of the strains such that.20 ∂W (9. 7.13) 1+ν 1−ν 9.j + bj.4. we saw that there always exist a strain energy function W which is positive-deﬁnite.i ) Tij.p − ρ(bi.

and this is only possible if Eij = 0 everywhere so that ∗ ∗ Eij = Eij ⇒ Tij = T ij (1) (2) (1) (2) (9.17) or Ω ρbi uidΩ + Γ ti ui dΓ = 2 External Work Tij Eij dΩ 2 Ω Internal Strain Energy (9. thus Ω ρbi ui dΩ + Γ ti uidΓ = Ω ρbi ui dΩ + Ω (Tij Eij − ρbi ui )dΩ (9.j = Tij (Eij + Ωij ) = Tij Eij and from equilibrium Tij.j = −ρbi . Hence. thus the integral can vanish if and only if u = 0 everywhere. thus Ω 36 = 0 on Γu . the eﬀects on the stress distribution in the body are negligible at points whose distance from Γ1 is large compared to the maximum distance between points of Γ1 . then Tij = Tij − Tij .19) hence. Γt . there can not be two diﬀerent stress and strain ﬁelds corresponding to the same externally imposed body forces and boundary conditions1 and satisfying the linearized elastostatic Eqs 9. the total strain energy is one half the work done by the external forces acting through their displacements ui . 35 Hence for this “diﬀerence” solution.18) that is For an elastic system. 1 This theorem is attributed to Kirchoﬀ (1858). ui . the principles of superposition may be used to obtain additional solutions from those established. if the boundary tractions on a part Γ1 of the boundary Γ are replaced by a statically equivalent traction distribution. 9. Eq. and Tij . given (1) (1) (2) (2) (2) (1) (2) (1) two sets of solution Tij .7 37 Saint Venant’s Principle This famous principle of Saint Venant was enunciated in 1855 and is of great importance in applied elasticity where it is often invoked to justify certain “simpliﬁed” solutions to complex problem. 9.6 34 Uniqueness of the Elastostatic Stress and Strain Field Because the equations of linear elasticity are linear equations.Draft 9–6 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY but Tij ui. 9. ui .3. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . In elastostatics.1. and ui = ui − = 0 on But u is positive-deﬁnite and continuous.14 and 9. and ui = ui − ui (2) (1) with bi = bi − bi = 0 must also be a solution.18 would yield (2) (1) Γ ti ui dΓ = 2 (2) u∗ dΩ but Ω (1) ui the left hand side is zero because ti = ti − ti u∗ dΩ = 0. 9.

We now rewrite some of the fundamental relations in cylindrical coordinate system.8 Cylindrical Coordinates 9–7 For instance the analysis of the problem in Fig. The last two were so far restricted to an othonormal cartesian coordinate system. dx t F=tdx Figure 9. pressurized cylinders. Fig. or engineering notation. as this would enable us to analytically solve some simple problems of great practical usefulness (torsion.8 39 Cylindrical Coordinates So far all equations have been written in either vector.4: St-Venant’s Principle 9..5. 9.. 40 z θ r Figure 9.4 can be greatly simpliﬁed if the tractions on Γ1 are replaced by a concentrated statically equivalent force. . indicial. 9. This is most often achieved by reducing the dimensionality of the problem from 3 to 2 or even to 1.).5: Cylindrical Coordinates Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 38 9.

20-b) substituting into the strain deﬁnition for εxx (for small displacements) we obtain (9. the y uθ θ θ uy P* ur P r θ Figure 9. and cos θ → 1. and cos θ → 0.23) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .21-b) (9.6: Polar Strains ux x displacements can be expressed in cartesian coordinates as ux .1 41 Strains With reference to Fig. ux = ur cos θ − uθ sin θ uy = ur sin θ + uθ cos θ ∂ux ∂ux ∂θ ∂ux ∂r = + ∂x ∂θ ∂x ∂r ∂x ∂uθ ∂ux ∂ur = cos θ − ur sin θ − sin θ − uθ cos θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂ur ∂uθ ∂ux = cos θ − sin θ ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂θ sin θ = − ∂x r ∂r = cos θ ∂x sin θ ∂ur ∂uθ εxx = − cos θ + ur sin θ + sin θ + uθ cos θ ∂θ ∂θ r ∂uθ ∂ur cos θ − sin θ cos θ + ∂r ∂r εxx = Noting that as θ → 0.21-c) (9.6.21-a) (9.20-a) (9.21-e) (9.Draft 9–8 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY 9. 9.22) Similarly. we consider the displacement of point P to P ∗ . sin θ → 0. uθ . Hence. Hence.21-f) ∂ur ∂r (9. we obtain εrr = εxx |θ→0 = 42 (9. uy . 1 ur εθθ = εxx |θ→π/2 = ∂uθ ∂θ + r r (9. sin θ → 1.8. εxx → εrr .21-d) (9. if θ → π/2. εxx → εθθ . or in polar coordinates as ur .

29) (9. 6. and with the addition of the z components (not explicitely derived).27) (9.8. we obtain εrr = εθθ = εzz = εrθ = εθz = εrz = 9. we may express εxy as a function of ur . its derivation (as mentioned) could have been obtained by equilibrium of forces considerations.24 was obtained from the linear momentum principle (without any reference to the notion of equilibrium of forces).Draft 9.7: Stresses in Polar Coordinates θ r r+dr r Tθ + δTθ d r r δr r Tθ + δTθ d θ r δθ Tr + δTr d r r r δr Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . This is the approach which we will follow for the polar coordinate system with respect to Fig. we obtain 1 ∂uθ uθ 1 ∂ur εxy |θ→0 = (9.26) (9. uθ and θ and noting that εxy → εrθ as θ → 0. 9. T T + δ θθ d θ θθ δθ Trr dθ fθ Tθ r T θθ fr Figure 9.8 Cylindrical Coordinates 9–9 ﬁnally.7.24) εrθ = − + 2 ∂r r r ∂θ 43 In summary.25) (9.30) Equilibrium Whereas the equilibrium equation as given In Eq.2 44 ∂ur ∂r 1 ∂uθ ur + r ∂θ r ∂uz ∂z 1 1 ∂ur ∂uθ ut heta + − 2 r ∂θ ∂r r 1 ∂uθ 1 ∂uz + 2 ∂z r ∂θ 1 ∂uz ∂ur + 2 ∂r ∂z (9.28) (9.

9. we obtain ∂Trr 1 ∂Tθr 1 + + (Trr − Tθθ ) + fr = 0 (9.32) Similarly we can take the summation of forces in the θ direction.36-c) Stress-Strain Relations In orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.36-a) (9.40) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .8.31-b) we approximate sin(dθ/2) by dθ/2 and cos(dθ/2) by unity. ∂Trr dr 1 Trr + 1+ r ∂r r 46 − Tθθ ∂Tθθ dθ 1 ∂Tθr − + + fr = 0 r ∂θ dr r ∂θ (9.38) (9.37) (9.Draft 9–10 45 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY Summation of forces parallel to the radial direction through the center of the element with unit thickness in the z direction yields: ∂Trr dr (r + dr)dθ − Trr (rdθ) ∂r ∂Tθθ dθ + Tθθ dr sin − Tθθ + ∂θ 2 ∂Tθr dθ + Tθr + dθ − Tθr dr cos + fr rdrdθ = 0 ∂θ 2 Trr + (9.36-b) (9.34) ∂r r ∂θ r 47 It is often necessary to express cartesian stresses in terms of polar stresses and vice versa.3 48 (9. and cos2 θ = 1/2(1 + cos 2θ)). This can be done through the following relationships Txx Txy Txy Tyy = cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ Trr Trθ Trθ Tθθ cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ T (9.33) ∂r r ∂θ r ∂Trθ 1 ∂Tθθ 1 + + (Trθ − Tθr ) + fθ = 0 (9. Hence.39) (9. the physical components of a tensor at a point are merely the Cartesian components in a local coordinate system at the point with its axes tangent to the coordinate curves.31-a) (9. divide through by rdrdθ.35) yielding Txx = Trr cos2 θ + Tθθ sin2 θ − Trθ sin 2θ Tyy = Trr sin2 θ + Tθθ cos2 θ + Trθ sin 2θ Txy = (Trr − Tθθ ) sin θ cos θ + Trθ (cos2 θ − sin2 θ) (recalling that sin2 θ = 1/2 sin 2θ. In both cases if we were to drop the dr/r and dθ/r in the limit. Trr Tθθ Trθ Tzz = = = = λe + 2µεrr λe + 2µεθθ 2µεrθ ν(Trr + Tθθ ) (9.

44) Plane Strain For Plane strain problems.2 51 εrr 1 − ν2 −ν(1 + ν) 0 2 0 −ν(1 + ν) 1−ν ν ν 0 0 0 2(1 + ν σrr σθθ σzz τrθ (9.8. 7.Draft 9.75: σrr σθθ σzz τrθ = E (1 + ν)(1 − 2ν) (1 − ν) ν ν (1 − ν) ν ν 0 0 0 0 0 1−2ν 2 εrr εθθ γrθ (9. from Eq.8.41) (9. Err = Eθθ Erθ Erz 9. from Eq.1 49 1 (1 − ν 2 )Trr − ν(1 + ν)Tθθ E 1 = (1 − ν 2 )Tθθ − ν(1 + ν)Trr E 1+ν Trθ = E = Eθz = Ezz = 0 (9.8 Cylindrical Coordinates 9–11 with e = εrr + εθθ .78-a εrr σrr 1 ν 0 E σθθ ν 1 0 εθθ = 1 − ν 2 0 0 1−ν γ τ rθ rθ 2 1 ν(εrr + εθθ ) εzz = − 1−ν (9.43) (9.48-a) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . alternatively.47-b) and τrz = τθz = σzz = γrz = γθz = 0 52 Inverting εrr ε θθ γ rθ σrr 1 −ν 0 1 1 0 σ = −ν θθ E 0 0 2(1 + ν) τrθ (9.3. 1 ε = θθ E γ rθ 9. 50 Inverting. 7.47-a) (9.45) and εzz = γrz = γθz = τrz = τθz = 0.3.42) (9.46) Plane Stress For plane stress problems.

Draft 9–12 BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS in ELASTICITY Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Hence. the displacement ﬁeld will be given by: 26 u = (θe1 )×r = (θe1 )×(x1 e1 + x2 e2 + x3 e3 ) = θ(x2 e3 − x3 e2 ) or u1 = 0. we have succeeded in obtaining the solution to the problem.2) . c) Variational methods (which will be covered in subsequent chapters). hence it is often referred to as the Saint-Venant semi-inverse method. If the assumptions allow us to satisfy the elasticity equations. Hooke’s Law and boundary conditions.1) (10.1. From symmetry. Example: Torsion of a Circular Cylinder 23 24 10. b) Complex function method of Muskhelisvili (most useful in problems with stress concentration). and e) Airy stress functions. u3 = θx2 (10.1 22 Semi-Inverse Method Often a solution to an elasticity problem may be obtained without seeking simulateneous solutions to the equations of motion. One may attempt to seek solutions by making certain assumptions or guesses about the components of strain stress or displacement while leaving enough freedom in these assumptions so that the equations of elasticity be satisﬁed. 10. then by the uniqueness theorem. it is reasonable to assume that the motion of each cross-sectional plane is a rigid body rotation about the x1 axis. This method was employed by Saint-Venant in his treatment of the torsion problem. d) Semi-inverse methods. Fig. Those include: a) Finite-diﬀerence approximation of the diﬀerential equation.Draft Chapter 10 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS 20 Practical solutions of two-dimensional boundary-value problem in simply connected regions can be accomplished by numerous techniques.1. for a small rotation angle θ.1 25 Let us consider the elastic deformation of a cylindrical bar with circular cross section of radius a and length L twisted by equal and opposite end moments M1 . Only the last two methods will be discussed in this chapter. 21 10. u2 = −θx3 .

5-a) (10. whereas the other two yield 29 −µx3 d2 θ = 0 dx2 1 d2 θ µx2 2 = 0 dx1 (10.3-c) 28 We need to check that this state of stress satisﬁes equilibrium ∂Tij /∂xj = 0. dθ ≡ θ = constant (10. this means that equilibrium is only satisﬁed if the increment in angular rotation (twist per unit length) is a constant.4-b) (10.6) dx1 Physically.Draft 10–2 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS X2 MT n θ a n X1 MT X3 L Figure 10. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1: Torsion of a Circular Bar where θ = θ(x1 ).5-b) thus. The ﬁrst one j = 1 is identically satisﬁed.3-b) (10.3-a) (10. 27 The corresponding strains are given by E11 = E22 = E33 = 0 1 ∂θ E12 = − x3 2 ∂x1 1 ∂θ x2 E13 = 2 ∂x1 The non zero stress components are obtained from Hooke’s law T12 = −µx3 T13 ∂θ ∂x1 ∂θ = µx2 ∂x1 (10.4-a) (10.

2 10.9) this distribution of surface traction on the end face gives rise to the following resultants R1 = R2 = R3 = M1 = T11 dA = 0 T21 dA = µθ T31 dA = µθ x3 dA = 0 x2 dA = 0 (x2 + x2 )dA = µθ J 2 3 (10.8) a which is in agreement with the fact that the bar is twisted by end moments only. and we also note that x2 dA = x3 dA = 0 because the area is symmetric with respect to the axes. t= 32 Substituting.7) µ (−x2 x3 θ + x2 x3 θ )e1 = 0 (10.10-b) (10. 34 Finally. the lateral surface is traction free. Plane Strain If the deformation of a cylindrical body is such that there is no axial components of the displacement and that the other components do not depend on the axial coordinate. On the face x1 = L. On the lateral surface we have 1 a unit normal vector n = a (x2 e2 + x3 e3 ).2 Airy Stress Functions 10–3 We next determine the corresponding surface tractions.10-c) (10.2. in terms of the twisting couple M.1 35 Airy Stress Functions Cartesian Coordinates.Draft 30 10. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . 33 From the last equation we note that θ = M (10.10-a) (10. the stress tensor becomes 0 M x2 J [T] = − MJx3 − MJx3 0 0 M x2 J 0 0 (10. we have a unit normal n = e1 and a surface traction t = Te1 = T21 e2 + T31 e3 (10.12) 10.11) µJ which implies that the shear modulus µ can be determined froma simple torsion experiment. therefore the surface traction on the lateral surface is given by x T 0 T12 T13 0 1 1 2 12 0 x2 = 0 {t} = [T]{n} = T21 0 a T a 0 x 0 0 31 3 31 (10.10-d) (10.10-e) (x2 T31 − x3 T21 )dA = µθ M2 = M3 = 0 We note that (x2 + x3 )2 dA is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section and 2 3 is equal to J = πa4 /2.

14-d) and the non-zero stress components are T11 .17) (10.Draft 10–4 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS then the body is said to be in a state of plane strain.15) Considering a static stress ﬁeld with no body forces. u2 = u2 (x1 . u3 = 0 (10.e.e.19) then the ﬁrst two equations of equilibrium are automatically satisﬁed. the last equation is always satisﬁed.18) (10. 38 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . if stress components determined this way are statically admissible (i.16-a) (10.14-c) (10.13) and the strain components corresponding to those displacements are E11 = E22 E12 E13 ∂u1 ∂x1 ∂u2 = ∂x2 1 ∂u1 ∂u2 = + 2 ∂x2 ∂x1 = E23 = E33 = 0 (10. x2 ). If e3 is the direction corresponding to the cylindrical axis. (10. T33 where T33 = ν(T11 + T22 ) 36 (10. they are not necessarily kinematically admissible (i. This function Φ is called Airy stress function. they satisfy equilibrium). if we compute the stress components from T11 T22 T12 ∂2Φ = ∂x2 2 2 ∂ Φ = ∂x2 1 ∂2Φ = − ∂x1 ∂x2 (10. the equilibrium equations reduce to: ∂T11 ∂T12 + = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂T12 ∂T22 + = 0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂T33 =0 ∂x1 we note that since T33 = T33 (x1 . satisfy compatibility equations). T22 . it can be easily veriﬁed that for any arbitrary scalar variable Φ. T12 . x2 ).14-b) (10.14-a) (10. x2 ).16-c) 37 Hence.16-b) (10. However. then we have u1 = u1 (x1 .

E11 E22 E12 2 1 1 ∂2Φ 2 2 ∂ Φ = (1 − ν )T11 − ν(1 + ν)T22 = (1 − ν ) 2 − ν(1 + ν) 2 (10.25) 43 The stresses will be given by ∞ ∞ Txx = m=0 n=2 ∞ ∞ n(n − 1)Cmn xm y n−2 m(m − 1)Cmn xm−1 y n mnCmn xm−1 y n−1 (10.23).Draft 39 10. 10.20-a) E E ∂x2 ∂x1 1 1 ∂2Φ ∂2Φ = (1 − ν 2 )T22 − ν(1 + ν)T11 = (1 − ν 2 ) 2 − ν(1 + ν) 2 (10.26-a) (10.159.26-b) (10. that is not automatically satisﬁed is ∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12 + =2 (10.21.15. Eq. A systematic way of selecting coeﬃcients begins with ∞ ∞ Φ= m=0 n=0 Cmn xm y n (10. 10.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–5 To ensure compatibility of the strain components.1 and Eq. 4.21) ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1 ∂x2 2 1 thus we obtain the following equation governing the scalar function Φ 40 ∂4Φ ∂4Φ ∂4Φ (1 − ν) +2 2 2 + ∂x4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x4 1 1 or =0 (10.23) Hence. 5. any function which satisﬁes the preceding equation will satisfy both equilibrium and kinematic and is thus an acceptable elasticity solution.22) ∂4Φ ∂4Φ ∂4Φ +2 2 2 + = 0 or ∇4 Φ = 0 ∂x4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x4 1 1 (10. 41 We can also obtain from the Hooke’s law. the compatibility equation 10.26-c) Tyy = Txy = − Victor Saouma m=2 n=0 ∞ ∞ m=1 n=1 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . the only compatibility equation.24) 42 Any polynomial of degree three or less in x and y satisﬁes the biharmonic equation (Eq.20-b) E E ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂2Φ 1 1 (1 + ν)T12 = − (1 + ν) = (10. and the equilibrium equations the following ∂2 ∂2 + 2 (T11 + T22 ) = 0 or ∇2 (T11 + T22 ) = 0 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 (10. we obtain the strains components in terms of Φ from Hooke’s law.20-c) E E ∂x1 ∂x2 For plane strain problems.

32-c) These can be used for the end-loaded cantilever beam with width b along the z axis.28) Hence.1.33-a) (10.33-b) (10. 46 The stresses are obtained from Eq. the recursion relation establishes relationships among groups of three alternate coeﬃcients which can be selected from m=2 n=2 0 0 C20 C30 C40 C50 C60 0 C11 C21 C31 C41 C51 C02 C12 C22 C32 C42 ··· C03 C13 C23 C33 ··· C04 C14 C24 ··· C05 C06 · · · C15 · · · ··· (10. depth 2a and length L. then (4)(3)(2)(1)C40 + (2)(2)(1)(2)(1)C22 + (4)(3)(2)(1)C04 = 0 or 3C40 + C22 + 3C04 = 0 10.Draft 10–6 44 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS Substituting into Eq. 10.n−2 +2m(m−1)n(n−1)Cmn +(n+2)(n+1)n(n−1)Cm−2.33-c) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .23 and regrouping we obtain ∞ ∞ [(m+2)(m+1)m(m−1)Cm+2.27) but since the equation must be identically satisﬁed for all x and y.26-c Txx = 2C22 x2 + 6C13 xy + 12C04 y 2 Tyy = 12C40 x2 + 6C31 xy + 2C22 y 2 Txy = −3C31 x2 − 4C22 xy − 3C13 y 2 (10. then Txx = 6C13 xy Tyy = 0 Txy = −3C13 y 2 (10.31) with 3C40 + C22 + 3C04 = 0.32-b) (10.32-a) (10. 10.2.n−2 +2m(m−1)n(n−1)Cmn +(n+2)(n+1)n(n−1)Cm−2.1 45 (10.n+2 = 0 (10.26-a-10. the term in bracket must be equal to zero. 47 If all coeﬃcients except C13 are taken to be zero. (m+2)(m+1)m(m−1)Cm+2.n+2 ]xm−2 y n−2 = (10.30) Example: Cantilever Beam We consider the homogeneous fourth-degree polynomial Φ4 = C40 x4 + C31 x3 y + C22 x2 y 2 + C13 xy 3 + C04 y 4 (10.29) ··· For example if we consider m = n = 2.

37-b) (10.Draft 48 10. the strain components in plane strain are.35) hence and the solution is Φ = Txx Txy Tyy (10.2 10.2. but also a uniform shear traction Txy = −3C13 a2 on top and bottom.38-a) (10. 9.39-a) (10.34) The constant C13 is determined by requiring that P =b a −a −Txy dy = −3bC13 C13 = − P 4a3 b a −a (a2 − y 2)dy (10.38-c) (10.36) P 3P xy − 3 xy 3 4ab 4a b 3P = − 3 xy 2a b 3P = − 3 (a2 − y 2) 4a b = 0 (10. 49 (10.2. hence this solution agrees with the elementary beam theory solution Φ = C11 xy + C13 xy 3 = Txx Txy Tyy P 3P xy − 3 xy 3 4ab 4a b P y M = − xy = −M = − I I S P 2 = − (a − y 2 ) 2I = 0 (10.1 51 Polar Coordinates Plane Strain Formulation In polar coordinates.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–7 This will give a parabolic shear traction on the loaded end (correct). These can be removed by superposing uniform shear stress Txy = +3C13 a2 corresponding to Φ2 = −3C13 a2 xy.37-a) (10.37-d) 50 We observe that the second moment of area for the rectangular cross section is I = b(2a)3 /12 = 2a3 b/3.39-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .37-c) (10.46 Err = Eθθ 1 (1 − ν 2 )Trr − ν(1 + ν)Tθθ E 1 = (1 − ν 2 )Tθθ − ν(1 + ν)Trr E (10.38-b) (10. and C11 = −3C13 a2 . Eq.2. Thus Txy = 3C13 (a2 − y 2 ) note that C20 = C02 = 0.38-d) 10.

43) In order to satisfy the compatibility conditions.46) 55 10.40-a) (10.2.48) 57 The general solution to this problem. the Laplacian operator takes the following form 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + 2 2 (10. therefore T11 + T22 = Trr + Tθθ = 1 ∂2Φ ∂2Φ 1 ∂Φ + 2 2 + 2 r ∂r r ∂θ ∂r (10.39-d) and the equations of equilibrium are 1 ∂Trr 1 ∂Tθr Tθθ + − = 0 r ∂r r ∂θ r 1 ∂Trθ 1 ∂Tθθ + = 0 r 2 ∂r r ∂θ 52 (10.40-b) Again.47) and 1 d2 Φ 1 dΦ d4 Φ 2 d3 Φ + − 2 2 + 3 =0 4 3 dr r dr r dr r dr (10.45) ∇2 = 2 + ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ Thus. using Mathematica: Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .42) (10. dr 2 Trθ = 0 (10.2. it can be easily veriﬁed that the equations of equilibrium are identically satisﬁed 1 ∂Φ 1 ∂2Φ + 2 2 r ∂r r ∂θ 2 ∂ Φ = ∂r 2 ∂ 1 ∂Φ = − ∂r r ∂θ if Trr = Tθθ Trθ 53 (10. we note that T11 + T22 is the ﬁrst scalar invariant of the stress tensor. we have Trr = 1 dΦ .39-c) (10.24.44) 54 We also note that in cylindrical coordinates.Draft 10–8 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS Erθ = Erz 1+ν Trθ E = Eθz = Ezz = 0 (10. 10. To derive the equivalent expression in cylindrical coordinates.41) (10. the cartesian stress components must also satisfy Eq. r dr Tθθ = d2 Φ .2 56 Axially Symmetric Case If Φ is a function of r only. the function Φ must satisfy the biharmonic equation 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 + + 2 2 ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 + + 2 2 ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ = 0 or ∇4 = 0 (10.

10.8.56) (10.2.r] Φ = A ln r + Br 2 ln r + Cr 2 + D The corresponding stress ﬁeld is Trr = Tθθ Trθ A + B(1 + 2 ln r) + 2C r2 A = − 2 + B(3 + 2 ln r) + 2C r = 0 (10.58-b) 61 These Boundary conditions can be easily shown to be satisﬁed by the following stress ﬁeld Trr = Tθθ Trθ A + 2C r2 A = − 2 + 2C r = 0 (10. 9.2.1) 1 (1 + ν)A ∂ur = + (1 − 3ν − 4ν 2 )B + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )B ln r + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )C 2 ∂r E r 1 1 ∂uθ ur (1 + ν)A + = = − + (3 − ν − 4ν 2 )B + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )B ln r + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )C r ∂θ r E r2 = 0 Err = Eθθ Erθ 59 (10 (10 (10 Finally.52) (10.Draft 58 10.59-c) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .58-a) (10.49) and the strain components are (from Sect.2. subjected to internal and external pressures pi and po respectively.50) (10. the displacement components can be obtained by integrating the above equations 1 (1 + ν)A − − (1 + ν)Br + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )r ln rB + 2(1 − ν − 2ν 2 )rC E r 4rθB (1 − ν 2 ) = E Example: Thick-Walled Cylinder ur = uθ (10. Fig.59-a) (10.51) (10.59-b) (10.57) 10.phi[r].3 60 If we consider a circular cylinder with internal and external radii a and b respectively. then the boundary conditions for the plane strain problem are Trr = −pi at r = a Trr = −po at r = b (10.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–9 DSolve[phi’’’’[r]+2 phi’’’[r]/r-phi’’[r]/r^2+phi’[r]/r^3==0.

then the strains are given by Eq.60) (10. 10. then uθ = 4rθB (1 − ν 2 ) and this is not acceptable E because if we were to start at θ = 0 and trace a curve around the origin and return to the same point.51 and 10. 10.63-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2: Pressurized Thick Tube These equations are taken from Eq.62) 64 We note that if only the internal pressure pi is acting.63-a) (10. and Tθθ is always positive.54 and 10. then the strains will be given by Err = Eθθ 1 du = (Trr − νTθθ ) dr E 1 u = (Tθθ − νTrr ) = r E (10.52 with B = 0 and therefore represent a possible state of stress for the plane strain problem. than θ = 2π and the displacement would then be diﬀerent. then Trr is always a compressive stress. 65 If the cylinder is thick. 10.55. For a very thin cylinder in the axial direction. We note that if we take B = 0.53.50.61) (10.Draft 10–10 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS Saint Venant po a p i b Figure 10. 10. 62 63 Applying the boundary condition we ﬁnd that Trr = −pi Tθθ Trθ (b2 /r 2 ) − 1 1 − (a2 /r 2 ) − p0 (b2 /a2 ) − 1 1 − (a2 /b2 ) (b2 /r 2 ) + 1 1 + (a2 /r 2 ) − p0 = pi 2 2 (b /a ) − 1 1 − (a2 /b2 ) = 0 (10.

Alternatively. away from the hole.63-d) It should be noted that applying Saint-Venant’s principle the above solution is only valid away from the ends of the cylinder. Fig. 10.2. p i po a i ao Figure 10.2.3.65) Recalling (Eq. 10. 70 The peculiarity of this problem is that the far-ﬁeld boundary conditions are better expressed in cartesian coordinates. and subjected to internal and external pressures of pi and po . From St Venant principle. uθ = uφ = 0 (10. this would would suggest a stress function Φ of the form Φ = σ0 y 2 .23). φ).2 Airy Stress Functions 10–11 Ezz = Erθ ν dw = (Trr + Tθθ ) dz E (1 + ν) Trθ = E (10. and the far-ﬁeld boundary conditions.19) that Txx = ∂y2 .4. θ.4 67 We consider next a hollow sphere with internal and xternal radii ai and ao respectively. 10.64) 10. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . that is ur = ur (r). ∂2Φ 71 Tyy = Txy = 0 (10. Example: Hollow Sphere 10.2. the boundary conditions are given by: Txx = σ0 .5 69 Example: Stress Concentration due to a Circular Hole in a Plate Analysing the inﬁnite plate under uniform tension with a circular hole of diameter a. Fig. it is clear due to the spherical symmetry of the geometry and the loading that each particle of the elastic sphere will expereince only a radial displacement whose magnitude depends on r only. substituting y = r sin θ would result in Φ = σ0 r 2 sin2 θ.63-c) (10. Thus.Draft 66 10. whereas the ones around the hole should be written in polar coordinate system.3: Pressurized Hollow Sphere 68 With respect to the spherical ccordinates (r. and subjected to a uniform stress σ0 . 10. First we select a stress function which satisﬁes the biharmonic Equation (Eq. the presence of the circular hole would suggest a polar representation of Φ.2.

We will identify two sets of boundary conditions: 1. the stresses in polar coordinates are obtained from Eq.69) Using Eq.68) thus the stress function becomes Φ = Ar 2 + Br 4 + C 1 + D cos 2θ r2 (10.46) yields 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂ + 2 2 + ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ d2 1 d − + dr 2 r dr 1 ∂2Φ ∂ 2 Φ 1 ∂Φ + 2 2 + ∂r 2 r ∂r r ∂θ 2 4 4f d f 1 df − 2 + r2 dr 2 r dr r = 0 = 0 (10. we could simplify the stress function into 2 Φ = f (r) cos 2θ (10.66) Substituting this function into the biharmonic equation (Eq.71) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .35 Trr Trθ Trθ Tθθ = cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ σ0 0 0 0 cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ T (10.67-b) 73 The general solution of this ordinary linear fourth order diﬀerential equation is f (r) = Ar 2 + Br 4 + C 1 +D r2 (10.70-a) (10. Outer boundaries: around an inﬁnitely large circle of radius b inside a plate subjected to uniform stress σ0 .4: Circular Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate 72 Since sin2 θ = 1 (1 − cos 2θ). the stresses are given by Trr = Tθθ Trθ 1 ∂2Φ 1 ∂Φ 6C 4D + 2 2 = − 2A + 4 + 2 cos 2θ r ∂r r ∂θ r r ∂2Φ 6C = = 2A + 12Br 2 + 4 cos 2θ ∂r 2 r ∂ 1 ∂Φ 6C 2D = − = 2A + 6Br 2 − 4 − 2 sin 2θ ∂r r ∂θ r r (10.70-b) (10. 9.Draft 10–12 b σo a SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS y τr θ σrr σrr b σo x a b a σrr τ rθ θ θ θ I II Figure 10. 10. 10.67-a) (10.43.70-c) 74 Next we seek to solve for the four constants of integration by applying the boundary conditions.41-10.

into state I and II: 1 σ0 (10.72-b.72-b) σ0 sin 2θ 2 σ0 (Tθθ )r=b = (1 − cos 2θ) (10. 10.2 Airy Stress Functions 10–13 yielding (recalling that sin2 θ = 1/2 sin 2θ.73-c.74-b) become 6C b4 6C 2A + 6Bb2 − 4 b 6C − 2A + 4 a 6C 2A + 6Ba2 − 4 a − 2A + 4D b2 2D − 2 b 4D + 2 a 2D − 2 a + a b 1 σ0 2 1 = σ0 2 = = 0 = 0 (10.73-a) 2 (Trθ )I (10.73-c) σ0 cos 2θ r=b 2 1 (Trθ )II = σ0 sin 2θ (10. and taking A=− σ0 . 1 (10. we must superimpose the one of a thick cylinder subjected to a uniform radial traction σ0 /2 on the outer surface.75-d) 76 Solving for the four unknowns. = 0 (i. only the last two equations will provide us with boundary conditions. (Trr )I r=b = 2.72-c) 2 For reasons which will become apparent later. 10.74-a) (10. 4 D= a2 σ0 2 (10.72-a) (Trr )r=b = σ0 cos2 θ = σ0 (1 + cos 2θ) 2 1 (Trθ )r=b = (10. we obtain: a4 σ0 . 10. 10. and 10.76) C=− 77 To this solution. an inﬁnite plate).74-a. Around the hole: the stresses should be equal to zero: (Trr )r=a = 0 (Trθ )r=a = 0 (10.72-a and 10.70-a the four boundary conditions (Eq. it is more convenient to decompose the state of stress given by Eq.73-b) r=b = 0 1 (Trr )II = (10. 10.74-b) 75 Upon substitution in Eq.75-b) (10. and cos2 θ = 1/2(1 + cos 2θ)).e. This problem has already been previously solved.75-c) (10. These Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . 4 B = 0.Draft 10.73-d.73-d) r=b 2 Where state I corresponds to a thick cylinder with external pressure applied on r = b and of magnitude σ0 /2. Hence.75-a) (10. and with b much greater than a.

10. 10.78-a) (10. both Trr and Trθ are equal to the values given in Eq. at the edge of the hole when r = a we obtain Trr = Trθ = 0 and (Tθθ )r=a = σ0 (1 − 2 cos 2θ) (10.78-b) (10.72-b respectively.61 yielding for this problem (carefull about the sign) Trr = Tθθ σ0 a2 1− 2 2 r σ0 a2 = 1+ 2 2 r (10.79) which for θ = π and 2 θ = π. 10.72-a and 10.60 and 10.77-a) (10.77-b) Thus.78-c) 78 We observe that as r → ∞. we obtain Trr = Tθθ Trθ σ0 a2 a4 4a2 1 1− 2 + 1+3 4 − 2 σ0 cos 2θ 2 r r r 2 σ0 a2 3a4 1 σ0 cos 2θ = 1+ 2 − 1+ 4 2 r r 2 3a4 2a2 1 = − 1− 4 + 2 σ0 sin 2θ r r 2 (10. For θ = 0 and Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .70-a.Draft 10–14 SOME ELASTICITY PROBLEMS stresses were derived in Eqs. upon substitution into Eq. 3π 2 gives a stress concentration factor (SCF) of 3. Tθθ = −σ0 . 79 Alternatively.

e a crack there is an inﬁnite stress. we recover the stress concentration factor of 3 of a circular hole. Following a similar approach (though with curvilinear coordinates). ??.Draft Chapter 11 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS This chapter (taken from the author’s lecture notes in Fracture Mechanics) is of primary interest to students in Material Science. Alternatively.1: Elliptical Hole in an Inﬁnite Plate . Fig. and that for a degenerated ellipse. we would have (σββ )β=0.π = σ0 1 + 2 α=α0 a b (11. i. x2 σο α = αo x 2b 1 2a σο Figure 11. it can be shown that if we have an elliptical hole. we do have a stress concentration factor of 3. 11. ?? we showed that around a circular hole in an inﬁnite plate under uniform traction.1) 21 We observe that for a = b.1 20 Introduction In Eq.

000 psi.000 in. we note that the stress concentration factor is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature of an opening. So Griﬃth was confronted with two questions: 1. In the limit.600. 25 Clearly. What is this apparent theoretical strength. Griﬃth was exploring the theoretical strength of solids by performing a series of experiments on glass rods of various diameters. or a stress singularity. 22 This equation. 23 Around 1920.2: Griﬃth’s Experiments the stress can be expressed in terms of ρ. and the stress concentration factor increase as the ratio a/b increases.π = σ0 1 + 2 α=α0 a ρ (11. Why is there a size eﬀect for the actual strength? Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . can it be derived? 2. shows that if a = b we recover the factor of 3. as b = 0 we would have a crack resulting in an inﬁnite stress concentration factor. 000 psi. 24 Area A1 < A2 < A3 < A4 Failure Load P1 < P2 < P3 > P4 t t t t Failure Strength (P/A) σ1 > σ2 > σ3 > σ4 (11. furthermore.000 psi. by extrapolation to “zero” diameter he obtained a theoretical maximum strength of approximately 1. as the diameter was further reduced. the radius of curvature of the ellipse. yet it was not. Fig. the failure strength asymptotically approached a limit which will be shown later to be the theoretical strength of glass. derived by Inglis. one would have expected the failure strength to be constant.2) From this equation. He observed that the tensile strength (σ t ) of glass decreased with an increase in diam1 eter.2. and that for a diameter φ ≈ 10. and on the other hand for very large diameters the asymptotic values was around 25. 11.. (σββ )β=0.3) Furthermore.Draft 11–2 Strength (P/A) THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS Theoretical Strength Diameter Figure 11. σt = 500.

1.2 27 Theoretical Strength We start. and diamonds are approximately . When the surface of a liquid is extended (soap bubble. we have F = dU .077. and in the next section the strength will be expressed in terms of engineering ones. 26 In the next sections we will show that the theoretical strength is related to the force needed to break a bond linking adjacent atoms. Surface energy γ is expressed in J/m2 and the surface energies of water. insect walking on liquid) work is done against this tension. and that the size eﬀect is caused by the size of imperfections inside a solid.1 28 Ideal Strength in Terms of Physical Parameters We shall ﬁrst derive an expression for the ideal strength in terms of physical parameters. and energy is stored in the new surface. 11. the slope of the force displacement curve is the stiﬀness of the atomic spring and should x be related to E. 11. If we let x = a − a0 . the chemical bonds are stronger than for liquids.3: Uniformly Stressed Layer of Atoms Separated by a0 The answers to those two questions are essential to establish a link between Mechanics and Materials. 11. The reason why we do not notice it is that solids are too rigid to be distorted by it.4.2 Theoretical Strength 11–3 Figure 11. Solution I: Force being the derivative of energy. Hence.0. When insects walk on water it sinks until the surface energy just balances the decrease in its potential energy. most solids. [?] by exploring the energy of interaction between two adjacent atoms at equilibrium separated by a distance a0 .3. 1 From watching raindrops and bubbles it is obvious that liquid water has surface tension. The total energy which must be supplied to separate atom C from C’ is U0 = 2γ (11.Draft 11.2. and the factor of 2 is due to the fact that upon separation. hence the surface energy is stronger. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and is maximum at the inﬂection point of the U0 − a curve. then the strain would be equal to ε = a0 . 11.4) where γ is the surface energy1 .14 respectively. Fig. For solids. and 5. we have two distinct surfaces. thus F = 0 at a = a0 . da Fig.

5.11) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .5) λ theor and the maximum stress σmax would occur at x = λ .Draft 11–4 Energy THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS a 0 Interatomic Distance Force Repulsion Attraction Interatomic Distance Figure 11. 11. 11.4. and from Eq. From this diagram.4: Energy and Force Binding Two Adjacent Atoms F Furthermore.9) Also for very small displacements (small x) sin x ≈ x. it would appear that the sine curve would be an adequate approximation to this relationship. theor σmax ≈ (11.6) (11. then the σ − ε curve will be as shown 0 in Fig. if we deﬁne the stress as σ = a2 . we would have 2γ = U0 = x dx λ 0 2πx λ λ theor 2 σmax [− cos ( )] |0 = 2π λ theor σmax sin 2π −1 1 λ 2 (11. Hence. 11. thus Eq. The energy required to 4 separate two atoms is thus given by the area under the sine curve. x theor σ = σmax sin 2π (11.7) λ theor 2πλ σmax [− cos ( ) + cos(0)] = 2π 2λ 2γπ ⇒λ = theor σmax Ex 2πx ≈ λ a0 E λ a0 2π (11.10) elliminating x.8) (11.5 reduces to theor σ ≈ σmax (11.

5: Stress Strain Relation at the Atomic Level Substituting for λ from Eq. since this is seldom the case. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .13) If γ is the surface energy of the solid per unit area.Draft 11.14) which is the same as Equation 11. and a0 ≈ 2 × 10−10 m. the strain energy per unit area due to σ (for linear elastic systems) is U = 1 σεao 2 σ = Eε U= σ 2 ao 2E (11. then the total surface energy of two new fracture surfaces is 2γ.12 we would have: theor σmax ≈ (2 × 1011 )(1) 2 × 10−10 N ≈ 3.2 Theoretical Strength 11–5 Figure 11. we can simplify this approximation to: theor σmax = Eγ a0 (11. For our theoretical strength.9.16 × 1010 2 m E ≈ 6 (11.17) Thus this would be the ideal theoretical strength of steel. Thus from Eq. 11. E = 2 × 1011 m2 .12 Example: As an example.12) Solution II: For two layers of atoms a0 apart. U = 2γ ⇒ theor (σmax )2 a0 2E theor = 2γ or σmax = 2 γE a0 Note that here we have assumed that the material obeys Hooke’s Law up to failure. 11.15) (11. we get theor σmax ≈ Eγ a0 (11.16) (11. let us consider steel which has the following properties: γ = J N 1 m2 .

3 32 Size Eﬀect. 11.2 theor act σmax = σcr 1 + 2 33 a ρ (11. Griﬃth Theory In his quest for an explanation of the size eﬀect.Draft 11–6 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS 11. assuming an elliptical imperfection.19) Combining those two equations will give γ≈ 31 (11.21) This equation. Hence. and from equation 11.22) which is an approximate expression for the theoretical maximum strength in terms of E.12 will ﬁnally give E theor σmax ≈ √ 10 (11.20) However. and accordingly the far-ﬁeld applied stress will be much smaller.2 29 Ideal Strength in Terms of Engineering Parameter We note that the force to separate two atoms drops to zero when the distance between them is a0 + a where a0 corresponds to the origin and a to λ .9 with λ = 2a gives γπ a ≈ theor σmax E a0 a π 2 (11.23) act σ is the stress at the tip of the ellipse which is caused by a (lower) far ﬁeld stress σcr .2. combined with Eq.18) 30 Alternatively combining Eq. if we take a = λ or 2 2 λ = 2a. combined with Eq. Thus. Griﬃth postulated that the theoretical strength can only be reached at the point of highest stress concentration. 11. a 1. 11. 11. and his “strike of genius” was to assume that strength is reduced due to the presence of internal ﬂaws. since as a ﬁrst order approximation a ≈ a0 then the surface energy will be γ≈ Ea0 10 (11.11 would yield theor σmax ≈ Ea a0 π (11. for an ideal plate under tension with only one Asssuming ρ ≈ a0 and since 2 a0 single elliptical ﬂaw the strength may be obtained from theor act σmax = 2σcr a a0 (11.24) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Griﬃth came across Inglis’s paper.

or a factor of 100.000 = E √ 100 10 (11.Draft 11. Finally.28) Therefore at failure act = σcr theor σmax = theor σmax 200 E 10 act σcr ≈ E 2. 000a0 act σcr γ = = Eγ 4a Ea0 10 act σcr a a0 = σ act = = 2. The left hand side is based on a linear elastic solution of a macroscopic problem solved by Inglis. As an example theor act σmax = 2σcr aao a = 10−6 m = 1µ ao = 1˚ = ρ = 10−10 m A theor act σmax = 2σcr 10−6 act = 200σcr −10 10 (11. 000 30. 500 cr E 2 ao 40 a E2 100.25) Macro From this very important equation. 000a0 in γ ≈ Ea0 this is enough to lower the 10 E √ theoretical fracture strength from √10 to a critical value of magnitude 100E 10 . 11.26) As an example. equating with Eq.27) Thus if we set a ﬂaw size of 2a = 5. and ﬁnds its roots in microphysics. The right hand side is based on the theoretical strength derived from the sinusoidal stress-strain assumption of the interatomic forces. Griﬃth Theory 11–7 hence.29) which can be attained. 2. let us consider a ﬂaw with a size of 2a = 5.000 (11. we observe that 1.000 E 2.000 2. For instance for steel = = 15 ksi Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . this equation would give (at fracture) act σcr = Eγ 4a (11.12.3 Size Eﬀect. we obtain theor act σmax = 2σcr a = ao Eγ a0 Micro (11.

Draft 11–8 THEORETICAL STRENGTH OF PERFECT CRYSTALS Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

or a plate respectively. ??. This will however be preceded by an introduction to Statics as the internal forces would also have to be in equilibrium with the external ones. in general.1 20 Introduction In the preceding chapters we have focused on the behavior of a continuum. and even with computer it is quite diﬃcult to view every object as a three dimensional one. Beam theory is perhaps the most successful theory in all of structural mechanics. and the 15 equations and 15 variables we introduced. 12. and it forms the basis of structural analysis which is so dear to Civil and Mechanical engineers.Draft Chapter 12 BEAM THEORY This chapter is adapted from the Author’s lecture notes in Structural Analysis. or 1D for axially symmetric problems. this chapter will focus on a brief introduction to beam theory. have certain peculiar geometric features amenable to a reduction from three to fewer dimensions. That is why we introduced the 2D simpliﬁcation (plane stress/strain). few problems can be solved analytically. 23 24 For those structural elements. 22 Solid bodies. or boundary elements). were all derived for an inﬁnitesimal element. or we could further simplify the problem. . Hence. it is customary to consider as internal variables the resultant of the stresses as was shown in Sect. Hence. ﬁnite element. to widen the scope of application of the fundamental theory developed previously. in this chapter we will consider a structural element. 21 In practice. then we have a shell. than we have a beam. If one dimension of the structural element1 under consideration is much greater or smaller than the other three. we could either resort to numerical methods (such as the ﬁnite diﬀerence. In the preceding chapter we saw a few of those solutions. 1 So 25 26 far we have restricted ourselves to a continuum. If the plate is curved.

ΣMz provided that A.1: Equations of Equilibrium The three conventional equations of equilibrium in 2D: ΣFx . for internal forces (shear and moment) we must use the actual load distribution.2. or part of it. no axial Force 2 D Truss. ΣMz . Table 12.2) 31 All the externally applied forces on a structure must be in equilibrium. Frame Beams. must satisfy equilibrium.1) 30 In a 2D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 3 independent equations of equilibrium: ΣFx = ΣFy = ΣMz = 0 (12.1 27 Any structural element. Summation of the moments can be taken with respect to any arbitrary point. Beam Grid 3D Truss. B.2 Statics Equilibrium 12. Frame. moments are also vectorial quantities and are represented by a curved arrow or a double arrow vector. For reaction calculations. ΣFy and ΣMz can be A B C replaced by the independent moment equations ΣMz .1 Structure Type Beam. 36 2 In 3 However a dynamic system ΣF = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration. Not all equations are applicable to all structures. and C are not colinear. Frame. in a static system must be equal to zero2 . 28 29 In a 3D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 6 independent equations of equilibrium: ΣFx = ΣFy = ΣFz = 0 ΣMx = ΣMy = ΣMz = 0 (12.Draft 12–2 BEAM THEORY 12. Summation of forces and moments. no axial forces 2D Truss. 32 33 34 Whereas forces are represented by a vector. Reactions are accordingly determined. the externally applied load may be reduced to an equivalent force3 . Beam Equations ΣFx ΣFy ΣFy ΣMx ΣMx ΣMy ΣMy ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz 35 ΣFz ΣFx ΣFy ΣFz Alternate Set A B ΣMz ΣMz A B ΣFx ΣMz ΣMz A B C ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz Table 12. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 39 Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones (more about this below). ﬁnally. there can be diﬀerent types of support conditions. Fig. A roller will allow rotation. in 3D structures a roller may provide restraint in one or two directions. it is often easier to start by determining the reactions. internal forces (shear and moment) are determined next.Draft 12. Assume a direction for the unknown quantities 3.2 41 In the analysis of structures. Arbitrarily decide which is the +ve direction 2. internal stresses and/or deformations (deﬂections and rotations) are determined last. The right hand side of the equation should be zero If your reaction is negative. 12. Reactions 40 12. Before you write an equation of equilibrium.2 Statics 37 38 12–3 It is always preferable to check calculations by another equation of equilibrium.1. Thus the net force/moment is equal to zero. The external forces give rise to the (non-zero) shear and moment diagram. 1.2. 43 Figure 12. Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements. 42 Once the reactions are determined.1: Types of Supports Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure. then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed. Depending on the type of structures.

3. 46 Rx Sy = Ry Sx (12. boundary conditions and loads. 48 49 The degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the diﬀerence between the number of reactions and the number of equations of equilibrium (plus the number of equations of conditions if applicable). If the reactions can not be determined simply from the equations of static equilibrium (and equations of conditions if present). Thus a statically indeterminate structure is safer than a statically determinate one. reactions depend only on the geometry. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics 51 Victor Saouma .3 44 Equations of Conditions If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures).3) Figure 12.g. 45 Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to determine reactions. Young’s and/or shear modulus) and element cross sections (e. For statically indeterminate structures. then the reaction R would have. 12. then this will provide an additional equation (ΣM = 0 at the hinge) which can be exploited to determine the reactions.2. moment of inertia). Fig. In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection.2. 12. reactions depend also on the material properties (e. area. Fig. length.Draft 12–4 BEAM THEORY Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions.2: Inclined Roller Support 12.2.4 47 Static Determinacy In statically determinate structures. then the reactions of the structure are said to be statically indeterminate.g. 12. 50 Failure of one support in a statically determinate system results in the collapse of the structures.

53 Figure 12.4: Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions 3.2 Statics 12–5 Figure 12. Fig. 12.6 Examples Example 12-1: Simply Supported Beam Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .2.5 52 Geometric Instability The stability of a structure is determined not only by the number of reactions but also by their arrangement. All reactions are parallel and a non-parallel load is applied to the structure.3: Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures 12. 12. this can be shown if the determinant of the equations of equilibrium is equal to zero (or the equations are inter-dependent). The number of reactions is smaller than the number of equations of equilibrium.2. 2.4. Geometric instability will occur if: 1. 54 Mathematically. All reactions are concurrent.Draft 12. that is a mechanism is present in the structure.

3. 56 − 52 − 60 − 48 = 0 √ 12. Solution: The beam has 3 reactions. let us arbitrarily deﬁne a sign convention. 4 Note that this sign convention is the opposite of the one commonly used in Europe! Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . (+ ✲ ) ΣFx = 0.Draft 12–6 BEAM THEORY Determine the reactions of the simply supported beam shown below. that is positive upward. Axial: tension positive.1 55 Shear & Moment Diagrams Design Sign Conventions Before we derive the Shear-Moment relations. . ⇒ 12R − 6R − (60)(6) = 0 (+ ✛ ✁ ay dy z or through matrix inversion (on your calculator) 36 Rax 36 k Rax 1 0 0 1 Ray = 108 ⇒ Ray = 56 k 0 1 R 52 k 0 12 −6 Rdy 360 dy Alternatively we could have used another set of equations: a (+ ✛) ΣMz = 0. ⇒ Ray + Rdy − 60 k − (4) k/ft(12) ft = 0 ) ) ΣM c = 0. we have 3 equations of static equilibrium. ⇒ Rax − 36 k = 0 (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0. is the one commonly used for design purposes4 .5 56 Load Positive along the beam’s local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention).3 12. (60)(6) + (48)(12) − (Rdy )(18) = 0 ⇒ Rdy = 52 ✁ ) ΣM d = 0. (R )(18) − (60)(12) − (48)(6) = 0 ⇒ R = 56 (+ ✛ ✁ ay ay z k ✻ k ✻ Check: ) (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0. With reference to Fig. 12. hence it is statically determinate. The sign convention adopted here.

a positive moment is one which causes tension along the inner side. 58 There are no axial forces.3. the small variation in load along it can be neglected.6: Free Body Diagram of an Inﬁnitesimal Beam Segment inﬁnitesimal section must also be in equilibrium. Fig. or “down” on a positive one. we add the diﬀerential quantities dVx and dMx to Vx and Mx on the right face.5: Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower ﬁbers. therefore we assume w(x) to be constant along dx.2 57 Load. 12. and compression in the upper ones. The Figure 12. Considering an inﬁnitesimal length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load5 w(x). 5 In this derivation. 12.6. 59 Since dx is inﬁnitesimally small. Moment Relations Let us derive the basic relations between load. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 12–7 Figure 12. For frame members. as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive. Shear. Alternatively. thus we only have two equations of equilibrium to satisfy ΣFy = 0 and ΣMz = 0. shear and moment.Draft 12. Shear A positive shear force is one which is “up” on a negative face. 60 To denote that a small change in shear and moment occurs over the length dx of the element. a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation.

6) w(x)dx (12.Draft 12–8 61 BEAM THEORY Next considering the ﬁrst equation of equilibrium (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0 ⇒ Vx + wx dx − (Vx + dVx ) = 0 ) or dV = w(x) dx (12. 62 Similarly (+ ✛) ΣMo = 0 ⇒ Mx + Vx dx − wx dx ✁ dx − (Mx + dMx ) = 0 2 Neglecting the dx2 term. 64 Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively.9) ∆M21 = M2 − M1 = The change in moment between 1 and 2. and M = V (x)dx x2 x1 (12.7) ∆V21 = Vx2 − Vx1 = The change in shear between 1 and 2.4) The slope of the shear curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by the load curve at that point. ∆V21 .5) The slope of the moment curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by the shear at that point. ∆M21 . is equal to the area under the shear curve between x1 and x2 . 63 Alternative forms of the preceding equations can be obtained by integration V = w(x)dx x2 x1 (12. 65 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . is equal to the area under the load between x1 and x2 .8) V (x)dx (12. It can be shown that the equilibrium of forces and of moments equations are nothing ∂T else than the three dimensional linear momentum ∂xij + ρbi = ρ dvi and moment of dt j d (r×t)dS + (r×ρb)dV = (r×ρv)dV equations satisﬁed on the momentum dt V S V average over the cross section. this simpliﬁes to dM = V (x) dx (12.

3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 12–9 Examples Example 12-2: Simple Shear and Moment Diagram Draw the shear and moment diagram for the beam shown below Solution: The free body diagram is drawn below Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3.3 12.Draft 12.

12) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Fig. It is assumed that plane cross-sections normal to the length of the unbent beam remain plane after the beam is bent. support conditions. Considering a segment EF of length dx at a distance y from the neutral axis. its original length is 67 EF = dx = ρdθ and dθ = 68 (12. 2.10) dx ρ (12.1 66 Beam Theory Basic Kinematic Assumption. etc. At A the shear is equal to the reaction and is positive. As a check. ⇒ (11)(4) + (8)(10) + (4)(2)(14 + 2) − R (18) = 0 ⇒ R = 14 k (+ ✛ ✁ A Fy Fy (+ ✻ ΣFy = 0. The change in moment between A and B is equal to the area under the corresponding shear diagram. thereby creating a longitudinal strain εx . we consider the deformed length E F E F = (ρ − y)dθ = ρdθ − ydθ = dx − y dx ρ (12.4 12. or ∆MB−A = (13)(4) = 52.12. 5. −14 k is also the reaction previously determined at F . 4.7 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the radius ρ by end couples M. ⇒ RAy − 11 − 8 − (4)(2) + 14 = 0 ⇒ RAy = 13 k ) Shear are determined next.11) To evaluate this strain. 1. At C it drops again by 8 k to −6 k. Except for the neutral surface all other longitudinal ﬁbers either lengthen or shorten. ⇒ −RAx + 6 = 0 ⇒ RAx = 6 k ) ΣM = 0.4. 12.Draft 12–10 BEAM THEORY Reactions are determined from the equilibrium equations ✛ (+ ) ΣFx = 0. 2. 3. It stays constant up to D and then it decreases (constant negative slope since the load is uniform and negative) by 2 k per linear foot up to −14 k. At B the shear drops (negative load) by 11 k to 2 k..1.. The moment at A is zero (hinge support). Curvature Fig. 12. 3. Moment is determined last: 1.

7: Deformation of a Beam under Pure Bending The strain is now determined from: dx − y dx − dx E F − EF ρ εx = = EF dx or after simpliﬁcation εx = − y ρ (12. Later Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) made signiﬁcant contributions to the theory of beam deﬂection. the curvature κ (Greek letter kappa) is also used where 69 κ= thus. +ve bending dθ -ve Curvature. 1 ρ (12. This crucial assumption was made later on by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705). ρ (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . Thus strains are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.14) (12. In some textbook.Draft 12. yet he failed to make the right assumption for the planar cross section.13) where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). and ﬁnally it was Navier (1785-1836) who clariﬁed the issue of the kinematic hypothesis.4 Beam Theory 12–11 O +ve Curvature.16) It should be noted that Galileo (1564-1642) was the ﬁrst one to have made a contribution to beam theory.15) εx = −κy 70 (12. who did not make it quite right. -ve Bending ρ M M Neutral Axis E’ F’ Y dA E F X Z dx Figure 12.

4. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .21) or the ﬁrst moment of the cross section with respect to the z axis is zero.2 71 Stress-Strain Relations So far we considered the kinematic of the beam. Neutral Axis The ﬁrst equation we consider is the summation of axial forces.16 we obtain σx = −Eκy (12.4.19) where σx was given by Eq.3 74 Internal Equilibrium. For linear elastic material Hooke’s law states σx = Eεx (12.18. Section Properties Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium. we conclude that ydA = 0 A (12.17) 72 where E is Young’s Modulus. the internal axial forces must be in equilibrium.4.Draft 12–12 BEAM THEORY 12.20-a) But since the curvature κ and the modulus of elasticity E are constants. 75 12. 77 Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beam-column). The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam.1 76 ΣFx = 0.18) 12.3. Hence we need to relate strain to stress. the internal forces must also satisfy the equilibrium equations. 73 Combining Eq. ΣFx = 0 ⇒ A σx dA = 0 (12. substituting we obtain A σx dA = − EκydA = 0 A (12. Hence we conclude that the neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross section. with equation 12. yet later on we will need to consider equilibrium in terms of the stresses. 12. The internal forces on the “cut” section must be in equilibrium with the external forces.

the one from the moment diagram at that particular location where the beam was sliced.23. inserting Eq.23) We now pause and deﬁne the section moment of inertia with respect to the z axis as I = def A y 2dA (12.4 Beam Theory ΣM = 0. 83 Finally.25) 12. 12.4.22) Int. hence ΣMz = 0. we now have an external moment to account for. we will have compressive stresses above the neutral axis. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . This formula will be extensively used for design of structural components. where dA is an diﬀerential area a distance y from the neutral axis. We merely substitute Eq.24) and section modulus as S = def I c (12. 12. A σx ydA (12. for a positive y (above neutral axis). M = κE A 82 y 2dA EI M I = a y dA 2 =κ= 1 ρ (12. Moment of Inertia 12–13 The second equation of internal equilibrium which must be satisﬁed is the summation of moments. 79 Substituting Eq. 12.Draft 12.18 M = − A σx ydA σx = −Eκy 80 M = κE A y 2dA (12.26) which shows that the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a beam is proportional to the bending moment M and inversely proportional to EI which we call ﬂexural rigidity. the beam formula.24 into 12.4 81 Beam Formula We now have the ingredients in place to derive one of the most important equations in structures. we obtain σx = −Eκy M κ = EI σx = − M y I (12. However contrarily to the summation of axial forces.3.2 78 12.18 above. ✛+ve. and a positive moment.27) Hence.4. M = − ✁ Ext.

6 Example 12-3: Design Example A 20 ft long.25 M (12.25) in 65.51 18 in 3 65. 000 ksi. The maximum moment will be (1) k/ft(20)2 ft2 wL2 = = 50 k. 1 k/ft r 20’ 0.65 r3 (12. We next seek a relation between maximum deﬂection and radius ∆max = I = πr t 4.000) ksi(3.ft Mmax = 8 8 3.61 in (12. Steel has E = 29.14)r 2 (0. uniformly loaded. Select the radius such that σmax ≤ 18 ksi.Draft 12–14 84 BEAM THEORY Alternatively. We now set those two values equal to their respective maximum ∆max = (20) ft(12) in/ft L 65.65 = = 0.32-a) 0.30) σ = = = M πr 2 t (50) k.67 in = ⇒r= 360 360 r3 764 ⇒r= r2 764 = 6.29) ∆ = = = wL4 185Eπr 3 t (1) k/ft(20)4 ft4 (12)3 in3 / ft3 (185)(29.32-b) σmax = (18) ksi = Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . and from above Mmax = wL2 . 2.67 (12. and ∆max ≤ L/360.4.65 = 4.25) in 764 r2 (12.25’ Solution: 1. 8 ∆max = wL4 .4. the maximum ﬁber stresses can be obtained by combining the preceding equation with Equation 12. 185EI and I = πr 3 t.31) 5. Similarly for the stress σ = M S S = I r I = πr 3 t wL4 185EI 3 (12.5 12.28) σx = − S Limitations of the Beam Theory Example 12.14)r 3 (0. The beam is composed of a steel tube with thickness t = 0.ft(12) in/ft (3.25 in. and rigidly connected at the other. beam is simply supported at one end.

4 Beam Theory 12–15 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 12.

Draft 12–16 BEAM THEORY Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

any datum can be used as a basis for measure of energy.1-a) (13. there is a duality between the strong form. states 28 . 21 As shown in Appendix C.1 25 Preliminary Deﬁnitions Work is deﬁned as the product of a force and displacement W dW def = b a F. we shall use beams. 22 Since only few problems in continuum mechanics can be solved analytically. 27 The change in energy is proportional to the amount of work performed. we often have to use numerical techniques. At the core of the ﬁnite element formulation are the variational formulations (or energy based methods) which will be discussed in this chapter.Draft Chapter 13 VARIATIONAL METHODS Abridged section from author’s lecture notes in finite elements.1-b) = Fx dx + Fy dy 26 Energy is a quantity representing the ability or capacity to perform work. Hence energy is neither created nor consumed. 6. and the weak form where the equation is satisﬁed in an averaged sense (as in ﬁnite elements). Since only the change of energy is involved. For illustrative examples. 20 Variational methods provide a powerful method to solve complex problems in continuum mechanics (and other ﬁelds as well). The ﬁrst principle of thermodynamics (Eq.ds (13. but the methods is obviously applicable to 3D continuum.44). in which a diﬀerential equation (or Euler’s equation) is exactly satisﬁed at every point (such as in Finite Diﬀerences). Finite Elements being one of the most powerful and ﬂexible one. 23 24 13.

1 30 Internal Strain Energy The strain energy density of an arbitrary material is deﬁned as..1 U0 = def 0 ε σ:dε (13. sum of the kinetic energy and the internal energy) is equal to the sum of the rate of work done by the external forces and the change of heat content per unit time: d (K dt + U) = We + H (13.1.2) where K is the kinetic energy.3) 13.4) 31 The complementary strain energy density is deﬁned ∗ U0 = def 0 σ ε:dσ (13. U the internal strain energy.7) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .e.5) 32 The strain energy itself is equal to U def = Ω U0 dΩ (13.Draft 13–2 VARIATIONAL METHODS σ σ U0 A * U0 A U0 A * U0 A Nonlinear ε ε Linear Figure 13. 29 For an adiabatic system (no heat exchange) and if loads are applied in a quasi static manner (no kinetic energy). 13. Fig. and H the heat input to the system.6) U∗ = Victor Saouma def Ω ∗ U0 dΩ (13. W the external work.1: *Strain Energy and Complementary Strain Energy The time-rate of change of the total energy (i. the above relation simpliﬁes to: We = U (13.

8) where D is the constitutive matrix (Hooke’s Law).4 and 13.1 Preliminary Deﬁnitions 13–3 To obtain a general form of the internal strain energy. 13. in the absence of initial strains and stresses. and for linear elastic systems. 0 is the initial strain vector. Eq. The strain energy U for a linear elastic system is obtained by substituting σ = D:ε with Eq.Draft 33 13. 34 The initial strains and stresses are the result of conditions such as heating or cooling of a system or the presence of pore pressures in a system.11) 37 When this relation is applied to various one dimensional structural elements it leads to Axial Members: U= εσ dΩ Ω 2 σ=P A P ε = AE dΩ = Adx Flexural Members: U= 1 2 P2 dx 0 AE L (13. we ﬁrst deﬁne a stress-strain relationship accounting for both initial strains and stresses σ = D:(ε − ε0 ) + σ 0 (13.10) (13.10 reduces to U= 1 2 ε Eε dΩ Ω σ (13. and σ is the stress vector.13) y 2 dA = Iz Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .12) U= Ω Mz y σx = Iz y ε = Mzz EI 1 2 ε Eε σ U= 1 2 dΩ = dAdx A M2 dx 0 EIz L (13. 13. 36 Considering uniaxial stresses. σ 0 is the initial stress vector.9) 35 Ω Ω Ω where Ω is the volume of the system.8 U= 1 2 εT :D:εdΩ − εT :D:ε0 dΩ + εT :σ 0 dΩ (13. is the strain vector due to the displacements u.

the external work is We = ∆f 0 P d∆ + θf 0 Mdθ (13. portion of the boundary where t 39 For point loads and moments. ˆ is the applied surface traction vector. 41 (13.2 38 External Work External work W performed by the applied loads on an arbitrary system is deﬁned as We = def Ω uT ·bdΩ + Γt uT ·ˆ tdΓ (13.14) where b is the body force vector. 43 Note that the virtual quantity (displacement or force) is one that we will approximate/guess as long as it meets some admissibility requirements. Internal Virtual Work δWi = − External Virtual Work δWe = def Γt def Ω σ:δεdΩ Ω (13.16) When this last equation is combined with Pf = K∆f we obtain 1 We = Pf ∆f 2 where K is the stiﬀness of the structure.1.15) 40 For linear elastic systems. admissible (continuous and satisfying the boundary conditions) change in displacements.18) 13.17) Similarly for an applied moment we have 1 We = Mf θf 2 (13. (P = K∆) we have for point loads P = K∆ We = ∆f 0 P d∆ We = K ∆f 0 1 ∆d∆ = K∆2 f 2 (13. and Γt is that t ˆ is applied.3 Virtual Work 42 We deﬁne the virtual work done by the load on a body during a small.20) ˆ t·δudΓ + where all the terms have been previously deﬁned and b is the body force vector.19) b·δudΩ (13. and u is the displacement. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1.Draft 13–4 VARIATIONAL METHODS 13.

21) dΩ = Adx M = y A δφ = δε ⇒ δφy = δε y dΩ = L 0 σx dA δU = L 0 Mδφdx (13. we derive expressions of the virtual strain energies which are independent of the material constitutive laws.1 Preliminary Deﬁnitions Internal Virtual Work 13–5 Next we shall derive a displacement based expression of δU for each type of one dimensional structural member.24 2 A δU = y dA = Iz L 0 EIz d2 v d2 (δv) dx dx2 dx2 “δε (13.1.24) δεx = δσx = E dΩ = dAdx or: d2 (δv) y dx2 Eq. 13. It should be noted that the Virtual Force method would yield analogous ones but based on forces rather than displacements.22) dAdx A Linear Elastic Systems Should we have a linear elastic material (σ = Eε) then: Axial Members: δU = σδεdΩ du σx = Eεx = E dx δε = d(δu) dx δU = L 0 E du d(δu) Adx dx dx “δε dΩ (13.23) dΩ = Adx “σ Flexural Members: δU = σx = M= σx δεx dΩ My Iz d2 v EIz dx2 σx = d2 v Ey dx2 κ δU = L 0 d2 v d2 (δv) Ey ydAdx dx2 A dx2 (13. Elastic Systems In this set of formulation.1 44 45 13. the ﬁrst one is independent of the material stress strain relations. and the other assumes a linear elastic stress strain relation.25) “σ Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3. Axial Members: δU = Flexural Members: δU = M= σx δεx dΩ σx ydA ⇒ A L 0 σδεdΩ δU = A L 0 σδεdx (13. Thus δU will be left in terms of forces and displacements. Two sets of solutions will be given.Draft 13.

31) 51 Note that in the potential the full load is always acting. 49 Note that the potential of the external work (W) is diﬀerent from the external work itself (W ) The potential energy of a system is deﬁned as Π = U − We = Ω def 50 (13. admissible (continuous and satisfying the boundary conditions) change in displacements.2 46 VARIATIONAL METHODS External Virtual Work δW For concentrated forces (and moments): δW = δ∆qdx + i (δ∆i )Pi + i (δθi )Mi (13. and deformation systems which satisfy the 52 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .1.1.30) u·bdΩ + Ω Γt U0 dΩ − u·ˆ + u·P tdΓ (13. ˆ is the applied surface traction t t vector.3. 13.26) where: δ∆i = virtual displacement.4 47 Complementary Virtual Work We deﬁne the complementary virtual work done by the load on a body during a small. this explains the negative sign. 13. b is the body force vector.5 48 ˆ u·δtdΓ Potential Energy The potential of external work W in an arbitrary system is deﬁned as We = def Ω uT ·bdΩ + Γt uT ·ˆ + u·P tdΓ (13.1. and P are the applied nodal forces.28) Complementary External Virtual Work δWe∗ = 13. Γt is that portion of the boundary where ˆ is applied.Draft 13–6 13. Complementary Internal Virtual Work δWi∗ = − def def Γu Ω ε:δσdΩ (13. and through the displacements of its points of application it does work but loses an equivalent amount of potential.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work The principles of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work relate force systems which satisfy the requirements of equilibrium.27) (13.29) where u are the displacements.

2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 13–7 requirement of compatibility: 1.1 54 Principle of Virtual Work Derivation of the principle of virtual work starts with the assumption of that forces are in equilibrium and satisfaction of the static boundary conditions. Table 13.2.1: Possible Combinations of Real and Hypothetical Formulations actual. or some hypothetical external and internal deformation δu and δε which satisfy the conditions of compatibility.33) 55 where b representing the body force. The Equation of equilibrium (Eq.1: where: d corresponds to the Force External Internal δp δσ dp dσ Deformation External Internal du dε δu δε Formulation δU ∗ δU 1 2 Table 13. Γ = Γt + Γu t = ˆ on Γt Natural B. and δ (with an overbar) to the hypothetical values. (13.36-a) (13. 6.26) which is rewritten as ∂σxx ∂τxy + + bx = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂σyy ∂τxy + + by = 0 ∂y ∂x (13.34) LT σ + b = 0 Note that this equation can be generalized to 3D. In matrix form. Victor Saouma (13.C.36-c) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .35) 56 The surface Γ of the solid can be decomposed into two parts Γt and Γu where tractions and displacements are respectively speciﬁed. t ˆ u = u on Γu Essential B. Similarly the deformation could consist of either the actual joint deﬂections du and compatible internal deformations dε of the structure.36-b) (13. 2.32) (13. This set of external forces will induce internal actual forces dσ or internal hypothetical forces δσ compatible with the externally applied load. In any application the force system could either be the actual set of external loads dp or some virtual force system which happens to satisfy the condition of equilibrium δp.Draft 13. 13. this can be rewritten as ∂ ∂x 0 ∂ ∂y 0 or ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x σxx σ yy τ xy + bx by =0 (13.C. 53 Thus we may have 2 possible combinations.

35 and 13. 13.2. and that the primary unknowns are the displacements. Solution: 1.Draft 13–8 VARIATIONAL METHODS Figure 13. For this ﬂexural problem. Virtual Displacement Analyse the problem shown in Fig.37) (13.39) δε = L:δu δu = 0 58 Note that the principle is independent of material properties.38) (13.36-b constitute a statically admissible stress ﬁeld. The approximate solutions proposed to this problem are v = v = Victor Saouma πx v2 2l x 2 x 3 −2 L L 1 − cos (13.2: Tapered Cantilivered Beam Analysed by the Vitual Displacement Method Equations 13. by the virtual displacement method. The major governing equations are summarized Ω δεT :σdΩ − −δWi Ω δuT ·bdΩ − −δWe Γt δuT ·ˆ tdΓ = in on 0 Ω Γu (13.25. we must apply the expression of the virtual internal strain energy as derived for beams in Eq.40) 3 v2 (13. Example 13-1: Tapered Cantiliver Beam. 57 The principle of virtual work (or more speciﬁcally of virtual displacement) can be stated as A deformable system is in equilibrium if the sum of the external virtual work and the internal virtual work is zero for virtual displacements δu which are kinematically admissible.41) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . And the solutions must be expressed in terms of the displacements which in turn must satisfy the essential boundary conditions. 13.

46) which yields: v2 = Victor Saouma P2 L3 2.Draft 13.648EI1 (13. These equations do indeed satisfy the essential B. Trigonometric (Eqn.57EI1 (13. 13.e kinematic). 13. Using the virtual displacement method we evaluate the displacements v2 from three diﬀerent combination of virtual and actual displacement: Solution Total Virtual 1 Eqn.41 Eqn. 13.40 Eqn.40 Eqn. 13.47) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .43) δW = P2 δv2 Solution 1: δU = 12x x π2 πx 6 cos v2 − 3 δv2 EI1 1 − dx 2 2 2l L L 2L 0 4L 3πEI1 10 16 + 2 v2 δv2 = 1− 3 2L π π = P2 δv2 L (13.44) which yields: v2 = Solution 2: δU = π4 πx x cos2 v2 δv2 EI1 1 − dx 2l 2l 0 16L4 π 4 EI1 3 1 = + 2 v2 δv2 3 32L 4 π = P2 δv2 L P2 L3 2.41 Where actual and virtual values for the two assumed displacement ﬁelds are given below.40) Polynomial (Eqn.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 13–9 2. 13. 13. 3. but for them to also satisfy equilibrium they must satisfy the principle of virtual work.45) (13.41 2 Eqn. (i.42) (13.40 3 Eqn. 13.C. 13.41) v δv v δv 1 − cos πx v2 2l 1 − cos πx δv2 2l π2 cos πx v2 4L2 2l π2 πx cos 2l δv2 4L2 2 2 3 3 x L x L −2 −2 x L x L 3 3 v2 δv2 6 − 12x L2 L3 6 12x − L3 L2 v2 δv2 δU = L 0 δv EIz v dx (13.

51) The principle of virtual complementary work (or more speciﬁcally of virtual force) which can be stated as 63 A deformable system satisﬁes all kinematical requirements if the sum of the external complementary virtual work and the internal complementary virtual work is zero for all statically admissible virtual stresses δσij .54) δσij. and that the primary unknowns are the stresses.49) 13. we will now use the tensor notation for this derivation. The kinematic condition (strain-displacement): εij = 1 (ui. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .50) 60 61 62 The essential boundary conditions are expressed as ˆ ui = u on Γu (13. Whereas we have previously used the vector notation for the principle of virtual work.j = 0 δti = 0 64 Note that the principle is independent of material properties.2.Draft 13–10 VARIATIONAL METHODS Solution 3: δU = L 0 12x 6 − 3 L2 L 2 1− x EI1 δv2 v2 dx 2l 9EI = v2 δv2 L3 = P2 δv2 which yields: v2 = P2 L3 9EI (13. The major governing equations are summarized Ω εij δσij dΩ − −δWi∗ Γu ui δti dΓ ˆ ∗ δWe = in on 0 Ω Γt (13.2 59 Principle of Complementary Virtual Work Derivation of the principle of complementary virtual work starts from the assumption of a kinematicaly admissible displacements and satisfaction of the essential boundary conditions.48) (13.53) (13.52) (13.j + uj.i) 2 (13.

3 Example 13-2: Tapered Cantilivered Beam. we obtain: ∆ = Victor Saouma 2P2 L 1 (L + x)2 − 2L(L + x) + L2 ln(L + x) |L 0 EI1 2 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .58. 13.57) From Mathematica we note that: 1 1 x2 = 3 (a + bx)2 − 2a(a + bx) + a2 ln(a + bx) b 2 0 a + bx 0 (13.3 If δP = 1.56) σ M Here: δM and δP are the virtual forces.25 written in terms of displacements: δU ∗ = L 0 EIz d2 v d2 (δv) dx dx2 dx2 δε (13. 13.5 + L ) P2 L x2 dx = EI1 0 L+x 2l P2 2L L x2 dx = EI1 0 L + x x L (13. 13.58) Thus substituting a = L and b = 1 into Eqn.2 Principle of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 13–11 Figure 13. then δM = x and M = P2 x or: (1)∆ = P2 x x dx 0 EI1 (. Virtual Force “Exact” solution of previous problem using principle of virtual work with virtual force.55) Note: This represents the internal virtual strain energy and external virtual work written in terms of forces and should be compared with the similar expression derived in Eq. See Fig. L 0 δM M dx = EIz Internal δP ∆ External (13.3: Tapered Cantilevered Beam Analysed by the Virtual Force Method 65 Expressions for the complimentary virtual work in beams are given in Table 13. and EIz and ∆ are the actual displacements.Draft 13.

5887EI1 = L 0 (13.5 + x L = 2ML EI1 L 1 2ML ln(L + x) |L = 0 EI1 0 L+x (13. it can be shown that 1 Note δU = that the variation of strain energy density is. δU0 = σij δεij . Eq.65) 69 Applying the principle of virtual work. 13.62-b) dU0 = σij dεij thus.63) (13. and the variation of the strain energy itself is δU0 dΩ.61-b) 67 However. ∂U0 = σij ∂εij ∗ ∂U0 = εij ∂σij 68 (13. if U0 is a potential function. Ω Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft 13–12 VARIATIONAL METHODS 2P2 L L2 2L2 − 4L2 + L2 ln 2L − + 2L2 + L2 log L EI1 2 2P2 L 2 1 = L (ln 2 − ) EI1 2 3 P2 L = 2. from Eq. 13.64) We now deﬁne the variation of the strain energy density at a point1 δU0 = ∂U δεij = σij δεij ∂εij (13.3 13.59) Similarly: θ = = M(1) EI1 . we take its diﬀerential ∂U0 dεij ∂εij ∂U0 ∗ dσij dU0 = ∂σij dU0 = (13.1 66 Potential Energy Derivation From section ??.3.60) 2ML 2ML ML (ln 2L − ln L) = ln 2 = EI1 EI1 .721EI1 13.37.4 U0 = εij 0 σij dεij (13.61-a) (13.62-a) (13.

4: Single DOF Example for Potential Energy δΠ = 0 Π = U − We = Ω def (13.71) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 13.70-b) 73 Thus the total potential energy is given by Π = 250u2 − 100u Victor Saouma (13. . let us consider the single dof system shown in Fig.Draft 13. As an illustrative example (adapted from Willam.66) (13.67) u·bdΩ + Ω Γt U0 dΩ − u·ˆ + u·P tdΓ (13.4.68) 70 We have thus derived the principle of stationary value of the potential energy: Of all kinematically admissible deformations (displacements satisfying the essential boundary conditions).70-a) (13. 1987). . 71 For problems involving multiple degrees of freedom. the actual deformations (those which correspond to stresses which satisfy equilibrium) are the ones for which the total potential energy assumes a stationary value. it results from calculus that δΠ = ∂Π ∂Π ∂Π δ∆1 + δ∆2 + . + δ∆n ∂∆1 ∂∆2 ∂∆n (13.69) 72 It can be shown that the minimum potential energy yields a lower bound prediction of displacements. The strain energy U and potential of the external work W are given by U = We 1 u(Ku) = 250u2 2 = mgu = 100u (13.3 Potential Energy 13–13 k= 500 lbf/in mg= 100 lbf Figure 13.

Draft 13–14 Potential Energy of Single DOF Structure 20.2) = 20 lbf-in Π = 10 − 20 = −10 lbf-in Fig.73) Rayleigh-Ritz Method Continuous systems have inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom.5: Graphical Representation of the Potential Energy and will be stationary for ∂Π = dΠ = 0 ⇒ 500u − 100 = 0 ⇒ u = 0.00 0.2 74 (13.20 Displacement [in] 0. 75 An approximate method of solution is the Rayleigh-Ritz method which is based on the principle of virtual displacements. However.30 Figure 13.10 0.74-b) Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .74-a) (13.72) Substituting. 13. only the simplest problems have an exact solution which (satisﬁes equilibrium. 13.5 illustrates the two components of the potential energy.2)2 = 10 lbf-in W = 100(0.0 Total Potential Energy Strain Energy External Work VARIATIONAL METHODS Energy [lbf−in] 0. and the boundary conditions).0 −40. or the partial diﬀerential equation of equilibrium. In this method we approximate the displacement ﬁeld by a function u1 ≈ u2 ≈ Victor Saouma n i=1 n i=1 c1 φ 1 + φ 1 i i 0 c2 φ 2 + φ 2 i i 0 (13.2 in du U = 250(0. those are the displacements at every point within the structure. Their behavior can be described by the Euler Equation.0 0.3. this would yield (13.0 −20.

thus it follows that i i i ∂Π =0 ∂cj i i = 1. From these displacements. The equilibrium equations of the problem are satisﬁed only in the energy sense δΠ = 0 and not in the diﬀerential equation sense (i. 3 (13. In general φ is a polynomial or trigonometric function. strains and stresses are generally less accurate than the displacements.e.f by one with a ﬁnite number. i φ should satisfy three conditions 1. then better results are achieved). 4. 2.75) for arbitrary and independent variations of δc1 . For increasing values of n. j = 1. · · · . if φ also satisfy them. we can then determine strains and stresses (or internal forces). 3. However.76) Thus we obtain a total of 3n linearly independent simultaneous equations. 2. 5. 3. 2. or variables associated i with nodal generalized displacements (such as deﬂection or displacement). in the weak form but not in the strong one). cj can either be a set of coeﬃcients with no physical meanings. satisfy the essential boundary conditions (the natural boundary conditions are included already in the variational statement. then the solution converges to the exact one if n increases. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . i. Be continuous. Furthermore. Must be independent and complete (which means that the exact displacement and their derivatives that appear in Π can be arbitrary matched if enough terms are used. If the coordinate functions φ satisfy the above requirements. δc2 . lowest order terms must also be included).o. u2 . the previously computed coeﬃcients remain unchanged. n. or i 77 n δΠ(u1 . We determine the parameters cj by requiring that the principle of virtual work for i arbitrary variations δcj . 2. 78 Some general observations 1. Therefore the displacements obtained from the approximation generally do not satisfy the equations of equilibrium. Must be admissible. Since the strains are computed from the approximate displacements. and δc3 .Draft 76 13.3 Potential Energy n i=1 13–15 u3 ≈ c3 φ 3 + φ 3 i i 0 (13. Hence we have replaced a problem with an inﬁnite number of d. u3) = i=1 ∂Π 1 ∂Π 2 ∂Π 3 δc + δc + δc = 0 ∂c1 i ∂c2 i ∂c3 i i i i (13. and φ are appropriate functions of positions.74-c) where cj denote undetermined parameters.e.

f. Contrarily to the previous example problem the geometric B.78) 3. and ∂a2 = 0 ).6 let us assume a solution given by the following inﬁnite series: v = a1 x(L − x) + a2 x2 (L − x)2 + . let us retain only the ﬁrst term: v = a1 x(L − x) We observe that: 1.Draft 13–16 VARIATIONAL METHODS Figure 13. (13. Polynomial Approximation For the uniformly loaded beam shown in Fig. 13.o. and the displacements obtained from the Ritz method converge to the exact ones from below.79) wv(x)dx Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . are immediately satisﬁed at both x = 0 and x = L.6: Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam Analyzed by the Rayleigh-Ritz Method 6. (13.). We can keep v in terms of a1 and take ∂a1 = 0 (If we had left v in terms of a1 and ∂Π ∂Π a2 we should then take both ∂a1 = 0. . . then the approximate system is stiﬀer than the actual one. Since the continuous system is approximated by a ﬁnite number of coordinates (or d.C. ∂Π 2.77) (13. Or we can solve for a1 in terms of vmax (@x = L ) and take 2 Π= U −W = M2 dx − o 2EIz L L 0 ∂Π ∂vmax = 0. for this particular solution. Example 13-3: Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam.

wL2 Note: If two terms were retained. we now determine vmax at v = wL4 24EIz a1 x2 x − 2 L L (13.83) 4 4 = wL4 96EIz 5 wL exact This is to be compared with the exact value of vmax = 384 wLz = 76. Table 13.7. (Why?) 24EIz 13. we would obtain: 4a1 EIz l − wL3 = 0 6 a1 = wL2 24EIz (13.82) L : 2 Having solved the displacement ﬁeld in terms of a1 . dx2 the above simpliﬁes to: L 0 Π = = EIz 2 dv dx2 2 2 − wv(x) dx (13. then we would have obtained: a1 = 24EIz & a2 = w exact and vmax would be equal to vmax .2.2: Comparison of Virtual Work and Complementary Virtual Work 80 A summary of the various methods introduced in this chapter is shown in Fig. 13.8EIz which constitutes EI ≈ 17% error. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma .81) = 0.Draft 13.80) EIz (−2a1 )2 − a1 wx(L − x) dx 2 0 L3 L3 EIz 2 4a1 L − a1 w + a1 w = 2 2 3 a1 wL3 = 2a2 EIz L − 1 6 If we now take ∂Π ∂a1 L (13. Virtual Work U Complimentary Virtual Work U ∗ Starts with KAD SAS Ends with SAS KAD In terms of virtual Displacement/strains Forces/Stresses Solve for Displacement Displacement KAD: Kinematically Admissible Dispacements SAS: Statically Admissible Stresses Table 13.4 Summary 13–17 M EIz Recalling that: = d2 v .4 79 Summary Summary of Virtual work methods.

i ) = 0 ❄ δσij.j + uj. · · · . 3 ∂Π ∂cj i =0 i = 1.C.Draft 13–18 Natural B.j = 0 δti = 0 Γt u i − u = 0 Γu ∗ U0 = def ε 0 σ:dε Gauss σ 0 ε:σ ✻ ✻ Gauss ❄ ❄ Principle of Complementary Virtual Work εij δσij dΩ − Γu ui δti dΓ = 0 Ω ∗ δWi∗ − δWe = 0 ❄ ❄ Principle of Virtual Work T Ω δε :σdΩ − T T Ω δu ·bdΩ − Γt δu ·tdΓ = 0 δWi − δWe = 0 ❄ Principle of Stationary Potential Energy δΠ = 0 Π= Π = U − We U0 dΩ − ( Ω ui bi dΩ + Ω def Γt ui ti dΓ) ❄ Rayleigh-Ritz n uj ≈ i=1 cj φj + φj 0 i i j = 1. 2. 2. Ω Γ εij − 1 2 VARIATIONAL METHODS ❄ ∇σ + ρb = 0 t − t = 0 Γt U0 = def ❄ δε − D:δu = 0 δu = 0 Γu ❄ (ui. n. Figure 13.7: Summary of Variational Methods Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Essential B.C.

Draft

13.4 Summary

13–19

Kinematically Admissible Displacements Displacements satisfy the kinematic equations and the the kinematic boundary conditions ✻

❄ Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy Principle of Complementary Virtual Work ✻ Principle of Virtual Work

Principle of Stationary Potential Energy

❄ Statically Admissible Stresses Stresses satisfy the equilibrium conditions and the static boundary conditions

Figure 13.8: Duality of Variational Principles

81

The duality between the two variational principles is highlighted by Fig. 13.8, where beginning with kinematically admissible displacements, the principle of virtual work provides statically admissible solutions. Similarly, for statically admissible stresses, the principle of complementary virtual work leads to kinematically admissible solutions. Finally, Table 13.3 summarizes some of the major equations associated with one dimensional rod elements.

82

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

13–20

VARIATIONAL METHODS

U Axial

1 2 L 0 L 0

P2 dx AE M dx EIz

2

**Virtual Displacement δU General Linear L L du d(δu) σδεdx E Adx dx dx 0 0
**

L L σ 2

Flexure

1 2

M δφdx

0 0

d v d (δv) EIz 2 dx dx dx2

σ δε

δε 2

dΩ

**Virtual Force δU ∗ General Linear L L P δσεdx δP dx AE 0 0
**

δσ L L ε

δM φdx

0 0

M δM dx EIz

δσ ε

P M w

0

L

W 1 Σi 2 Pi ∆i 1 Σi 2 M i θi w(x)v(x)dx

**Virtual Displacement δW Σi Pi δ∆i Σi Mi δθi
**

L

**Virtual Force δW ∗ Σi δPi ∆i Σi δMi θi
**

L

w(x)δv(x)dx

0 0

δw(x)v(x)dx

Table 13.3: Summary of Variational Terms Associated with One Dimensional Elements

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

Chapter 14

INELASTICITY (incomplete)

F ∆

t Creep

Figure 14.1: test

t Relaxation

Draft

–2

INELASTICITY (incomplete)

σ

σ

ε

Strain Hardening

ε σ

Relaxation

t ε

Creep

t

Perfectly Elastic

σ

ε σ σ

Relaxation

t

Creep

t

Viscoelastic

ε σ σ

ε ε

Rigid Perfectly Plastic Elastic Perfectly Plastic

ε

Relaxation

t

Creep

t

Elastoplastic Hardeing

Figure 14.2: mod1

σ 0

Ε ε η

Figure 14.3: v-kv

σ

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft

σ

0

Figure 14.4: visﬂ

–3

η

E ε

σ

E E1 σ

η

1

Ei En

σ

ηi η

n

Figure 14.5: visﬂ

Linear Elasticity Linear Visosity Nonlinear Viscosity Stress Threshold

σ

0

E

η

σ ε ε

λ .

σ=Ε ε . σ=ηε σ=λ ε

. 1/N

σ

0

σ

σ

0

ε σ σ

.

σ

0

ε σ ε

−σs < σ < sσ −ε s< ε < ε s

Strain Threshold

σ

0

Figure 14.6: comp

σ

0

E

σS

σ

Figure 14.7: epp

Victor Saouma

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

Draft –4 INELASTICITY (incomplete) E Ei σ 0 ε pi σSi σSj ε Em σ Ej Figure 14.8: ehs Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS Adapted from [?] 1) Simple Beam. Unsymmetric Triangular Load .Draft Appendix A SHEAR. uniform Load L x w L R L / 2 L / 2 R R Vx = V = w L −x 2 wL2 8 wx (L − x) 2 5 wL4 384 EI wx (L3 − 2Lx2 + x3 ) 24EI V at center Mmax = Shear V Mx ∆max = = = M max. ∆x Moment 2) Simple Beam.

1283W L Wx 2 (L − x2 ) 2 3L W L3 . Symmetric Triangular Load R=V for x < L 2 = = = = = W 3 2W 3 W x2 W − 2 3 L .Draft A–2 SHEAR.01304 EI W x3 (3x4 − 10L2 x2 + 7L4 ) 2 180EIL = = = = = = Vx at center Mmax for x < for x < L 2 L 2 Mx ∆x ∆max W 2 W (L2 − 4x2 ) 2 2L WL 6 1 2 x2 − Wx 2 3 L2 Wx (5L2 − 4x2 )2 480EIL2 W L3 60EI 4) Simple Beam. Concentrated Load at Center R1 w = = = = = Mmax wb (2c + b) 2L wb (2a + b) 2L R1 − w(x − a) R1 x w R1 x − (x − a)2 2 R2 (L − x) R1 R1 a + 2w Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .577L Mmax Mx at x = . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS R1 = V1 = Max R2 = V2 = Vx at x = .5193L ∆max ∆x 3) Simple Beam. Uniform Load Partially Distributed Max when a < c R1 = V1 = Max when a > c R2 = V2 = when a < x < a + b Vx when x < a Mx when a < x < a + b Mx when a + b < x Mx at x = a + 5) Simple Beam.

Draft max at x = when x < whenx < at x = L 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 A–3 R1 = V1 = R=V Mmax Mx ∆x ∆max = = = = = wa (2L − a) 2L 2P PL 4 Px 2 Px (3L2 − 4x2 ) 48EI P L3 48EI 6) Simple Beam. Two Equally Concentrated Unsymmetric Loads Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Concentrated Load at Any Point max when a < b R1 = V1 = max when a > b R2 = V2 = at x = a Mmax when x < a Mx at x = a ∆a when x < a ∆x at x = a(a+2b) 3 = = = = = & a > b ∆max Pb L Pa L P ab L P bx L P a2 b2 3EIL P bx (L2 − b2 − x2 ) 6EIL P ab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b) 27EIL 7) Simple Beam. Two Equally Concentrated Symmetric Loads R=V Mmax ∆max when x < a when a < x < L − a ∆x ∆x = P = Pa Pa = (3L2 − 4a2 ) 24EI Px = (3La − 3a2 − x2 ) 6EI Pa = (3Lx − 3x2 − a2 ) 6EI 8) Simple Beam.

Concentrated Load Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft A–4 SHEAR.4472L 11) Propped Cantilever. Uniform Load R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = Vx M1 M2 Mx Mx = = = = = P (L − a + b) L P (L − b + a) L P (b − a) L R1 a R2 b R1 x R1 x − P (x − a) R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = Vx Mmax at x = 3 L 8 M1 Mx ∆x at x = . Concentrated Load at Center 5P 16 11P 16 3P L 16 5P x 16 L 11x P − 2 16 P L3 . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS max when a < b max when b < a when a < x < L − b max when b < a max when a < b when x < a when a < x < L − b 9) Cantilevered Beam.009317 EI R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = at x = L when x < when L 2 L 2 Mmax Mx Mx ∆max = = = = <x at x = .4215L ∆max = = = = = = 3 wL 8 5 wL 8 R1 − wx wL2 8 9 wL2 128 wx2 R1 x − 2 wx (L3 − 3Lx+ 2x3 ) 48EI wL4 185EI 10) Propped Cantilever.

414L at x = L 3L2+a 2 −a 2 2 A–5 M1 M2 ∆a ∆max ∆max = = = = = when .414L < a at x = L 12) Beam Fixed at Both Ends.Draft R1 = V1 = R2 = V2 = at x = a at x = L at x = a L when a < . Triangular Unsymmetric Load Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . Uniform Load a 2L+a P b2 (a + 2L) 2L3 Pa (3L2 − a2 ) 2L3 R1 a P ab (a + L) 2L2 2 3 Pa b (3L + a) 12EIL32 P a (L − a2 )3 3EI (3L2 − a2 )2 a P ab2 6EI 2L + a2 R=V Vx at x = 0 and x = L at x = at x = L 2 L 2 = = = = = = Mmax M ∆max ∆x wL 2 L w −x 2 wL2 12 wL2 24 4 wL 384EI wx2 (L − x)2 24EI 13) Beam Fixed at Both Ends. Concentrated Load R=V at x = when x < at x = when x < L 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 = = = = = Mmax Mx ∆max ∆x P 2 PL 8 P (4x − L) 8 3 PL 192EI P x2 (3L − 4x) 48EI 14) Cantilever Beam.

Point Load ∆max = wL = wx wx2 = 2 wL2 = 2 w (x4 − 4L3 x + 3L4 ) = 24EI wL4 = 8EI at x = L when a < x at x = 0 at x = a when x < a when a < x 17) Cantilever Beam. Point Load at Free End R=V Mmax Mx ∆max ∆a ∆x ∆x = P = Pb = P (x − a) P b2 (3L − b) = 6EI 3 Pb = 3EI P b2 (3L − 3x − b) = 6EI P (L − x)2 (3b − L + x) = 6EI Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . MOMENT and DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS for BEAMS R=V Vx at x = L Mmax Mx ∆x at x = 0 15) Cantilever Beam. Uniform Load ∆max = = = = = = 8 W 3 2 x W 2 L WL 3 W x2 3L2 W (x5 − 5L2 x + 4L5 ) 60EIL2 W L3 15EI R=V Vx Mx at x = L Mmax ∆x at x = 0 16) Cantilever Beam.Draft A–6 SHEAR.

Concentrated Force and Moment at Free End R=V Mx at x = 0 and x = L at x = 0 Mmax ∆max ∆x = P L −x = P 2 PL = 2 P L3 = 12EI P (L − x)2 ((L + 2x) = 12EI Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft at x = L at x = 0 R=V Mmax Mx ∆max ∆x A–7 = P = PL = Px P L3 = 3EI P (2L3 − 3L2 x + x3 ) = 6EI 18) Cantilever Beam.

1. .Draft Appendix B SECTION PROPERTIES Section properties for selected sections are shown in Table B.

1: Section Properties Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .Draft B–2 Y x Y x SECTION PROPERTIES h y b Y a X A x y Ix Iy = = = = = bh b 2 h 2 bh3 12 hb3 12 h h’ y b’ b X A x y Ix Iy = bh − b h b = 2 h = 2 3 3 = bh −b h 12 3 3 = hb −h b 12 c Y x h y b X A y Ix = = = h(a+b) 2 h(2a+b) 3(a+b) h3 (a2 +4ab+b2 36(a+b) h A x y X Ix y Iy = = = = = b Y bh 2 b+c 3 h 3 3 bh 36 bh 2 36 (b − bc + c2 ) Y r X A = Ix = Iy = πr2 = πr 4 4 = πd2 4 πd4 64 t r X A = Ix = Iy = 2πrt = πdt 3 πr3 t = πd t 8 Y b X b a a A = Ix = Iy = πab πab3 3 πba3 4 Table B.

C. 24 u(x. 23 Letting u to be a family of neighbouring paths of the extremizing function u(x) and ˜ we assume that at the end points x = a. u )dx (3.1. Or. whereas variational calculus involves a function of a function.1 20 Euler Equation The fundamental problem of the calculus of variation1 is to ﬁnd a function u(x) such that b F (x. and F to be a known function (such as the energy density). or a functional. We seek the function u(x) which extremizes Π. 22 We deﬁne the domain of a functional as the collection of admissible functions belonging to a class of functions in function space rather than a region in coordinate space (as is the case for a function). C. δΠ = 0 where δ indicates the variation 21 (3.2) We deﬁne u(x) to be a function of x in the interval (a. Fig. .Draft Appendix C MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. b). b they coincide. We deﬁne u as the sum of the ˜ extremizing path and some arbitrary variation. u.3) calculus involves a function of one or more variable.1) Π= a is stationary. ε) = u(x) + εη(x) = u(x) + δu(x) ˜ 1 Diﬀerential (3. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS Abridged section from author’s lecture notes in finite elements.

7) 30 It can be shown (through integration by part and the fundamental lemma of the Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . du is associated with a neighboring point at a distance dx. its variation must be zero. we consider Π(u + εη) = Φ(ε) = b a 26 27 F (x.6) 29 From Eq. u u(x) C B u(x) du A dx x=a x=c x=b x Figure C.Draft C–2 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. 3. We note that u coincides with u if ε = 0 ˜ 25 The variational operator δ and the diﬀerential calculus operator d have clearly diﬀerent meanings. For boundaries where u is speciﬁed. and η(a) = η(b) = 0. ε) − u(x) ˜ = εη(x) (3. and it is arbitrary elsewhere.1: Variational and Diﬀerential Operators where ε is a small parameter.3 and applying the chain rule with ε = 0.4-b) and η(x) is twice diﬀerentiable. has undeﬁned amplitude. To solve the variational problem of extremizing Π. we obtain ˜ dΦ(ε) dε = ε=0 b a η ∂F ∂F +η ∂u ∂u dx = 0 (3. The variation δu of u is said to undergo a virtual change. however δu is a small arbitrary change in u for a given x (there is no associated δx). u + εη. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS u.4-a) (3.5) 28 Since u → u as ε → 0. the necessary condition for Π to be an extremum is ˜ dΦ(ε) dε =0 ε=0 (3. u + εη )dx (3. u = u. and δu(x) is the variation of u(x) δu = u(x.

x − ∂y ∂v.x. v.yy = 0 (3.x . equivalent to ﬁnding the extremal value of Π by setting dΦ(ε) dε ε=0 40 Similarly.12) 39 We have just shown that ﬁnding the stationary value of Π by setting δΠ = 0 is equal to zero.1 Euler Equation C–3 calculus of variation) that this would lead to ∂F d ∂F =0 − ∂u dx ∂u (3. and 2m times in the strong form). The Euler equations usually correspond to the governing diﬀerential equation and are referred to as the strong form (or classical form). u. 36 Euler equations are diﬀerential equations which can not always be solved by exact methods.10 describe the same problem. 32 Generalizing for a functional Π which depends on two ﬁeld variables. An alternative method consists in bypassing the Euler equations and go directly to the variational statement of the problem to the solution of the Euler equations. Introduction to Continuum Mechanics Victor Saouma . whereas the formulation of Finite Diﬀerences are based on the strong form. y) and v = v(x. v.8.xy + ∂y2 ∂v.Draft 31 C.x − ∂y ∂u.xy + ∂y2 ∂u.11) As above.yy )dxdy 2 2 2 (3. it can be shown that as with second derivatives in calculus.yy = 0 ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ 2 ∂F ∂2 ∂ 2 ∂F ∂F − ∂x ∂v. Finite Element formulation are based on the weak form. integration by parts of the second term yields δΠ = b a δu d ∂F ∂F − ∂u dx ∂u dx (3. 3. This classiﬁcation stems from the fact that equilibrium is enforced in an average sense over the body (and the ﬁeld variable is diﬀerentiated m times in the weak form. or Eq.xx + ∂x∂y ∂u. u. u = u(x. y. Finally. the second variation δ 2 Π can be used to characterize the extremum as either a minimum or maximum. 3.1 and 3.9 and 3. 34 35 The functional is referred to as the weak form (or generalized solution).9) There would be as many Euler equations as dependent ﬁeld variables ∂u ∂F ∂v ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂F ∂ ∂ ∂F − ∂x ∂u. v. · · · .y . y) Π= ∂F F (x. u.y + ∂x2 ∂u. v.10) 33 We note that the Functional and the corresponding Euler Equations.8) This diﬀerential equation is called the Euler equation associated with Π and is a necessary condition for u(x) to extremize Π.xx + ∂x∂y ∂v.y + ∂x2 ∂v.y . Eq. we still have to deﬁne δΠ δF = δΠ = ∂F ∂F δu + ∂u ∂u b a δF dx 37 38 δu δΠ = b a ∂F ∂F δu + δu ∂u ∂u dx (3.

[0.C. 2.xxx Table C. If we left η arbitrary.xx and V = EIw. we obtain b a ∂F ∂F η dx = η ∂u ∂u b − a b a η d ∂F dx dx ∂u (3. Nonessential (or Natural.7. albeit in a less formal way. or geometric) boundary conditions. These boundary conditions were already introduced. ﬁxed at left end and subjected to an axial force P at the right one is given by 2 L EA du dx − P u(L) (3. Mathematically.Draft C–4 41 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.1. m − 1] Natural B. involve derivatives of order m and up.x du dx Flexural Member Distributed load 4 EI d w − q = 0 dx4 2 w.1 illustrates the boundary conditions associated with some problems Problem Diﬀerential Equation m Essential B. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS Revisiting the integration by parts of the second term in Eq. involve derivatives of order zero (the ﬁeld variable itself) through m-1. cross sectional area A.C. 42 ∂F ∂u = 0 at x = a and For a problem with.14) Π= 2 dx 0 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . where u(a) = u(b) = 0. this corresponds to Dirichlet boundary-value problems. then we have Essential (or Forced. Trial displacement functions are explicitely required to satisfy this B. Derivation of the Euler equation required η(a) = η(b) = 0. dw dx d2 w d3 w dx2 and dx3 or M = EIw. modulus of elasticity E. 43 Table C. [m. is implied by the satisfaction of the variational statement but not explicitly stated in the functional itself. 2m − 1] Axial Member Distributed load 2 AE d u + q = 0 dx2 1 u or σx = Eu.C. These are the natural boundary conditions. or static) boundary conditions. one ﬁeld variable.C. then it would have been necessary to use b. in Table 9.1: Essential and Natural Boundary Conditions Example C-1: Extension of a Bar The total potential energy Π of an axial member of length L. thus this equation is a statement of the essential (or forced) boundary conditions. This B. in which the highest derivative in the governing diﬀerential equation is of order 2m (or simply m in the corresponding functional). Mathematically.13) We note that 1. this corresponds to Neuman boundary-value problems. 3.

u ) To evaluate the Euler Equation from Eq.16-b) The last term is zero because of the speciﬁed essential boundary condition which implies that δu(0) = 0.C.17) Natural Boundary Condition: EA Solution II We have EA F (x. u ) = 2 du dx du − P = 0 at x = L dx 2 (3. we obtain d ∂F ∂F − ∂u dx ∂u du d EA dx dx = 0 Euler Equation = 0 B.Draft C. (3.16-a) = − d du du δu EA dx + EA dx dx dx du dx x=0 − P δu(L) x=L = − EA δu(0) (3.8.21-a) (3.15) Integrating by parts we obtain δΠ = 0 L − L 0 d du du EA δudx + EA δu − P δu(L) dx dx dx 0 L (3.18) (3. u. 3. and obtain Euler Equation: − du d EA dx dx =0 0<x<L (3.21-b) Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .19) (note that since P is an applied load at the end of the member. u. Solution: Solution I The ﬁrst variation of Π is given by δΠ = 0 L EA du du 2 δ dx − P δu(L) 2 dx dx (3. substituting. L) and those for δu at x = L equal to zero separately. we set the coeﬃcients of δu between (0.1 Euler Equation C–5 Determine the Euler Equation by requiring that Π be a minimum.20-a) (3. it does not appear as part of F (x. Recalling that δ in an arbitrary operator which can be assigned any value. we evaluate ∂F ∂F =0 & = EAu ∂u ∂u Thus.

23-c) = = (EIw δw − pδw)dx L L 0 = (EIw δw )|0 − L [(EIw ) δw − pδw] dx L L 0 = (EIw δw )|0 − [(EIw ) δw]|0 + Or (EIw ) = −p Essential δw = 0 δw = 0 at x = 0 and x = L [(EIw ) + p] δwdx = 0 (3. Solution: Extending Eq.23-a) (3.11. 3. and integrating by part twice δΠ = 0 L δF dx = 0 L 0 L ∂F ∂F δw dx δw + ∂w ∂w (3.22) Derive the ﬁrst variational of Π.Draft C–6 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES. Part IV VARIATIONAL METHODS Example C-2: Flexure of a Beam The total potential energy of a beam is given by Π= 0 L 1 Mκ − pw dx = 2 L 0 1 (EIw )w − pw dx 2 (3.23-d) for all x which is the governing diﬀerential equation of beams and Natural or EIw = −M = 0 or (EIw ) = −V = 0 Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .23-b) (3.

Saouma Exam I (Closed notes). i. B(0.Draft Appendix D MID TERM EXAM Continuum Mechanics LMC/DMX/EPFL Prof. Select any problems you want as long as the total number of corresponding points is equal to or larger than 50. (2 pts) Write in matrix form the following 3rd order tensor Dijk in R2 space. March 27. 0. (4 pts) if the stress tensor at point P is given by 10 −2 0 σ = −2 4 1 0 1 6 determine the traction (or stress vector) t on the plane passing through P and parallel to the plane ABC where A(6. 3. k range from 1 to 2. j. 1. 3) of the plane that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x2 + x2 = 4 at P . (4 pts) The stress tensor throughout a continuum is given with respect to Cartesian axes as 3x1 x2 5x2 0 2 0 2x2 σ = 5x2 2 3 0 2x2 0 3 √ (a) Determine the stress vector (or traction) at the point P (2. 4. 2 3 . (5 pts) For a plane stress problem charaterized by the following stress tensor σ= 6 2 2 4 use Mohr’s circle to determine the principal stresses. 4. 0) and C(0. 0. 0). 1998 3 Hours There are 19 problems worth a total of 63 points. 1. 2). 5. 2. (2 pts) Solve for Eij ai in indicial notation. and show on an appropriate ﬁgure the orientation of those principal stresses.

x2 = X2 +AX3 . (b) Why is such a decomposition performed? 9.Draft D–2 n P MID TERM EXAM x3 x 2 2 1 3 x 1 (b) Are the stresses in equlibrium. 2 2 2 6. (2 pts) What is the diﬀerence between the tensorial and engineering strain (Eij . explain. satisfy equilibrium in the X1 direction? 13. and verify that J = F − I. 8. (4 pts) Linear and ﬁnite strain tensors can be decomposed into the sum or product of two other tensors. (a) Which strain tensor can be decomposed into a sum. (6 pts) Stress tensors: (a) When shall we use the Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensors? (b) What is the diﬀerence between Cauchy. and 2) Lagrangian tensor E. (2 pts) From which principle is the symmetry of the stress tensor derived? 14. i = j) ? 12. (2 pts) Why do we have a condition imposed on the strain ﬁeld (compatibility equation)? 10. and 2) 15 Unknowns in a thermoelastic formulation. γij . and which other one into a product. (2 pts) How is the First principle obtained from the equation of motion? 15. (4 pts) What are the 1) 15 Equations. does the following stress distribution x2 + ν(x2 − x2 ) −2νx1 x2 0 2 1 x x2 + ν(x2 − x2 ) 0 −2νx1 x2 1 2 1 2 2 0 0 ν(x1 + x2 ) where ν is a constant. 7. (3 pts) In the absence of body forces. ﬁrst and second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensors? (c) In which coordinate system is the Cauchy and Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensors expressed? 11. Determine: 1) Deformation (or Green) tensor C. determine the material deformation gradient F and the material displacement gradient J. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . (4 pts) A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 +AX2. (2 pts) A displacement ﬁeld is given by u = X1 X3 e1 + X1 X2 e2 + X2 X3 e3 . and x3 = X3 + AX1 where A is a constant.

Draft D–3 16. µ = 80 GPa. (a) Determine the engineering strain components (b) If a ﬁve centimer cube of structural steel is subjected to this stress tensor. (2 pts) What is free energy Ψ? 17. T11 T22 T33 T12 T23 T31 c1111 c1112 c2222 = c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212 SYM. (5 pts) If a plane of elastic symmetry exists in an anisotropic material. and ν = 0. (2 pts) What is the relationship between strain energy and strain? 18. (6 pts) The state of stress at a point of structural steel is given by 6 2 0 T = 2 −3 0 MP a 0 0 0 with E = 207 GPa. 19. what would be the change in volume? Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .3. 1 0 0 aj = 0 1 0 i 0 0 −1 show that under these conditions c1131 is equal to zero. c1123 c2223 c3323 c1223 c2323 c1131 c2231 c3331 c1231 c2331 c3131 E11 E22 E33 2E12 (γ12 ) 2E23 (γ23 ) 2E31 (γ31 ) then.

Draft D–4 MID TERM EXAM Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

(d) Recompute the three invariants from the principal stresses. . type rlogin mxsg1 5.Draft Appendix E MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION Connect to Mathematica using the following procedure: 1. The state of stress through a continuum is given with respect to the cartesian axes Ox1 x2 x3 by 3x1 x2 5x2 0 2 0 2x3 MPa Tij = 5x2 2 0 2x3 0 √ Determine the stress vector at point P (1. On the newly opened shell. and then type setenv DISPLAY xxx:0. login on an HP workstation 2. 2 3 2. For the following stress tensor 6 −3 0 Tij = −3 6 0 0 0 8 (a) Determine directly the three invariants Iσ . 3) of the plane that is tangent to the cylindrical surface x2 + x2 = 4 at P . enter your password ﬁrst. (c) Show that the transformation tensor of direction cosines transforms the original stress tensor into the diagonal principal axes stress tensor. IIσ and IIIσ of the following stress tensor (b) Determine the principal stresses and the principal stress directions. 6. Type mathematica & and then solve the following problems: 1. 1.0 where xxx is the workstation name which should appear on a small label on the workstation itself. Open a shell (window) 3. Type xhost+ 4.

x3 = X3 + AX2 where A is a constant. x2 = X2 + X3 (e2 − e−2 . x3 = X3 + AX2 where A is a constant. c1131 c2231 c3331 c1231 c2331 Introduction to Continuum Mechanics c3131 c1123 c2223 c3323 c1223 c2323 . A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 + 2X2 . 8. SHow that the Jacobian J does not vanish and determine the Eulerian equations describing this motion. (a) Compute the deformation tensor C (b) Use the computed C to determine the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor E. A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 . (d) Determine the pseudo stress vector associated with the second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor on the e1 plane in the deformed state. (b) Determine the corresponding second Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor. The Lagrangian description of a deformation is given by x1 = X1 + X3 (e2 − 1). 3. 5. 2 2 2 4. 9. A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = 4X1 . 7. the anisotropic stress-strain relation c1111 c1112 c2222 cAniso = ijkm Victor Saouma c1133 c1112 c2233 c2212 c3333 c3312 c1212 SYM. A continuum body undergoes the deformation x1 = X1 + AX2 . x3 = X3 (a) Determine the Green’s deformation tensor C (b) Determine the principal values of C and the corresponding principal directions. Show that in the case of isotropy. (d) Determine the right stretch tensor U and U−1 with respect to the ei basis. A displacement ﬁeld is given by u = X1 X3 e1 + X1 X2 e2 + X2 X3 e3 .Draft E–2 MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION (e) Split the stress tensor into its spherical and deviator parts. and x3 = e2 X3 where e is a constant. x2 = X2 + AX3 . (f) Show that the ﬁrst invariant of the deviator is zero. (c) Determine the pseudo stress vector associated with the ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor on the e1 plane in the deformed state. 6. x2 = X2 . x2 = − 1 X2 . Compute the deformation tensor C and use this to determine the Lagrangian ﬁnite strain tensor E. (c) COmpute the Eulerian strain tensor E∗ and compare with E for very small values of A. x2 = X2 + AX3 . x3 = − 1 X3 2 2 and the Cauchy stress tensor for this body is 100 0 0 Tij = 0 0 0 MPa 0 0 0 (a) Determine the corresponding ﬁrst Piola-Kirchoﬀ stress tensor. Determine independently the material deformation gradient F and the material displacement gradient J and verify that J = F − I. (e) Determine the orthogonal rotation tensor R with respect to the ei basis. (c) Determine the right stretch tensor U and U−1 with respect to the principal directions.

1) = E (1+ν)(1−2ν) 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 G εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) (5. and strains in terms of stress.z]]. and ﬁnally use the Laplacian (or Biharmonic) functions. 11. Determine the strain tensor at a point where the Cauchy stress tensor is given by 100 42 6 Tij = 42 −2 0 MPa 6 0 15 with E = 207 GPa. α = 5. b = 1 (c2222 − c2233 ). and SetCoordinates[Cylindrical[r. for plane stress and plane strain. and ν = 0.Draft E–3 reduces to c1111 ciso = ijkm c1133 0 0 0 c2233 0 0 0 c3333 0 0 0 a 0 0 SYM.2 GPa. b 0 c where the Lagrangian strain tensor is given 50 20 40 0 × 10−6 0 30 c1122 c2222 with a = 1 (c1111 − c1122 ). 15.3) 16.2) and then derive the relations between stresses in terms of strains. Show that the function Φ = f (r) cos 2θ satisﬁes the biharmonic equation ∇(∇Φ) = 0 Note: You must <<Calculus‘VectorAnalysis‘. Solve for Trr Trθ Trθ Tθθ = cos θ sin θ − sin θ cos θ σ0 0 0 0 cos θ sin θ − sin θ cos θ T (5. µ = 79.2 GPa. and c = 1 (c3333 − c1133 ). Determine the thermally induced stresses in a constrained body for a rise in temerature of 50oF .6 × 10−6 / 0F 13. If a point load p is applied on a semi-inﬁnite medium Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics . 14. Determine the stress tensor at a point by 30 Eij = 50 20 and the material is steel with λ = 119. deﬁne Φ.30 12.θ.2 GPa and µ = 79. 2 2 2 10. Show that the inverse of is σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx εxx εyy εzz γxy (2εxy ) γyz (2εyz ) γzx (2εzx ) 1 −ν 1 −ν = E 0 0 0 1−ν ν ν 0 −ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 ν 1−ν ν −ν −ν 1 0 0 0 ν ν 1−ν 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν 0 0 0 0 0 0 1+ν σxx σyy σzz τxy τyz τzx (5.

(contour) plot the magnitude of this stress below p.r].4) Determine the maximum principal stress at an y arbitrary point. Note that D[Φ. D[Φ.2}] would give the ﬁrst and second derivatives of Φ with respect to r and θ respectively.{θ.Draft E–4 MATHEMATICA ASSIGNMENT and SOLUTION p 1 r θ p show that for Φ = − π rθ sin θ we have the following stress tensors: − 2p cos θ π r 0 0 0 = θ − 2p sinπrcos − 2p cos πr 3 θ 2 θ θ − 2p sinπrcos θ 2 θ − 2p sinπr cos θ 2 (5. Victor Saouma Introduction to Continuum Mechanics .

structural mechanics notes

structural mechanics notes

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd