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Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 37, Nos. 8±12, pp. 383±392, 1998 Ó 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 0025-326X/99 $ - see front matter S0025-326X(99)00106-X
Rehabilitation of Mangrove Ecosystems: An Overview
C. D. FIELD Faculty of Science (Gore Hill), University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia The concept and goals of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation are considered and contrasted with ideas of ecosystem restoration. Three reasons for mangrove rehabilitation: conservation and landscaping; multiple use systems for high sustainable yield and protection of coastal areas, are then examined in detail. In each case, the underlying philosophy and limitations are presented. The practical problems of site selection for mangrove planting and techniques for regenerating mangroves are then considered. Some comments and data are then offered on mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation that is being carried out world-wide. Comment is made on the paucity of information. The practice and importance of monitoring and maintaining rehabilitated mangrove ecosystems is then presented. Finally, there is a discussion on the future management and research needs of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation. Ó 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved is still considerable uncertainty about the current global extent of mangrove areas. Spalding et al. (1997) estimate the current global extent of mangrove areas to be between 181,077 and 198,818 km2 and they discuss the problems in arriving at these estimates. As an example of the rate of disappearance of mangrove areas, it has been estimated (Plathong, 1998) that the mangrove area in Southern Thailand has declined by 48% between 1961 and 1996. That is from 3679 to 1905 km2 . Farnsworth and Ellison (1997) discuss various conservation issues concerning mangrove ecosystems and they conclude that more information and education needs to be disseminated at the local level. As human populations have risen, the shortage of productive land in underdeveloped countries has resulted in mangrove swamps being converted for agricultural purposes and the provision of ®sh and shrimp ponds for commercial production. Often the reclaimed land has proved unsuitable and today it lies derelict. This degradation of mangrove ecosystems has prompted a world-wide movement to plant new areas of mangroves. Another impetus behind the rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems is the spectacular rise of environmental consciousness over the past thirty years. The politics of the environmental movement has been felt worldwide but probably is driven by thinking in the developed countries, with accompanying legal and ®nancial support for conservation. As an example, in the United States a number of state laws and local ordinances have been enacted for the protection of mangroves as a result of the actions of the adversarial environmental movement. The pressure from environmental activists for more conservation, sustainable use of ecosystems and the protection of biodiversity has been unremitting and its in¯uence on governments around the world profound. The work of such activists is sometimes in con¯ict with the desires of communities for greater freedom of choice in the development of their own environment. The result is an uneasiness between the doctrines of liberalism and Green politics. This unease is present in the debate about the rationales for rehabilitating coastal ecosystems.
Mangroves, those predominantly tropical trees and shrubs growing on sheltered coastlines, mud¯ats and river banks in many parts of the world, belong to a variety of plant families. The common characteristic they all possess is tolerance to salt and brackish waters. There are some seventy known mangrove species. Only relatively few mangrove species have been used in rehabilitation projects. The amount of literature on mangroves and mangrove ecosystems is impressive. A number of recent texts give an overview of mangrove distribution, mangrove research, mangrove ecology and mangrove management such as: IUCN (1983), Tomlinson (1986), Hutchings and Saenger (1987), Robertson and Alongi (1992), FAO (1994), Field (1995,1996), Spalding et al. (1997). In recent years the pressures of increasing population, food production, industrial and urban development, and wood chipping have caused a reduction in the worldÕs mangrove resource. It is dicult to quantify the global rate of disappearance of mangrove forests. Indeed, there
Hence. 1994). cultural. frost. lightning. On the other hand. hurricanes. However. most . its original condition. The establishment of criteria for the success of the rehabilitation process must be a priority. It is vital to understand that there is a fundamental dierence in the way that ecologists and land use managers use these concepts. 1992. These are normally linked to speci®c activities or combinations of activities. economic or ecological value than existed in the disturbed or degraded state. which can be measured in terms of the amount of labour. or the substitution of alternative qualities or characteristics than those originally present with proviso that they have more social. resources and material that were used. topographical and hydrological changes to the site. as nearly as possible. changes to neighbouring ecosystems and the goals of the rehabilitation programme. Mangrove ecosystems are very dynamic and their growth and decline often re¯ect the changing conditions of the coastal environment in which they grow. This is because they require the ¯exibility to respond to immediate pressures and are wary of being obsessed with recapturing the past. indeed. Sea-level changes. if any. Indeed. There are three main criteria for judging the success of a mangrove rehabilitation programme. In the case of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation. social. Such forests have peculiar ecological characteristics that disappear when the forests are logged and converted to younger states. 1996). political. A number of factors may in¯uence the similarity of the rehabilitated mangrove ecosystem with any mangrove ecosystem that may have previously occupied the site. aesthetic and moral aspects. sustainable production of natural resources and protection of coastal areas. In the present context. few. Whether a mangrove stand reaches an oldgrowth stage depends on the dynamics of the coastal system under which it grows. There is a growing literature on the ideas of restoration ecology (National Research Council (US). the eectiveness and eciency are only sometimes quanti®ed and the recruitment of ¯ora and fauna rarely quanti®ed. and the eciency of rehabilitation. It is essential that goals be de®ned as a ®rst step in the rehabilitation process. Restoration is seen as a special case of rehabilitation. restoration ecology is hailed as a new paradigm for biological conservation (Turner.Marine Pollution Bulletin The Concept of Rehabilitation of a Mangrove Ecosystem In order to consider the rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems it is necessary to de®ne the term clearly. Any attempt to restore the structure and function of a mangrove forest may prove elusive and impractical. 384 A prime task is to ascertain whether the mangrove ecosystem needs to be rehabilitated or. This contention is supported by consideration of old growth forests. natural variability of the mangrove ecosystem. Likewise it has been agreed that restoration of an ecosystem is the act of bringing an ecosystem back into. if it can be rehabilitated. Higgs (1997) argues that apart from biological considerations restoration ecology should include historical. Approaches to Mangrove Rehabilitation There are three main reasons for mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation: conservation of a natural system and landscaping. of the ideas of restoration ecology have had any impact in dealing with degraded mangrove forests. though at times it can arise because of climatic impacts that have destroyed the natural vegetation. In some parts of the United States old-growth has become a criteria for the preservation of the forests. Lugo (1997) argues that no single stand of mangroves will have all the characteristics of old-growth and even when many of the characteristics are present it does not assure that the stand is oldgrowth. 1995). which can be considered as the closeness to which the new mangrove ecosystem meets the original goals of the rehabilitation programme. Ecologists rarely discuss rehabilitation but prefer the term ecological restoration. ®res and anthropogenic disturbances can all alter mangrove growth. Goals of Rehabilitation The need for rehabilitation of a mangrove ecosystem implies that the area under consideration has been altered or degraded in a way that con¯icts with de®ned management or conservation objectives.. more rarely. local climatic changes. the rate of recruitment of ¯ora and fauna. A recent de®nition of ecological restoration is that it is the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the diversity and dynamics of indigenous systems (Jackson et al. land use managers are concerned primarily with rehabilitation and are not much concerned with ecological restoration. rehabilitation is often the result of competition for land use. Hobbs and Norton. Goals determine the rehabilitation process and help identify the elements which must be included to provide the project with a clear framework for operation and implementation. The degree to which the original ecosystem is rehabilitated may vary in each case. Conservation and landscaping If a degraded mangrove ecosystem is being rehabilitated for conservation or landscaping purposes. These include genetic changes in the populations. which can be considered to be a measure of how quickly the rehabilitated site recovers its integrity. the editors agree that rehabilitation of an ecosystem be de®ned as the act of partially or. fully replacing structural or functional characteristics of an ecosystem that have been diminished or lost. It is concluded that old-growth mangrove stands are an improbable state and that they can revert to younger stages. These are the eectiveness of the planting.
In such endeavours involving a mangrove ecosystem. If a mangrove forest is disturbed by logging. Sustainable production of natural products seeks to avoid environmental disasters in the short and long term and to encourage preservation of the natural system as much as possible. there are con¯icting goals to be considered. the value of focusing the purpose of nature conservation on biodiversity can be queried. wildlife sanctuaries and internationally protected sites. Much of the opposition to using mangrove ecosystems for the yield of natural products stems from the belief that the survival of the ecosystem will be inevitably compromised. Even without any disturbance by people. 1997). Davie and Hynes (1997) cite two examples of mangrove conservation in Indonesia. stocking procedures. However. They also maintain that the accommodation and maintenance of ecological processes should be an over-riding factor in achieving sustainable conservation management: not just a species focus. to something like its original state. In turn. it is interesting to note that the relationship between changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function is not easily quanti®ed in mangrove ecosystems despite the extensive pool of information (Twilley et al. for sound ecological reasons. economic eciency and equity for the local community. They argue that the conservation of ecological processes to maintain arboreal habitat. This implies careful management and perturbation of the ecosystem without loss of productivity. rather than its parts. national parks. It does mean that a different ecosystem may emerge that will mean a high sustainable yield of natural products. There are also examples of mangrove planting following damage from an oil spill that constitutes aorestation for conservation purposes (Duke. The necessary requirement is knowledge of the processes essential to developing and supporting the productivity of the system as a whole. Unfortunately. density of trees and numbers of animals will almost certainly change. The most common method of conserving mangrove ecosystems is by the creation of protected areas in undisturbed sites. as the mix of species. This will help meet the demands of people unable to maintain a living today and of the many more such people that will exist in the future. However. These are the preservation of environmental integrity. In the United Arab Emirates there has been landscaping of arid coastal regions using Avicennia marina. In mangrove rehabilitation of this type the subsequent level of practical management is often very low and quanti®cation of the success of the rehabilitation rarely goes much beyond assessment of the growth of the trees. This approach confronts the rigidity of restoration ecology. Rehabilitation only becomes necessary where the mangrove land has been degraded or aected by the utilization of the land. 1996). 1995). they argue that the integration of human use and opportunities for social and economic development is appropriate. As examples of the ¯exibility of approach that can be built into conservation programmes. They believe that nature conservation practice should stand within a context of multiple land use. short-term and greedy management practices. nutrition. In addition. 1996) where mangrove rehabilitation is usually conducted in a legal context for ecological reasons relating to ®sheries and wild life. This type of rehabilitation often has the goal of restoring the productivity of the land without undue 385 . a term that they see as jargon. Davie and Hynes (1997) question why biodiversity. they argue.. In one area. should be paramount in the thinking of conservationists and argue that conservation should be more inclusive of community participation. Multiple use systems for high and sustainable yield Mangrove ecosystems can be managed as multiple use systems for the high and sustainable yield of natural products. However. The conservation of biological diversity is central to dogma of the international conservation community. that people and development activities should be excluded. 1996) and shrimp production (Robertson and Phillips. In the other. Bunaken National Park. disease control and harvesting. However. Pantai Timur Mangrove Nature Reserve. water and the fertility of soil may better integrate nature conservation into other land uses. Examples of the use of mangrove ecosystems for sustainable yield of natural products are timber and charcoal production (Chan. The approach to rehabilitation in such cases is essentially that of classical land management. mangroves are very dynamic systems and tend to decline and ¯ourish as a result of slight changes in the natural environment. This is usually achieved through the establishment of nature reserves. If there is to be intensive and selective use of mangrove forests then specialist knowledge needs to be acquired for plants and animals in areas such as genetics. 1996). with forestry or animal husbandry of a specialized kind based on the understanding of the ecology of the natural system. it is unlikely that the forest will be regenerated. there are few examples of mangroves being rehabilitated for the sole purpose of recreating a conservation or landscaped area. this does not mean that the modi®ed ecosystem is not sustainable.Volume 37/Numbers 8±12/August±December 1998 ecological processes must be maintained and as much genetic diversity preserved as possible. many of the attempts to utilize mangrove ecosystems in this way have ended in disaster as a result of poor. this knowledge needs to be supported by appropriate technology and suitable legislation. soil type. this should not lead to the conclusion that mangrove ecosystems cannot be managed to deliver high yields of natural products on a sustainable basis. It is perceived as pivotal to nature conservation as species extinction threatens not only the idealised Western view of nature but depletes the genetic resources that are essential for continued human prosperity (Davie and Hynes. either naturally or arti®cially. Most examples occur in the United States (Snedaker and Biber.
If the area to be rehabilitated is subject to signi®cant wave action and erosion then barriers can be erected to protect the site while at the same time allowing natural tidal inundation. The greatest chance of success of the rehabilitation programme is provided if adjacent sites are fully functional in an ecologically compatible fashion. The extent to which growth of mangroves is controlled by the presence or absence of nutrients is not at all clear (Clough. lack of intra-and inter-agency collaboration: con¯icts and inequity within the local community and impacts from major development projects not foreseen at the commencement of the programme. This may involve activities such as reducing environmental stress. On the other hand. Protection of coastal areas The planting of mangroves along coastlines damaged by cyclones and tidal bores occurs in countries such as Vietnam. sites may be graded to adjust the depth of tidal ¯ooding prior to planting but such preparation is rare. Another . Sonneratia apetala and Avicennia ocinalis. Some amount of sedimentation on the site may help stabilize the seedlings but excessive sedimentation may sti¯e all growth. adding material and changing site conditions. No mangrove grows optimally under conditions of hypersalinity though many species can survive. The identi®cation of such problems is a healthy sign that they can be overcome but there are important lessons to be learnt from such experiences. Nowhere else have mangroves been planted on such a large scale. must be stable and non-eroding and of sucient depth to support planting. All too often such well-meaning projects do more for the sponsors than the recipients with not unexpected resentment amongst the local villagers. The tolerance to salinity varies widely between the mangrove species. China and Bangladesh. usually as monospeci®c stands. naturally regenerating seedlings (wildlings) or scattered growth of grasses indicate that the site may be ®t for aorestation. mangrove forests are best developed on low energy muddy shorelines. quality and timing of water entering the site. salinities in the hypersaline region pose problems for all mangroves as it mirrors the condition of drought in terrestrial plants. Essential characteristics are that the soil.Marine Pollution Bulletin regard to how the restored ecosystem compares with the original one. In Bangladesh (Saenger and Siddiqi. The presence of seagrasses. 1997).000 ha of mangroves have been planted since 1966. 1992). such as expatriate advisors and local academics and the local villagers. These can be expensive processes. This means selecting a relatively shallow region where the plants are exposed to the air for reasonable periods of time. In rehabilitating a site. muddy or clayey. The topography of the site is critical in determining the success of the rehabilitation project and some degree of gentle slope is essential for proper drainage. An understanding of the cause of the initial degradation of the chosen site is essential as this may require a remedy. Mangroves are generally shallow rooted and so the physical and chemical properties of the top soil are probably more important than those at greater depth. The goals of the rehabilitation will in¯uence the site selection. In some planting programmes. dominate the mangrove plantations. The rate of sedimentation is an important factor to measure. it is important to consider the status of adjacent sites. The requirement for fresh water may seem strange as mangroves are considered to be halophytes but while some mangroves do not seem to thrive in non-saline conditions others grow well in only slightly brackish conditions. The hydrology of the site is also of great importance as it controls the quantity. lack of motivation among the local community. the supervisors of the project. It is vital that young plants are inundated regularly by the tide but not to the extent that they are drowned. where there is an extensive suitable intertidal zone with an abundant supply of ®ne grain sediment. as young seedlings cannot withstand strong winds or ®erce currents. In this case the mangroves were planted on newly accreted land. as tide height is a critical factor in determining survival. Generally. Some of the problems that can arise in these programmes can be illustrated by reference to a project concerned with community participation in mangrove forest management and rehabilitation in Southern Thailand (Wetlands International Asia-Paci®c. if there are highly degraded areas close to the rehabilitation site they may adversely in¯uence the success of the rehabilitation programme. This is because seedlings are susceptible to physical damage from ¯otsam and are subject to physiological stress if submerged for too long. Intertidal position can be of great importance for the survival of mangrove seedlings. 386 whether it is sandy. Such arti®cially constructed mangrove forests seem highly bene®cial but little attempt has been made to study their ecology. The planting of mangroves has been highly successful in protecting and stabilizing coastal areas and in providing substantial timber production. Mangroves are most luxuriant in areas of high rainfall or abundant fresh water supply. However. Two species of mangrove. 1993) 120. The main objective is to increase primary productivity. It is also important that planting sites are sheltered. Speci®c Considerations When Rehabilitating Mangrove Ecosystems Site selection for mangrove planting It is dicult to generalize about the selection of a planting site for mangroves in a rehabilitation programme as it will depend on local conditions and the mangrove species to be planted. Problems include major dierences between the sponsors of the project.
Recent studies (Smith. mining or timber harvesting or the site may be a newly accreted mud¯at. less labour is required. a depletion of soil organic matter. poor soil conditions or disturbed hydrodynamics of the site. If the site is on drier marginal land. weed species such as Finlaysonia maritima and Acanthus ilicifolius sti¯ed the growth of planted seedlings and in abandoned shrimp farms and mining areas attacks by crabs caused seedling mortality of some 10% (JAM. It is likely such land will be highly acidic due to the oxidation of iron sulphides in the soil and that there may be toxic levels of aluminium in the soil. 1997). It remains to be established if disused shrimp ponds can be rehabilitated (Stevenson. If the planting site is an area where mangroves have been clear felled. such as encasing the seedlings in protective structures. the sites may be highly saline. infestations by barnacles retarded the growth of seedlings planted on newly accreted mud¯ats and death often resulted. 1997). In Thailand. less soil disturbance results and the seedlings establish more vigorously. This will determine the canopy structure of the site selected. propagules or seedlings in areas where there is insucient natural regeneration. special precautions. Arti®cial regeneration Arti®cial regeneration involves planting of seeds. This procedure has proved to be dicult and expensive in Malaysia and Indonesia. Also. but one that is essential for nearly all mangrove rehabilitation projects. in degraded mangrove forests. is the involvement and support of the local community. usually for timber and charcoal production. poor natural regeneration may be due to weed competition. Planting mangroves Two approaches can be used in the planting of degraded mangrove areas: natural regeneration and arti®cial regeneration. it is necessary to ensure that the soil is well ¯ushed by the incoming tides and by fresh water from rain run-o. very little preparation of the planting site is necessary but the site must be cleared of all debris such as coconut or banana trunks. Apart from a lack of seeds and propagules. a decrease in soil water storage capacity. The mix of species regenerated is regulated by the species that occur locally. 1992) have shown that the consumption of mangrove propagules by crabs may greatly aect mangrove regeneration and in¯uence the distribution of certain species across the intertidal zone. a reduction in the biodiversity of soil fauna. unless there has been severe imposed selection of available propagules. In order to remove the toxic chemicals and to restore the natural soil condition. for Rhizophora stands. 1997). extremely low in oxygen and virtually devoid of essential chemical elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus. A ®nal consideration. vegetation cover may be negligible and the exposure to solar radiation may be intense. unless there is irrefutable evidence that it will be unsuccessful.Volume 37/Numbers 8±12/August±December 1998 factor that needs to be taken into account is whether the mangrove species to be planted is shade tolerant or not. leaves. There are several advantages in natural regeneration but the prime one is that the resulting forest is likely to be more akin to the original mangrove vegetation. It must be accepted that people have the responsibility to say what sort of landscape they want to live in. It has been advocated that. One technique is to transplant seedlings (wildings) to a new location. the number of seed-bearing trees should be about 12 trees per hectare (FAO. Also the soil conditions may ¯uctuate wildly. Generally. Other advantages of natural regeneration are that it is cheap to establish. In such cases. In many instances the outcome of the rehabilitation programme will be determined directly by interaction with the local people and not by a desire for ecological restoration. The pressure of the local population will determine the structure and function of the mangrove ecosystem that supports them. If the degraded site is a disused shrimp pond there may be accelerated soil erosion due to increased surface run-o. Natural regeneration This method uses naturally occurring propagules or seeds of mangroves as the source for regeneration. If it does. 1994). such as abandoned paddy ®elds. then it may be infested by the Acrostichum fern. The form of the rehabilitated site will largely depend on the activities of the local population. In some parts of the world monkeys can also be a problem. Another technique is to collect ripe seeds or propagules and to plant them directly into the site. Such environmental conditions provide extremely dicult habitats and there are very few ecological studies that can provide any assistance on how to approach planting mangroves on such sites or how to ensure the reappearance of fauna. bamboo and tree branches. It is therefore important to carry out some preliminary studies of the proposed site to see if predatory animals pose a signi®cant risk. If this technique is employed it is essential that there is an adequate supply of seeds or propagules and this is usually achieved by ensuring that a number of seed-bearing trees are present in the area. may need to be taken when planting. now and in the future (Davie and Hynes. excessive amounts of debris. However. then some detailed land preparation may be required. Natural regeneration of mangroves should be the ®rst choice of any rehabilitation programme. An alternative is to 387 . mangrove rehabilitation is sometimes undertaken on extremely degraded sites that are the result of shrimp farming. the presence of acid sulphate soils and the addition of toxic chemicals. In such cases it is important to clear the site extensively as the presence of Acrostichum will inhibit the establishment of the required tree species.
Indonesia. mangrove replanting programmes. or are supporting. the Asian Development Bank. the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). In Vietnam. There is a real need for an archival system to be established where reports on mangrove rehabilitation can be lodged and accessed easily by interested people. One must suspect a great duplication of eort. The data on the area of mangroves planted are mainly based on a number of local reports and personal knowledge. such as a paucity of available propagules. It is interesting to note that the number of species that have been planted in rehabilitation projects represents only about thirty percent of the total number of mangrove species that are known to exist. World-Wide Mangrove Ecosystem Rehabilitation Activities The number of mangrove rehabilitation programmes world-wide is extensive. the plantings have been on degraded areas caused by clear felling. the causes are similar but have been compounded by the devastating eects of the recent wars. under nursery conditions and then to transplant them to the ®eld. the main mangrove species utilized. The response was almost complete silence. the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). It is clearly cheaper to collect seeds and propagules and to plant them directly but there are conditions where it may be dicult to achieve regeneration by this method. normally the method of choice. as it . (1997). The Internet may oer a partial solution. They include bureaucratic sloth. middle or landward. a more organized system needs to established by one of the international agencies. Similar observations will determine the soil type required and the best tidal inundation regime. In an attempt to get an overview of the work being undertaken internationally in the sphere of mangrove rehabilitation. the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). UNEP. UNEP. however. such as seaward. In addition there is probably very little external critical analysis of the worth of many of the projects and few of the results are ever published in refereed journals. One is left with the impression that there are several reasons for this dearth of information. Only nine of these twenty countries have planted more than 10 km2 since 1970. In practice. genetically improved stock can be introduced. can be determined by observation of the common mangrove species occurring naturally in local sites. It would be necessary to have much more re®ned data if the scale of rehabilitation activities is to be fully analysed. There are advantages to arti®cial regeneration: the species composition and the distribution of seedlings can be controlled. Wetlands International. The selection of mangroves to be planted is generally determined by three factors in decreasing order of importance: the mangrove species occurring naturally in the locality of the aorestation site. It is not. the goals of the projects. Included in this list are the European Union. shrimp ponds and population pressure. Table 1 gives a summary of the countries that have undertaken some form of mangrove rehabilitation. In this way the afforestation process can be given the best chance of success. numerous international organizations have. The Philippines and Vietnam stand out as the countries that have put most eort into the rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems.Marine Pollution Bulletin raise seedlings. One of the challenges is to gauge how successful rehabilitation projects have been and what lessons have been learnt from failures. most of the planting has been in the form of aorestation on newly accreted land. the availability of seeds or propagules. the Save the Children fund and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). several of these organizations were approached for information and. In Indonesia and The Philippines. In the case of Bangladesh. This information is by necessity not exhaustive as such information is not readily available. Bangladesh. or riverine upstream or down-stream. it is often ecacious to plant initially small patches of mixed mangrove species in soil that has been specially prepared. or small trees. the World Bank. Details of planting procedures in various rehabilitation and afforestation projects around the world and a summary of the pests that can be encountered are given in Field (1996). Most of the information is taken from Field (1996) and Spalding et al. 388 Of the ninety or so countries around the world that contain mangrove vegetation only some twenty have attempted any form of mangrove replanting. and the objective of the planting programme. Such ®gures should be taken as being only indicative. inadequate dissemination mechanisms and a myopic view of the general importance of rehabilitation programmes. dicult or pest-infested sites can be more easily restored. if possible. However. in concert with other agencies. It is clearly impossible to carry out such a critical review without access to the myriad of reports that must be hidden in the archives of the many sponsoring agencies. copies of relevant reports so that some evaluation of the scale and success of such programmes could be undertaken. the extent of the mangrove area rehabilitated and the area of mangrove naturally occurring. It is important that individual species should be planted within their speci®c tidal and ¯ooding range. UNESCO. the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). The zone in which the mangroves should be planted. Apart from national governments. proprietary reluctance to reveal important ®ndings. Such adverse conditions may warrant the use of nursery raised seedlings. The result is that there are many mangrove rehabilitation programmes being carried out without any reference to lessons that might be learnt from other similar programmes. This list is no doubt very incomplete but it re¯ects personal knowledge of their activities.
R.2 >440 <0. apiculata A. tagal and Nypa fruticans R. apiculata.1 ± >0. 389 . Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus A. K. and R. mucronata. marina Rehabilitation of degraded areas Protection of lagoons and estuaries Timber and charcoal production. apiculata. gymnorrhiza A. apetala. germinans. candel. S.5 >100 >400 >50 >20 >20 <0. mucronata and R.E Kandelia candel R. and A. sea dike protection and mixed shrimp farming-mangrove areas Landscaping * After 1970. R. Ceriops decandra.1 <0. timber production and ®rewood production Rehabilitation of degraded areas and timber production Panama Philippines Sierra Leone Sri Lanka Thailand USA Vietnam U. mangle. timber production Enhancement of natural regeneration Sustained yield of forest products. and R. Avicennia ocinalis and Heritiera fomes Rhizophora racemosa and Rhizophora mangle China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Rehabilitation of degraded areas Rehabilitation of degraded areas. Avicennia germinans. mucronata. and Rhizophora apiculata Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. stylosa.A. mangle R. mucronata R.4 >530 <0. C. Rhizophora stylosa. apiculata. marina. racemosa and R. A. R. caseolaris and Nypa fruticans A. mucronata. Aim(s) of planting programme <1 >1200 <0.1 >110 <0. candel. apiculata R. mucronata. R. Sonneratia caseolaris. marina. R. racemosa and C. ocinalis. corniculatum R. R. mucronata R. mangle. rehabilitation Rehabilitation of natural areas Rehabilitation of degraded areas. and B. R. Ceriops tagal. L. apiculata and R. Avicennia alba.1 <0.TABLE 1 General information on mangrove rehabilitation projects. Rhizophora mucronata.1 <0.1 Area of mangrove planted (km2 )Ã Area of natural mangrove (km2 ) 9695 5767 69 366 3659 370 7848 6700 45. coastal protection Rehabilitation of degraded areas and introduction in new locations Coastal protection Rehabilitation of a national park Timber production Barriers to erosion. apiculata. erectus R. C. ocinalis. apiculata. S. R. K. mangle R. mangle R. mucronata.421 6424 3444 1683 1814 1607 1695 80 2641 1990 2525 30 Country Main mangrove species planted Volume 37/Numbers 8±12/August±December 1998 Australia Bangladesh Benin Avicennia marina and Aegiceras corniculatum Sonneratia apetala. rehabilitation of degraded areas and timber India Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Pakistan Rehabilitation after an oil spill Rehabilitation of degraded areas Timber and charcoal production Rehabilitation of degraded areas. mangle Rhizophora harrisonii and R. decandra. R. A.stylosa.
As yet. A summary of monitoring and maintenance activities is given in Table 2. such measurements have not been attempted in rehabilitated mangrove ecosystems. Field. on the intrinsic structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. law enforcement The degree of thinning. Mangrove ecologists tend to be concerned primarily with the intrinsic nature of their research rather than in initiating the use of their ®ndings in the management of mangrove rehabilitation projects. the heterogeneity of the system. The annual increments of these parameters should be determined Determinations could include: stem structure. 1997). ®sh ponds and ®shing Comment Eective way of getting an over view Checks correctness of original provenance of propagules and seeds. An exception to this is the use of molecular markers in assessing polymorphism in mangrove species (Lakshmi et al. In the same period. 1994. Underwood (1995) points out that ecologists should not be too eager to con®ne their eorts solely to the provision of sound ecological advice but should be prepared to have more say in the way the advice and data are used.g. For large aorestation projects up to 30 yr may be necessary. in a comprehensive review of studies on mangroves in China. Such studies will provide much needed information TABLE 2 Monitoring and maintenance of mangrove rehabilitation projects. much mangrove research is done in isolation from the needs of the managers of the rehabilitation projects. Experience dictates that such co-operation will remain elusive. Monitoring and Maintenance of Rehabilitated Mangrove Ecosystems Once a mangrove rehabilitation programme has been completed. e. Mis-identi®cation of seeds and propagules can lead to failure Common measurements are: density of seedlings or trees (no. There is an urgent need to study the failures of mangrove ecosystem management. Likewise. If rehabilitated mangrove ecosystems are to be contrasted with naturally occurring ones then comparative measurements of productivity. there has been an explosion of scienti®c papers on mangrove biology and ecology.Marine Pollution Bulletin would require considerable resources to establish and maintain it.: fencing. phenology. 1996). Likewise. These activities are similar to those that would be normally undertaken in any forestry programme. Discussion There are many mangrove rehabilitation projects with various aims that have been undertaken in the last few years or that are currently underway (JAM. for that matter. There is a paucity of ecological studies on heavily degraded mangrove ecosystems and little attempt to extrapolate ecological ®ndings from normally functioning mangrove ecosystems to those existing under stressed conditions. the structure of the plants and soil. replanting or natural regeneration should be noted in detail. Action Take regular aerial photographs of the site Monitor mangrove species that develop Monitor growth as a function of time Monitor growth characteristics Record Record Record Record level of failure of seedlings impact of pests and diseases level of rubbish accumulation impact of grazing. Three to ®ve years is often speci®ed as the monitoring period in small-scale rehabilitation programmes but more realistically ten years should be the monitoring period. cutting. This seldom happens. Li and Lee (1997) recommend that more attention should be paid to management issues as they represent more critical areas of concern than purely ecological processes.. there is a need to do research that will enhance mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation. of trees haÀ1 ). diameter at breast height (DBH) (cm). Indeed. There is a lack of innovative research programmes that focus on the problems of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation and. 1996) the composition of species present. Growth should be monitored The estimation of cost should include all aspects of the undertaking including the purchase of land and any legal costs This should be part of any long-term record of a rehabilitation project This involves detailed measurements of the fauna. fruiting and resistance to pests Provide a scienti®c reason for lack of success Note nature of pests and diseases and steps taken to eradicate the problem Note source of rubbish and steps taken to minimize the problem Note source of such external pressures and the steps taken to minimize the problems. There is a need for applied ecological research aimed at testing the decisions made when rehabilitating mangroves. height (m) and volume (m3 haÀ1 ). it is essential to monitor progress and to maintain the site. ¯ora and physical environment of the new mangrove ecosystem and comparison with nearby similar undisturbed mangrove ecosystems This is rarely done but is an essential outcome Adjust density of seedlings and saplings to an optimum level Estimate cost of rehabilitation project Monitor impact of any harvesting Assess characteristics of a rehabilitated mangrove ecosystem Measure the success of the rehabilitation project against the original criteria that were established 390 . the performance of basic ecological processes and the dynamics and resilience of the system. node production. If one is interested in monitoring the restoration of a whole mangrove ecosystem then one would have to measure (Hobbs and Norton. movement of organic matter and organization of the food chain will have to be carried out as well.
(1993) Land from the sea: the mangrove aorestation program of Bangladesh. N. E. and Ellison. C. Chan. Newly created mangrove ecosystems may or may not resemble the structure and function of undisturbed mangrove ecosystems but information about their sustainability is important. pp. A.. Field. (1997) Integrating nature conservation and sustainable rural management. C. Conservation Biology 11(1). DC. R. 1121±1127. Japan. For example. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. Publication of JAM. Australia. Lugo. many mangrove ecosystems are rehabilitated with little attention paid to the reappearance of the fauna. A. pp. R. Field. Okinawa. In Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. 241±259. (1992) Primary productivity and growth of mangrove forests. eds. C. it is vital to stress the importance of identifying the aims of carrying out a rehabilitation programme and to integrate such aims with the welfare of the local communities dependent on the mangrove ecosystem for sustenance. I. 64±75. A. mangrove forest. Hutchings. Rajalakshmi. Cambridge University Press. p. Minneapolis. Snedaker. D. S Davie. Hillyard. Y. In Commission on Ecology Papers No. J. Lukhine. A great deal of wasted eort and money can result if this is not done.. Washington. Medina.. (1997) Hydrologic restoration of coastal wetlands. DC. ed. American Geophysical Union. Gland. P. Forest Ecology and Management 96. pp. A. In Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions: a Global Perspective. (1996) Mangrove reforestation in Panama. Parida. Turner. Publication No 5. Field. 388. (1997) What is good ecological restoration? Conservation Biology 11(2). 71±75. and Norton. 327±370. 207±232. C. (1994) The invented landscape. eds. Davie. 328±334. There is. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 41. Robertson. American Geophysical Union. 311±321. B. M. 391 . International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. S. Jackson. In Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. Tokyo. C.. Smith. 170±188. F. S. 225±249. Turner. A. P.. J. (1997) Mangroves of China: a brief review. S. Phillips. J. De Luce and C. FAO Rome. 423±425. (1987) Ecology of Mangroves. Hobbs.) (1992) Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. D.Volume 37/Numbers 8±12/August±December 1998 about gene pools in the various mangrove species and may. 104. I. 413. F. Wiley. which needs to be extended. Balwin. M. S. (1997) The global conservation status of mangroves. and Hynes. 35±66. R. (1997) Old growth mangrove forests in the United States. technology and public policy. pp. p.. 11±21. University of Queensland Press. Yanez-Aranciba. ed. Anuratha. L. Okinawa. Japan. Washington. DC. Plathong. (1995) Mangroves as ®lters of shrimp pond euent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs. Special issue: Hydrologic Restoration of Coastal Wetlands. Coastal Management 25(4). Siddiqi. including mangroves. M. R. Field. Tokyo. N. eds.M. Medina. E. Okinawa. IUCN (1983) Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems. Paranii. C. A. Okinawa. C. There are too many variables to assess for local communities to be con®dent that a rehabilitation programme can be implemented successfully. A. E. p. Alongi. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. R. Saenger. 319. provide some guidance to the selection of mangroves to be planted in various rehabilitation projects. J. pp. Japan. Japan. Japan Association for Mangrove (JAM) (1997) Final report of the ITTO project on Development and Dissemination of Re-aorestation Techniques of Mangrove Forests. appraisal of the vitality of the resulting ecosystem requires considerable scienti®c expertise. 178. Japan. ed. P. M.) (1997) World Mangrove Atlas.. p. A. FAO (1994) Mangrove Forest Management Guidelines. Farnsworth. Lee. National Academy Press. Okinawa.. However. D. S. B. 23±39. eds. L. (1995) Structure and productivity of a 20-year old stand of Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Restoration Ecology 3(2). New York.. S. (ed. Wetlands International-Thailand programme/PSU. Li. this work is unlikely to have any immediate eect on the planting of mangroves in rehabilitation projects which currently rely on long standing forestry practices (Watson. Lewis III. G. M. H. Pletsch. Spalding. (1995) Journey Amongst Mangroves. A. p. pp. Washington. However. 93± 110. p. There is also a growing literature on the enhancement. a lack of information on the carbon cycle in rehabilitated and natural mangrove ecosystems (Ong Jin-Eong et al.. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. The current situation with respect to the rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems is that there is a substantial body of knowledge on the silviculture of many dierent species of mangrove and this should be built upon. 128. D. and Saenger. (1997) Molecular phylogeny of mangroves 1. Tomlinson. P. Use of molecular markers I assessing the intraspeci®c genetic variability in the mangrove species Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. Cushman. p. B. Wetlands Ecology and Management 4(2). D. 417±424. (Acanthaceae) Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94(8). Lakshmi. Hegerl and J. T. (1992) Forest structure. Ong Jin-Eong. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. Stevenson. D. 338±348. 1997). University of Minnesota Press. Switzerland. 101±136. S. N. (1996) Restoration of mangroves in the United States of America. Twilley. C. p. Japan. Money. H. C.. A. DC. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 41. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. 216.Snedaker. I. M. Japan. in time. P. p. (1995) Ecological restoration: a de®nition and comments. 329. Biber. Alongi. In Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. 3. 1928). M. Where consideration is given to the fauna often only a few target species are investigated. N. E. D. Clough. Japan. I. Khoon. rehabilitation and creation of coastal wetlands (Turner and Lewis.. (1997) Disused shrimp ponds: options for redevelopment of mangrove. Ambio 26(6). Robertson. D. (1996) Mangrove restoration in Peninsular Malaysia. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 41. Once the feasibility of the programme has been established the actual process of aorestation can be carried out with minimum technical guidance. Alongi. J. Ocean and Coastal Management 20. F. Brisbane. D. however. 552. D. 1995) and the viability of the mangrove ecosystem that results from rehabilitation. pp. 250. Publication of JAM.) (1996) Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. T. 140. Hydrobiologia 295. 216. J. F. 88. P. (1996) Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in tropical estuaries: perspectives from mangrove ecosystems. (eds. J. eds. M. Duke. In Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. Robertson and D. E. p. In Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes. (1996) Towards a conceptual framework for restoration ecology. Once the aims of the rehabilitation programme have been identi®ed it is necessary to get an expert opinion on the technical feasibility of the proposed programme. J. 185±199. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. Field. (eds. (1998) Status of Mangrove Forests in Southern Thailand. Blasco. Washington. Clough. Field. Australian Biologist 10(4). p. H. Saenger. American Geophysical Union. A. and E. D. H. In Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. J. not reworked. Finally. R. D. Japan Association for Mangrove (JAM) (1994) Development and Dissemination of Re-aorestation Techniques of Mangrove Forests... Okinawa.. (1986) The Botany of Mangroves... 65±72. National Research Council (US) (1992) Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: science. J. Cambridge. Journal of Biogeography 22. Robertson and D. E. R. p. Restoration Ecology 4(2). Higgs. D.
J. p. Ecological Applications 5(1). 6. Rec. J. 26. p. A. 276. 232±247. (1928) Mangrove Forests of the Malay Peninsular. No. 392 . Wetlands International Asia-Paci®c. Singapore: Fraser and Neave. Malayan Forest. Watson. Second Interim Report (ECU funded project). (1997) Community Participation in Mangrove Forest Management and Rehabilitation in Southern Thailand.Marine Pollution Bulletin Underwood. G. (1995) Ecological research and (and research into) environmental management.
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