user’s manual of Construction
(part two)

Volume-3 Switchyard Erection

Construction Management

Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
(A Government of India Enterprise)


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etc. Basically an electrical substation consists of a number of incoming circuits and outgoing circuits connected to common busbar system. Substations are integral parts of a power system and form important links between the generating stations.0 Introduction Back to contents page An electrical Network comprises of the following systems:      Generating Stations Transmission Systems Receiving Stations Distribution Systems Load Points In all these systems. A substation receives electrical power from generating station via incoming transmission lines and delivers electrical power via the outgoing transmission lines. Busbars are conducting bars to which a number of incoming or outgoing circuits are connected. auxiliaries. These components are connected in a definite sequence such that a circuit can be switched off/on during normal operation by manual/remote command and also automatically during abnormal conditions such as short-circuits. voltage transformers. . earthing switches. Each circuit has certain electrical components such as circuit-breakers. current transformers. etc. An Electrical Substation is an assemblage of electrical components including busbars.________________________________________________________________________________ _ CHAPTER ONE ________________________________________________________________________________ _ ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION Back to contents page 1. isolators. transmission and distribution systems and the load points. power transformers. the power flow of electrical energy takes place through Electrical Substations. switchgear.

Shortest possible fault duration. tap-changing. Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits. Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits. Optimum efficiency of plants and the network. Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost. manual. Determining the energy transfer through transmission lines and tie-lines. Data transmission via power line carrier for the purpose of network monitoring. semi-automatic and fully automatic devices located in generating stations and substations. As a result of these objectives. flow by Maintaining the system frequency within targeted limits Voltage reducing reactive power compensation of reactive power.1. control and protection. . Securing the supply by providing adequate line capacity and facility for changing the transmission paths. transmission. These tasks are performed by various. Maximum possible coverage of the supply network over the given geographical area. The tasks associated with a major substation in the transmission system include the following:         Controlling the exchange of energy Protection of transmission system Ensuring steady state and transient stability Load shedding control.1 Functions of a sub-station: Back to contents page An electricity supply undertaking generally aims at the following:         Supply of required electrical power to all the consumers continuously at all times. Maximum security of supply. distribution and utilisation of the electrical energy. there are various tasks which are closely associated with the generation. and prevention the of loss of synchronism.

400 Volts. 1. All these tasks are performed by the team work of load-control centre and control rooms of substations. 11 kV AC.  Fault analysis and pin-pointing the cause and subsequent improvements. Generally the switchyards at sending-end of lines have step-up transformers and switchyards at receiving-end have step-down transformers. The substations perform several important tasks and are integral part of the power system. Larger factories receive power at 132 kV and have internal distribution at 440 volts AC. unit auxiliary transformer and several out-going lines. In a generating station. The factory substations receive power at distribution voltage such as 11 kV and step it down to 440 volts AC. The substation may have step-up transformers or step-down transformers.s. .m. In addition to the main EHV switchyard.2 Voltage Levels in AC Substations and HVDC Substations Back to contents page A substation receives power via the incoming transmission lines and delivers power via the outgoing lines. 400 kV AC The subtransmission is at medium high voltage such as 33 kV. the generator is directly connected to step-up transformer and secondary of the step-up transformer is connected to outdoor EHV switchyard. An AC substation has generally 2 or 3 main voltage levels. Long distance and high power transmission lines are at higher voltages. The standards also specify the following reference values for each voltage level. a generating station has indoor auxiliary switchgear at two or three voltages such as 11 kV. The long distance transmission is generally at extra high voltages such as 132 kV. Securing supply by feeding the network at various points. value between phases. The nominal voltages are selected from the standard values of rated voltages specified in Indian Standards or relevant national standard. 220 kV. The choice of incoming and outgoing voltages of substations is decided by the rated voltages and rated power of corresponding lines. The rated voltage level refers to nominal voltage of 3 phase AC system and is expressed as r. The switchyard in a generating station comprises generator transformer.

e. 220 kV.g. 245 kV. e. 185 kV.   Nominal voltage e. 420 kV Lowest system voltage. .g. 200 kV.g. 400 kV Highest system voltage.

the sub-stations are either in the form of indoor metal clad draw-out type Switchgear or Outdoor Kiosk. 11 kV 400 V. upto 400 kV level. 132 kV. AC Supply : 33 kV. 110 V. For voltages of 33 kV and above. +500 kV. HV Substations. Heavily polluted areas such as sea-shores. thermal power stations etc.3 Forms of Substations Back to contents page For voltage upto 11 kV. +600 kV Station Auxiliaries Aux. assembly and dimensions of indoor substations are quite different from those of outdoor substations. 400 kV. 66 kV. SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear has been introduced for medium to high voltages such as 11 kV.Table 1: Reference Values of Nominal Voltages in AC and HVDC Substations AC Substation 765 kV. 33 kV. industrial areas. mountainous regions where land is costly and civil works are complex. 220 kV. SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are preferred for the following    EHV. configurations. In indoor metal clad switchgear. industrial areas. phase to phase 230 V AC single phase Aux. outdoor substations are generally preferred.  Maintenance free substations. the various equipments are installed in open. 3 ph. LVDC : 220 V.. The indoor and outdoor substations have similar components. In outdoor substations. However. 33 kV & . 11 kV HVDC Substation +400 Kv. Substations in urban areas. Where open terminal substations experience frequent flashovers. 48 V DC 1. the required number of factory assembled units are taken to site and placed in a row.

  EHV AC yard which is at 400 kV AC or 220 kV AC HVDC yard which is at + 400 kV DC or + 500 kV DC etc.Besides the main voltage levels. Such substations are used for asynchronous links between two AC systems for interconnection. AC Switchyard of other grid. MV. Valve hall. One HVDC substation is required at each end of the long HVDC transmission line. the long distance HVDC transmission line is eliminated and such substation has the following parts:    AC Switchyard of one grid. The nominal voltage + 500 kV refers to voltage of the two DC poles with respect to earth.4 Types of Substations Back to contents page The substations can be classified in several ways including the following: i) ii) Classification based on voltage levels e. one of a positive and other negative polarity with respect to earth. each substation has auxiliary AC and DC distribution systems for feeding the various auxiliary systems. LV. HVDC substation Classification-outdoor or indoor. In case of Back-to-Back HVDC substation. . 1.: AC Substation: EHV. High voltage DC Transmission systems (HVDC) have following parts at each end of the HVDC Transmission line. HV.g. Back-to-back converter transformers and valves. earth electrode. The reference values of auxiliary voltage are mentioned above in in Table -1. Converter Transmission and AC Filters.   Bipolar HVDC system has two poles. protection systems and control systems. The frequency fluctuations on one AC side are not reflected on the other AC side and the power can be transferred in either directions by adjusting the characteristics of the converter valves. The midpoint of converters is earthed through earth electrodes. Power can be exchanged rapidly and accurately in a controlled way. Electrode line.

50 m 2 220 kV 2000A 40 kA 2. a) Conventional air insulated outdoor substation or c) Composite substations having combination of the above two.g. 1. e.g. Table-2 given below gives the Main Data about a typical 400/230 kV AC Substation. arc-furnace substation.: SF6 Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) Classification based on application. h) Load substation. Indoor substation is inside a building.Outdoor substation is under open sky.g. iii) b) Classification based on configuration.75 m 3. having static var compensation etc.5 400 kV 2000/3150 A 40 kA 5. e.5 m 4m 4” IPS Essential Features of a Substation Back to contents page An AC Substation has following parts: . Table 2: Main Data of a Typical 400/220 kV Outdoor AC Substation Operating Voltage Rated current Maximum Short-circuit current in busbar Minimum phase to phase clearance Minimum phase to earth clearance Number of horizontal levels of tubular busbars/flexible busbars Height of tubular busbars of first level above ground Height of tubular busbar of second level Tubular Aluminium Busbar * * It could be of suitable conductor also.5 m 2. iv) a) Distribution substation b) Switchyard in Generating Station c) Switching substation (without power transformers) d) Sending-end substation e) Receiving substation f) Factory substation g) Compensating substation e.1 m 2 8m 13 m 4” IPS 5.

frequencies. the transmission of power is independent of the sending and receiving end AC system frequency.e. An HVDC substation has following main parts: AC Switchyard Converter Transformers AC Filter banks Valve Halls AC Switchyard. The main features of HVDC which distinguish it from high voltage AC transmission system are:  It forms an asynchronous connection between two stations connected through HVDC link i. The Rihand-Delhi bipole project is the first commercial long distance transmission project in India employing High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Technology. This is due to the fact that the DC lines are much cheaper compared to the equivalent AC line(s) whereas the terminal equipment of DC are costlier compared to the AC terminal equipments. However. For the same requirement. Due to this. one of the major use of HVDC is to interconnect two regions which are usually operating at different . DC Filters Mechanical. local conditions predominately based on load centres etc.           AC Switchyard Control Building DC Battery System and LT Distribution System Mechanical. the principles and basic technical requirements of all the substations are similar and the substation is designed on the basis of these requirements and the earlier experience. several alternative designs are possible. Electrical and other auxiliary systems Each substation is designed separately on the basis of functional requirements. ratings. Smoothing Reactor.  HVDC becomes economical for bulk power transfer beyond a certain transmission distance. Electrical and other auxiliaries Civil works.

The other converter which operates as inverter is located in the western side of UP in the district Ghaziabad at Dadri which is about 50 km from Delhi. the losses on a DC line are also low compared to an equivalent AC line. the power flow remain fixed at the ordered value and is independent of the conditions in the AC system. about 22 km from Rihand and the other at Dhankaur. economical way on long distances. In Rihand. The DC line corridor being extremely compact. it helps to increase the capability of the link to transmit large quantities of power over long distances in an efficient and economical manner. So HVDC transmission lines help in bulk power transmission in more efficient. Due to absence of frequency factor on DC link. This feature becomes important if two large networks are being connected where short circuit levels are in the vicinity of maximum values specified for the network. During steady state conditions.  Since a DC transmission line does not generate or absorb any reactive power. The project also includes two electrode stations one at Chapki. results in reduction of right of way requirement. during power swings caused by faults. the power flow through DC link can be modulated in a way so as to assist the rest of the grid in damping the prevailing disturbance. Reduction in right of way.g. the skin effect does not play any part & complete cross section of the conductor can be effectively used and more power can be transmitted on the same size of the conductor. about 25 km from Dadri.Delhi HVDC link of Powergrid one of the converters of the project which operates as rectifier is located in the south eastern corner of UP near Rihand STPP.  The power flow through DC link can be precisely controlled under steady state as well as dynamic conditions.  The DC transmission linens do not contribute to short circuit levels at the terminals. Due to the absence of reactive power. The total requirement of the right-of-way reduces to about half. The PLCC communication system has two repeater stations along the route of the .  During dynamic conditions e. for the same quantum of power to be transmitted.

available after every 5 min.5 Hz 47.line: one at Katra. about 240 km from Rihand and the other at Jhinjhak.Delhi HVDC link is given below in Table -3.5 kV 1568 Amp.) YST 45 6. 2539 Amp. 400 kV 5 AC side frequency range For Performance For Rating 6 Negative phase sequence unbalance For Performance For Rating 7 8 Reduced Voltage Oprn. 1725 Amp. Over Load 5 Sec. Table 3: Typical data of Bipolar HVDC Substation (Rihand .0% 2. Over Load (If ambient temp at Delhi & Rihand is less than 33oC) (For 5 Sec. 12 Pulse 12 Converter Type . The project transmits the power generated at the Rihand/Singrauli complex to Dadri from where it is further distributed to various beneficiaries states/union territories in the Northern Region. about 325 km from Dadri.5-51.6% DC. Voltage per thyristor Current Rating Continuous 2 Hr.Delhi link) 1 2 3 Rated Capacity Minimum power Operating voltage-DC 1500 MW 40 MW/80 MW + 500 kV 4 AC side voltage range For Performance For Rating 380-420 kV 360-440 kV 48. available after every 12 hrs if ambient temp of Delhi or Rihand is more than 33oC 1650 MW 1650 MW 1000 MW Per pole 9 10 11 Continuous over load Short time over load Thyristor Valves Thyristor type Max.5-50. Overload rating (For 2 hrs.5 Hz 1. Typical Data of Rihand .

13 14 15 16 Valve Type Quadruple per Converter Cooling Converter Transformer Type Quantity Rating Tap Range @ 1. 3 winding 6 + 1 Spare per station 315/305 MVA + 14/-10 17 Secondary Voltage For Delhi Delta Star For Rihand Delta Star 213 kV 123 kV 3 per station 3 230 MVAR 360 mH 180 mH 2 12. 4 x 96 thyristors 3 Water 10.25 % Quadruple Vertically Suspended. 24 Hz 2400 Bauds 180 mH 600 Bauds 100/50 Bauds 206 kV 119 kV 18 AC Filters Numbers of Banks Numbers of Sub-banks Size of each Bank 19 20 21 Oil Smoothing Reactor Per pole per station Air Smoothing Reactor Per pole per station DC Filters Numbers per pole Tuning Frequencies 22 PLCC Frequencies Data (pole & bipole) Per pole per station Repeater LAS to CU Speech .

the power flow on the HVDC link is modulated to counteract the power swings. ii) Frequency control At Rihand side. In case of any disturbance in the AC system e. Depending upon the need.g.5.1 mm 4 160 kN HVDC disk insulator with zinc sleeve.1 Special Features Back to contents page In order to integrate the project with the AC system and to help the grid. 38 insulators used in each arm of ` V’ string. switching actions. Porcelain & toughened glass insulators have been used 24 HVDC LINE DC voltage Configuration 25 26 27 Name and type of conductor Number of conductors per pole Insulators 1. Some of these features are i) Power modulation Under normal operating conditions a part of the Northern Region Ac system remains parallel to the Rihand-Delhi HVDC project. caused by faults. the rectifier is connected to the rest of the AC System through two 400 kV AC lines. a number of features have been incorporated into the project that take advantages of the HVDC transmission. as determined through minimum power upto the five second overload rating of the HVDC link.23 Station Availability Design target Guaranteed 99% 97% + 500 kV Horizontal bipole with a pole spacing of 12750 mm ACSR “BERSIMIS” / 35. In case of outages of these lines the power flow through the HVDC link is regulated to prevent the Rihand machines from putting out of the grid and .

Criteria 1. and (ii) to meet the target value of AC system voltage or reactive power exchange at Dadri. While switching the Ac harmonic filter (s).0 1.) Govt. No. operating mode. iv) Run back control The flow through the HVDC link is also regulated following outages of AC lines at Dadri or generators at Rihand.1 1. iii) Reactive power control This feature allows controlled switching of the available Ac harmonic filter (s) (i) to meet the target value of reactive power exchange with the Ac system at Rihand. the land selected for setting up the substation is acquired. This avoids any adverse interaction between HVDC and the generators at the natural resonating frequencies.I gives the Format for selection of site for Sub-Station site Annexure-1 Back to contents page Format for Comparative Statement of Sites For Sub-Stations ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Sl. Private/Forest land Agriculture/Wasteland Alternate-I Alternate-II Alternate-III ______________________________________________________________________________________________ .6 Site Selection Back to contents page Before the actual switchyard erection works. v) Control of sub-synchronous reasonance Suitable subsynchronous resonance damping controllers have been incorporated to prevent any negative damping by the HVDC at the nearby generator’s natural resonating frequencies. A Proforma at Annexure.3 Land Size (Acre) (Mtr. bipole power and the AC system conditions. proper care is taken of the harmonic performance criteria. 1.2 1.maintain the frequency of the Rihand generators at a target value near 50 Hz. x Mtr.

1 3.3 Approach What are the Obstacles in reaching site Approach road Length of approach road Distance from main road Unloading facility at Railway Station No.16 No.7 1.9 Development Approximate cost Type of soil No. of families displaced 1.5 1. of owners Environment/Pollution in the vicinity Location with reference to nearest town 1.14 Land acquisition feasibility 1.18 Planned/unplanned development 1.13 Extent of levelling required 1.1. to road level 1.23 Distance from sea shore 2.17 Exten.4 2.F.2 2.12 Slope 1.5 2.2 3.6 1.4 1.4 Post Office Telephone Telex Market .0 2.11 Diversion of Nallah/Canal required 1. land 1.22 Level of site with ref. of Culverts required Community Facilities Drinking Water Drainage a) b) c) 3. of owners 1.6 3. Data 1.19 Size of sites 1.3 2.21 Required Government value 1.10 H.20 No.8 1.0 3.L.1 2.15 Rate of Govt. of approach 1.

9 Security Amendability Availability of construction water Availability of water Nearest EHV line this site & nearest substation 3.14 Telephone/Telegraph line 4.3.12 Additional crossings 3.11 Length of line estimate 3.5 3.10 Length of line between 3.0 Others .7 3.6 3.8 3.13 Frontage for line take off 3.

is obtained from the competent authority for the recommended site. These will be further reinforced taking into consideration POWERGRID’s entitlement framework and public consultation process. of the concerned state govt. Table 4: POWERGRID’s Activity Chart for Land Acquisition and R&R Activity           Submission of cases for land acquisition Section 4 draft notification Spot verifications Scope for objections from public Publication of Section 6 draft declaration Marking of land.6. Land being the state subject. Land is to be acquired for starting the construction Typically for a 400 kV sub-station 50-80 Acre land is required. acquisition for the sub-station land is carried out through land acquisition deptt. 1894 For Sub-Stations Back to contents page When land is acquired for sub-stations.6.1. POWERGRID sub-stations have never resulted in large scale displacement or loss of livelihoods. 1894. POWERGRID will follow procedures laid down under the Land Acquisition Act (LA Act). Brief summary of Land Acquisition Process is given below 1.2 Provisions Under The Land Acquisition Act. no award of land can be made by the government authorities unless all compensation has been paid. POWERGRID has always followed a schedule for R&R (illustrated in Table below). The LA Act specifies that in all cases of land acquisition. notice to persons and award by Collector Finalisation of R&R package Payment of compensation and acquisition of land Handing over land to POWERGRID Implementation and completion of R&R package . Land acquisition activity starts after the approval activities.1 Land Acquisition Back to contents page Land is a state subject. There have been only marginal impacts due to flexibility exercised by POWERGRID in selecting sites.

and cost of compensation and rehabilitation. The Activity Chart given in the Annexure-2 shows the time frame for the implementation of various sections of Land Acquisition Act (Section wise time schedule) as well as the time schedule for parallel R&R activities.3 Land Acquisition Act. social impacts such as no. Govt. . agricultural land. of families getting affected. revenue. 1894 as amended in 1984 Back to contents page This is the principal law dealing with acquisition of private land by the state for “a public purpose”.6. Weightage given to the various parameters is often site specific. Land acquisition goes through a number of stages starting from notification to payment of compensation. railheads etc... Progressive liberalisation and industrialisation have led to an increase in compulsory land acquisition. Attachment above shows the format for comparative statements of sites to be considered for construction of sub-stations. Due consideration is given to infrastructure facilities such as access roads. type of land viz. POWERGRID selects a suitable substation site only after the approval of the project by GOI.1. On the basis of data for the various parameters cited in the checklist a comprehensive analysis for each alternative site is carried out. private land.



earthing strips. equipment supports tuning unit. VTs/CVTs Neutral Grounding Equipment Station Earthing system comprising ground mat. risers. PLCC Equipment including line trap. lightning masts gantries. 11/ 33 kV Switchgear LT Panels Battery room and 33 kV Outdoor Switchgear 11 kV Indoor Switchgear Low voltage AC. or. Earthing. . CTs. Surge Arresters. Protection Panels. Railway track.1. coupling capacitor. Switchgear Control Panels. Isolators. earthing spikes Main Office Building Overhead earthwire shielding against Galvanised steel structures for towers. Switches.7 Substation parts and equipment: Back to contents page Outdoor Switchyard - - Incoming & outgoing lines Busbars Transformers Insulators Substation Equipment such as Circuit- breakers. Power cables Control cables for protection and control Roads. cable trenches Station lighting system Administrative building conference room etc. DC Battery system and charging equipment distribution system lightning strokes. etc.

After opening the isolator.8 Functions of Sub-station Equipments & Associated Systems Back to contents page i) Circuit Breakers Circuit Breakers are the switching and current interrupting devices. SF6 gas. An isolator can be opened after the circuit breaker. vacuum. CVTs Protective Relays Circuit breakers Computer/Microprocessors.Mechanical. substation. The contacts can be separated by means of an operating mechanism. Data collection system. Electrical - Fire fighting system Oil purification system and other auxiliaries Substation parts and equipment: Protection system SCADA(Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System) Cooling water system Telephone system Workshop. Basically a circuit-breaker comprises a set of fixed and movable contacts. 1. the earthing switch can be closed to discharge the trapped electrical charges to the ground. They are generally installed along with the circuit breakers. stores etc. iii) Current Transformers and Voltage Transformers . CTs. Data processing system Man-machine interface Expert system etc. The separation of current carrying The circuit contacts produces an arc. breakers are necessary at every switching point in the ii) Isolators Isolators are disconnecting switches which can be used for disconnecting a circuit under no current condition. The arc is extinguished by a suitable medium such as dielectric oil.

The instructions from the load control centres are transmitted to the . equipment. These are used for towers. The design should be safe and economical. Rigid busbars are made up of aluminium tubes and are supported on post insulators. Digital or voice signals are transmitted over the transmission lines via the substations. vi) Galvanised Steel Structures Galvanised Steel Structures are made of bolted/welded structures of angles/channels/pipes. iv) Surge Arresters Surge Arresters divert the over voltages to earth and protect the substation equipment from over voltage surges. substations and load centres is controlled from central load despatch centre. The substations are linked with the load control centres via Power Line Carrier System (PLCC)/ microwave links and P&T phones. protection and control.These transformers are used for transforming the current and voltage to a lower value for the purpose of measurement. A large network having several generating stations. gantries. Galvanised structures provide rigid support to the various equipments and insulators. support structures etc. vii) Power Line Carrier Current Equipment PLCC is necessary for transmitting/receiving high frequency signals over the power line (transmission Line) for the following: a) b) c) d) Voice communication Data transmission Protection signalling Control signalling A small power system is generally controlled by direct supervision of generating stations and substations through respective control rooms. v) Busbars Busbars are either flexible or rigid. The data collected from major substations and generating stations is transmitted to the load control centre. Flexible busbars are made of ACSR conductors and are supported on strain insulators.

viii) Protective Systems in Substations A fault in its electrical equipment is defined as a defect in its electrical circuit due to which the flow of current is diverted from the intended path. these components. secondary circuits. Fault in certain important equipment can affect the stability of the power system. Thereby the trip circuit of the circuit breaker is closed. The relays distinguish between normal and abnormal condition. During the fault the impedance is low and fault current is high. Besides relays and circuit breakers. ‘occurrence of fault-operation of relay opening of circuit breaker to removal of faulty part from the system’ is automatic and fast. a fault in the bus zone of a substation can cause tripping of all the feeders and can affect the stability of the interconnected system. protective relays. The function of different substation equipments and systems are tabulated below in Table -5. time delay relays. these include : protective current transformers and voltage transformers. The entire process. Fault currents being high. Digital computers and microprocessors are installed in the control rooms of large substations. Whenever an abnormal condition develops. Each component is important. For example.control rooms of generating stations and substations for executing appropriate action. can damage the equipments thro’ which it flows. generating stations and load control centres for data collection. semi-automatic equipments. data monitoring. trip circuits. Current from the battery supply flows in the trip coil of the circuit breaker and the circuit breaker opens and the faulty part is disconnected from the supply. there are several other important components in the protective relaying scheme. Protective relaying is a team work of . automatic protection and automatic control. etc. the relay closes its contacts. auxiliary relays. Modern power system is controlled with the help of several automatic. auxiliaries and accessories.

15. 11. To discharge lightning over voltage and switching over voltage to earth. 4. and protection. No. To reduce the short-circuit current or starting currents. 12. 7. 2. To provide compensations to reactive loads of lagging power factors.Table 5: Functions of different Substation Equipments & Systems Sl. To provide reactive power compensation during low loads. 1. control. To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth. 9. To step-down currents for measurement. control. Series capacitors Compensation of long lines Incoming and outgoing circuits connected to bus-bar Automatic conditions. isolation and maintenance. 3. 14. 6. To limit the earth fault current switching during normal or abnormal Equipment Function . To step-down currents for measurement. 5. Power Transformer To step-up or step-down the voltage and transfer power from one AC voltage to another AC voltage at the same frequency. To prevent high frequency signals from entering other zones. 8. and protection. Disconnection under no-load condition for safety. Bus-bar Circuit-breakers Isolators (Disconnectors) Earthing Switch Current Transformer Voltage Transformer Lightning Arrester (Surge Arrester) Shunt reactor Series Reactors Neutral-Grounding Reactors Coupling capacitor Line-trap Shunt capacitors To provide connection between high voltage line and power line carrier current equipment. 13. 10.

Faults. Protection System -protection relay panels -control cables -circuit-breakers -CTs. 21. For communication. communication circuits. telemetry. 18. operation and (lighting) -for switchyard -buildings -roads. metering. For safety of personnel and for enabling earth fault protection. Surge arresters. Substation Earthing (Grounding) System -Earth mat -Earthing spikes -Earthing risers To provide an earth mat for connecting neutral points. To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part from healthy part and also to minimise damage to faulty equipment and associated system. 20. Overhead earth wire shielding or lightning Masts. Control cabling Power cables PLCC system power line carrier current system -line trap -coupling capacitor -PLCC panels For protective circuits. 19. To protect the outdoor substation equipment from lightning strokes. power line carrier protection etc. support structures to earth. equipment body. 17. 22. overheads shielding wires etc. etc. circuits. To provide supply path to various auxiliary equipment and machines. tele-control.16. etc. VTs. Illumination system To provide illumination for vigilance. control circuits. with safe step-potential and touch potential. maintenance. . To provide the path for discharging the earth currents from Neutrals.

detection region to pin-point location of fire by indication in control 24. stand by power for auxiliaries. cost . 25. Telephone. Auxiliary stand by power system -diesel generator sets -switchgear -distribution system For supplying starting power. alarm system -water tank and spray system To sense the occurrence of fire by sensors and to initiate water spray. Fire fighting system system -water spray system -fire protection control panels. to disconnect power supply to affected room.23. Microwave system For internal and external communication. Busbar Schemes Back to contents page The term layout denotes the physical arrangement of various components in the substation relative to one another. Telex system. Substation layout has significant influence on the operation.9 Substation Layouts. 1. maintenance. -sensors. Cooling water system(HVDC) -coolers -water tank -piping -valves This system is required for cooling the valves in HVDC substation. 26.

. the ratings. Within the frame-work of the basic requirements. Double busbar with two breakers per circuit.and protection of the substation and these aspects are considered while designing the substation layout. local requirements and the prevailing practice of the supply authorities. The important busbar schemes include the following:        Single busbar Double busbar with one breaker per circuit. Main and transfer bus Ring bus Breaker and a half arrangement Mesh arrangement etc. importance. The substation layouts are selected on the basis of the size. The reasoning behind the connections of components in each circuit and the busbars layout should be understood. The different bus-bar schemes in a substation with their relative advantages/disadvantages are described below: The choice of busbar schemes for AC yards depend upon several factors mentioned above. the substation layout can have several alternative arrangements.



1. During used More flexibility of operation Buses coupler buses Additional operation Fault on one bus will not cause a complete outage of 4. No. Uses three breakers for two circuits High flexibility operations Higher costs Suitable for those substations which handle large amounts of power on each circuit are & sometime the bus is sectionalised maintenance or fault. the reserve bus is breaker connected in between two 3. Scheme Single bus-bar Application Low voltage and medium voltage substations Not preferred for important/ large substations Remarks Cheapest Total shutdown in case of a fault In case of maintenance of circuit breaker. Duplicate Bus High voltage substations down Costlier than single bus One bus can serve as a reserve. Breaker & a Important substations 400 kV the station. associated feeder has also to be shut 2.Table : 6 Various Bus-Bar Schemes Sl. Double and Bus Main Important EHV substations Transfer flexibility for half scheme .

10 Construction/Erection Drawings Back to contents page Lists of construction/erection drawings used during Civil and other construction activities in a substation are enclosed at Annexure-3 and Annexure-4. . Mesh System Used for large substations having many incoming and outgoing circuits. - Costlier Gives operational flexibility Suitable where no.5. of circuits are comparatively few & chances of future expansion are less good 1.

16. 19. columns and intel. 14. 15. 12. 23. 6. Control Room Building Ground floor Plan & Elevators Mezzanine Floor Plan & Elevations Elevation. 18. B. 20. 11. 7. 10. columns. 5. 21. 3. 9. 2. Details of brick wall foundation. 3.Annexure-3 Back to contents page A. . 1. 24. 25. 5. 4. 17. 2. Details of doors and windows. 22. DG set foundation and cable trench layout and R/F details. 4. 13. beams. 8. Section & Terrace Plan Foundation Plan-Excavation drawing Foundation & column up to first floor Details of plinth beams Mezzanine floor beams & reinforcement details Mezzanine floor slab & reinforcement details Mezzanine floor insert details Lintel & Chhajja details Roof slab reinforcemet details Roof beam details Roof slab insert details Details of foundation for A/C plant room GA & RCC details of foundation for cooling tower supporting structure Internal cable trench details Details of steel & window details Aluminium glazing window details Fire resistance door/siding door details Details of toilet & pantry Plumbing details Details of septic tank Finish schedule Colour scheme Electrical wiring drawings DG Set Building Plan elevations and sections Foundation layout and RCC details of slab flooring. 1.

Details of water tanks. details. Pump House Plan. 1. 5. 4. footing.6. insert details. Equipment foundation. Layout and C/S details of roads and drains. Details of culverts and drains. Colour scheme and misc. Layout of drains and culverts Details of culverts and drains. Details of doors. 1. G. Layouts and cross sectional details of roads and drains. Pylon support details Auto Transformer GA and RCC details of foundation. monorail fixing details. 3. Details. 1. C. 2. E. D. 2. 3. General arrangement Pylon support details Details of rail track Fire protection wall between auto-transformer Approach Roads and Drains Layout of approach roads and drains. 4. Elevationa and Sections. 2. 4. 1. Layout of culverts and drains. 1. Internal Roads and Drains Layouts of internal roads and drains. window. 7. elevation and sections Foundation layout. F.. Boundaries Wall and Fencing Boundaries wall and fencing details Fencing and gate details Shunt Reactors GA and foundation details. 2. 1. F. 3. Terrace plan and Misc. Elevation and sections Crane store plan. Site Office and Store Complex Material store plan. ventilators and rolling shutters. RCC details of slab. 2. H. . Electrical wiring. 7. 4. 1. cable trench layout and reinforcement details. insert fixing details.F. column beam. 2. Electrical wiring drgs. 6. 3. I. 2.

4.3. J. roof plan and beam details. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 5. 3. Elevation and sections. 18. 13. Details of doors and windows. Elevation and sections. S/S store Plan. 16. 10. Store complex TL material store. 15. a) b) c) Site office plan. 7. 17. Crane store foundation plan. 4. Toilet and kitchen detail-site office Toilet and kitchen details-S/S. roof plan and beam details Details of entrance gate and fencing Type section of tabular truss. S/S store foundation plan. Layout ext. Elevation and sections. store Structural arrangement Design of towers and beams Fabrication drawings of tower & beams Tower foundation and their designs Design of equipment supporting structure CT CVT LA Bus Post Insulator Isolator Wave Trap Circuit Breaker Equipment supporting structure fabrication drawings CT CVT LA . 5. Cement store foundation plan. Cement store Plan. 11. drainage and sewerage system Details of septic tank and soakpit. Details of raised platform. 1. Finish schedule of site office and store complex. 14. 20. 8. Store complex layout plan. 9. 19. Store complex TL material store. roof plan and beam details. 2. 6. 12.

a) b) 7. 8. 10. 9. 11. 12.d) e) f) g) 6. Bus Post Insulator Isolator Wave Trap Circuit Breaker Details of foundation bolts Equipment Structure Gantry Structure Design of equipment foundations & foundation details Cable trench layout Cable trench section details Cable trench road crossings Marshalling box foundation Sump pit .

Sewerage layout 4. Foundation plan. 3. Elevation 2. terrace plan 3. Layout of drains and road. B. 4. Architectural plan.List of construction Drawings for Township Work in a typical Sub-station A. Details of roof slab. 7. D. Overhead and underground Water-Tank Architectural Drawings’ Structural details Foundation Details Non Residential Buildings (Nursery school. Sanitary layout and plumbing details A. 9. 1. Plumbing layout 5. Quarters for Type A. Plan 2. Electrical layout 3. lintel etc. first floor slab. C. 6. 2. Electrical layout 7.B. Plinth beam layout 4. Details of foundation 5. 5. Architectural section. Dispensary and shopping centre) Architectural plan and Elevation Structural Details Services Administrative Building Architectural plan and Elevation Structural details Services . 6. 8. Master Layout 1. C and D 1.

25. 2. under this heading) Earthmat layout Erection key diagram (Plan and Section) Bill of Quantity Short circuit force and critical span calculation(for spacers) Design calculation for sag-tension and stringing chart Power cable schedule Inter pole cable schedule Buried cable trench layout OGA drg. 15. 10.Annexure-4 Back to contents page List of drawings for a typical Sub-station A. 19. for bottom & inermediate flanges Cap detail drg. 3. 9. 17. 23. for bus post insulator Individual insulators detail drg. 1. 11. 26. 5. 7. 22. for bus post insulator Detail drg. for bus post insulator Corona ring for bus post insulator GA of bay marshalling kiosk Schematic & wiring diagram of bay marshalling kiosk Tension/suspension string insulator and hardware assembly . a) b) c) 14. 21. 6. 13. 16. 24. 8. 18. 20. 4. Sub-Station Drawings Single line diagram General arrangement of substation’ Electrical layout (Plan and Section) Electrical clearance diagram Switchyard structural layout arrangement Layout of equipment structures Busbar support design and design calculations Cable trench layout and foundation plan Details of cable trench section DSLP calculation Drawing of DSLP scheme Earthmat design calculation Equipment/structure earthing details (List all relevant drawings. 12.

Rating and name plate drawing. ACSR conductor. insulator & insulator for grading capacitor showing clearly the shed profile and parameters. 2. Air/SF6 gas connection diagram Schematic diagram of electro hydraulic operated mechanism in case of hydraulic drive. voltage grading device identifying each part of the assembly. Clamps. 4.B. 7. Electrical schematic diagram including brief write up on operation. 14. 120KN antifog disc insulator GA drg. 1. 245KV Isolator Outline drawing of isolators with one E/S Outline drawing of isolators with two E/S Outline drawing of isoaltor without E/S General arrangement of contact assembly. Wiring diagram Terminal conenctor and corona ring drawings Sectional view of SF6 gas couplings. 9. . for double compression type cable gland Drum drg.27. B. 5. Sectional view of interruptor. indicating major parameters. 12. connectors and spacers GA drg. of control cabinets and their foundation plan and separate drawing showing component layout. for ACSR conductor and earthwire 245KV SF6 Circuit Breaker Outline general arrangement drawing of C. 13. 2. Outline general arrangement drg. 6. 33. of support insulator. 10. 28. Interrupter insulator. Following additional drawings for Unit air compressor: Foundation plan and details for compressor and motor Unit of contact manometer assembly. Outline general arrangement drg. 11. 31. 3. 32. 8. 29. 1. Al tube & shieldwire GTP data sheets Cable trays GA drawing GA drg. Support structure and foundation plan drawing with necessary support structure design calculations. 4. 30. 3. a) b) C.

2. Drawing for support structure. 6. 6. Sectional view of C. 5.T. Wiring diagram of marshalling box (including interpole wiring) Drawing for terminal connectors Name plate drawing. OGA of marshalling box. 8. 245KV Capacitor Voltage Transformer Outline drawing of CVT indicating major parameters. 13. D. 9.T. 7. 4. indicating major parameters. Drawing for stool/sub-structure. if applicable. 11. 5. 2. 12. Magnetisation curve. 4. Loading data. as applicable with door open and identifying all parts of the mechanism and the control panel. 245KV Current Transformer Outline drawing of C. Name plate. Schematic drawings. OGA of secondary terminal box. 6. Terminal pad and hinge contract. 7. Drawing of corona ring. Drawing for motor operated mechanism/manually operated mechanism. 8. a) b) 7. Drawing of terminal connectors. 1. Drawing for base frame. 10.5. 10. Sectional view of CVT. GA of motor operated mechanism GA of support insulator Details of constructional interlock Name Plate details Drawings for terminal connector & corona rings. 14. Drawing for support structure. 11. . Wiring diagram & inerpole connection diagram. OGA of marshalling box OGA of secondary terminal box Wiring diagram of marshalling box(including interpole wiring). 3. E. 3. 1. 9.

Drawing for support structure. 1. 2. 12. Power and Control Cables Data sheet of all types of power cables Data sheet of all types of control cables Power cable schedule Control cable sizing/section criteria Control cable laying & termination schedules . 14. 11. 5. 3. Discharge counter/surge monitor drawing Method of connecting surge monitor with SA Electrial schematic diagram of surge monitor Ground terminal bracket details Name plate drawing Line teminal bracket drawing along with corona rings Residual voltage verses discharge current curves Drawing for stool/sub-structure. 1. 15. if applicable. 245KV Class Surge Arrester OGA of Surge Arrester indicating major parameters. Foundation details.8. 4. 7. 13. Insulating base drawing. 5. 8. 2. 4. if applicable Drawing showing internal view of SA Drawing of Insulator Drawing showing pressure relief arrangement Support structure drawing. G. 10. F. 9. Drawing for stool/sub-structure. 3. 6. 9.

As built drgs. 4. 7. 2. Relay settings. 3. Schematics of relay panel/feeder. Cable schedule. 5. a) Inter panel schedule. Board formation redrawings. 10. c) Cable terminating schedule. General arrangement of relay panel/feeder. b) Cable laying schedule. . General arrangement of control panel/feeder. Foundation details. 12. 6. 9. And manuals for circulation. Schematics of control panel/feeder. 8. Type test report for all equipments. 11. Equipment layout drgs.List of Drawings for Erectin of C&R panels in a typical Sub-Station 1. Data requirement sheet with literature.

List of drawings for Erection of PLCC panels in a typical Sub-Station 1. 3. Data requirement sheet with literature. e) Coupling Device. 2. Type test report for all equipments. General arrangement of PLCC system. Frequency Plan 6. c) Protection couplet. 4. f) EPAX g) 4 wire/2 wire Telephone 5. d) Wave Trap. a) PLCC panel for speech and data. b) PLCC panel for speech and protection. As built drawing . Equipment drgs.


structure foundations  Cable trenches  Fencing around switch yard  Surface treatment. repair / maintenance bay and other non-residential buildings  Construction of railway.0 Introduction Back to contents page Civil works in a substation mainly comprise of :  Construction of equipment foundations transformer/reactor plinth. siding and railway track if required  Construction of residential colony  Horticulture works  Administrative Building. ground filling and sloping  Water supply system & Sewerage system  Construction of roads and drains  Construction of control room building. Fix & permanent bench mark is provided for adopting it as a reference point for various works like laying out of control room. initially survey of land is carried out alongwith the soil investigation.CHAPTER TWO SWITCHYARD CIVIL WORKS Back to contents page 2. Now grid lines are required to be marked in East-West and North-South direction by erecting the concrete grid . foundations and buildings in the switchyard that are done in reference to this permanent bench mark. Survey is done to finalise the levels of switchyard. compressor room. community centre. roads and design & layout of drainage system in the switchyard as well as in the township. guest house/transit Camp. For carrying out the various civil works at site which is initially an open barren/cultivated land. shopping complex & nursery school etc. offices. erection of gantries and various equipments.

2. the site levelling work is carried out at site in order to smoothen the undulations. general as well as specific information about the soil profile and necessary soil parameters of the site in order that the foundations of various structures can be designed and constructed safely & rationally. 400 KV tower locations etc.2 During this period. crop. control room building. overall layout of equipments in switchyard.pillars. Grid lines are marked on the land to fix the direction & orientation of various civil structures with reference to some fixed bench mark on the site. lightening masts. These gridlines help in implementing the erection. that require cleaning/ clearing before starting the levelling works in the yard. shunt reactor. sandy or any other type. etc. . drains.1 Soil Investigation Back to contents page  Soil investigation is carried out at site and result of soil investigation are forwarded to Corporate Centre for design of various foundations.  The soil investigation tests should be conducted at all the critical locations i. 2. black cotton. orientation and layout of foundations for various equipments & control room building which is later on helpful in laying out the other equipments and structures on the land. department at Corporate Centre prepares the foundation drawings and approved drawings are sent to site for  Engineering Department also releases various other erection drawings for different works like cable trench design drawings. Levelling Back to contents page The land acquired for substation may be barren/cultivated land. cover slab design drawings. auto transformer.e. The acquired land may contain trees. bushes. equipments erection key drawings etc.  Detailed soil investigation is carried out at site to arrive at sufficiently accurate.  Engineering casting. The soil may be rocky. for erection works at site.

v) Now spot levels will have to be taken in the yard area before making an assessment for the levelling i. etc. Any crop. In case of too much level difference the residences (categories) may be designed at different uniform levels but with good drainage system to avoid water logging. This is the most economical method of levelling. No compaction is carried out in rainy weather. the different levels may be kept. vi) In the ideal case of levelling there is no requirement for borrowed earth and quantity of earth excavated from the high level and fill it in the low lying areas is equal. to a nearby suitable place. then it should be allowed to dry before rolling by hand rollers/dozers. telephone line. If the material contains an excess of moisture. trees. ii) Levelling may also be required in township area for bringing the land to a single level for designing the drainage system and residential quarters. iv) Any drain. viii)The method and equipment used to compact the fill material to a density that will give the allowable soil bearing pressure required for the foundations.i) Switchyard area is important and preferably it should be brought to a single level. However. vii) For compaction earth is filled in the low lying areas in layers of 20 cm thickness then watered and compacted by rollers/ dozers. . building structure is also removed from the switchyard area. roads. Care is to be taken such that the earth is not excavated below the formation level. Embankment material which does not contain sufficient moisture to obtain proper compaction should be wetted. iii) Before starting the levelling works the marked area of switchyard is cleaned. for assessing the requirement of soil for low level areas and cutting of soil from high level area to bring the whole yard area to a normal formation level. shrubs and structure that may cause hindrance or that are undesired are cleared from the yard area. bushes.e. In each layer of fill material. Each layer of earth embankment when compacted should be as close to optimum moisture as practicable. in only unavoidable circumstances or where it is uneconomical to go for levelling the soil than keeping a multi-layered/in steps levels.

Care should be taken that with the movement of trucks. for gantries.e. The drawings of level before starting the levelling and then final levels should be maintained. any other structure in the vicinity is not affected or uprooted. All safety precautions should be taken while blasting so as to avoid any injury/loss of life and property. x) The levels in the entire area (after finishing the levelling work) should be taken and checked up with the desired formation level. excavation & filling) is a cumbersome process and it should be done strictly as per the specifications. we may have to go for blasting the earth at higher levels.e. Final dressing up and finishing should be done in case if levels are not found satisfactory. The care should however be taken during compaction. The explosive material used for blasting should be handled very carefully. dozers etc. one should take care such that the earth excavated/hole created by blasting is upto/very near the desired ground level. lightening masts etc. While applying the explosive material for blasting.ix) Sometime in hills or in rocky soil. Measurement for levelling work (i. The blasting is done in the specified manner. While marking the foundations on the ground their layout should be strictly verified with the layout drawings as well as with the bench mark/grid lines on site with great accuracy. All the level records must be noted in field levelling book duly signed by the concerned personnel of contractor of site. . Cable trenches Equipment in switchyard Based on the approved layout drawings furnished by Corporate Engineering the foundations are marked on the ground. 2. The measurements should be recorded very carefully as per the technical specifications.3 Foundations Back to contents page Foundations in switchyard area the foundations are cast for: i) ii) iii)   Lattice Structure (Tower foundations) i.

Engineering Department at Corporate Centre provides the necessary tower foundation. 2.4 Foundations for Transformer & Shunt Reactors Back to contents page i) Transformer of 400/220/33 kV. the control room building co-ordinates can be used and necessary rectification in the layout & orientation of various equipments and foundation can be made. foundation and installation require special techniques ii) Transformer & shunt reactor foundation work includes the supply of a permanent track system to enable the replacement of any failed unit by the spare unit located at the site. Layout of the various switchyard equipments is also verified with the layout drawings and with respect to gridlines on the ground. storage.r. 315 MVA capacity is generally provided at our substation sites. control room co-ordinates that are fixed and marked before hand. It also includes the concreting.  Any changes in layout if desired should be brought in the notice of Corporate Engineering and necessary amendments should be approved.  Foundations for various lattice structure are cast in the switchyard area.t. and efforts. The type of foundation is decided based on the type of soil. providing jacking pads. iv) For casting the foundation of Transformer & Shunt Reactor the marking is done as per the approved drawings from the Corporate . Transformer and shunt reactors are the major equipments in switchyard. Proper coordination in the works are required so that the foundations are completed well in advance. iii) The foundations for transformer & shunt reactor should be ready in advance before actual receipt of the equipments. Their transportation. For further confirmation. steel work for the MS grating and providing the anchoring arrangement. It is a good practice to have a second confirmation for marking the various foundations w. excavation and concreting work drawings based on the soil investigation reports furnished to them.

ii) iii) The cable trenches are marked on ground and excavation is started by the contractor on the marked trenches. shuttering is provided for cable trench walls. have been inserted properly. Provision should be made at this time to insert the cable supporting angles and other steel reinforcements in the cable trench walls. v) The slope in cable trenches is provided in such a way that the water from secondary cable trenches flows towards the primary cable trenches.5 Cable Trenches in Switchyard Back to contents page i) The cable trench drawings are received by site from the Corporate Engineering Department Based on these drawings cable trenches are cast at site. vii) Concreting of cable trenches can be started after all the wall inserts bends etc. Necessary expansion joints generally made up of PVC or specified material of designed size should be inserted at the specified length of cable trench walls. Proper care should be taken during RCC casting. Scheduling of such works should be co-ordinated between the contractors for smooth working & to avoid any stoppages in work. smoothened and then laid with PCC of required thickness. . 2. iv) The centre line of cable trench (marked before excavation) should be rechecked during the lean concerning to avoid any mistakes in marking. The marking of co-ordinates should be checked properly and reconfirmed with the control room and switchyard layout co-ordinates.Engineering Department. The pylon supports that are required to be laid before the concreting works is generally in the scope of fire fighting contractor. The slope of primary cable trench is maintained in such a way that the rain water may go in a sump on the other side of the primary cable trench by gravity itself. Before starting the RCC the land should be levelled. vi) Before starting the concreting.

viii) Top of the trenches is kept at least 150 mm (or as specified) above the furnished ground level such that the surface rain water does not enter the trench. ix) x) xi) xii) All metal parts inside the trench are connected to the earthing system. Trench wall should not foul with the foundations. Suitable clear gap is maintained. A slope of 1/500 is provided in the trench bed along the run and 1/250 perpendicular to the run or as specified. All construction joints of cable trenches i.e. between base slab to base slab & the junction of vertical wall to base slab as well as from vertical wall to wall and all the expansion joints are to be provided with approved quality PVC water stops of the specified size. This is required in all the sections where the ground water table is expected to rise above the junction of base slab and vertical wall of cable trenches. xiii) All the inserts exposed surfaces are be brushed with metal wire brushes. xiv) Cable supports are welded at the right level and painted with the specified paint. xv)

All cable trenches are cleaned after the cable trench work is completed.

Cable Trench Cover Slabs
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i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Precast removable concrete covers are to be provided on the cable trenches. These covers slabs are designed to cover the open trenches in which cables are placed. Concrete cover slabs are cast by using metallic shuttering of suitable size. The shuttering should not be deformed otherwise cover slabs will also be deformed and become out of shape. After casting the slabs, shuttering should be removed after 24 hrs. and proper curing of cover slabs should be done for at least 10 -14 days.

vi) vii)

Cover slabs are placed over the cable trenches after the cables have been laid. The cover slabs over cable trench are joined with cement mortar and generally the tenth cover in a line is kept free from joining with provision of lifting hook. This is done so that the covers can be removed for regular inspection of cable trenches during maintenance.

viii) Cover slabs are placed on cable trenches after completion of cable laying.

Anti-weed Treatment, Micro Levelling Gravel Filling & Metal Spreading
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Anti-weed Treatment
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The soil of the entire switchyard area is subjected to sterilisation/anti-weed treatment before the site surfacing/gravel fill material. The treatment is done strictly as per instruction of the manufacturer of the chemical required for soil sterilisation/antiweed treatment.


After all the structures and equipments have been erected and accepted, and soil sterilisation (as specified) is complete, the site should be maintained to the lines and levels and rolled/compacted by using roller of specified capacity with suitable water sprinkling to form a smooth and compact surface condition which should match with finished ground level of the switchyard area.


Micro Levelling
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i) ii)

After the soil sterilisation and application of anti weed treatment the surface is prepared for levelling to the required level. The switchyard are is used by various contractors & executing agencies for the various works like laying of earth mat excavation, foundation casting & backfilling of earth, equipments erection, cable laying in the cable trenches and piping work for fire fighting systems.


After completion of different works the various agencies working in switchyard should remove their set up like construction power cables, water pipe lines, sand, metal & other construction materials and T&P etc.


The heavy vehicles like cranes, trucks and other transport modes move in the switchyard area. This movement causes a change in the switchyard level causing lot of undulations in the earth level. The earth that was earlier levelled now again requires some fine levelling to bring it back to original finished desired level.


This process of removing the surplus earth and filling it at the low lying areas so as to maintain one level is done after completion of various works in switchyards. compacted. This laid earth is then duly


The method of compaction is same that water is poured over, the layer of specified check thickness of earth and the layer of such earth is then compacted using compaction tools. Again a layer is laid and water is poured in it and the earth is again compacted.


This process of refilling and compaction goes on until the required level of earth is achieved. Care should however be taken that during excavating the excess earth (for refilling at the low level) the earth is cut and removed only upto the required level and not below otherwise this area may again require some refilling causing wastage of labour.

viii) The important thing in micro levelling is the backfilling and compaction. If both are not done properly the earth level may come down after some time (after rains etc.) making it low lying area. In case of some reservations over the degree of compaction of backfilling the specified tests can be performed.

Metal spreading in Switchyard
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i) ii)

The area where metal spreading is to be done is measured for quantity of metal required for filling. Hard granite store of 40 mm nominal size is spreaded in different stages. Under size and over size metal should be rejected.


The metal stacks are placed at a designated place and these are measured and recorded before actually spreading in the switchyard metal is spreaded in the layers of 100 mm.


When more than one admixture is to be used. foundations.2. Don’ts & Special Precautions Back to contents page i) Whenever water table is met during the excavation. vi) Only approved admixtures should be used in the concrete for the Works. roads etc. the priority areas are to be identified and the construction of foundations and cable trenches should be taken up in stages and priority-wise. if required should be provided to take care of any special requirements for aggressive alkaline soil. iii) Minimum 75 mm thick lean concrete (1:4:8) or as specified should be provided below all underground structures. it should be dewatered and water table maintained below the bottom of the excavation level during excavation. trenches etc. To provide a base of construction. v) RCC columns should be provided with rigid connection at the base.8 Do’s . xi) To meet the commissioning schedules. x) Bar bending schedule for raft and trench wall should be prepared as per the drawing and same should be checked for placement. ix) The concreting of trench should be arranged for a length of not more than 30 mtrs. iv) Necessary protection to the foundation work. black cotton soil or any other type of soil which is detrimental/harmful to the concrete foundations. In each year of fill material. at a time. concreting and backfilling. . each admixture is batched in its own batch and added to the mixing water separately before discharging into the mixer. ii) The method and equipment used to compact the fill material should be suitable to achieve the density that will give the allowable soil bearing pressure required for the foundations. vii) The water-reducing set-retarding admixture if used should be of approved brand viii)The water roofing cement additives shall be used as required/advised by the consignee.

xvii)The stone should be hard. xix)Use of undersize & oversize metal than the specified size should be avoided. xiv)The cover slab should be kept in water sump for a period of about 10 days for curing. . xx) The material required for site surfacing/gravel filling should be free from all types of organic materials and should be of standard approved quality. xxi)The rail and concrete sleepers are required for providing the track for transformer and shunt reactor unit. Then the metal of adequate measurement should be spread in this area. xviii)The quantity required to fill up a measured area should be ascertained actually. xv) Due care should be taken so as not damage any foundation structure or equipment during rolling/compaction. The items are of specific dimension and requirement. These items are required to be procured from the market. coarse and it should not be flat. and as directed by the Engineer-in-charge. xvi)The gravel should be allowed to come from one or two approved quarries where the similar gravel availability is possible. A 20 mm sieve can be used to remove the oversized gravel. Their availability in the open market may not be easy so efforts to procure these items should be started simultaneously while the works for foundation are started. xiii)A separate sump should be constructed for curing the cover slabs.xii) Wherever earth mats are crossing the cable trench suitable U bends of MS rounds should be placed below the trench raft before concreting.


cement.) joints have been Yes/No . 15. 22. foundation bolts etc. 13. 14. metal.9 1. 18. deptt.2. 7. 9. 6. Grid pillars are erected at site. 12. 5. Grid lines are formed as per designed layout at site Centre line marking for cable trench is checked as per drawing maintained Bar bending schedule trench walls and raft is approved provided in trench wall For concreting proper shuttering is provided in cable trenches provided Concreting of trenches/raft done as per specifications the earth mats. 10. For equipment foundations location exact co-ordinates are verified All levelling work is complete before start of foundations available with adequate T&P before start of foundation activities Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Proper slope of main and all secondary cable trenches is Yes/No Yes/No Nosing angles and inserts for fixing cable supports have been Yes/No Yes/No Required water stoppers at the specified trench length has been Yes/No Yes/No U bends have been provided in cable trenches where these cross Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No All materials like sand. 3. 17. 8. 19. 16. backfilling and cable trench cover slabs have Yes/No been provided Yes/No Rail and sleepers have already been procured before start of Yes/No Yes/No When placed on trenches (after cable laying etc. 21. Check Format Back to contents page Soil investigation report has been approved by competent authority Construction drawings are being released by Engg. 4. 11. 2. are Yes/No Cable trench cover slabs being cast on special platform and with Yes/No proper shuttering Proper curing of cover slabs is being done sealed For transformer & shunt reactor foundations pylon supports have Yes/No been provided by the concerned agency Layout of foundation is verified with switchyard layout drawing concreting at site All cable trench work. 20.

28. 25. 33. Earth mat work is complete all T&P has been removed from site Yes/No Site is cleared from any construction material and power cables and Yes/No Microlevelling work is being done satisfactorily and the desired site Yes/No level is achieved Earth required for low lying area is being cut from high level areas Proper compaction of land as per specifications is being done Before micro levelling all foundations have been properly backfilled All metal/hard granite is properly stacked for recording Hard granite metal store of specified size is spreaded Metal is being brought from the selected/approved queries been provided Metal spreading is completed and proper recording/measurements Yes/No have been taken Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Proper level marks for spreading and measurement of metal have Yes/No . 32. 26. 24. 31. 29.23. 27. 30.



___________________________________________________________________________ SWITCHYARD EARTHING
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The object of earthing is to maintain a low potential on any object. The purpose of a earthing system in a substation area is to limit the potential gradient within and immediately outside the area to a value, safe for the working personnel. Safety is to be ensured under normal as well as abnormal operating conditions.

Functional Requirements of Earthing System
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    

To provide earth connection for the neutral points of transformer, reactor, capacitor banks, filter banks, generators. To provide discharge path for lightning overvoltages coming via rod-gaps, surge arresters, shielding wires etc. To provide low resistance path to earthing switch earthed terminals, so as to discharge the trapped charge to earth prior to maintenance or repairs. To ensure safety of operating staff by limiting voltage gradient at ground level in the substation. To provide a sufficiently low resistance path to earth to minimise the rise in earth potential with respect to a remote earth-fault. Persons touching any of the non-current carrying earthed parts shall not receive a dangerous shock during an earth fault. Each structure, transformer tank, body of equipment etc. should be connected to earthing mat by their own earth connection.


Earthing System in Switchyard
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Following basic requirements are to be satisfied as so to ensure a proper and sound earthing system in substation switchyard. i)The earth resistance for the switchyard area should be lower than a certain limiting value “Ra” in order to ensure that a safe potential gradient is maintained in the

switchyard area and the protective relay equipments operate satisfactorily. For major switchyards and substations in India, this limiting value of earth resistance (Ra) is taken to be less than 0.5 ohm. ii)The grounding conductor material should be capable of carrying the maximum earth fault current without overheating and mechanical damage. The maximum fault level in the 400 KV system has been estimated to be 40 kA and this value of fault current is used in the design of earth mat for the 400 KV substation. iii)All metallic objects which do not carry current and installed in the substation such as structures, parts of electrical equipments, fences, armouring and sheaths of the low voltage power and control cables should be connected to the earthing electrode system. iv)Mechanical ruggedness of the ground conductor should be ensured. v)The design of ground conductor should take care such that whenever a fault occurs in substation, fault current flows through the faulty circuit to the connecting electrode.

Step and Touch Potential
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Any person in the substation area is likely is encounter the following potential rises. i)The station earthing system should have earth resistance lower than 0.5 ohm for effective discharge of lightning over voltage to earth. ii) Grounding mesh is provided below ground level. Earth electrodes are driven into ground at several points and are connected to the grounding mat to form Earthing Mesh. All the structures, transformer tanks, etc. are connected to this mesh. 3.3.1 Step potential
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The potential difference between two steps of a person standing on the substation floor during the flow of earth fault current is known as step potential.

Touch potential
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The potential difference between a step and the tip of the raised hand touching a substation structure during the flow of the earth fault current through the latter is known as touch potential.

The step potential and touch potential depend upon the following aspects:       Earth fault current Duration of earth fault Whether short time (less than 3 sec.) Whether sustained (more than 3 sec.) Fault current flowing through body Values of body resistance in the path

The design of grounding system should be such that the voltage gradient in volts/metre on the surface of the ground should be less than the permitted value.

Soil Resistivity Measurement
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The earth resistivity is measured by driving 4 electrodes in ground in a straight line at equal spacing of 20-25m (Fig. 1). These electrodes are connected to terminals of an earth tester. A typical earth tester has 4 terminals C1, C2, P1 and P2. The electodes are connected to the tester in the order of C1, P1 and P2, C2. The handle of the tester is rotated in case of manual one or the button is pressed (in case of motorised tester) and the reading of the resistance is read on the megger scale. The reading of meggar is used in calculating the soil resistivity in Ohm-meters.

If R is the resistance measured then the Specific Resistivity = 2 aR where a= Distance between the electrodes The design of earth mat is based on the results of earth resistivity measured in the switchyard area. The earth resistivity is taken at about 15 places in switchyard and more particularly near shunt reactor, transformer, Circuit Breaker and control room locations. Prior to the testing of soil resistivity and earth resistance, site should refer to the guidelines issued by the Operation Services Deptt. at Corporate Centre. The operation manual of the testing instrument available at site should also be referred.

Earthing Material
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Following Table gives the typical size and materials required for different earthing items in the substation: Table -1: Typical sizes of materials used for Switchyard Earthing Sl. No. 1. Item in ground (for earthed mat & earth pipes) 2. 3. 4. Conductor above ground & earthing 75 x 12 mm leads (for equipment) leads (for columns & aux. Structures) G.S. Flat Galvanised Steel Galvanised Steel G.S. Flat Conductor above ground & earthing 75x12 mm Earthing of indoor LT panels, Control 50 x 6 mm panels and out door marshalling G.S. Flat boxes, MOM boxes, junction boxes & lighting panels etc. 5. Rod Earth Electrode 40 mm dia 3000 mm long 6. Pipe Earth Electrode (in treated earth 40 mm dia pit) as per IS. 3000 mm long Galvanised Steel Mild Steel Galvanised Steel Size Material Mild Steel rod

Main Earthing Conductor to be buried 40 mm dia

it is laid at minimum 300 mm below these and be re-routed in case it fouls with equipment/structure foundations etc. The GS earth flat is welded to a MS Rod riser which is connected to the earth mat in ground. ii) Wherever earthing conductor crosses cable trenches. tunnels. The connection between earthing pads and the earthing grid is made by two short earthing leads (one direct and another through the support structure) free from kinks and splices by 75 mm x 12 mm GS earth flat. ii) All steel/RCC columns. railway tracks etc.7 Equipment and Structure Earthing in Substation Back to contents page i) Earthing pads are provided for the apparatus/equipments at accessible position. vi) Earth grid should be extended beyond 2000 mm from the switchyard fencing towards out side. underground service ducts. pipes. 8. iv) Earthing conductors crossing the road is laid 300 mm below the road or at greater depth to suit the site conditions.6 Earthing Conductor Layout Back to contents page i) Earthing conductor in outdoor areas is buried at least 600 mm below finished ground level or as specified. are connected to the nearby earthing grid conductor by two earthing leads. iii) Tap-connections from the earthing grid to the equipment/structure to be earthed are terminated on the earthing terminals of the equipment/structure as per earthing details. 3. Electrical . vii) A minimum clearance of 1500 mm is maintained between the earthing conductor and the control room building. metallic stairs etc. v) Earthing conductors embedded in the concrete should have approximately 50 mm concrete cover.7. Earthing for motors 25 x 3 mm GS flat Galvanised Steel Mild Steel Earthing conductor along outdoor 50 x 6 mm cable trenches MS flat 3.

lighting conduits etc. iv) A separate earthing conductor should be provided for earthing the lighting fixtures. all junction boxes. viii) In isolator the base frame is connected to the earth mat. conduits and cable tray sections for cable installation are bonded to ensure electrical continuity and connected to earthing conductors at regular interval. 50 mm x 6 mm MS (or of specified size) flat runs on the top tier and all along the cable trenches and the same is welded to each of the racks. switches.continuity is ensured by bonding different sections of rails and metallic stairs. The M. iii) Metallic pipes. vi) vii) Railway tracks within switchyard are earthed at a spacing of 30 m and also at both ends. lighting fixtures etc. The conductor is connected to each panel ground bus. v) A continuous ground conductor of 16 SWG GI wire is run all along each conduit run and bonded at every 600 mm by not less than two turns of the same size of wires. flat is finally painted with two coats or Red oxide primer and two coats of Post Office red enamel paint or of specified material. beginning points are also connected to earthing system. junction boxes. receptacles. Further this flat is earthed at both ends at an interval of 30 mtrs. receptacles. The following Table-2 gives the various parts required to be earthed alongwith their method of connection .S. Apart from intermediate connections.

















Surge Arrester Lower point earth To be directly connected to the earth mat. Connect the earthing bolt on the frame and to operating mechanism of CB to earthing system base Weld the isolator base frame. 3. each supporting structure of apparatus to earthing conductor 2. to nonconducting connect Method of connection Earth terminal of device fastening bolts to earth each pole of 3 When the device is mounted on a phase Arrester Surge steel structure. In the absence of earthing bolt or in case of connection structures. Parts to be Earthed Device flange or Connect the earthing bolt of the base plate device to station earthing system. 1. fuse. Isolator 5.Table:2 Details of Apparatus /Structures to be earthed in Switchyard Sl. mounting the device flange. Lightning Arrester. 4. Provide an auxiliary earth mat of 600 mm x 600 mm of earth conductors in the ground near the earth switch and connect the both. No. operating mechanism bedplate. etc. connect it to the bolt on operating mechanism base plate and station earth. Cabinets of control and Frameworks of relay panels switchgear and cabinets Weld the framework mounted of board each and separately mesh via separate cabinet minimum at two points to the earth conductor of earthing system. Apparatus Support of bushing insulators. frame Isolator (frame). High-voltage Breakers Circuit Operating mechanism. . weld the structure.

neutral. the case being earthed in the same way as support insulators. Connect the Neutral directly to two dedicated earth pits. Fencing Water tanks Alternate Lightning provided tank GS earth flat connects the fencing rods GS earth flat connects the lightning over rods to earth mat. Two bolts are provided for making each connection. . Equipment bolted connections. Connect secondary winding earthing bolt on transformer case with a flexible copper conductor. Shunt Reactor Tank Same as in transformer. after being checked and tested are painted with anti-corrosive paint/compound of specified material. Power transformer Transformer tank Connect the earthing bolt on transformer tank to station earth. Cable trays & supports Cable trays and GS flat running near trays is welded support at a spacing of 750 mm and connected to earth mat at about 30 m distance. 10. NGR is also connected to two earth pits.6. stipulated by the to 7. Current Transformer Secondary winding and me tal case 8. winding lead designers) phase (if Connect LV neutral of phase lead case with flexible copper to conductor. 3. 12. Fencing portions to earth mat. LV Connect the transformer earthing LV bolt to earthing system.8 Jointing Back to contents page i)Earthing connections with equipment earthing pads are bolted type. the top of water 11. Potential Transformer/CVT CVT tank. 9.

In case this value is high water should be sprinkled in the earthing pits for improvement of earth resistance. Artificial cooling is not allowed. The value as far as possible should be below 1 ohm. v)Earthing terminals of each lightning arrester & Capacitor Voltage Transformer is directly connected to rod earth electrode which in turn is connected to station earthing grid.ii)Resistance of Joint should not be more than the resistance of the equivalent length of the conductor. All welded joints are allowed to cool down gradually to atmospheric temperature before putting any load on it. radiators etc.9 Measurement of Earth Resistance Back to contents page Three electrode methods is used for measuring the earth resistance in switchyard (Fig. 3. The value of of R could be read in the scale with the rotation of the handle of megger or press of a button. . 14). This will give the value of earth resistance. are buried in Cement Concrete pit with a cast iron cover hinged to a cast iron frame to have an access to the joints. To measure the earth resistance both C1 and P1 terminals of megger could be connected to a spike that is driven in ground and connected to earth mat whereas terminals P2 and C2 are connected to the equidistant spikes driven in ground (not connected to earth mat). All accessories associated with transformer/reactor like cooling banks. iii)All ground connections are made by electric arc welding. are connected to the earthing grid at minimum two points. iv)Each earthing lead from the neutral of the power transformer/reactor is directly connected to two pipe electrodes in treated earth pit (as per IS) which in turn.



lockout switches etc. xii) For transformer & shunt reactor earthing. iii) Flexible earthing connectors should be provided for the moving parts.3. . should be supported by suitable welding/cleating at intervals of 750 mm/ as specified. junction boxes on the poles. cable and cable boxes/glands. x) Meggar used for measuring soil resistivity should be calibrated with great accuracy. etc. vii) Earthing conductors or leads along their run on cable trench ladder. v) Sheath and armour of single core power cables should be earthed at switchgear end and equipment side. grease. In case if an accurately calibrated meggar is not available. paint. are connected to the earthing conductor running alongwith the supply cable which inturn is connected to earthing grid conductor at a minimum two points whether specifically shown or not ix) Earthing conductor is generally buried 2000 mm outside the switchyard fence. rust or dirt. enamel. and steel reinforcement in concrete it should be bonded to the same. earth pits of 3-4 m depth below the ground with 40 mm dia GI pipe & specified quantity of salt and coke should be provided. 2 or 3 different meggars should be used to take same set of readings. iv) Steel to copper connections should be brazed type and treated to prevent moisture ingression.10 Do’s Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page i) Metallic conduits should not be used as earth continuity conductor. xi) The earth resistivity should be taken in dry weather condition. All the gates and every alternate post of the fence is be connected to earthing grid. viii)Light poles. walls etc. vi) Contact surface of earthing pads for jointing free from scale. beams. ii) Wherever earthing conductor crosses or runs along metallic structures such as gas. steam conduits. columns. water.

this value can be upto 1 ohm.5 ohm. . xvi)In case these values are not being achieved water should be poured in earth pits to bring the earth resistance within the specified range. xiv)The measured value of combined earth resistance should not be more than 0. individual earth pits & earth rod electrodes. xv) For earth electrodes and individual earth pits.xiii)The earth resistance should also be measured after completion of laying of earth mat and earth electrodes by the same 4 electrode methods for complete system.


Earthing Conductor crossing the road is laid 300 mm below Yes/No the road or at greater depth depending on the site conditions 8. 3. MICC. The galvanization of steel (where GI steel is to be used) is Yes/No proper. 2. metallic stairs are connected to Yes/No nearby earthing grid conductor by two earthing leads. 6.11 Check Format Back to contents page 1. conducts and cable tray sections for cable Yes/No installations are bonded & then connected to earthing conductor at regular interval 13 Earthing of Lighting fixtures. 9. 14 Railway tracks within switchyard area has been earthed at a Yes/No spacing of 30m/specified distance and also at both the ends. 5. After unloading the visual inspection of the materials has Yes/No been carried out along with the erection contractor. GR etc. junction Yes/No boxes lighting conduit has been done by a separate earthing conductor. Yes/No Challans. Earthing conductor is buried at least 600 mm below finished Yes/No ground level/ at specified level. 10 11 12 Earthing conductor in outdoor areas is buried at least 600 Yes/No mm below furnished ground level. Earthing pads have been provided for the apparatus / Yes/No equipments at accessible position. All steel/RCC columns. . Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site Yes/No (Preferably with crane) to unload the material. 7. Earth grid has been extended beyond 2000 mm from the Yes/No switchyard fencing towards outside. receptacles. Metallic pipes.3. switches. Earthing material has been checked for dimensions and Yes/No quality . 4. All items have been checked with the packing list.

water Yes/No . 19 20 Sheath & armour for single core power cable have been Yes/No earthed at switchgear end. been checked and tested before painting with anti corrosive paint. earth pits of 3-4 Yes/No m depth with specified sized GI pipe & specified quantity of salt and coke have been provided. All accessories in transformer and reactor like radiators Yes/No tank. 4 electrode method has been applied to measure the earth Yes/No resistance Measured value of earth resistance is within specified range has been poured in earth pits to bring the earth resistance within the specified range Yes/No In case the values are not within the specified limit. This earth flat is earthed at about 30m distance. Yes/No Bolted conditions of earthing with the equipments have Yes/No 18 For transformer and shunt reactor earthing. 21 22 23 24 25 Megger used for measuring earth resistivity has been Yes/No calibrated with great accuracy Earth resistance has been measured after laying the Yes/No earthmat.15 16 17 Cable trays have been connected to earthing flat of 50 mm Yes/No x 6 mm/ specified sized earthing flat. cooling banks etc. are connected to the earthing grid at minimum two points.


painting. control cabinet etc. LAs etc. foundation bolts and other bolts & nuts is also linked up. phase plates and danger plates. no. CVT. Efforts should be made such that a proper co-ordination is made in procuring these supplies and structures so that erection work is not delayed due to non availability of one or the other item. supply. lightning masts. fixtures for supporting operating mechanism boxes. handling. With both these type of structures. clamps.___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER ___________________________________________________________________________ SWITCHYARD STRUCTURES Back to contents page 4. The structure supports also include the cap and base plates. supply of other components like washers. storage and erection of all lattice/pipe structures. erection of angle supports and embedding in cable trenches as per cable trench designs and layout. Various aspects right from the scope of work to the erection of structures are described below. plates.1 Structure works in Substation Switchyard Back to contents page The scope of structural work in switchyard generally includes receipt. These are lattice type and pipe type structures. . stiffeners. foundation bolts mounting stool and bolts.0 FOUR Introduction Back to contents page Two types of structures are used in switchyard erection. beams as shown in structural arrangement drawings and lattice support for gantry and various equipments like CT. It also includes the fabrication. fasteners. 4.

. Gate Pass. supplier name etc. quantity. BOQ and any shortages should be recorded. ii) Maintenance of proper stock registers by the erection agency is to be checked regularly by duly counter signing the registers.2 Receipt of Material & Inspection Back to contents page After receipt of all the materials at site. packing list. MICC. ii) Quantity of materials received with the delivery challan. spring washers. LR. This inspection is required to check the materials received for their quantity. it should be inspected jointly with the erection agency.3 Storage Back to contents page i) The erection agency is allowed to store the angle/pipe material near the place where tower gantries are to be installed. Any physical damage should be brought to the notice of supplier. Packing List etc. . 4. pack washers (in bags) should be stored in the allocated room/building meant for storage with the proper tags depicting the size. iii) Bolts/nuts. quality. code no. iii) iv) Identification marks should be checked from the MICC. All angles and pipes are to be stacked properly in such a way that retrieving of required materials is easy. GR. correctness and identification marks as per the delivery challan/ packing list etc.4. One should go for checking the following :i) Despatch documents such as RR.

the marring of finish or bending of tower members.1 Erection of Gantry & Lattice Structures Back to contents page i) The erection should be carried out as per the specified technical instructions and approved drawings. 4. v) The erection progress from the bottom upwards.4 Erection Back to contents page 4. crane can be used for this purpose.4. viii)This process is continued till the complete tower in gantry is erected. vi) The cross braces of the first section which are already assembled on the ground are raised one by one as a unit and bolted to the already erected corner leg angles.iv) In case the store building is not ready. gin poles are placed one each on the top of the diagonally opposite corner legs. iii) The erection work is carried out manually (by built up or piece meal method) using ginpoles/derricks. the material may be kept tents with adequate security. Necessary care should be exercised in handling to avoid the distortion of structures. ii) Tolerances are established in the approved manufacture drawings or as stipulated in the technical specifications. . However. vii) For assembling the second section of the towers. iv) The members are kept on ground serially according to erection sequence. These two poles are used for raising parts of second sections.

For finer adjustments winch machines can be used. nuts & washers. xi) To maintain the proper level necessary shims are inserted in pipe works.ix) The lattice structure are used for various equipment erection in the switchyard like circuit breaker. .4. xv) One side of the beam is tightened first with the gantry structure on one side. CVT and surge arrester. This side of assembled beam is fixed to the tower by proper sized bolts. xii) The beam erection work of tower is carried out at the ground by assembling various members preferably in two parts. current transformer. ii) During erection the top level of the pipe structure should be maintained horizontal. x) Proper care in horizontal levelling of these lattice structure is taken by using water level/spirit level.2 Erection of Pipe Structure Back to contents page i) The pipe structure are placed on the foundation bolts preferably by cranes. Even dumpy level/theodolyte may also be used for good accuracy. Even winch machines can also be used for this purpose. 4. xiii)The assembled beam is lifted either by crane or by chain pulley block. xiv)The assembled beam is lifted slowly and carefully. xvi)All the support structure for various equipments should be levelled horizontally with water/spirit levels.

3 Lightning Masts Back to contents page Lightning masts are the highest angle iron structures in the switchyard. . iv) Necessary care is taken during pipe structure erection so that no damage is caused to the threads of the foundation bolts. 4.iii) This can be checked with the spirit level and shims can be used to fill up the gap and to maintain the proper horizontal level. The erection procedure of Lightning Masts is similar to that of tower and gantries. These are designed in the switchyard keeping in view the approved switchyard bays. v) The persons doing erection of pipe structure should use the safety measures like helmets and safety belts etc.


This will help in avoiding delays of erection works due to non availability of one of these items. bolts and nuts. should be checked as per the BOQ at site. use of guy wires etc. Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page During the erection of gantries/lattice structures/pipes following points should be kept in mind. vii) Any bend members and pipes should not be allowed and straightaway rejected during supply stage.4 Do’s. vi) Punching of bolts should be done. ii) The lattice members. viii)No hammering of members should be allowed to match the holes during erection work. safety belts. should be strictly adhered to during structure erection works in the switchyard. pipes etc. v) All the net/bolts should be tightened properly after the completion of structure erection. is in the scope of different agencies. pipes etc. washers.4. . iii) Cranes should be used preferably for erection of pipe structure in the switchyard. iv) All safety procedures for erection work like use of safety helmets. The shortage or missed members in supplies should be taken up with the suppliers rigorously. a co-ordinated follow up should be maintained with the suppliers to the deliveries of these items as per schedule. The erection work should be started only after the structures are complete memberwise. i) As the supplies of lattice structure.

Also. xiii)Proper lifting arrangement of 4-5 MT capacity should be used during erection works. xvii)D-shackles of 2 to 20 MT of different sizes should be used. . Before carrying out the final punching it must be ensured that proper sized spring washers are provided.e. xii) During erection. xiv)Proper sized spanners (box and ring type) as well as DE spanners should be used. These should be checked for their smooth rotation and locked during use on works. The ropes should be checked before use so as to avoid any breakage during works. proper tightening is to be done. xv) Poly-propylene ropes of 18/20/25 mm dia of about 100 m/as per requirement length each may be used. it should be seen that brazings should be properly erected i. xi) After the completion of tower erection. members should not be over tensioned while carrying out the erection. xviii)Single sheave and double sheave pulleys should not be less than 5 MT capacity.ix) 2-3 threads of bolts should be exposed after tightening the nuts for punching purpose.. x) Proper sized/bolts/nuts and pack washers should be used in erection. outer face of the member should always be at top so that water does not stager on the members (water gate). xvi)Steel rope of 3/8” dia of required length should be used with winch machine.

xix)The verticality of different lattice structures should not be less than the specified tolerance of 1 in 360. xx) Proper punching of bolts/nuts is to be done on the various structures. .


All items have been checked with the packing list. Proper care in horizontal levelling of lattice structure for Yes/No equipments is taken by using water/spirit level. fasteners. shims have been inserted in pipe Yes/No works. All pipes have been checked and found straight w. 5. Yes/No Challans GR etc.o. After unloading the visual inspection of the angles/members Yes/No has been carried out for any bend/ damage. pack washers are stored in the closed room Yes/No (in bags). All lattice members are available (as per drawings) before start Yes/No of erection. Proper tags depicting the size.5 Check Format Back to contents page 1. are being used by the working personnel. 3. have been written/inscripted on the tags tied on the bags. galvanization Yes/No and bend etc. 10. 7. During structure erection proper safety measures like helmets. 8.4. ropes etc. quantity code no. 11. Yes/No Angles have been checked for size/dimensions. To maintain proper level. Bolts/nuts/spring. foundation bolts & Yes/No other bolts/nuts are available before starting the structure erection at site. 12. and supplier Yes/No name etc. 4. Yes/No safety bolts. All the members have been stacked properly in store. 6. . MICC. any bends Yes/No or damage. 9. 2. Required quantities of washers.

18. 2-3 threads of bolts are exposed out after tightening the nuts for Yes/No punching purpose. Verticality of tower is within the safe tolerance of 1 in 360. 16.13. 14. 15. Assembled beam (of gantry structure) is being lifted with crane Yes/No for erection with proper safety. 17. Yes/No . Proper sized bolts/nuts and pack washers are used in tower Yes/No erections. Yes/No Hammering of members has been disallowed during erection at Yes/No site. Tightening and punching of bolts has been done properly.


The insulators experience electro-dynamic forces during short circuit currents. The cross-section of conductors is designed on the basis of rated normal current and permissible temperature rise.1 Steps in Busbar Design Back to contents page The busbar design is carried out in the following steps: i) Choice of cross-section of conductor based on required normal current.0 Introduction Back to contents page The substation busbars can be broadly classified in the following three categories: i) ii) iii) Outdoor Rigid Tubular Busbars Outdoor flexible ACSR aluminium alloy busbars Indoor busbars The busbars are designed to carry certain normal current continuously.___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER FIVE ___________________________________________________________________________ BUS POST INSULATORS & BUS BARS Back to contents page 5. The value of cross section so obtained is verified for temperature rise under short-time short-circuit current. . ii) Calculation of temperature rise under short time current to see that it is in safe limits. The spacing between adjacent insulators is decided on the basis of bending moment per metre and strength of insulators. These forces produce bending moment on separated insulators. 5. given ambient temperature and specified permissible temperature rise. These forces are maximum at the instant of peak of first major current loop. The busbar conductors are supported on post insulators or strain insulators.

iii) Calculation of electro-dynamic forces per metre for given short circuit current. iv) Calculation of choice of support insulators on the basis of bending moment withstand value. v) Calculation of span of support insulators on the basis of the force, bending strength of insulators and factor of safety. vi) Design of insulator system, phase to phase clearance, phase to ground clearance and creepage. vii) Design of support structures. viii)Design of clamps and connectors, flexible joints.

Forms of Busbars
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Busbars of Outdoor Switchyard are in the following forms:   ACSR conductors supported at each end on strain insulators. Tubular Aluminium Conductors supported on post insulators made of porcelain. These are either welded to get extended lengths.  5.2.1 Busbars for Indoor Switchgear are in the form of aluminium or copper flats. These are supported on epoxy cast insulators. ACSR
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ACSR conductor to be used for busbars is supported on insulators. As most of the equipments can be installed below the flexible bus, land requirements are also less. The cost of this scheme is lower due to less no. of support structures.

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Aluminium is used for busbars in indoor and outdoor switchgear. Aluminium and aluminium castings (5 to 12% silicon) are used in busbar. Aluminium is used in the form of strips /rectangular bars for busbar application. While using aluminium for busbars, the difficulties arise due to the following aspects: i) Higher resistivity, hence associated problems of temperature rise. ii) Lower tensile strength than copper. iii) Lower thermal conductivity than copper.

iv) Higher coefficient of linear expansion than copper. v) Higher joint resistance and associated problems about joining. vi) Special welding techniques are necessary.

Configuration of Busbars in Outdoor Substation
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The conductors of a busbars systems in an outdoor substation are of the following two types: i) Rigid aluminium tubular bus conductors supported on post insulators ii) Flexible ACSR supported on strain insulators. The conductors of three phases of each bus are placed in horizontal configuration. Table 1: Comparison between Rigid Bus System and Flexible Bus System Feature Cost Rigid Bus System Higher because cost Land Area requirement Number of support structures - More numbers - Simple - Amount of steel lesser 5.4 Receipt and Inspection of Material at site
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Flexible Bus System of higher Lower

conductor cost, post insulator Larger Lower. Most of the equipment installed below the flexible bus - Less numbers - Complex

i) The items should be checked with the packing list, MICC, Challans GR etc. ii) In case of any discrepancy from the above documents/LOA the same may be intimated to the manufacturer at the earliest. iii) Any type of damage to the panels during transportation or any missing items should also be brought to the notice of the panel supplier. iv) All materials and packages are to be carefully opened and verified for damages and shortages, if any. These shortcomings have to be

properly intimated to the manufacturer as well as to the Insurance authorities as the case may be. v) Handling of large crates should be handled by crane carefully. vi) All items should be stored on ramps/platforms, free from water logging. vii) BPIs are to be stored separately to avoid breakages.

Bus Post Insulators
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Post type consist of a porcelain part permanently secured in a metal base to be mounted on the supporting structures.  They are capable of being mounted upright. They are designed to withstand any shocks to which they may be subjected to by the operation of the associated equipment.  Porcelain used is homogeneous, free from lamination, cavities and other flaws or imperfections that might affect the mechanical or dielectric quality and thoroughly vitrified, tough and impervious to moisture. Glazing of the porcelain is of uniform brown in colour, free from blisters, burrs and other similar defects.   The insulator have alternate long and short sheds with aerodynamic profile. The design of the insulators should be such that stresses due to expansion and contraction in any part of the insulator should not lead to deterioration in Bus Post insulators i) Every bolt should be provided with a steel washer under the nut so that part of the threaded portion of the bolts is within the thickness of the parts bolted together. ii) Flat washer should be circular of a diameter 2.5 times that of bolt and of suitable thickness. Where bolt heads/nuts bear upon the levelled surfaces they are provided with square tapered washers of suitable thickness to afford a seating square with the axis of the bolt. iii) All bolts and nuts should be made up of steel with well formed hexagonal heads forged from the solid and hot dip galvanised. The nuts should be good fit on the bolts and two clear threads

should show through the nut when it has been finally tightened up. 5.5.1 a) b) c) Technical Parameters of typical Bus Post Insulators are
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Type Voltage class (kV) Dry and wet one minute power frequency withstand voltage, Kv (rms)

Solid core 420 680

Solid core 245 460

d) e) f)

Dry lightning impulse withstand voltage Wet switching surge withstand voltage (kVp) Max. radio interference voltage (in microvolts) at voltage of 305 kV (rms) and 156 (rms) for 400 kV & 220 kV respectively between phase to ground.

+ 1425 + 1050 1000

+ 1050 1000

g) h) i) j) k)

Corona extinction voltage (kV rms) Total minimum cantilever strength (Kg) Minimum torsional moment Total height of insulator (mm) P.C.D Top (mm) Bottom (mm)

320 (Min.) 800 As per IEC-273 3650 127 300 4 8 M16 18 Heavy(III)

156 (Min.) 800

2300 127 254 4 8 M16 18 Heavy(III)


No. of bolts Top Bottom


Diameter of bolt/holes (mm) Top Bottom dia


Pollution level as per

IEC-815 o) Minimum total creepage distance for Heavy Pollution (mm)



Erection of Aluminium Bus Bar
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i) Before erection of the tube, it is to be checked for any scratches. If any scratches are observed, they are to be repaired by means of smooth file and emery paper. ii) As Aluminium tube is soft material it is to be handled carefully to avoid damages and scratches. iii) The tube can be erected by means of crane or by means of a derrick. iv) Only polypropylene ropes are to be used to tie the tube while lifting. v) After erection of the Aluminium tube it is to be checked that it rests on all the BPI clamps (rigid/sliding/expansion) properly. the clamp and the BPI. vi) During erection of the tube care should be taken such that the tube should be in perfect straight line and perfect level. The BPI clamps suitable for Aluminium tube (rigid/sliding/expansion types) are erected as per the erection key diagram.

If not,

necessary adjustments may be made by providing shims between

Bending Procedure of Aluminium Tube During Erection:
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Following bending procedure should be adopted during bending of the Aluminium tube while bus bar erection i) Wherever required the tube is bent suitably into a Z shape. ii) Suitable tube bending machine is to be made use of.

The tube bend should not be bent more than 45o. bending the tube should be filled with smooth sand, well compacted throughout the length of the tube and the ends should be plugged..

iv) To ensure the circular cross section of the tube at the place of

v) Care should be taken such that the tube is in one plane only even after bending.

Welding of Aluminium Tube:

xiii) Milli volt drop tests for testing the joints should be performed in the field. equally distributed in length among the tubes. Tube centring spacer is inserted in between them. The counter shunk Aluminium rods also are to be welded to the tube. Suitable welding sleeves of specified length for the above tube. The edge is to be made by grinding to the shape. ix) x) xi) xii) Aluminium rods of specified length and dia with one end counter shunk are inserted through these holes. After positioning the tubes.7 If any of the joints are not successful in the test. Tube ends to be welded are cut neatly and precisely in shape. . those joints are to be re-done. Both the tubes to be welded are kept in a plane and in the same axis. specially supplied for the purpose of tube welding is kept within the tube. To accommodate the counter shunk aluminium rod the counter shunk shape is drilled in the Aluminium Tube only. Plane of the cut edge is to be exactly perpendicular to the plane of longitudinal section of the tube. xv) 5. (in the enclosed proforma at Annexure-I and Annexure-II) before commencement of the Aluminium welding of the bus at site. viii) After putting the pieces and welding sleeve in position 12 mm dia holes are to be drilled at 100 mm intervals. Welding Procedure and Welder’s Qualifications Back to contents page The erection contractor is supposed to get the Welding Procedure and Welder’s /Welding Operator’s Qualifications approved from the Corporate QA deptt.Back to contents page i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Aluminium tube welding is done at erection site only by a qualified and approved welder. xiv) All other tests as given in the FQP should also be performed. welding sleeve and the Aluminium rods in position the welding is to be taken up.



8 Do’s. viii) Welding of Aluminium tube at site should be done by adopting an approved welding procedure and employing a qualified welder. ensure the argon gas flow along with the arc and also as long as the weld metal is red hot. for sealing the ends of the tubular conductor against rain and moisture and to reduce the electrostatic discharge loss at the end points. x)Corona bells should be provided wherever the bus extends beyond the clamps and on free ends. iv)The welds in the Aluminium tube should be kept to the minimum and there should not be more than one joint in the tube in any span length. . vi)While welding work is under progress. ii)Dust free atmosphere is to be maintained at the place of welding. vii)The shed profile should meet requirements of IEC-88815 for the specified pollution level. This is to prevent oxidation of the weld metal because of exposure to oxygen in the atmosphere. Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page i)In Aluminium tube the welding joint should not be at the centre. v)No inflammable material should be present around the work spot. It should be between support and 1/3 distance of the span.5. iii)Check that proper alignment for complete aluminium tube is achieved and verified before any welding is done. ix) Welders employed for Aluminium tube welding should be experienced one in the field.

8. cavities and other flaws Yes/No or imperfections. 2. provided. 17. BPI clamps for holding Aluminium tube have been erected as per erection key diagram. After unloading the visual inspection of the packings has been Yes/No carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably with the manufacturer of the equipment. MICC. 15. Only polypropylene rope is being used for Aluminium Tube erection. 14. burrs Yes/No and other defects. 12. CHECK FORMAT 4. 16. 5. Dust free atmosphere has been maintained at the place of Yes/No welding. procedure. 9. The tube is in the straight line and perfectly levelled. All items have been checked with the packing list. 3. Glazing of the Porcelain is uniform and free from blisters. No inflammable material is present around the work spot span length Aluminium tube has been checked for any scratches smooth file and emery paper.9 1. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No In case of any scratches these have been repaired by mean of Yes/No Yes/No Care is taken so that not more than one joint is provided in one Yes/No Yes/No Aluminium tube welding is done as per approved welding Yes/No Yes/No Packed washers of suitable size and thickness have been Yes/No . Any type of damage to the equipments/components during Yes/No transportation or any missing items has been brought to the notice of the supplier. 11. Check Format Back to contents page Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site (Preferably Yes/No with crane) to unload the packages. Aluminium tube welding is being done by a qualified welder. 7. 18. 10. Porcelain of BPI is free from lamination. Challans Yes/No GR etc. 6.5. 13. Every bolt has been provided with a steel washer under the nut.

Suitable bending machine is used for bending purpose. Yes/No Care has been taken to maintain circular cross section of tube at Yes/No 21. Yes/No . Care has been taken so that pipe is in one plane after bending.19. 20. well compacted in the entire length & ends plugged. the place of bending by filling tube with smooth sand.

SB 221 Specification type and grade Pipe dia range Thickness Range Filler Metals (QW-404) F.10 AWS No. Interpass temperature max. 23 Specification No.No.Annexure . Group No. ER 4043 Size of filler metals : _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Positions (QW-405) Position of groove Welding progression Preheat (QW-406) Preheat temperature min. Group No. ASME-1986 _____________________________________________________________ Joints (QW-402) Joint Design : Backing : _____________________________________________________________ Base Metals (QW-403) P. Preheat maintenance _____________________________________________________________ Post weld heat treatment (QW-407) Temperature range Time range : : : : : _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . SB221 to P No. 23.I QW-482 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS) SECTION IX. 23. No. : (SFA) 5.

____________________________________________________________ Gas (QW-408) Shielding gas Percent composition (mixture) Flow rate Gas backing Trailing Shielding gas composition _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Electrical characteristics Current AC or DC Amps (Range) Tungston electrode size and type Mode of metal transfer for GMAW Electrode wire feed speed range _____________________________________________________________ Technique (QW-410) String or weave bead Orifice or gas cup size Initial and interpass cleaning Method of back gauging Oscillation Contact tube to work distance Multiple or single pass (per side) Multiple or single electrode Travel Speed (Range) Peening Other _________________________________________________________________ Weld Others Layer Type Polar Amp Range Process Filler Class Metal dia Current Voltage Range Travel Speed .

______ To ______ Thickness _______ Other _____________________________ Position (QW-405) (1G. _______ Welding Process __________________ Type ______________________________ In accordance with Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) ___________________ Backing (QW-402) ___________________________ Material (QW-403) Spec.No. _________F No.II DATA . 2G. __________ Stamp No. _________ Glass No. ________ Dia _______ Filter Metal (QW-404) Spec.No.FORMS QW-484 SUGGESTED FORMAT FOR MANUFACTURER’S RECORD OF WELDER OR WELDING OPERATOR QUALIFICATION TESTS Welder Name _________________ Check No. No. ______ to P. 6G) ________________________________________ Gas (QW 408) Type _______________ % Composition _____________________ Electrical Characteristics (QW 409) Current _________________ Polarity _______ Weld Progression (QW-410) __________________________________________ of P.Annexure . _________ .

welded and tested required by the Code.3(b) Type and Fig No.2(a). _______ We certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared. Radiography Test for (QW 304 & QW-305) For alternative ____________ in above welds by radiography Radiographic Results _________________________ Filler Weld Test Results _____________________62. nature _________________________ Length and Percent of _________________ inches Macro Test-Fusion Appearance -Fillet Size________________________ in Convexity in or Concavity _________ in ______________ Test conducted by ____________________ Laboratory .4(a).Other _____________________________________________________ For Information Only Filler Metal Diameter and Trade Name _________________________ Submerged Arc Flux Trade Name _________________________ Gas Metal Arc Welding Shield Gas Trade Name _______________________ Guided Bend Test Results QW-462. QW-462 4(b) Fracture Test (describe the location. % .Test No.) NOTE: Any essential variables in addition to those above shall be recorded.QW-462. QW-463.2(a).


Erection of equipments can be started only after the overhead stringing has been completed in the gantries of the switchyard. i) Before starting and also during stringing works the condition of conductor should be checked for any damage or scratches to the aluminium strands of conductor. The various outdoor equipments are connected with overhead conductors by jumpers/droppers with suitable clamps.0 Introduction Back to contents page In switchyard overhead stringing work is done between the gantries and from the last tower on the lines to the first gantry structure. Stringing is done manually in the switchyard. 6.1 Pre. ii) The glass/porcelain portion of insulators should be checked for any cracks .Stringing checks Back to contents page Though stringing work in switchyard is of small nature as compared to a transmission line even then the site should take care of the following before the stringing work starts at site. The overhead stringing in 400 KV yard is done with twin ACSR moose conductor. however.___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER SIX ___________________________________________________________________________ STRINGING IN SWITCHYARD Back to contents page 6. winch machines may be used for final sag.

6. v) Nuts and bolts of all gantry structure should be checked and the tower members should be complete in all respect. iv) Conductor should not be allowed to lie or rub on the ground during paying/pulling. v) Conductor is strung at the end with the double tension fitting. ii) The final sagging is done by using winch machines. vii) Spacers are provided between twin conductors after final sag is completed.2 Stringing Back to contents page The process of manual stringing of moose conductor at site involves the following steps : i) Conductor is pulled between the gantries and strung on the suspension on insulator strings. The winch machines are connected to the leg of the towers/gantries. 6. iv) Dead end joint by compression machines is provided at the end of the conductor with the dead end cone compressed with compression machine. vi) On suspension structure the conductor is strung through suspension clamps.iii) Insulators should be clean from dust or other foreign materials. iii) Final adjustment of conductor is done upto the desired point that point by moving the conductor through winch machines and the conductor is cut at the desired length.3 T & P and Materials used for Stringing Back to contents page .

steel tape. 1 . round/flat files Screw driver. .  Single sheave pulley (open type)  Double sheave pulley  Hydraulic/manual compression machine of 100T capacity with die sets  Winch machine 10T capacity  Come along Clamp(Bolted/Automatic  Wire Cutter  Poly-propylene rope (25 mm dia) 1 No.  Single suspension fittings  Double tension fittings  120 kN porcelain/glass insulators for suspension fitting . 6 As per 8 nos. flat files.fs 16 mm dia 1 set each 4 Nos. Hecksaw frame & blades / as per reqmt.  ACSR moose conductor .The following Tools and Plants and Line material is required while stringing in substation switchyard. 1 No. 2 Nos. 100 m or as desired  D -Shackle  Wire slings of required length  Spanners.

 160 kN porcelain/glass insulators for tension fitting do  Spacers (Bundle spaces and/or Rigid spacers) do - .


v) Marking of conductor should be done correctly after adjusting length of tension fitting. First Aid Box should be available at stringing site. damaged or loose strand.6.4 Do’s Dont’s and Special Precautions Back to contents page i) Conductor during stringing should not be allowed to drag on ground. iv) Conductor should be checked constantly as it is unwound from conductor drum for any broken. viii)Immediate medical care should be provided to workmen met with an accident. Workers and supervisory staff working on ground should wear the safety helmets. vii) Sag should be checked by sighting through the theodolite placed on ground near the tower. Any mismatch should be corrected by using sag adjustment plate in tension fitting. ix) Insulators should be completely cleaned with soft and clean cloth. iii) Adequate safety precautions should be taken by the personnel working on the towers/ground. . They should wear safety helmets and use safety belts whole working on towers/structures. For this purpose wooden planks or ground rollers should be used to avoid any damage to the conductor. ii) Insulator string should be pulled in such a way that it does not drag/entangle with the tower members causing any damage. vi) Conductor should be cut at the marked point and dead end joint be provided. In case if any major defect is noticed the defective conductor has to be removed.

xx) Conductor should be cut at the marked point and dead end joint be provided with adequate compressive strength. xiii)All hardware fittings should be provided as per approved drawings. the same needs to be replaced. xi) It is very important to ensure that ‘R’ clips in insulator caps are fixed properly. xvi)Conductor should be rejected in case it is found to contain any broken. xiv)It should be verified that all nuts and bolts are tightened properly. xv) It should be ensured that all the necessary security pins (split pins) are fixed properly. xii) Necessary precautions should be taken so that no damage to insulators is caused during hoisting. . This is a security measure to avoid disconnection of insulator discs. xviii)Subconductors of each phase should be simultaneously tightened by winch machine fixed on tower leg until the desired final sag is achieved. xix)Marking of conductor should be done correctly after adjusting length of tension fittings. In case of any damage. damaged or loose strands. xvii)Proper arrangements should be made to avoid rubbing of conductors on ground/hard surfaces by providing wooden planks. xxi)Spacers should be provided as per approved placement chart. xxii)Length of jumper should be carefully checked such that it is in parabolic shape and jumper drop is as per approved drawing.x) It should be verified that there is no crack or any other damage to insulators.

xxxiii)In case of Tension fitting dead end joint dimensions before and after compression should be checked and recorded. xxiv)Jumper spacers should be provided as per technical specification and approved drawings. dimension. xxviii)Jumpers/drops should be tightened properly. xxvii)All fittings provided should be as per specification and approved drawings. This is very essential to ensure tightness of jumpers to avoid hot spot and melting in future. xxxi) All Nuts/Bolts in fittings should be tightened properly. xxix)Insulators should be cleaned with soft cloth. xxx)‘R’ Clips in insulators should be fitted properly. xxvi)Sag mismatch should be within permissible limits. xxiii)All nuts and bolts of jumper fittings should be properly tightened. . xxxii)All components of fittings should be completely provided as per approved drawings. Live metal clearance should be maintained as per specification.Length of jumpers of sub-conductors of a bundle should be properly checked so that jumper spacers lie in horizontal position as far as possible. xxv)No damaged component of any hardware fitting should be used on works. Glazing should be proper and there should be no crack or white spot on its surface. size and specifications of these fittings should be recorded separately in register for tractability in future. All necessary details like make.

.xxxiv)All components of spacers/jumper spacers should be provided as per approved drawings.

All components of fittings have been checked up for Yes/No dimensions and make as per the manufacturer’s drawings 11. tested T & P. 3. Insulators have been checked for any cracks/damage and care Yes/No has been taken that insulators are not broken during lifting. 5. All fittings have been assembled at ground and all components Yes/No are OK. All Line materials. and size. Conductor is checked continuously during stringing in Yes/No switchyard. Care has been taken so that conductor while pulling is not Yes/No damaged. 12. is removed. 7. Nut/Bolts Yes/No are complete in no. if any. Towers are tightened properly and all the members. 6. Sag is measured correctly at prevailing temperature. 8. marking/cutting of Earthwire/ conductor is Yes/No done correctly to fix dead end joint. Proper arrangements are made to avoid rubbing of conductor Yes/No on ground/hard surfaces. Proper sag and tension have been maintained as per the day Yes/No temperature and sag tension chart . safety equipments and Yes/No relevant drawings are available for stringing. Damaged portion. 2. 10. After measuring sag. Details Yes/No are recorded. insulators and other hardware fittings are available Yes/No at site before starting the overhead stringing. Insulators and other hardware fittings have been cleaned Yes/No properly before erection 9. Conductor. 13.5 CHECK Check Format FORMAT Back to contents page 1.6. 4.

20. All nuts & bolts of jumper fittings have been tightened properly. 15. 21. 17. Live metal clearance have Yes/No been maintained as per specification. 16. Clips of the insulators in insulator string have been properly Yes/No provided. Length of jumpers has been measured properly to give it a Yes/No parabolic shape. 19. In case of tension fitting dead end joint dimensions before & Yes/No after the compression are checked and recorded. 23. In both suspension and double tension fitting the split pin have Yes/No been splitted properly. . 22. Jumper spacers have been provided. Subconductors of each phase are being tightened Yes/No simultaneously by winch machine & to achieve the desired sag. Care has been taken to avoid any overtensioning. 18. Yes/No Yes/No Spacers have been provided as per the spacer placement Yes/No chart. Yes/No R. Jumpers are tightened properly.14.


These are Conventional gapped Surge-Arrester (Value Type) and Metal Oxide Surge-Arrester. 7. Generally arresters are connected in parallel with the equipment to be protected. It is the first apparatus as seen from the overhead transmission line entering in the switchyard. The gap units consist of air gaps of appropriate length. typically between phase and earth for three phase installations.___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER SEVEN SURGE ARRESTER Back to contents page 7. During normal voltage4s the lightning . for discharge currents the resistance is low. Surge arresters are used to protect Power System Installations and equipments against lightning overvoltages also. It consists of resistor elements in series with gap elements offer non-linear resistance such that for normal frequency power system voltages the resistance is high however. thus limiting the magnitude of follow current. The main element of a surge arrester is the ‘Non-Linear Resistor’. the part of the arrester which offers a low resistance to the flow of discharge current thus limiting the voltage across the arrester terminals and high resistance to power frequency voltage.1 Conventional Gapped Lightning Arrester (Valve Type Arrester) Back to contents page In a substation the Surge Arrester is connected between line and earth.0 Introduction Back to contents page Surge Arrester is a device designed to protect electrical equipments from high voltage surges and to limit the duration and amplitude of the follow current. There are 2 types of designs available for EHV Surge-Arrester.







Hence the insulation of equipment connected to the line is protected. In the operating characteristic of Surge Arrester the current axis is in logarithmic scale. For the transient of a few micro seconds it will draw current in the range of 5/10 k Amps. the operating point will shift to portion ‘C’. The high voltage surge is discharged to earth. This results in a continuous resistive curent of few micro amps flowing through the resistor elements. The lower linear part ‘A’ is temperature dependant and exhibits a negative temperature coefficient. the gap breaks down. Therefore. Such microstructures render extreme non-linear characteristics to these ceramic resistors. In the event of transient switching or lightning vervoltages. Therefore. 7. The resistance offered by resistors to this voltage is very high. This results in a resistive current of few milli-Amperes flowing through the resistor elements. Under over voltage condition.arrester does not conduct. the voltage increases and shifts operating pont momentarily for overvoltage duration to point near ‘B’. are current reduces and voltage across the gap is no more sufficient to maintain the arc. the operating . the current flowing to the earth is automatically interrupted and normal condition is restored.2 Metal Oxide Lightning Arresters Back to contents page The metal oxide arresters without spark gaps consist of an active part which is a highly non linear ceramic resistor made of essentially Zinc Oxide. In the event of very high lightning current of the order of 40 to 100 k Amps peak. Fine Zinc Oxide crystals are surrounded by other metal oxides (additives). The resistance offered being low the surge is diverted to the earth. When a surge-wave travelling along the Overhead line comes to the arrester. The arrester is designed in such a way that the applied operating voltage gets located around point ‘O’. After a few micro seconds the surge vanishes and normal power frequency voltage is set up across the arrester. This special characteristics is the heart of protection technology in this type of Surge Arrester. The current increases by 107 orders of magnitude when the voltage across element doubles. As soon as the overvoltage disappears the operating point shifts back to ‘O’.

These are classified as different classes depending upon the energy handling capabilities. 7. for only 10 seconds (it is presumed that system breakers will operate to isolate the fault within 2 seconds).. I. Thus the operating point of these arresters is normally located at point ‘O’ called Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage (MCOV) and the point ‘B’ of the Fig. (vi) It is recommended to use nylon ropes for handling the arrester at site. the porcelain sheds facing down. Arrester units should be placed in upright position. (ii) Immediately on receipt. In case of any damage matter should be reported to insurance company as well as the manufacturer for guidance. (I2R) during continuous or overvoltage condition decides the size (dia) of ZnO resistor element. handling and installation so as to avoid impact with hard surface. no attempt should be made at site to open or repair the arrester without consultation of the manufacturer. For reasons of fragile porcelain. all long its life but can stay at point ‘B’ (fault condition).3 Packing. Higher class corresponds to higher energy capability. .point will shift to portion ’D’. (iii) (iv) (v) At site the Surge Arrester should e stored in the original packing case and it should also be ensured that boxes are kept in the original vertical condition. While taking out of the cases too. Handling And Storage Back to contents page (i) Las are packed vertically on sturdy wooden case. The arrester can stay at point ‘O’ i. i. inspect the cases for signs of transhipment or physical damages packings.e. care should be taken while unpacking.e. on expiry of transient of few milli seconds the operating point will come back to point ‘O’.e. Rated Voltage. (5) indicates approximately the rated voltage of arrester. The energy that gets dissipated. As LAs are assembled in controlled condition. However. MCOV. Transport.


(iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) Lift the arrester vertically up as shown in figure. base plate should be positively connected to earth. Clean the porcelain surface of insulators. The insulation resistance should be more than 1000 M Ohms.5 Installation of Single Unit Arrester Back to contents page (i) (ii) (iii) Fix base plate with 4 bolts (if it was not already fixed) to LA bottom. Mounting plate of structure top should be regular and horizontal. Base insulators should be placed loosely on the mounting plate of structure.6 Installation of Multi-Stack Arrester Back to contents page (i) (ii) Fix base plate to LA bottom (if not fixed already) Loosen and remove 4 bolts from top of the top units. Check the level with a Spirit Level before mounting. 7. Connect the stud at the back of Surge Counter to base plate by the connecting link. . Measure resistance preferably by 5 kV meggar.7. Fix the Surge Counter mounting bracket alongwith one of the base insulator to the structure. Lower the Arrester unit and use base insulator stud \ bolt to guide it in place. 7. Fix Surge Counter on the Surge Counter Bracket. Fix the Arrester in position.4 Installation Back to contents page i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) LAs are mounted on sturdy structure. (ix) When surge counter is not in use.

. (xvi) Connection of jumper to the LA. base plate should be positively connected to earth. (vii) Fix the units in place. Fix surge counter on the bracket and connect the stud at the back of the surge counter to the base plate. (xiii) (xiv) Fix the LA and secure in position by the 4 bolts. (x) (xi) Fix the Surge Counter mounting bracket with one of the bolts. (xii) Ensure that structure is earthed with the earth mat in the substation.(iii) Fix the corona ring to the top of the top unit / middle unit using the same bolts. (iv) Loosen and remove 4 bolts from top of the bottom unit (& Middle unit in case of 3 stack LAs). (v) (vi) Lift the Top unit and engage 4 studs at the bottom. (xv) When surge counter is not in use.) (viii) (ix) Keep the base insulator loosely on the top of structure. Surge monitor is connected to the main earth mat in the substation. Lower the top unit to the top of bottom unit (or middle unit in case of 3 stack LAs) by guiding the stud and keeping intermediate plate in between. (In case of 3 stack LAs fix the top & middle unit to bottom unit as described above. CVT can be made through T clamp or P G clamp or directly connected to the overhead conductor. Lift the LA (interconnected) and lower the structure top by guiding through the base insulator bolts.


7 Do’s. Terminal connectors should be tightened to proper torque. Use of flexible copper strips between the bushings and earth strips should be preferred. The IR value of each stack is to be measured. Don’ts & Special Precautions Back to contents page (i) Slack span stringing from dead end tower to the gantry should be completed before taking up of the erection of line Arrester. . (vi) (vii) (viii) Insulators should be cleaned before erection at site. (v) Proper care to prevent any damage to the surge bushing should be taken. (ii) (iii) (iv) Surge monitors of each phase is to be checked for any damage. Surge monitor has been connected to main earth mat.7.


7. with the manufacturer of the equipment. Level has been checked with a Spirit Level before mounting.8 Check Format Back to contents page 1. Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site (Preferably with crane to unload the packages. MICC. IR value of each stack has been measured Insulators have been cleaned before erection at site Mounting plate of structure top is regular and horizontall. 12. When surge counter is not in use. 3. 5. 11. 9. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No . base plate has been positively connected to earth. All items have been checked with the packing list. 8. After unloading the visual inspection of the packings has been carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 4. Surge Monitor has been earthed by connecting it to main earth mat. 10. In case of any damage the matter has been reported to the manufacturer (or insurance agency if required) Slack span stringing from dead end tower to the gantry has been completed before taking up of the erection of line LA. 7. 6. Terminal connectors have been tightened to proper torque. 2. Challans GR etc.

Single or Double Earth Switches. In some cases isolators are used for breaking charging current of transmission lines. An isolator should be closed before closing the circuit breaker.0 Introduction Back to contents page ISOLATOR Back to contents page Isolators are disconnecting switches which are used for disconnecting the circuit under no load conditions. Opening and closing of a current carrying circuit is performed by a circuit-breaker. 420 kV Centre Break Isolators are designed for independent single pole operation or three pole electrically/mechanically ganged operation. as required. can be fitted to them. These isolators can be operated either manually or by motor.___________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER EIGHT ___________________________________________________________________ ISOLATOR CHAPTER-8 8. 8. These isolators are supplied in components and are assembled at site. They are installed in such a way that a part of substation circuit can be isolated from other live parts for the purpose of maintenance. An isolator does not have any specified current breaking capacity or current making capacity. An isolator can be opened only after opening the circuit-breaker.1 Construction features Back to contents page . Isolators play an important role in maintenance of a substation.

v) Isolator structures are supplied in hot dip galvanised condition KV Centre Break Isolator comprises of the following: i) Support Structure ii) Base Assembly iii) Insulator Stack iv) Male and Female contacts Assembly v) Operating Mechanism (Main & Earth) vi) Down Operating Pipe (Main & Earth) vii) Tandem Pipe (Main & Earth) viii) Earth Switch Assembly 8.2 Base Assembly Back to contents page For every 3 pole switch there are 2 types of bases. ii) They have the arrangement to fix over the foundation for fixing the Base Assembly on the top of the structure and Operating Mechanism Box (Main & Earth) iii) Earthing strip fixing arrangement is also provided along with.1 Support Structure Back to contents page i) Support Structure are made out of tube. Other base is without drive arrangement . wind force and wind load etc. iv) These structures are designed to withstand all forces like short circuit force. i) Base Assembly with drive arrangement and interlocking arrangement (if the switch is with earth).

iii) The Connecting Stem is made out of electrolytic copper with Tin Plating/Aluminium. 8. minimum creepage and minimum bending load to suit the equipment design requirement.1.3 Insulator Assembly Back to contents page washers.ii) Stoppers are provided in both ends to control the travel of Moving Blades in both close and open position of isolator. friction washers and split pins.1. iv) The current transfer part that connects the Aluminium housing and stem is made out of Copper with Tin plating and assembled inside the Housing.4 Male and Female Contacts Assembly Back to contents page i) In male and female contacts assembly the current carrying parts are made up of Aluminium tubes ii) The male and female contacts (reverse loop design) are made of Electrolytic Copper with Silver Plating. iii) Complete base assembly and other components are duly galvanised iv) Base assemblies are supplied with a) Inter Post coupling pipe assembled and aligned condition b) Inter-Lock arrangement in set condition c) Levers are assembled with pins. brass Insulators are selected to suit the basic insulation level. 8. 8.2 Operating Mechanism .

2 Manual operating mechanism Back to contents page i) Both the mechanisms are housed in a cabinet made of sheet steel. 8. limit switches and mechanical stoppers. NC and long wipe contacts are provided. 8.2.1 Geared motor operating mechanism Back to contents page This consists of a reduction gear assembly which is driven by spur gear fitted with 3-phase induction motor through pinion gear.Back to contents page Two types of operating mechanisms are available in isolator. Suitable terminal blocks made of highly non-inflammable thermosetting plastic are provided for terminating control and auxiliary wiring.3 Earth Switch Assembly Back to contents page i) The vertical lift earth employs a turn and thrust movement by initially rotating through 90o and subsequently moving upwards by approximately 100 mm. The mechanism can be operated manually in case of failure of supply.2. control switches for local/remote operation. when the door is closed.2. on compression. Auxiliary switches having silver-plated contacts and positive wiping action with adequate number of NO. necessary overload protection. 8. All the boxes are metal treated before being taken up for painting. ensures high degree of protection against polluted atmosphere. ii) Front door of the mechanism box is provided with good quality neoprene gaskets. . which.

These shortcomings have to be properly intimated to the manufacturer as well as to the Insurance authorities as the case may be. free from water logging.ii) The earthing switches can be actuated on a individual pole basis or 3 poles can be coupled and actuated by a single drive.3 Receipt . v) Insulators are to be stored separately to avoid breakage’s. 8. iv) Mounting Base and all other parts are galvanised. ii) Handling of large crates should be handled by crane carefully. ii) Identify the structures according to the General Assembly Drawing iii) Structure assembly is lifted and fixed over the plinth (Without damaging the foundation bolts) iv) Assemble washer. 8. iii) All items should be stored on ramps/platforms. iv) All items should be stored in upright position only. iii) Moving Blade of earth switch is made out of aluminium tube and contacts are made out of copper with silver plating. spring washer and nuts in all foundation bolts.1 Structures Back to contents page i) Refer the site layout drawings and compare with equipment General Assembly Drawing.4 Erection/Installations Back to contents page 8. . if any. Handling and Storage Back to contents page i) All packages are to be carefully opened and verified for damages and shortages.4.

4. ii) Lift the base assembly by using proper ropes and place it over the relevant structure iii) After keeping it over the base without removing the rope align it to the mounting hole of base and top plate of structure and fix the bolts and nuts and remove the rope. vi) All other structures should be assembled in similar way 8. viii)Ensure the Centre line of same pole phases are aligned ix) After completing the installation keep all the base assemblies in open position 8.v) Check for level at the top of the structure in both directions by using spirit levels.2 Base Assembly Back to contents page i) Identify the Base Assembly from Equipment General Assembly drawing. v) If necessary add shims below the leg of the base and align it. . iv) Check for level of flanges in both direction by using spirit level. vii) Repeat the installation process for other two poles also. If required give shims below the base plate of structure and tighten the nuts. vi) Tighten all the Bolts.4.3 Insulators Back to contents page and centre line of other i) The top middle and bottom units of Insulators should be identified by using Insulator Drawing.

Rotate the bearing shaft assembly and check for alignment of Contacts assembly for horizontal alignment. vi) The same procedure is to be repeated for the other side of same pole also vii) In the same way the top unit of insulator and middle unit are installed On both sides. iv) The level of top surface of insulator should be checked by spirit level/plumb and if necessary the shims should be inserted below the bottom flange of the insulator or/and between two insulator unit flanges . iii) Without removing the hook align the holes and fix all bolts.4. Lift the Insulator stack by using proper hook and placed over the base assembly by ensuring the top 4 holes position. iv) v) vi) Without removing the rope align the holes and fix the screws.4 Contacts Assembly (Male and Female Assembly) Back to contents page i) ii) iii) Identify the Assembly as per General Assembly Drawing Keep the Insulator corona ring on top of the Insulator Lift the Male Assembly by using proper sized rope and place it over the insulator above corona ring. Shims should be inserted between the mounting flange of Assembly and top of .ii) The bottom and middle units are assembled together by using proper bolts and nuts. v) Now rotate the shaft assembly & check for the rotation of insulator & its eccentricity. 8. Repeat the similar process for female assembly.

ix) Now moving part should be rotated 2 to 3 times to ensure the proper alignment x) The Corona ring assembly should be identified for male and female unit and connected properly to it.5 Connecting Disconnector Back to contents page i) Manually set mechanism and disconnector to be connected into fully OPEN position (Arrow mark on top of mechanism cabinet indicates the 'open' and 'close' positions). iii) Align the fixing hole and bolt them together to achieve desired tightness.the insulator at relevant side.4. Similarly for vertical alignment necessary shims should be inserted between insulator flange and top of shaft assembly flange. it will be necessary to obtain the relevant keys to make mechanism operational. ii) If mechanical interlock keys are fitted. iv) Ensure that the mounting channel on the drive and the structure are matching. xi) Moving part should be operated two to three times for checking the free movement and also check that the contact corona ring are not fouling each other 8. . viii) After achieving the entry check for centre line of Male and Female in both directions. vii) If the entry is not smooth. loosen the contacts Mounting screws and push the contacts forward or backward to get free entry.

interlock wiring and control wiring should be checked by multimeter (as per schematic drawings) 8. Level and bolt the same. x) Cut the operating pipe with the specified clearance to facilitate smooth entry. The drive is now ready for operation. Ensure that all electrical interlocks are wired properly. xi) Weld the vernier flange properly keeping the flange perpendicular to the centreline of the pipe. xii) Cabling (internal/external) be completed as per schematic drawing.4. Controls for normal . vi) vii) Provide shim wherever required.v) Level the box by placing the spirit level on output shaft flange in two directions.6 Controls for Electrical Operating Equipment Back to contents page A hinged panel on the right hand side of the cabinet carries the electrical controls for operation of the mechanism. Adjust the mechanism so that the vertical drive tube rotates TRUE. viii) Introduce Universal Coupling as called for in the General Arrangement Drawing. Mounting angles of mechanism to structure are slotted to provide horizontal adjustment. xiii) Before energising the circuitry. Check for centre line and verticality between torque bearing flange and drive flange with a plumb. ix) Measure exact height between torque bearing flange and top of universal flange.

iv) The hold on contact of closing contactor will now be closed thereby retaining the supply after the push button is released.operation are mounted on the front of the panel and are accessible immediately the outer cabinet door is opened These comprise : i) ii) Local OPEN and CLOSE Control Switch In case of individual pole drives the master control cabinet will have push buttons for operating/closing also. and at the end of the closing operation. vii) The isolator will start to close.5 Local/Remote Selector Switch Heater/Light Switch Closing Operation of Isolator Back to contents page i) ii) Ensure all castle keys are in position. iii) Set the electrical remote selector to local position as required and then press push button for closing. vi) Ensure motor direction is towards closing. iii) iv) 8. Once the associated circuit breaker is open. . v) Simultaneously contacts of closing contactor will close. limit switch for closing will open then de-energising the closing contactor. closing contact will energise the interlock thereby making availability of supply at the local/remote selector switch. thereby causing the closing contactor to pick up. Otherwise alter the phase sequence at motor terminal box. thereby supply to motor is made available.

viii) The circuit is now de-energised and the closing operation is completed. 8. viii) 8. vi) vii) Fix other side in the same manner. Then finally lock the adjusting screws by check nut. pipe length on the floor itself Lift the Tandem pipe by using proper rope and fix one side first by using suitable anti friction washers. If required do minor adjustments in Tandem Pipe by length by using adjusting screw. Operate the operating mechanism and check for proper closing and opening of both poles. ix) Car should be taken to prevent the mal-functioning.7 Repeat this process for the other poles ('Y' & 'B') Earth Switch Assembly Back to contents page .6 Tandem Pipe Assembly Back to contents page i) After single pole trial with motor keep that pole in closed condition ii) Fix other two poles also in closed condition (set the stopper screws) iii) Measure the distance between the lever of two adjacent poles ('R' & 'Y') iv) v) Check and set the Tandem. Contact closing (CC) of the closing contactor will isolate the opening circuit. once closing contactor is energised. brass washers and split pins.

v) Manually move earthing blade towards closing position . The above assembly can be carried out before installing the Hamper Assembly over the insulator. A small adjustment to twist the contact fingers is possible by shimming mounting plate. viii) Tighten all fixing bolts and keep the earth switch in closed position.e. when the insulated stop of the earthing blade comes to rest without straining against fixed contact. . vii) Continue to close earthing switch until contacts are fully engaged i. iv) Attach counter balance weights in pendulum arm at suitable hole and check the position of Earth Switch which should be parallel to ground.To adjust add shims at the back of the mounting plate to tilt the earthing blade in required direction. vi) Continue to move earthing blade towards closing and observe that the contact fingers come into the fixed contact.i) Identify the Assembly to fix the fixed contact assembly through General Arrangement Drawing ii) Take the Earth fixed contact assembly and fix it with the Hamper Assembly by using proper sized Bolts as per General Assembly Drawings. iii) Lift the Earth Blade Assembly by using rope and fix it with base assembly using the middle set of mounting holes to hold the assembly in place.


vii) All the assembles should be stored well preferably in a covered area to avoid any damage/pilferage during storage. ii) The mechanism box always is to be kept free from moisture.1 Adjustment in drive/assembly erection Back to contents page i) a) Manual By use of emergency handle. v) For transportation. Hence. The Insulators and drive boxes should also be packed separately.8. while all the other hardware (bolts & nuts) are fitted in their respective places. vi) The bolts and nuts required for mounting the base to the structure and the Insulators to the base are packed separately as loose items. space heaters are provided in the mechanism box. operate the coupled disconnector and observe whether it is fully OPEN or CLOSE at each end of its operating cycle .8. iii) Also rubber beading should be kept in good condition. the motor is to be meggered and the contacts are cleaned.8 Do’s. Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page i) Before the isolator is put into operation. individual base and bearing pole assemblies & the male and female contact arms should be packed separately. iv) Cable glands should be properly fitted at the entry of the cables and extra holes are plugged properly to avoid hazards. 8. Care should be taken that these are removed only at the time of mounting to respective assemblies.

b) If isolator does not CLOSE fully remove clamping bolts and turn mechanism slightly towards /OPEN and retighten bolts proceed turning isolator towards CLOSED. When a cycle is initiated by switching to the appropriate position the isolator will open or close. iii) Open and Close Push Buttons The Control Push Buttons determine the direction of travel of the isolator. Electrical a) Make electrical connections by referring to contract diagram of connections of incoming supply. Once the mechanism has received a signal the push button can be released. b) Do not attempt to operate the disconnector under power at this stage. shows the isolator position either OPEN or CLOSE outside the cabinet at the base of the output shaft. An indicator. c) ii) Repeat until satisfactory operation is obtained. e) Operate control Switch and at the same time observe whether the mechanism rotates towards the selected position f) If it rotates in opposite direction to that selected stop motor immediately by switching off power supply. iv) Selector Switch . The mechanism will complete the operation and will not respond to further signals until it has completed its operation. c) When selector switch is fitted set it to LOCAL d) When AC Motor is fitted manually set mechanism to mid position. g) If necessary reverse the to phases of motor supply.

Connections to these are made in the same manner as connections to terminal blocks. A switch is mounted on the front of the control panel for the control of the heater through a thermostat.When the selector switch is set to LOCAL. viii) Fuse Links Fuses for the control and heater circuits are mounted on the control panel. The fuse wire is . vii) Auxiliary Switches Silver plated contacts with a positive wiping action are used giving reliable making of low current signalling circuits under adverse climatic conditions. ensuring that the temperature inside the cabinet exceeds the temperature outside. operation of the mechanism will be governed by the controls in the cabinet. v) Heater and Heater Switch An anti-condensation heater is fitted in the bottom of the cabinet. They directly control the reversing operation of the motor. providing a sealing circuit across the 'OPEN' and 'CLOSE' Push Buttons. vi) Open and Close Contactors These contactors are mounted side by side on the rear of the electrical control panel. The heated air leaves the cabinet by way of breather around the output shaft and cool air is sucked in. Setting the selector switch to REMOTE transfers controls of the mechanism to remote control point. Further contacts are used for electrically interlocking the contactors. It should be switched on at all times.

. ix) Manual Operation The mechanism may be operated manually in the event of a motor power failure with the help of manual operating handle.routed through the top of the carrier. The current ratings of fuselinks are shown on the schematic diagram drawing. For opening the Isolator a similar sequence of operation will be executed by pressing the push button for opening.


Centre line alignment of male & female assembly has been checked Yes/No Yes/No 11. Yes/No 8. 10. Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site Yes/No (Preferably with crane) to unload the packages. 4. All items have been checked with the packing list. Site where isolator is to be erected is ready before the starting of erection work. 14. Level of the structure assembly has been checked during erection using spirit level Yes/No 7. Yes/No Challans GR etc.8. Yes/No Yes/No . Yes/No 6. Any type of damage to the equipments/components during Yes/No transportation or any missing items has been brought to the notice of the panel supplier. the crane rings have been identified for male and female assembly Yes/No 12. Before fitting. 5. Level of the top surface of isolators has been checked during erection. 2.9 Check Format Back to contents page 1. Moving parts have been operated 2-3 times for checking the free movement Yes/No 13. The rotation of motor is in right direction In case it is in opposite direction the same has been corrected by altering of the phase sequence of the motor terminal. alignment & level of equipment Yes/No 9. Centre line of all the poles in different phases are aligned. Site where isolator is to be erected is ready before the starting of erection work. MICC. 3. After unloading the visual inspection of the packings has been Yes/No carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably with the manufacturer of the equipment.

All fixing bolts have been tightened to keep the earth switch in proper close/open position Yes/No . 16. Lifting of tandem pipe assembly is with proper size rope During erection movement of earthing blade has been checked Contact fingers of earthing blade and moving towards the fixed contact Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 18. 17.15.


___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER NINE ___________________________________________________________________________ CURRENT TRANSFORMER Back to contents page 9.0 Introduction Back to contents page Current transformers are used for reducing/stepping down ac current from higher value to lower value for measuring /protection /control. Rated characteristics of CTs used for High Voltage metering/ protection are given below: i) Rated primary current ii) Rated short time current (primary) iii) Rated secondary current iv) Rating exciting current v) Rated burden vi) Current error or ratio error vii) Phase angle error viii)Composite error ix) Accuracy class i)Over current factor ii)Insulation level (primary) 9.1 Construction Features Back to contents page . CTs have low VA rating.

Construction-wise the Current Transformer may be of following two types: Hair Pin design or dead tank type and Top dome design or Dead Tank design. terminal bushings . Secondary winding is wound against it. more care is required while lifting and alignment of the CT. As the tank body is always live this design is known as the live tank design. BHEL. The body of tank is earthed to the switchyard earthing. The insulated primary passes through the connected to the terminal porcelain insulator and taken out through 4 nos. The core is constructed in the form of rings. The Current Transformer essentially consists of primary and secondary coils and core. The secondary core is wound on the primary inside the tank. Current Transformers of CGL. The primary winding consists of Copper strips/Aluminium pipe (with single turn) over which high quality insulation paper is wound. The secondary terminals are brought out through a terminal board into the terminal box. Current Transformers of WSI. ABB are of this type. As the head is heavy. The control cables are blocks. From terminal board the connections are given to the terminal blocks. In the other top dome design the Primary conductor goes straight in the dome shaped tank at the top. In the hairpin design the primary conductor enters from the top of insulators and passed through the tank. RK are of this design. The secondary winding is wound uniformly over the insulated ring cores. Aluminium foil is wrapped at suitable intervals over the insulation paper to get a constant voltage gradient along the arcing distance of the porcelain insulator.

The primary conductor has sufficient cross sectional area to meet the continuous and specified short-time current ratings. After drying and oil impregnation under vacuum.(each rated for 1200 A) fixed to the wall of the expansion chamber. Unpacking & Inspection . 9. the current transformer is hermetically sealed with dry Nitrogen gas above oil. The outer surfaces of ferrous parts are given light grey enamel paint to shade over rust inhibitive coat of ready mixed zinc chrome primer.2 Transportation. Such CTs are not filled with Nitrogen gas. a part of Nitrogen gas in the chamber undergoes change in pressure and a part of Nitrogen gas will be absorbed by oil. Steel surfaces coming in contact with transformer oil are given a coat of oil resisting varnish. the Nitrogen gas in the chamber undergoes change in pressure.1 Hermetic Sealing Back to contents page The current transformer is subjected to heat and vacuum cycle in a drying chamber to extract the moisture from the insulation paper.2 kg/cm2 at 0oC. The volume of expansion chamber and the gas pressure at the time of initial filling are adjusted so that the gas pressure will be less than + 0. Depending on the pressure and temperature. Some CTs come with rubber/teflon/steel bellows to take care of temperature variations. The respective terminal bushings are shorted internally. Galvanised bolts and nuts are used as fasteners. All welded and gasket joints are subjected to leak tests.5g/cm2 at 75oC and above -0. 9. When the oil expands or contracts due to temperature variations. A drain valve is provided at the bottom of lower tank.

v) Unpacking of wooden crates should be done with particular care so as not to damage the porcelain insulator and terminal bushings. ii) Special oil sealing arrangement is provided in the expansion chamber to prevent contact of Nitrogen gas with paper insulation when the current transformer is in the horizontal position. . crane should be used in store and switchyard. iii) For unloading /loading the crates.Back to contents page i) The 400 kV current transformer is dispatched in the horizontal position (with the oil level gauge side at the top) fixed to a transportation frame in wooden crates whereas 220 kV CT is positioned vertically in packing. truck should be used for transporting the CT from store to switchyard. However. iv) CT at site should always be lifted from lifting brackets which are provided on the base.


the porcelain insulator is clean and free from all dust. 9. viii) All the crates containing different parts of CT should be checked with the store challans/MICC/Packing list etc. ii) Alignment of the support structure should be checked with spirit/water level. iii) Place the CT on duly levelled supporting structure by using a crane. grease and particles of packing material. . it can be installed directly after making it upright. ix) CT should be lifted by crane using chains/strings from the indicated handling points on crates. x) 400 kV CT is to be made vertical immediately on receipt at site and kept in vertical position only. vii) The name plate readings/rating of CT should confirm to technical specification of our LOA.4 Installation/Erection Back to contents page i) As the current transformer is dispatched in completely assembled After receiving at site CT should be checked for any physical defect. It is to be ensured that before commissioning.


lifting. xvi) The threaded fasteners should be clean & tight and missing or broken fasteners should be replaced. Now the crane can be removed after tightening the bolts & nuts. Earthing connection should be permanent. Marshalling box of CT should also be earthed. Star point should be earthed properly. xii) xiii) xiv) Cable continuity should be checked after erection is completed. v) vi) vii) Fix the CT with four anchor bolts to the supporting structure. xvii) It should be ensured that all the times the oil in CT is at the specified level and there is no leakage of oil. . ix) x) xi) Control cables should be laid in trays or in pipes. Cabling work on secondary side should also be completed & its IR valve be ascertained. viii) Lay the control cables from control room relay panels and connect to CT marshalling box. Proper cushioning arrangement should be used for the same. xv) The receipt storage and erection should be done as per the approved FQP. Care should be taken during handling. loading or unloading and erection no damage is done to CT insulator by slings. Provide proper earthing of transformer from the base of CT.iv) Care should be taken such that primary polarity of erected CT is correct and as per relevant drawing.

xx) Polarity of all secondary cores should be checked. xix) Any secondary core of CT that is not being put in service should be short circuited.xviii) The primary injection test of CT should be carried out as per the prescribed procedure. .


5 Do’s Don’ts & Special Precautions Back to contents page i) In order to keep the unit hermetically sealed. Check for Nitrogen gas pressure is also not required. vi) The CTs are dispatched with secondary terminals short circuited. the flanged joints with gaskets in between should not be tampered with. Care should be taken so that the shot circuiting links at the terminals are not disturbed. ii) Since the current transformer is hermetically sealed and uses no material harmful to oil. If oil level is below the red mark it indicates leak and should be investigated. The cover of the secondary terminal box alone needs be opened for giving connections to control cables. . there is no necessity for extraction of samples of oil for analysis or for reconditioning of oil. periodic external cleaning of porcelain insulator and cleaning/painting of other exposed surfaces can be carried out (as per the specific instruction of the manufacturer) iv) Precautions should be taken not to keep open secondary circuit when current is flowing in the primary as this may cause overheating of core and breakdown of the insulation due to high voltage developed across the secondary terminals.9. v) The lower tank should be earthed in a positive and permanent manner before commissioning. iii) In case of heavy pollution deposits due to surrounding atmospheric conditions.

lifting tackles of ample capacity should be ix) Crates of CT should be lifted without jerks or vibrations and placed at the desired place without dropping or hard hitting on ground. . viii)Weight of the CT should be read from the name plates/specifications & used.vii) For lifting the CTs at site one should look for proper handling points for using slings and read the specific manufacturer’s instruction to avoid any mishap.


5. Oil level in CT has been checked Yes/No IR value of primary and secondary winding recorded & Yes/No satisfactory results are obtained 12. The unpacking of CT has been done carefully to avoid any Yes/No damage to it. 11. 2. 15. 16. Yes/No Challans. All items have been checked with the packing list. 6. Care has been taken to avoid any damage to insulators Yes/No during lifting (by providing cushion of suitable material) 10. It has been checked that there is no leakage of oil from CT Yes/No Cranes or other good quality lifting T&P is available at site to Yes/No transport/ CT from store to site and for erection 9. CT has been placed on the support structure very carefully Yes/No and all nuts have been tightened. 8. Site where CT is to be erected is ready before the starting of erection work. The structure/equipment has been levelled The polarity of CT is correct The table of CT has been earthed at two points Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No The marshalling has been checked for heating and lighting Yes/No arrangement . MICC. GR etc. 14. Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site Yes/No (Preferably with crane) to unload the packages. 4.9. 13. Any type of damage to the packing during transportation or Yes/No any missing items has been brought to the notice of the manufacturer. 3.6 Check Format Back to contents page 1. Yes/No 7. After unloading the visual inspection of the packings has been Yes/No carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably with the manufacturer of the panels.

20. Secondary core of CT that is not in use has been short Yes/No circuited. 18. . Continuity of all cables has been ascertained Yes/No Primary injection test of CT at relay terminal has been Yes/No performed as per prescribed procedure. The cable work between C&R panel to marshalling box is Yes/No complete. 19.17.


1 Description & operating principle: Back to contents page The Capacitive Voltage Transformer comprises of a Capacitor Divider along with its associated Electro-Magnetic Unit. The    Electro-Magnetic Unit (EMU) comprises of the following components. both in magnitude and phase to convenient levels suitable for metering and protection.___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER TEN ___________________________________________________________________________ CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER Back to contents page 10. In the case of EHV systems CVTs are always supplied in multi-unit construction. while the Electro-Magnetic Unit transforms this voltage. Compensating Reactor Intermediate transformer Damping device .0 Introduction Back to contents page Capacitive voltage transformer can be effectively employed as a potential source for metering. The Divider provides an accurate proportioned voltage. The multi-unit construction enables ease of transportation and storage. protection. convenience in handling and erection etc. 10. carrier communication and other vital functions of an electrical network.


series connected capacitor elements.The compensating reactor is used for tuning CVTs to the desired rate frequency of 50 Hz. The capacitor unit comprises of HV capacitor C1 & intermediate voltage capacitor (C2). housed inside oil filled porcelain insulators. Typical Transformer Ratings In case of 400 kV/4000/6600 pf and 400 kV/8800 pf CVT the rating of transformer may be Table -1: Rating of Transformer 1. This tapped voltage is stepped down by the intermediate voltage transformer to the required rated secondary voltage. i) Capacitor Units It comprises of metallic bellows to compensate for volumetric expansion of oil inside the Porcelain. Each capacitor unit is hermetically sealed. Rated primary voltage 22/3 or 20/3 kV rms (Primary of intermediate voltage transformer) . These capacitor consist of oil impregnated. Since the CVT comprises of capacitors the compensating reactor plays the role of nullifying the capacitive effect of reactance due to the capacitance of the CVT. In case of multi-unit stack all the potential points are electrically connected and shields are provided to overcome the effect of corona and RIV. ii) Transformer The voltage tapped from the intermediate point of the capacitor is fed to the primary of the transformer through the choke.

The Capacitive Divider normally comprises of capacitor elements of cellulose paper dielectric with aluminium foil electrode. Voltage divider for stepping down the voltage to a suitable level.1 Packing and Transportation : Back to contents page . Rated secondary voltage 110/3 winding) V (across each secondary 3. These elements are identical and are connected in series by using copper taps.5 class accuracy Rated output burden and accuracy Winding 1 : 200 VA 3P class per winding Winding 2 : 200 VA 3P Winding 3 : 100 VA 0. iii) Details of capacitor divider unit : The Capacitor divider unit is used acts as a i) ii) Coupling capacitor for carrier communication.5 The transformer is made up of CRGO laminations of core type design over which primary and secondary windings are wound around the laminations. 10. Total simultaneous burden 300 VA for 0. The insulation between the core and the windings and interturn insulation is done by means of paper. This stepped down voltage is fed to the primary of the transformer through a choke (compensating reactor) which is housed inside the electromagnetic unit. 4.2. Hence the voltage across each element is identical. The reduction in voltage is achieved by taking tap from one of the capacitor elements.

iii) Bottom-most unit of Multi-Unit stack has one Master Name Plate fixed on to the Electro-Magnetic Unit and one unit Name plate fixed on to the bottom flange. iv) The transportation must be performed in vertical position only. The Electro-Magnetic Unit forms an integral part with the capacitor unit.3 Receiving Back to contents page While receiving the CVT the site should check : i) That the right CVT has reached at the destination with regard to its voltage and other rating particulars. ii) Each Capacitor unit has one Name Plate designating the rating of the unit. ii) Ensure that CVTs are not mislinked. Each wooden crate is identified with the corresponding serial number of the unit inside.i) All Capacitor Units or the Capacitive Voltage Transformer are securely packed in wooden crates. Position of the Unit in the complete assembly is also indicated in the Unit Name Plate by incorporating Top Unit or Middle Unit or Bottom Unit. the bottom most capacitor unit is hermetically associated with the Electro-Magnetic Unit. v) The unpacked parts of the device should also be moved in the same vertical position as within the packing 10. Transportation should be carried out as smoothly as possible without undue jerks. In the case of MultiUnit type. .

use lifting lugs provided on top cover of capacitor. iv) Make arrangements for unloading with derricks or cranes and with associated hoisting facilities. v) During handling. ensure that the capacitor Unit is always its upright vertical state. Where a doubt arises. iv) Inspect for breakage’s. 10. v) Unload the crates one by one. taking all precautions required for fragile material. vii) The base unit should be lifted with crane by means of lifting lugs provided on the EMU cover. In case of the manufacturer should be notified immediately. ii) It is important to look for sling or chain markings. supporting points etc. apprise the insurance authority or insist on open delivery from the Transport Carriers. iii) Ensure that the Top and Bottom ends of the crates are in order. and use them. vi) As all porcelains are fragile and are susceptible to breakage. viii)For taking the capacitor unit out of packing. avoid knocks and jerks during handling.4 Unloading : Back to contents page Before unloading the crate(s) of the CVT from the carrier or transporting vehicle i) Carefully observe the instructions on the wooden crates.iii) Look for transit damage before proceeding with any unloading operation. Otherwise there is danger of breaking a porcelain bushing. .

5 Storage Back to contents page i) CVTs are dispatched with the terminals short circuited. marshy or humid locations.ix) While unloading/unpacking. Store the Capacitor Voltage Transformers taking care that the short circuiting at the terminals is not disturbed. a) b) 10. v) When CVT is to be stored. water logged areas. 10. the following on the CVT. it should be put back into trapezoidal crate/packing case.6 Installation Back to contents page tests may be carried out Visual inspection as per approved drawing Measurement of capacitance . If prior to the installation. (ii) A free capacitive voltage transformer with its terminals not short circuited picks up dangerous potentials which may cause injuries to personnel. x) The separate capacitor unit must be short circuited by bare wire between head & bottom flange until erection and connection are completed. vibrations. iv) When not in use keep the Capacitive Voltage Transformers away from energised locations. shocks are to be avoided. the CVT is to be stored for longer duration without usage. iii) It is also to be ensured that the CVT should be kept always in vertical position.

v) If.i) Before proceeding with the installation. before the units are placed are above the other. to prevent damage to the porcelain sheds. the threaded studs used for coupling have to be first held into the through holes of the flanges. there is an upper capacitor unit then it is to be fixed with the top flange of the lower unit with the help of studs. iv) For fixing the base unit. nuts and washers vi) For assembly of capacitor units which have antifog shads on the porcelain or which have broaden sheds. iii) Base unit is to be fixed on a supporting structure with bolts of specified size. viii) The studs used for coupling the capacitor units have to be tightened with the specified torque. ii) Ensure that the Top.7 Connection Back to contents page i) The upper terminal of individual capacitor unit should be short circuited to the base by basewire till all connections are . 4 holes are provided on the bottom plate of the EMU unit. Middle and Bottom units are (if applicable) properly identified as per their serial numbers indicated on the name plates. vii) For handling the base unit & upper capacitor during the erection process. 10. keep all the units near the erection site. The assembly has to be done with utmost care. use of crane is necessary.

v) Connection work in the secondary terminal box should be done when HV terminal is earthed. iv) The line matching unit is to be connected between HF bushing outdoor and earth if CVT is used for carrier coupling otherwise this terminal is to be earthed. ii) The tank of CVT base of CC should be earthed properly at two independent places iii) In case of CVT if carrier frequency terminal is not to be used it should be earthed on the steel tank. The connections should correspond to the circuit diagram on the inner side of terminal box. vi) The cables with large cross sections are inserted through the bottom of the terminal box. It is preferable to earth the secondary terminal in terminal box. vii) The earthing of secondary winding (s) must be done either in the terminal box at the beginning or at the end of cable but not at the both ends.completed and unit is ready for commissioning care should be taken to remove this bare wire prior to commissioning. x) The secondary terminals must not be touched and the head of the person attending this job should be below the level of the tank cover. ix) The quick acting fuses for each secondary windings are mounted in the terminal box itself. . viii)However for open-delta connection protection scheme for earthing of secondary winding should be referred.

connect the HV terminal to the line by terminal connector.xi) Only metering winding for monitoring equipment and protecting winding for protective equipment should be selected. xiii)The tank should be earthed by means of copper conductor. the cross section of which complies with the statutory regulations. While clamping the terminal connector proper torque should be applied to ensure firm connection. xii) Unused secondary windings should be left open circuited and in no case they should be shorted. xiv)After confirming the low voltage ratio. . One end of the secondary winding should also be earthed.


. xvi)Pre -Commissioning checks should be carried out as per the norms of Corporate Operation Services Department.xv) It should be ensured that the jumper is rightly connected to the primary terminal of CVT.


. x) The CVT should always remain in its upright position to safeguard mechanical arrangement of the internal active parts. ii) After removing the bottom divider from the EMU check for any loose connection of EMU.10. 10. This test may be carried out using the shearing bridge. iv) In case of any evidence of traces of oil do not energise the CVT.8 Do’s. iii) Measure the depth of the bellow. Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page i) In case of multiunit construction the capacitance of each divider is to be measured separately. The red line on the oil level gauge indicates rated oil level at 20o C. In case of bottom divider the same has to be removed along with the bottom flange from the EMU tank. viii)The measured value should not be below 10 M ohms. vii) Carry out the meggering test on LV terminal of EMU by using 500 V megger. v) Measurement of voltage ratio vi) Apply a very low voltage say 230 V and measure the secondary voltage across each winding. ix) Check the resistance of the damping resistors after disconnecting the connecting leads from the secondary terminal studs.8.1 Inspection before mounting Back to contents page i) It should be matching the Oil level in the tank is to be checked. specifications of the manufacturer.

10. In case any leakage is detected. ensure the load/burden on respective secondary winding is not exceeded. All units (oil level gauge. cover. the unit should not be installed and manufacturer to be contacted.2 Defect/Damage Back to contents page i) If defect/damage is noticed. iii) The units are calibrated at manufacturer’s works before they are despatched. vi) While connecting the measuring instruments. iii) A leakage at the insulator indicates defect in transportation. ii) When the device i. oil drainage joints) should be checked for oil levels. check with a 500 V DC Megger whether the internal connection to the primary and secondary windings are intact and property connected. protective relays to the secondary terminal. from the last certificate) on the rating plate and on special plate at .8. Therefore pay attention to date (manufacturing no.ii) Tightness of the tank and capacitor units is to be checked. nature of defect/damage and exact location of defect . designation and serial number of equipment. iv) Before the CVT is placed in position. v) CVT secondary winding should never be short circuited.e CVT/CC consists of two or more than two units it must be insisted that each upper unit is mounted up on corresponding base unit. matter should be reported without any delay to the manufacturer with full details like type.

ii) Careless excessive or uneven tightening of the nuts may damage the insulator If tightening up does not stop the leakage the matter should be reported to the manufacturer. 10. The nuts should be tightened up successively by about 1/6 of a turn until they are all uniformly tight the maximum torque being 70 kg-cm. iv) Corona shield in two halves are supplied loose in the same packing case and it is to be fixed after mounting top units. Upper units pertaining to different CVT should not be assembled together. Order No. In case of multi unit CVT the unit with single capacitor stack is generally supplied with Corona shields duly mounted. is leaking try to stop the leakage by tightening the nuts slightly.8.8.4 Erection Back to contents page During installation the studs used for coupling capacitor should be tightened by applying torque of specified strength.3 Minor Irregularities Back to contents page i) Should the insulator gaskets begin to leak slightly for instance.. 10. If the leakage does not stop. .top cover of the upper units. v) Small repairs (defects on surfaces) may be done at site. Leakage should be reported to the manufacturer with a statement of Item No. matter should be reported to manufacturer. tighten up the clamp holding the insulator in an attempt to stop the leakage. iii) If a secondary bushing.. date of commissioning and other specifications.

iii) It is to be ensured that capacitor unit with same serial numbers are coupled during erection of CVT with 2 or more capacitor units.i) During erection process of CVT at site preferably the crane should be used for handling the different units. which can be dangerous to human life. v) No screwed joint of the capacitor units and base units should be unscrewed. iv) Upper as well as the lower capacitor unit has to be short circuited & connected to earth. . until the erection and commissioning work is being done on the CVT. Hence the shorting of capacitor unit is necessary). (The capacitor get charged by the electrical fields in the vicinity and they keep these changes for a long time.


Unloading of CVT done using crane CVT checked for any physical damage.9 Check Format Back to contents page 1. 15. Proper lifting arrangement for different CVT items at site being Yes/No provided 8. 6. Mounting bolts of base plate have been tightened properly Yes/No Various parts of CVT joined and tightened to the designed Yes/No torque 10. 3. 5. 11. HF terminal of unutilised CVT is properly earthed Yes/No Care has been taken to avoid short circuiting of CVT Yes/No secondary winding 12. 4. MICC etc. discrepancy etc. 16. 9. 7.10. BOQ. 17. Yes/No challans. Different CVT units have been transported and stored in Yes/No vertical position 2. Physical verification of CVT done as per specifications. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Different erection activities performed as per approved FQP. 13. . 14. Oil level in CVT is OK Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No In case of any damage/discrepancy same has been reported to Yes/No supplier/insurance agency. Crane is used for handling the capacitor units Fuses in CVT marshalling box are OK Cable laying activity is complete from relays to marshalling box Proper earthing of CVT tank has been done Terminals have been properly tightened.


1 PLC System Back to contents page PLC system are principally used to carry information in the form of speech or the form of data representing Telemetering. the carrier frequency may be anywhere between 30 kHZ and 500 kHZ the information wave band is 300 HZ to 3.4 kHZ. Telecontrol. The signals are transmitted by means of H.F. carrier Trans/Receiver.0 Introduction Back to contents page In the modern Power System network for stable operation of large network a reliable communication is required. Difficulties in obtaining reliable and cost effective communication medium limit the choice of the Communication medium to power line carrier (PLC). The same power lines carrying the Electrical Energy are utilised for Communication.___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER ELEVEN ___________________________________________________________________________ POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION Back to contents page 11. Teleindicator and Teleprotection. 11. Speech Band Data Band 11.4 Khz Coupling Equipment Back to contents page .2 = = 300 HZ to 2 kHZ 2 kHZ to 3.

Line trap unit is inserted between busbar and connection of coupling capacitor to the line. the rating of choke is 0. It has a low impedance (less than 0.3 Coupling Equipment Description Back to contents page Essentially Coupling Equipment Comprises of the following i) Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT) Coupling capacitor (8800 pF to 22000 pF) of suitable voltage withstanding capability is inserted between the carrier equipment and HV Line which isolates the H. Tuning pot in parallel with coil is used as tuning device to block the carrier frequency entering the substation.couple the Communication equipment from the power unit.F.0 mili Henry. The coupling capacitor passes the H. ii) Wave Trap/Line Trap The coil is rated to carry full line power frequency current. equipment connected on LV side from HV side.1 to 1. This unit prevents the flow of carrier signal towards substation and at the same time offers negligible impedance to the power frequency current.F.1 ohm) to 50 Hz and high impedance to carrier frequencies. . It is parallel tuned circuit comprising L and C.To enable the Power Lines to be employed for Communication purposes some from of coupling equipment is required which will permit the injection of Higher frequency carrier signals without undue loss and at the same time de. frequency signals and blocks the power frequency signals towards carrier section. 11.

lightning impulse withstand voltage and switching impulse withstand voltage.7 Carrier Panel . 11. 11.6 Teleprotection Back to contents page For high speed protection particularly at 400 kV system the fault should be isolated within 100 ms time.The line traps are connected in series with the high voltage lines on the station side. it should be fitted before lifting for erection) 11. These are designed for the following ratings:    Normal power frequency current Short-time short-circuit current Basic insulation level characterised by the normal power frequency voltage. Use of carrier signals help in reducing the fault isolation time. 11.4 Constructional Features Back to contents page The line trap unit comprises of the following main parts:     Main coil Tuning Unit Lightning Arrester.5 Data Transmission Back to contents page The important analogue and digital parameters of the substation are transmitted to the load despatch centres for SCADA and EMS functions. Corona ring for 400 kV Line Trap (this is generally supplied loose.

It also does the main function of guarding the receiver against generating AGC voltage (automatic gain control). The purpose of Aux. i. (higher frequency). the AF signal is converted into H.Back to contents page In the transmitter section.8 Earthing Back to contents page The last but not the least important is earthing of the PLC terminals and panels. The pilot is normally used for calling opposite station either through dialling or through express. . Apart from the signals i.e.F. data and Teleoperation) the other signals which are internally generated i. pilot and auxiliary are also converted into H. Carrier is to see that transmitter and receiver work in frequency locked mode. This may result in complications at a later stage because of crowded carrier spectrum. stage.F. signal in two stages. 11.9 Erection of PLCC and associated equipment Back to contents page The installation should be done as per planned system. Earthing at different points may lead to excessive currents between outdoor and indoor PLCC equipment. The equipment allocated for a particular section/ station should not be diverted.e. (speech. The earthing should be proper and common with Substation earthing to safeguard the Electronic Component and working personnel from any voltage gradient. These excessive current can damage the output stage of the carrier terminal.e. 11.F. first AF is converted into IF (Intermediate frequency ) and then converted into H.

The necessary clamps for hanging the Line Trap from the gantry are as under: Ball and Socket arrangement for connecting the insulator string to the central rod of the Line Trap.9.  Flat pad Aluminium clamp for connection of the Line Trap incoming terminal to ACSR Jumper. The Line Trap is suitable for outdoor pedestal or suspension mounting and should be mechanically strong enough to withstand the stresses due to maximum specified wind pressure. viz:i) ii) 11.The Power Line Carrier Communication Equipments are basically divided into two groups.  Flat pad Aluminium clamp for connecting Line Trap outgoing terminal to station equipment.1 Outdoor equipments and Indoor equipments Outdoor equipments Back to contents page i) a) Line Trap Suspension Mounted The main Line Trip coil and the Tuning Pot/Lightning Arrester are supplied separately. The Line Trap should be hung from the gantry with the help of the insulating string and ball and socket joint. Generally before raising the Line Trap for hanging from the gantry the Tuning Pot and Lightning Arrester must be installed and connected. b) Pedestal Mounted .

The Earth Switch is available for earthing of CVT-HT terminals. and in conjunction with the capacitor voltage transformer to ensure:  Efficient transmission of carrier frequency signals between the carrier frequency connection and the power line.For pedestal mounting. . Generally it is not possible to connect the pipe directly on the Line Trap. The conductor take off (Horizontal or Vertical) from the Line Trap should be ensured as indicated in the Line Trap drawings if the Line Trap is to be connected with 4” IPS pipe . the coupling device is equipped with an earthing switch.  Safety of personnel and protection of the low voltage parts and installation. each line trap shall be mounted on a tripod structure formed by three insulator stacks arranged in a triangular form. when the coupling filter units are removed from circuit for maintenance/replacement. against the effects of power frequency voltage and transient over voltages. Terminal connectors may be welded with the Traps or it may be supplied separately also depending upon the manufacturer. ii) Coupling Device The coupling device is interposed between the capacitor voltage transformer and coaxial line to the PLC transmitter/receiver. All the accessories and hardware. For direct and efficient earthing of its primary terminals. mounting stool including bolts for fixing the line trap on insulators are of non-magnetic material.

The HT Terminals of coupling device is connected to H. All the elements of coupling device are fitted on a base plate having pad locking arrangements.The coupling device is suitable for outdoor mounting. required for power Line Carrier Communication Equipment are indicated hereunder for general guidance:a) Power Supply Cables . If the equipment is housed in a separate steel cabinet. The impedance points available on coupling device should be checked with respect to available H.F. Other two CVTs are earthed through coupling device.9. iii) Earth Switch The Coupling Device is earthed through this earth switch during maintenance. point of CVT on which coupling device is not mounted must be earthed. 11. The H. the cabinet should be mounted on concrete plinth or steel structure will depend upon the dimensions of the cubicle housing telephone equipment.F. ii) Interconnection Cables Various types of Interconnection Cables are required for The Cables which are connecting the Indoor Equipment.F. Terminal of the CVT by means of copper wire of specified size with suitable lugs & taped. cable impedance.2 Indoor equipments Back to contents page i) Telephone Equipment The telephone equipment is either housed in the same steel cabinet which is used for housing the carrier set or in a separate steel cabinet.

Interconnection between Float Charger & Battery/Carrier Equipment and Telephone Equipment requires 48V DC supply 3 Core PVC cable. The length of the cable will depend upon the layout of the Substation and the position of the Carrier Room. In the event of AC failure the battery feeds the load. however. Distribution Board. on 48 V DC supply. Normally battery charger feeds the load and trickle charges the Battery. Armoured H. The cross section of the cable to be used will depend upon the current rating and the distance of the equipment from Battery/Float Charger.Standard 3 core PVC cable is used for connection between the power supply point and the Float Charger.F. The Co-axial Cable can be directly buried in the ground. The PLCC equipment is operated. b) Co-axial Cable The outdoor Co-axial Cable is used for connecting the Line Matching Units/Line Matching & Distribution Units/Coupling Filters/Balancing Transformers and the Carrier Sets. Proper Co-axial Cable connections is one of the most important tasks and the connection of the Co-axial Cable to the Cable Connector Plug should be done carefully. While cutting the Co-axial Cable it should . as per the special instructions attached. Battery Room etc. it is preferable to provide suitable trench from out-door switchyard to the carrier room to lay the Co-axial Cable. cable should be used. The cable length can be decided depending upon the position of the Float Charger. Further looping of power supply may be done at PLCC panels ends.

Typically its rated discharge current is 10 kA. Line traps are equipped with the bird barriers as specified. The protective device is shunt connected to the main coil and tuning device. extra length should be foreseen in order to avoid cable joints due to minor modifications or due to waste while connecting the Co-axial Cable to the Cable end connectors. The protective device does neither enter into operation nor remain in operation. following transient actuation by the power frequency voltage developed across the line trap by the rated short time current. iv) Jumper Connections . The lightning arrester is of station class current limiting active gap type. Line trap is provided with a protective device in the form of surge arresters which is designed and arranged such that neither significant alteration in its protective function nor physical damage shall result from either temperature rise or the magnetic field of the main coil at continuous rated current or rated short time current. which is harmful to the Co-axial Cable. iii) Connection of Co-axial cable The connection of the C0-axial Cable to the Cable end Socket or to the Cable connector plugs in the Cabinet must be executed according to the attached connection instructions. Till the time the Co-axial Cable ends are not connected to the Co-axial Cable connector these must be sealed by tar to avoid ingress of noted that at least 1 mt.

ii) Loosen the screw and take the plug to pieces. iii) Put the cone and threaded cylinder over the cable iv) Remove PVC-covering and copper braiding for a length of 20 mm (4/5 inch) v) Cut off PVC covering for an additional length of 6 mm (1/4 inch) vi) Slightly spring open the split section of the plug interior vii) Push the cable into the spring opening of the above part viii)Draw the copper braiding through the two holes in the plug interior piece and solder it to the outside of the plug interior piece . 11. leaving enough slack to make a loop when connecting the cable. v)  General All Indoor equipment should be housed in a well ventilated room having dust free atmosphere.10 Connection of HF Co-Axial Cable Back to contents page Instructions for connecting Cable Connector Plugs to HF Co-axial Cable.  If the Cabinets are mounted in rows. These connectors are an integral part of the line trap. the distance between the two rails (face to face) should be at least 2 to 3 mtrs.Clamps. i) Cut off the cable somewhat longer than needed(according to local conditions). for easy maintenance/testing of the equipment.The overhead conductor is connected by jumpers to the wave trap by using T.

a small label/paper sticker can be pasted on the module frame with “module defective” indication.ix) Solder the cable conductor to the plug pin and cut off the part which protrudes.12 Defective Modules and Fault Rectification at Site Back to contents page The defective modules of PLCC equipment are generally repaired at suppliers works unless the nature of defects are minor. 11. It is desired that following procedure may be followed while returning the defective modules to supplier: i)After identification of defective modules. Writing by pen or any scratches on the module should be avoided. . (Do not heat the pin too long because of the polyethylene insulation) x) Slide the threaded cylinder and the cone back into position and tighten the screw xi) Test cable for continuity and short circuit xii) Fasten the cable beneath the connector plug by means of bracket clip. 11. so that the plug is not subjected to any tension. The equipment allocated for a particular section should not be diverted. This helps in identifying the defective parts. This may result in complications at a later stage because of crowded carrier spectrum.11 Installation of Equipment as per planned system Back to contents page Installation should be done as per planned system. It would be advisable to give the details of the part failures observed by the maintenance persons for easy checking and rectification.

ii)After identification of the defective modules. This will enable quick replacement after receipt of modules duly repaired. without any efforts to repair them at site. iv)Frequency dependent parts viz. of the PLC terminal should be intimated to the supplier/kept in record while sending the defective modules. .. The modules require accurate adjustment which in turn require sophisticated/accurate measuring set up. filters are normally under long guarantee. these should be securely packed with adequate packing material to avoid transit damage. it is essential that these modules are returned to supplier immediately after they are found defective. Therefore. iii)It is desired that the cabinet nos.


vi) Connections of line trap should not foul with any other equipment. x) The balanced HF cable should be earthed at both ends. cable joints should be avoided to the extent possible. vii) H. . For proper stability. viii)Amphenol type of terminals should be used for H. blurred and rounded off. the pedestal with its associated components is normally fixed to the trap. xii) In pedestal mounted traps.13 Do’s.F. cracks and cavities. surface blisters. iv) No part of clamp or connector (including hardware) should be of magnetic material. ii) Terminal Connectors should conform to IS: 5561. connections. xi) The line traps are packed in wooden crates rectangular in shape and should always be positioned in their vertical state. ix) The unbalanced HF cable should be earthed at PLC equipment end only. v) All castings of terminal connectors should be free from blow holes. All sharp edges shall be pedestal may be apportioned to the top end of the packing crate. Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page i) All the welding included in the manufacture of line traps should be performed by personnel and procedure qualified in accordance with ASME-IX and all the critical welds should be subject to tests as per FQP/LOA as applicable.F. iii) Terminal connectors for ACSR single/twin bundle conductor should be suitable for either horizontal or vertical take-off of the conductor.11.

xxi)For interconnection between Protection equipment and Relay Panel the cable required is 10/20 core 1 mm dia Control Cable. xv) Level of the pedestal on 400 kV BPIs is to be checked carefully and grouting bolts should be tightened properly with the required torque. Crane or derrick arrangement should be used for this purpose. xx) Before erecting the blocking band of Line Traps are to be checked with respect to requirement of the line. care should be taken so that the same is available before the erection work.xiii)Line trap should be shifted to erection site very carefully so as to avoid transportation damage. xix)As suspension hardware is arranged by the erection contractor. The connections from H. xiv)Line trap should be mounted on the support insulator pedestal and bolted properly. xvii)For all copper connections flat Copper strip of specified size is to used.F. The . xvi)The body & the internal parts of the line trap should be handled carefully to avoid any damage while placing it on the erected insulator pedestal. point of the Coupling Capacitor to the 3-Elements of the Protective and to the Line Matching Units/Line Matching & Distribution Units/Coupling Filters/Balancing Transformers should be completed as per Drawing. xviii) While completing the copper connection one should ensure that the copper strip connections must be properly tinned by brazing stove and thereafter the same should be painted to avoid rusting or oxidation due to moisture.

. xxii)For interconnection between AF shift channel to line unit/teleprinters cable required is 0.6 mm dia. 5-pair telephone cable.6 mm diameter cable. depending upon the positions and number of the Telephone Instruments to be connected to the PAX. 10 pair/20 pair or even one pair/2 pair/5 pair telephone cables. xxiii)For interconnection between Carrier set and 4-Wire Group Selector/PAX housed in separate cabinet the cable required is 10/20 . xxiv)For interconnection between PAX and Telephone instrument the cable required is 0.pair 0.length of the cable will depend upon the distance between the Protection equipment cubicle and the relay panel of the distance protection relay.6 mm dia.


10.F. Connection of Co-axial cable to the cable connector plug has been done carefully as per the specified instructions. 5. In case of any damage/discrepancy same has been reported to supplier/insurance agency.14 Check Format Back to contents page 1. 2. BOQ. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Protective earthing of PLC terminals and panels with the substation earthing has been done. 11. Blocking bands of line requirements of the line. 9.11. . 13. point of CVT on which the coupling device is not mounted has been earthed. All hardware accessories. Co-axial cable ends are kept sealed to avoid ingress of moisture till the time these are not connected to the cable connector. 8. 3. Physical verification of different items done as per specifications. The remaining. Suspension hardware for WT has been arranged by erection contractor before start of erection. Corona ring for 400 kV WT has been fitted before lifting the same for erection. Impedance point available on coupling device has been checked with respect to available HF cable impedance. All parts have been checked for any physical damage. 15. discrepancy etc. H. About 1m. 16. 12. 6. All indoor equipments are housed in a well lit/ventilated and dust free room. mounting stools including bolt/nuts for fixing Line Trap and insulators are of non-magnetic material.r. Conductor take off from line trap has been checked up with the Line Trap Drawings.t. trap have been checked w. challans. extra length of Co-axial cable has been provided before cutting. two CVTs have been earthed thro’ coupling device. 4. 7. MICC etc. 14.

Proper face to face distance of cabinets inside the PLCC room is maintained between the two rails for maintenance/testing of equipments.17. Yes/No 18. 19. While completing the copper connections it has been ensured that the copper strip connections are properly tinned by brazing stove and same have been painted to avoid rusting or oxidation due to moisture. Yes/No Yes/No . All suspension hardware to be arranged by the erection contractor have been made available before the erection work.


___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER ___________________________________________________________________________ CABLES Back to contents page TWELVE 12. Protective covering and armour made up of plastic or steel is provided over the sheath. a sheath of PVC or plastic PVC tape is provided. Power cables are manufactured with 1. The auxiliary power for substation auxiliaries is supplied through underground cables. Each core of the cable is provided with insulation. There are several types of power cables. Thus a power cable is made up of the following basic components: i) Conductor ii) Core insulation iii) Sheath (Inner/Outer) iv) Protective covering and armouring. shield. etc. Over the core insulation. insulation.2. signalling devices and protection circuits rated below . The conductor may be either solid or stranded.3 or 4 crores. depending on type of insulation and configuration of conductors. measurement. Control cables are used in substations for connecting control systems. The conductor is either copper or aluminium.0 Introduction Back to contents page The function of cables in the substation is to transfer power from auxiliary loads and connecting control systems. The power cables are used for various voltages upto 220 kV. The insulation may be of PVC or XLPE.

iv) In case of any discrepancy in size or visible damage to the cable. size and make. and the various equipments in the switchyard. etc. control communication functions are dependent on control cables. They may have another rubber insulation or PVC insulation.1000 V. These cable drums are issued to the switchyard contractor for laying and connecting as per the approved drawings. protection. Inspection and Storage Back to contents page i) Cable drums are procured in full drum length. . Control cables are wired between the control panels in the control room.. 110 V AC. each having independent insulation. The control cables are also laid on cable racks inside the cable trenches. ii) Cable drums should be unloaded with cranes/chain pulley blocks to prevent any damage. length. Control cables have several cores. 110 V DC. the control cables should be properly laid and their sheaths should be properly earthed. To avoid interference due to straymagnetic fields. 22048 V DC. communication circuits. They are generally at low voltage (220 V AC. They have a copper conductor. iii) The drums should be checked with the LOA. matter should be immediately brought to the notice of the supplier at the earliest. In a typical substation 1.). 48 V DC.1 KV grade power & control cables are procured in full drum length of 500m +5%.1 Receipt. 12. GR and MICC for the serial no. Control cables are used for protection circuits. The various measurements.

it is covered with a 10 cm thick layer of sand.2 m or as specified. freed from stones and sharp edges of rock.2.1 Cable laying in cable trays. where the soil conditions are not good. After laying the cable. Cable laying in underground (buried trenches) Back to contents page The cable trench in which the cable is to be buried under the ground excavated upto the required depth of 1 to 1. In other cases soft earth may be used instead of sand. ii) 12. 12. The bottom of the trench is levelled. The size should be sufficiently large to put in additional cables later if required . proper care and security should be provided to avoid theft/damage to the cable. In case the cable is laid in pipes. A layer 10 cm thick of clean sand is laid at the bottom of the trench. In case these are stored in open.v) Drums after visual inspection should be stored preferably in the covered area. These are used for crossing streets or under railways tracks. i) Cable laying in underground (buried trenches). the pipes may be of ceramic/cast iron/galvanised iron/cement/PVC or as per specified material and size.2 Cable Laying in Switchyard Back to contents page Cable laying in switchyard is done by following 2 methods. The remaining gap is filled with soft soil and a layer of bricks is usually provided for protection against mechanical damage and for identification of the cable route. vi) The cable accessories and hume pipes are supplied by the switchyard contractor. Site should check these items for any damage. discrepancy in size and material.

. actual conditions. iv) The length of cable actually required should be more than the actually measured to take care of cable termination in terminal blocks. vi) The erection contractor based on the actual physical measurements and drawings prepares a cable cutting schedule.2. when some cable is required to be cut and cable joint is provided. vii) For pulling the cables from drums.2 Cable laying in cable trays Back to contents page i) Cables should be laid as per approved drawings and schemes ii) The cable laying and termination schedule should be checked at site w. v) More length will also help in future to take care of cable faults. The cable cutting schedule is prepared to optimise the cable lengths and minimise wastage. Cable markers/joint markers at the specified distance enroute the cable trenches should be provided for cable tracing & that the cables can be drawn out and replaced without disturbing the earth above. iii) A cable laying schedule is prepared based on which the size of cable required for various equipments is calculated.r. rollers are used by placing at about 2 m spacing. 12. The lengths of the cables are also checked at site by actually measuring and necessary changes should be incorporated in the drawings. This will facilitate in checking the complete coverage of various approved schemes and termination.

roads or rail track. x) The power cables are fixed on trays. The cable trays carrying power trays are on top tiers whereas the control cables are laid in the trays below. . size. cutting.viii)Power and control cables are secured to the separate cables trays. The information like cable number. fitting and other plumbing works. 12. ix) Other cables like coaxial cables are laid separately from power and control cables. the cable ends should be sealed.2 m level below the ground (or as specified) should be laid and cable should be made to pass through these in case the cable crosses the drains. racks & metallic ducts should be grounded by connecting at each end to earth-mat. origin & termination point of cable are to be punched on these tags. xii) Proper cable tags for identification should be tied to the cable. ii) A cable termination schedule is prepared before starting the cable termination. The section of cable trays should be bridged by copper (or as specified material) jumpers to retain continuity of earthing. A clearance of 2d(where d = dia of cable) is maintained from centre to centre. length. xiv)All the cable trays.3 Cable Termination Back to contents page i) The cable termination work comprises of fixing. drilling. xiii)Concrete or steel pipes that are buried at 1 to 1. xi) To minimise any damage to cable. providing clumps.

.iii) Cables are checked for continuity before the termination work.


a) Control cables (1.4 Do’s Don’ts and Special Precautions Back to contents page i) Ensure that the cable trench work is complete in all respects and the trenches are clean. kink. sufficient care should be taken to avoid damage to the cables because of twist. v) Whenever it is required to bend the cable care should be taken so that the standard permissible limits for bending are not crossed. ii) Ensure that earth flat running is complete and all welding work inside the trench is completed. laying and termination of cables.1 kV) should not be bent below a radius of 10x d b) Power cables (1. iii) During unreeling. iv) Cables should be securely fixed to the cable trays. sharp bend etc. iii) The underground cable markers should project 150 mm above ground and spaced at an interval of 30 meters.12. . They shall be located on both sides of road and drain crossings and also at every change in direction. ii) The tags should be of aluminium with the number punched on it and securely attached to the cable conduit by not less than two turns.1 kV) should not be bent below a radius of 12x d (where d = dia of the cable) i) Each cable and conduit run should be tagged with numbers that appear in the cable and conduit schedule. Cable tags should of rectangular shape for power cables and of circular shape for control cables.

control and relay panels etc. wherever required for cable identification. machine finished and nickel plated. motor control centres. vii) The cable glands should comprise of heavy duty brass casting. buried cable trench can be used in outdoor area. Rubber components used in cable glands should be of neoprene and of tested quality. as shown in the drawings. viii)The cable (power and control) between LT station. DG set building and fire fighting pump house should be laid in the buried cable trenches. ix) Cable route and joint markers and RCC warning covers should be provided wherever required.iv) Cable tags should be provided inside the switchgear. where a number of cables enter together through a gland plate. vertical shafts. In addition to the above. x) Cable should be laid on cable racks. xi) Cable racks and supports should be painted after installation with two coats of metal primer (comprising of red oxide and zinc . pulled through pipes and conduits laid in concrete ducts. The voltage grade of cables should be engraved on the marker. to avoid corrosion and oxidation. run bare and clamped on wall/ceiling/steel structures etc. excavated trenches for direct burial. in built-up trenches. vi) Double compression type nickel plated (coating thickness not less than 10 microns) brass cable glands are provided by the Contractor for all power and control cables to facilitate dust and weather proof termination. v) For drilling of gland plates holes should not be made by gas cutting. for lighting purpose also. control room.

xiii)In the case of equipments located away from cable trench either pipe inserts should be embedded in the floor connecting the cable trench and the equipment or in case the distance is small. xvi)Flexible conduit should be used between fixed conduit/cable trays and equipment terminal boxes.chromate in a synthetic medium) followed by two finishing coats of aluminium paint. . xvii)Power and control cables should be laid in separate tiers. xii) Cables should be generally located adjoining the electrical equipment through the pipe insert embedded in the floor. xviii)Power cables on top tiers. xiv)Cabling in the control room should be done on ladder type cable trays. xxi)Rollers should be used at intervals of about two metres while pulling the cables. where vibration is anticipated. for cables other than directly buried. xix)Control instrumentation and other service cables in bottom tiers. as per the approved drawings/schemes. notch/opening on the floor should be provided. The order of laying of various cables should be as follows. xv) Cables from the equipment to trench should run in GI conduits. xx) Metal screen and armour of the cable should be bonded to the earthing system of the station. In all these cases necessary bending radius as recommended should be maintained.

actual length and route. sharp bends. date on which laid. xxvii)Cable drums should be unloaded. termination carried out in the specified no. the same should be repaired to the satisfaction of the site. xxiii)Contractor should remove RCC/Steel trench covers before taking up the work and replace all the trench covers after the erectionwork in that particular area is completed or when further work is not likely to be taken up for some time. xxv)Tray identification no on each run of trays at an interval of 10 m should be painted. xxvi)In case the outer sheath of a cable is damaged during handling/installation. clamped and tied with nylon strap or PVC perforated strap to keep them in position. handled and stored in an approved manner and rolling of drums should be avoided as far as possible. xxiv)Contractor should furnish report on work carried out in a particular week/specified period indicating cable numbers.xxii)All due care should be taken during unreeling. of copies. In panels where a large number of . testing carried out. xxix)Tag/ferrule on control cable cores at all termination should be provided as per specification. the same should be replaced by a healthy cable. etc. xxviii)Control cable cores entering control panel/switchgear/MCB/ MCC/ miscellaneous panels should be neatly bunched. In case any other part of a cable is damaged. laying and termination of cable to avoid damage due to twist. kinks.

sleeve or paint. with tape. each core ferrule should include the complete cable number as well. xxxi)Cable entry points should be sealed and made vermin and dust proof and unused openings effectively closed.cables are to be terminated and cable identification is difficult. All the exposed parts of cable lugs should be covered. xxxiii) All cable termination should be appropriately tightened to ensure secure and reliable connections. xxx)Spare cores should be similarly tagged with cable numbers and coiled up. xxxii)Solderless crimping of terminals should be done by using corrosion inhibitory compound. .


Cable markers/joint markers have been pointed at the Yes/No specified distance enroute the cable trench for cable tracing and direction.12.5 1. Drums have been checked for quantity and damage to cable. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 10. Crossing of roads. MICC. 13. rail tracks has been done in the Yes/No ceramic/cast iron/GI/ Cement pipe of specified size. 8. Cables are being pulled from drums on rollers. 3. . A cable cutting schedule has been prepared to optimise the cable lengths. Yes/No Yes/No 4. Cable in underground (buried trenches) have been buried Yes/No under the ground upto the required depth of 1 to 1. 17. Cable drums have been unloaded with crane/chain pulley block to prevent any damage. Cable laying and termination schedule has been prepared as per the actual site conditions and actual measurements. 5. 12.2 m. 9. 7. 15. Yes/No Challans GR etc. Cable in cable trenches have been laid as per approved Yes/No drawings. 6. After unloading the visual inspection of the packings has been Yes/No carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably with the manufacturer of the equipment. Length of cable actually required is more than the measured Yes/No are to take care of cable termination in terminal block and cable faults in future. 14. 11. Power and control cables are laid on separate cable trays. Cable has been laid and all civil works performed as per the Yes/No technical specifications. Cables are being laid as per approved cable laying schedule. 2. 16. Check Format Back to contents page Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site Yes/No (Preferably with crane) to unload the packages. Co-axial cable is laid separately from para & control cable. All items have been checked with the packing list.

21. . Yes/No Yes/No All cable trays. Sections of cable trays have been bridged by copper jumpers Yes/No to retain continuity of earthing. 19. Cable ends have been sealed to minimise any damage. A clearance of 2d (where d= dia of cable) is maintained from centre to centre. racks and metallic ducts have been grounded Yes/No by connecting each to earth/met. 20.18.


are housed in the control room building of the substation. circuit breakers.___________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER ___________________________________________________________________________ CONTROL AND RELAY PANELS Back to contents page THIRTEEN 13.   Normal switching function from control room. transformers. in the event of abnormal conditions such as faults. The control room has the following panels depending upon the local needs:  Control panels for individual feeder. The relay and control panels are located mainly in the control room of the substation building from where it is possible to supervise and monitor the substation. PLC communication panels. .0 Introduction Back to contents page A substation control room has following provisions and functions:   Metering and instrumentation Tap-changer control and control of shunt capacitors for voltage control. The substation can also be provided with equipment allowing remote control from another substation or loaddespatching centre. etc. auxiliaries etc. reactors. The various control panels. protection panels.  Voice communication with neighbouring power stations and substations by PLC (Power Line Carrier). busbars. Protection of transmission lines.

Panel for recording instruments i. Carrier communication panel. in the control room.    Protective relay panels. DR. Synchronising panels. cold rolled sheet steel of specified thickness with front sheet and door frames. top and bottom portions. .1 Construction Features Back to contents page i) The panels are free standing. sides. EL & Fault Locator. In addition to the above indoor panels. removable covers and panels are gasketed all around with neoprene gaskets.e. floor (channel) mounting type and comprise structural frames completely enclosed with specially selected smooth finished. The other panel in control room are Emergency Lighting Distribution Board for feeding the emergency lighting in and around control room.      MCC ( Main Control)Panel ACDB DCDB Fire-Fighting Control Board Air Conditioning Control Panel The ACDB panel in the substation feeds the auxiliary power to switchyard equipments and township. 13. the following indoor equipments are installed in the main substation building on one or more floors/ or in other separate buildings. door. iii) All doors.

the central corridor is aligned to form a continuous passage.iv) Ventilating louvers in the panels have screens and filters. 13. The screens are made of either brass or GI wire mesh. vi) Panels are provided with the gland plates at the bottom for cable entry. v) Panels have base frame with smooth bearing surface which is fixed on the embedded foundation channels/insert plate. Both ends of the corridor are provided with double leaf doors with lift off hinges.2 are placed between Simplex Panel Back to contents page Simplex panel consists of vertical front panel with equipment mounted thereon and having wiring access from rear for control panel & either front or rear for relay panels. Anti-vibration strips made up of shock absorbing material panel & base frame. The corridor facilitates access to internal wiring and external cable connections.3 Duplex Panel Back to contents page Duplex panel are walk-in tunnel type comprising of two vertical front and rear panel sections connected back-on-back by formed sheet steel roof tie members and a central corridor in between. double leaf-doors are provided. Construction wise the C&R panels can be divided in two types 13. Doors have handles with either built-in locking or provided with padlock for closing/locking facility. In case of number of duplex panels located in a row side by side. . In case of panels having width more than 800 mm.

Separate cable entries are provided for the front and rear panels. should be checked with the packing list. However.Doors have handles with built-in locking or provided with pad-locks for closing/locking facility. 13. vi) In case of any discrepancy of the items from the above documents/LOA. ii) Panels are transported in vertical position only. Challans GR etc. iv) After unloading the visual inspection of the panels should be carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably with the manufacturer of the panels. the panels should be repacked if these are to be stored for long time. iii) At site proper unloading arrangements preferably with crane or chain pulling block are made. v) The panels. vii) Any type of damage to the panels during transportation or any missing items should also be brought to the notice of the panel supplier or the insurance agency (if required). the same may be intimated to the manufacturer at the earliest. MICC. viii)The panels are sent to the erection site or in store if the site is not ready for the erection.4 Receipt and Storage at Site Back to contents page i) The C&R panels are generally transported in trucks to the site. Panels are stored in vertical position only. 13.5 Erection of Panels Back to contents page .

ii) Equipments are mounted such that removal and replacement can be accomplished individually without interruption of service to adjacent devices and the easy access is available without use of special tools. iv) The required level of the foundation/foundation frame etc. v) All the panels are to be checked for alignment. 13. should be checked very carefully before the erection work. verticality etc. The foundation frame should also be erected confirming to the necessary drawings. ii) The panels should be erected as per the approved general arrangement drawings from POWERGRID. vii) Earthing of panels is done by the erection contractor for connecting it with switchyard earth mat.6 Mounting on Panels Back to contents page i) All equipments on (or in) the panels are mounted and completely wired to the terminal blocks ready for external connections. vi) The polythene cover provided by the manufacturer on the panels should not be removed at the erection stage rather it should be retained upto the commissioning stage so as to avoid the dust and scratches on the panels. The true level is checked using spirit level or water tube. Terminal marking on the equipment shall be clearly visible. iii) It should be checked that the foundation of the panel is ready in all respect.i) The site where the panels are to be erected should be ready actually before the panels are brought. .

v) Wire termination are made with solderless cirmping type and tinned copper lugs which firmly grip the conductor. Voltage Transformer circuits. push buttons and indicating lamps are not less than 750 mm/specified height from the bottom of the panel. Insulated sleeves are provided at all the wire termination’s. Like wise the top lines of all meters. Engraved core identification . meters and recorders are not less than 450 mm/specified from the bottom of the panel. The centre lines of relays. iii) All the internal wiring is securely supported. ii) When panels are arranged to be located adjacent to each other. neatly arranged.iii) The centre line of switches. iv) Auxiliary bus wiring for AC and DC supplies. push buttons and indicating lamps is matched to give a neat and uniform appearance.7 Panel Internal Wiring and Equipments in Panels Back to contents page i) Wiring provided between all electrical devices mounted and wired in the panels and between the devices and terminal blocks for the devices to be connected to equipment outside the panels is done by the panel supplier. relays and recorders is matched. Wiring gutters & troughs are used for this purpose. iv) The centre lines of switches. annunciation circuits and other common services is provided near the top of the panels running throughout the entire length of the panels. readily accessible and connected to equipment terminals and terminal blocks. 13. all interpanel wiring and connections between the panels is carried out internally.

b) AC/DC Power supply Circuits : (of specified sized cables). vi) Longitudinal troughs extending throughout the full length of the panels are preferred for inter panel wiring. iv) A minimum clearance of 250 mm/. 13. preferably vertically mounted on the side of each panel. nuts and lock nuts. c) All other circuits: (of specified sized cables). stud type terminals with specified between the first row of terminal blocks and the associated cable gland plate or panel side wall. vi) Mimic diagram is preferably made of anodised aluminium or plastic of approved fast colour material and screwed on to the panel that can be easily cleaned. complete with insulated barriers. iii) Terminal blocks are suitable for connecting the following conductors/ cable on each side: a) All CT & PT/CVT circuits: (of specified sized cables). as per the Terminal block mounting arrangement is adopted. ii) Terminal blocks are continuous current rating. v) The clearance between two rows of terminal blocks edges should be minimum of 150 mm. . moulded piece.8 Providing Terminal Blocks Back to contents page i) All internal wiring to be connected to external equipments is terminated on terminal blocks.plastic ferrules marked to correspond with panel wiring diagram are fitted at both ends of each wire.


Name Plates and Markings
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i) Inside the panels all equipment mounted on front and rear side as well as equipment mounted inside are provided with individual

name plates with equipment designation engraved. ii) On the top of each panel on front as well as rear side, large and bold name plates are provided for circuit/feeder designation. iii) All front mounted equipments are provided at the rear with individual name plates engraved with tag numbers corresponding to panel internal wiring to facilitate easy tracing of the wiring. iv) The name plates mounted directly by the side of the respective equipments should not be hidden by equipment wiring. v) The name plate ‘inscription’ and size of name plates and letters should be as approved by site Engineer.

Panels Accessories
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Plug Point 240V, Single phase 50 Hz, AC socket with switch suitable to accept 5 Amps and 15 Amps pin round standard plug, is provided in the interior of each cubicle with ON-OFF switch for connection of hand lamps.


Interior Lighting Panels are provided with a fluorescent lighting fixture rated for 240 Volts, single phase, 50 Hz supply for the interior illumination of the panel during maintenance. The fittings is complete with switchfuse unit and switching of the lighting is controlled by the

respective panel door switch. Adequate lighting with switchfuse unit is also provided for the corridor in Duplex panels. iii) Switches and Fuses Control panels are provided with necessary arrangements for receiving, distributing, isolating and fusing of DC and AC supplies for various control, signalling, lighting and space heater circuits. The incoming and sub-circuits are separately provided with switchfuse units. iv) Space Heater Panels are provided with a space heater rated for 240V, single phase, 50 Hz, AC supply for the internal heating of the panel to prevent condensation of moisture.

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i) All panels are equipped with an earth bus securely fixed. ii) When several panels are mounted adjoining each other, the earth bus is made continuous with necessary connectors and clamps for this purpose. iii) Provision is made for extending the earth bus bars to future adjoining panels on either side. iv) Provision is made on each bus bars of the end panels for connecting earthing grid. v) All metallic cases of relays, instruments and panel mounted equipment including gland plates are connected to the earth bus by copper wires of specified size. vi) The colour code of earthing wire is green.

vii) Soldering of earthing wire to terminals with suitable clamp connectors is not permitted.



Do’s Don’ts and Special Precautions
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i) Panels should be completely metal enclosed & dust, moisture and vermin proof. ii) Workmanship of the panels should be such as to result in neat appearance, inside and outside with no welds, rivets or bolt head apparent from outside with all exterior surfaces tune & smooth. iii) No equipment should be mounted on the doors. iv) At existing station panels should be matched with other panels in the control room in respect of dimensions, colour, appearance and arrangement of equipments (centre lines of switches, push buttons and other equipments) on the front of the panel. v) Ferrules should fit tightly on the wire and not fall off when the wire is disconnected from terminal blocks. vi) Ferrules in cable should indicate the TB no. of both the ends. vii) All wires directly connected to trip circuit breaker or device should be distinguished by the addition of red coloured unlettered ferrule. viii)Inter-connections to adjacent panels should be brought out to a separate set of terminal blocks located near the slots of holes meant for taking the inter-connecting wires. ix) Arrangements should permit easy inter-connections of adjacent panels at site and wires for this purposes should be looped and bunched properly inside the panels. x) Completeness and correctness of the internal wiring and the proper functioning of the connected equipments should be checked by the erection contractor.

serial number and electrical rating data.g. KV. xviii)Each instrument and meter should be prominently marked with the quantity measured e. xv) It should be ensured that the erection front is ready for taking up the erection work. xiii)Indicating lamp. manufacture’s type.xi) At least 20% spare terminals should be provided on each panel and these spare terminals should be uniformly distributed on all terminal blocks. xiv)Control & Relay panels are to be checked with the schematic drawings and Bill of Materials for proper mounting of various equipments and relays. A. xvii)Cable gland plate fitted on the bottom of the panel should be connected to earthing of the panel/station through a flexible braided copper conductor rigidly. MW. one for each feeder. etc. xvi)Cable entries to the panels should be from the bottom and through cable glands. xii) When semaphore indicators are used for earth switch position they should be so mounted in the mimic that the earth switch close position shall complete the continuity of mimic. . for each bus should be provided on the mimic to indicate bus charged condition. xix)All relays and other devices should be clearly marked with manufacturer’s name. xx) Each switch should bear clear inscription identifying its function.


6.13. 14. After unloading the visual inspection of the panels has been Yes/No carried out along with the erection contractor and preferably with the manufacturer of the panels. . 12. Site where panels are to be erected is ready before the Yes/No starting of erection work. Panels during erection on frames have been checked for true Yes/No level by spirit level. 4. 15. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Equipments have been mounted for easy removal and Yes/No replacement. Check Format Back to contents page All items have been checked with the packing list. Earthing of panels has been provided. 2.13 1. GR etc. Proper minimum clearance between 2 rows of terminal blocks Yes/No edges has been provided. 5. The foundation frame has been erected and checked for Yes/No alignment and level. 7. Centre line of switches. 8. 9. All internal wiring is securely supported. to Yes/No 3. Any type of damage to the panels during transportation or any Yes/No missing items has been brought to the notice of the panel supplier. 10. In case of any discrepancy from the above documents/LOA Yes/No the same has been intimated to the manufacturer/ insurance agency (as desired). Proper unloading arrangement has been made at site unload the panels. MICC. Yes/No Challans. 13. neatly arranged. push buttons indicating lamps is not Yes/No at less than the specified height from the bottom of panel. Yes/No readily accessible and connected to equipment terminals and terminal block Wire termination are made with solderless crimping type and Yes/No tinned copper lugs firmly gripping the conductor. Wiring on panels is complete upto terminal block Marking on the equipments is clearly visible. 16. 11.

23. 19. Proper sized inscription has been done on the name plates Yes/No Each switch has been inscripted clearly identifying its Yes/No functions. 18. 22. 24. 21. instruments and panel mounted Yes/No equipment have been earthed . Fluorescent lighting fixtures have been provided for the Yes/No interior illumination in the panel Heaters have been provided inside the panels to prevent Yes/No condensation of moisture All metallic cases of relays. Name plates mounted by the side of respective equipments Yes/No are not hidden by equipment wiring.17. Mimic diagram has been properly screwed to the panel. 20. Yes/No Large and bold name plates have been provided for Yes/No circuit/feeder designation.

6. Volume-III. Construction Manual Part-I substation Construction. HVDC Transmission System – POWERGRID. & Practice – S. 10. By Richard C. 8. Operation and Maintenance Manual for 216 KV Surge Arrestor – M/s Crompton Greaves Limited. 7.___________________________________________________________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Volume K. 4. Electrical Substations Engg. Rihand Delhi Bipole. Modern power Station Practice (British Electricity International). Installation and Service Manual for 420 KV Centre break Isolator by S&S power Switchgear Ltd. . Third Edition. 5. EHV Transmission. 3. Section III : Switchyard Erection SRTS Powergrid. Rao. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code – Section-IX. Technical Specifications Volume-II of Bidding Document for Nathpa Jhakri Transmission System – POWERGRID. Instruction for Erection of Power Line Carrier Communication and Associated Equipments – M/s Asea Brown Boveri. Dorf. The Electrical Engineering Handbook. 9. 2.

3 Soil Investigation & Foundation Vol. SR & CB Vol. 1 Line Survey Vol. Pkgs. 1 Land & Infrastr. 4 Tower Erection Vol. (Elect. Lines) Vol. Vol. Mgmt. Vol. Of TF. 5 Stringing Vol. 4 Ercn. 5 Aux. 2 Safety Vol. Vol.CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT User’s Manual Of Construction Transmission Line (Part-1) Sub-Station (Part-2) General Support (Part-3) Vol. Vol. 4 Budget & Finance Vol. 3 Switchyard Ercn. 2 Env. 5 Labour Regulations .) Vol. 3 Contracts Mgmt. 1 MB (Procedures & G. 2 Civil Construction Vol.