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D T YARBROUGH
depending on their temperature. should we ever meet one?” I tried to come up with alternative answers to explain things like gravity. so I refined my theory. I have always loved science fiction short stories. Particles have a specific rest mass which consists of the magnetons within its spinning vortex. This lead to a curiosity as to how scientists really explain this stuff. Today. WHAT IS SPACE? Space is an ocean of particles that I call magnetons. The particle gains mass due to kenetic energy but losses mass due to its reduced field(vortex). They make up the missing mass that scientist attribute to dark matter. the lesser the spin and vice/versa. Oh. This was 50 years ago and most of my studies since had to do with my career as a industrial field service engineer for CNC machinery and automated equipment. numatic. I scored in the 97th precentile on IQ and acheivement tests in school. setting the magnetons in motion around the particle. I had a thought one day. and hydraulic problems. faster than light speed. THE NATURE OF PARTICLES Particles. He believed his field gave mass to matter. The combined velocity and spin of a particle will always move magnetons. “What secrets of the universe would an alien tell us. though I scored well without ever putting much effort into studying while in school. I could easily prove them wrong. such that overall mass remains constant. and programming problems as well as mechanical. I believe the same thing about the magnetons. It is able to move more . scientists believe empty space is made up of virtual particles popping in and out of existance. and refined my theory into what it is today. This is not unlike the Higg's field made up of bozons. I was amazed when I began to read Einstein's Relativity. They also believe in dark matter and dark energy that permeates empty space. I have traveled the world troubleshoting such problems. etc. cosmologists believed there was an aether through which light propagated in space. It became obvious that a new theory was needed. These magnetons are tiny in comparison to electrons and photons and makes up magnetic fields. Either no one was interested or they all agreed with me. Magnetons are not packed tightly in space but are in constant motion colliding with one another. I believe that other than normal matter. I like to think that I was one of the best at what I did. whether my theory was right or not. at the speed of light relative to the particle. mostly electronics. have a specific amount of energy. I searched for flaws in my theory and posted it on line. in an attempt to make my stories more interesting. computer programming. I never considered myself a genius. and troubleshooting of electrical. This energy exibits itself as spin and/or velocity. such as electrons and photons. As velocity increases.A LITTLE ABOUT THE AUTHOR A few years ago. The greater the velocity. Centuries ago. hoping others could point out my mistakes. Spin and velocity are inversely proportional so that energy remains constant. electronic. This motion between spinning particles and magnetons is the true nature of magnetism. The vortex pulls magnetons in at one pole(north) and out the other(south). and Quantum Physics. but I can and will explain how and why this happens. I found flaws. so that I could fill in a few loopholes. The larger the field of magnetons(vortex). I wanted to see how they would prove me wrong. I had always assumed that scientists had it all figured out and never really took much interest in the details. there are only magnetons. within the vortex. so I studied more to find the flaws myself. the more difficult it is for the particle to move( the greater the mass). Spin of a particle within the ocean of magnetons creates a spinning vortex. that Peter Higgs invisioned. At any rate I got little feedback. I began writing science fiction. I retired about 1 ½ years ago at the age of 66. spin is reduced. Not only did my theory make more sense.
I believe they are simply electrons. molecules. it matters little to the rest of the theory. with the exception of hydrogen. In either case. driving the particles away from each other. If forward motion is slowed. PROTONS AND NEUTRONS Protons and neutrons are composites of subparticles. A neutron contains a third electron. this makes little difference to the rest of the theory. it moves (vibrates) at a specific frequency(speed). atoms set molecules into motion. when poles align. It appears to pop into existance out of nothingness. it would be unstable outside an atom. the third electron adds little to the vortex field. If two electrons combine and share a vortex. For a breif moment. Like stacking three bar magnets. and that the nucleus is surrounded by hydrogen atoms or H2 or H3 cations. the particle and its vortex exibits gyroscopic precession of it poles. All it needs is an unrestricted path. When similar poles point to each other. Once motion is started. colliding with other particles. as magnetons expelled from one particle's vortex is drawn into the other particle's vortex. and just as quickly disappear when it frees itself. Again. As I mentioned earlier. the particles are repelled due to the opposing spin and the motion of the magnetons in the vortex. If a particle becomes trapped while its velocity is reduced. only adding the mass of an individual electron to the picture. I do not believe the nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. But the poles do not line up long enough for a merger to occur. A change in velocity can alter either their orbital velocity or their spin or both. they have a third degree of freedom of motion. motion toward or away from the other pole is initiated and particles are in contant vibration. except for hydrogen. It becomes large enough to be detected by scientists. Particles set atoms into motion. There is no spacetime. then the other. Mass would not remain constant at all speeds but wouldn't be directly proportional to velocity either. Unlike poles attract. I will however discuss my viewpoint. moving first in one direction. atom. the electrons can orbit their common center of gravity. etc. right up to the largest forms of matter. mass does warp the density of space. This action prevents the motion from ever coming to a complete rest. etc. . Depending upon the energy(heat) within the particle and the density of it surrounding.easily due to its reduced field and can gain speed without the need for outside energy. ATOMS Atoms have the combined mass of protons. When spinning at high speeds. it will attain full spin and field size. I believe that the nucleus is made up only of neutrons. the slower it moves(vibrates). GRAVITY Einstein said that mass warped spacetime to create gravity. spin and field size increases. they form a proton. These are the so-called virtual particles in empty space. However. electrons and. Scientist believe these subparticles are quarks. neutrons. occupying the same space at the same time. As a composite particle. Its mass would increase with velocity much like a protons does. thus creating gravity and gravitational lensing. All matter vibrates and the more massive. colisions with other vortexs may occur. Orbiting around its center of gravity(the center electron). Beside the spin and velocity of an individual electrons. particles are in constant motion.
ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY DUE TO ACCELERATION I'm not sure I've ever heard this one explained. When moving toward denser space. Just like the earth drags the atmosphere along in its orbit around the sun as well as its daily rotation within that orbit. The second factor is its mass. ORBITAL MOTION An object in space will travel in a straight line if unaffected by gravity. An orbiting object maintains it inertial speed because it stays within a layer of equal density. Scientist's blame it on inertia but they never explain what causes inertia. this increases the vibrational frequency. since particles are no longer pushing up. I explained inertia when moving through space. Motion of any object through space will increase the density of space ahead of it and decrease the density behind it. All objects fall at the same speed(if wind resistance is not a factor). its speed is determined by two factors. The same is true for atoms and molecules and so forth. A large object requires a large force to accelerate it. This occurs because it is being struck by faster particles on one side than on the other. When a object fall into the gravity of earth. In an elliptical orbit. string theorists think gravity eminates from other dimensions. So just why do you only feel this artificial gravity while accelerating or decelerating? Part of the reason has to do with frame dragging. The strong atomic force that holds atoms together is. Space becomes curved around the massive object.Less density allows particles to achieve higher speeds and up to a point. A large objects creates a large change in the already large force present. relative to the density of space. When moving toward a lesser density. In an attempt to explain why gravity is such a weak force. even though the distances traveled in each direction increases. They also believe a string can vibrate differently and it appears to be a different particle. The cassimer effect is an example of gravity as I have described it. pushing the object toward denser space. High speed(faster vibrating) particles strike an object more often than(slower vibrating)particles on the opposite side of an object. its path is altered. This is the nature of inertia. A small object adds little force to the existing small force already present. the object with the most particles pushing down on it will weigh more. . Gravity is simply an affect of the motion of particles. this effect creates a force capable of sustaining that speed forever. If it seems unlikely that less dense space can push an object toward denser space. the affects subtract and the object decelerates. This is the case for a circular orbit. caused by magnetism at small scales. The first factor is how much added force it creates due to its motion changing the density of space. The denser atmosphere is above the wing. the particles usually escape their environment. once again. fore and aft. look at wind tunnel data for airplane wings. Beyond that point. but not within an enclosed vehicle. Frame dragging is the phenomenon where more massive objects drag less massive objects along with them while in constant motion. the combined affects will accelerate the object. When it enters warped space around a massive object. A small object requires little force to accelerate. the speed slows and speeds up depending on the direction of motion. Any deviation from this path will alter its speed in such a way as to place it back into the path. mass and acceleration. Moving through space of otherwise constant density. The density of the object(the ease or difficulty at which particles can penitrate it) also plays a significant roll in its weight. The end result is a massive(relatively speaking) object surrounded by layers of ever-decreasing density and mass. simply magnetism. Once on the surface.
I believe that the vortex(magnetic field) diameter of a photon is equivilant to its so-called wavelength. This redistribution of densities within the vehicles atmosphere as well as incoming particles continue to create gravitational forces. You can change the appearance of any motion depending on whether you keep the object centered in your field of view. It shrinks its field size and escapes. What may be thought of as complete vacuum is full of magnetons. So. Because of the ability of the magneton to penitrate any container. Maxwell was right. this vibrational motion increases as the density decreases due to expansion. a complete vacuum can never exist. They don't. the ones with the larger field . light speed is constant. Photons. What difference would it make to Maxwells equations rather it appeared constant or not. Maxwell equations said that light speed would be constant. The very fact that this was needed to make light speed appear constant to all frames. I'm not sure. they may well be the very same particle. as though a wave were passing by. The detector would detect peaks and troughs. are particles with magnetic fields. Maintain a constant speed and the particles redistribute evenly.Within the confines of an enclosed vehicle. They believe light has a frequency and wavelength similar to sound waves. anything not tied down is in motion with the vehicle due both to framedragging and confinement. and gravity disappears. They can escape virtually any container. but I think they also believe Santa Claus is also the Tooth Fairy. PHOTONS and LIGHT SPEED Scientist believe light is both a particle and a wave. To accomplish this he came up with time dilation and length contraction. or in this case. merely proves that it isn't actually truly constant to all frames. and are in constant motion colliding with each other. As I mentioned earlier. light speed is always C relative to the medium of space it is passing through. though they exert no pressure to counteract the vacumn. It can't escape. explain how we can see objects from 13 billion light years away with perfect clarity. trapped by other photons and particles. pushing atoms and molecules and anything not tied down toward the rear wall. Picture a series of steel ball bearings passing beneath an electromagnetic detector. even in a lab. Magnitons keep up with other matter and outside magnetons are mostly diverted around the vehicle. just with different energy levels. the magnetons in a magnetic field move a the speed of light relative to the particle. it is simply converted from spin to velocity. Photons primarily exist in space while electrons typically exist inside matter. Based on the size of different photons. Frame dragging alone accounts for their motion within the vehicle. however. But that doesn't apply to the magnetons. They do however exert gravitational forces as can be seen by the cassimer affect. vise versa. But let the vehicle accelerate and the particles are left behind. and not relative to everything as Einstein attempted to prove with special relativity. They have the same spin/velocity inverse ratio. Once again. The energy level within the photon does not necessary increase. but constant to what? Einstein decided it had to be constant to everything. There are just as many arguments that light is a particle. that doesn't change with speed. mixed in with light waves from billions upon billions of other stars and galaxies in all the frequencies and wavelengths of EMR. They believe light waves can form interference patterns. Photons exist in empty space. Photons have mass. relative to something(empty space). Einstein solved a problem that never existed. when they are all traveling at C. In a fraction of a second it is moving at the speed of light relative to the surrounding magnetons which are somewhat stationary(no continous linear motion). like electrons. When energy(heat) is added to the environment. In fact. just as the electron.
The data revealed X-rays from these distant sources are absorbed selectively by oxygen ions in the vicinity of the galaxy. then the light might appear to move at the speed of light. would all arrive at the same time. They do not exist in this universe. it is no longer moving at the speed of light relative to the medium. Scanning the sky at microwave and sub-millimetre wavelengths with Planck. the photon. 3. is unaffected by the motion of the medium. Abell 399 and Abell 401.5 million kelvins. so that must be it. Astronomers have used Chandra to find evidence that our Milky Way Galaxy is embedded in an enormous halo of hot gas that extends for hundreds of thousands of light years. 2. Wouldn't time slow down just as quickly? Changing speed or direction brings gravity into the picture. But how many opportunities do scientists get to measure light in an inertial frame? And how do they measure it? If you bounce light off a distant object. even in empty space well away from external sources of gravity.diameters will have the most energy. Inertial frames are those in which the viewer in moving at a constant speed in a constant direction. this only tells you how fast light is moving while near the detectors. Einstein said gravity alters time. Chandra observed eight bright X-ray sources located far beyond the galaxy at distances of hundreds of millions of light-years. Even if there was something unique about light that allowed it to ignore the laws of physics. The scientists determined the temperature of the absorbing halo is between 1 million and 2. Because of this belief. Even tungsten melts well below these rediculous temperatures. They believe it required greater energy to produce them. I say that if its speed does not increase with the speed of the medium. The suns corona is 10 million degrees while the suns surface is 6 thousand degrees. regardless of its previous speed. they also believe the following: 1. the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton space observatory and Japan's Suzaku satellite to set limits on the temperature. not prior to reaching them. Even if it isn't expanding. They believe that gamma and xrays are more energetic than infrared. if it is expanding at an ever increasing rate. Relativity says that the speed of light. The filament extends over about 10 million light-years and contains gas with a temperature of about 80 million K. This is true of any medium the light passes through and that includes the medium of space. If time dilation occurred and the medium had a sense of time. These same scientists tell us there are rogue planets in interstellar space. If you tried to bounce electromagnet radiation of an incoming photon and could do so without altering its speed. while affected by the medium it passes through. Light will always pass through a lens(even the lens of the eye) at the same speed. but the fact that . everything orbits something else and orbital motion entails a change of direction. SPECIAL RELATIVITY Special relativity states that the speed of light is constant to all observers in inertial frames of reference. extent and mass of the hot gas halo. Gamma ray bursts have more energy is seconds than our sun will produce in its lifetime. What difference would it make if you speed up. 4. This is in absolute contradiction to what scientists believe. If you tried to pass the photon by two detectors spaced a specific distance apart. there is no guarantee that it traveled both ways at the same speed. what would inertial frames have to do with anything. or a few hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun. ESA's Planck space telescope has made the first conclusive detection of a bridge of hot gas connecting a pair of galaxy clusters across 10 million light-years of intergalactic space. astronomers have unambiguously detected a 'bridge' of hot gas connecting two galaxy clusters. along with every particle bounced off of it. a team of five astronomers used data from Chandra. In a recent study.
Gravity can not crush an atom. indicates that it is indeed not constant. Being denser. If the photon traveled at the speed of light. Enough questions.it requires time dilation to make light appear to be constant. The mirrors will travel one light year farther away from us. whose size and density has not changed. Its average speed relative to us would be the speed of light and it would move one light year in one year. Gravity can not crush a star. GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE Scientists believe that a star will collapse when its nuclear fuel is depleted. gravity takes over and collapses the star. a white dwarf. E does not = MC2 . it will have less surface area for gravity to push against. Pressure increases due to the weight of the column of water. But how would stars ever get to be 10 times as massive as our sun? Some stars are said to be millions of times more massive. Place it a light year or two from a source of reflectable light and you have a black hole. Why didn't it collapse then? Perhaps it began to collapse and this started the fussion reaction. or radiating outward. spending half its time moving in one direction. The star would have had more mass in a more compact shape. prior to the fussion reaction at it core. Gravity does not work as Einstein or Newton described. An object lying on the surface. occupants of the vehicle will see the photon bouncing between the mirrors at a constant speed and rate. Picture a photon bouncing between the mirrors. but the net affect will be the same. . First. If it moved at the speed of light relative to the mirrors. It isn't difficult to imagine a more massive planet. a few problems exist. a compact neutron star. Now picture a set of mirrors. The density and temperature of water within the ocean depths does not change beyond a specific depth. Since the vehicle traveled at the speed of light. When fusion stops. Colder particles have smaller fields at a given velocity. or a black hole. but not even this increased pressure can compress the water further. here are some facts. Imagine this continues for one year. gravity would push harder. with a thicker and denser atmosphere that would not radiate at all. then the other. At absolute zero. would not feel gravity pushing harder on it. an exception to the rules of relativity. the light travels faster than the speed of light. Only velocity or energy level can reduce the magnetic field of a particle. Magnetism is millions of times stronger than gravity at close distances. The overall force at the surface would never increase. Gravity can not overcome a magnetic field. its position would be frozen between the mirrors. C is not constant in all conditions to all frames of reference. The velocity I speak of is velocity relative to the medium it is passing through(relative to magnetons). If an object were compressed. The Earths atmosphere prevents most of the electromagnetic spectrum from reaching the earth. But relativity says it can not exceed the speed of light relative to us. Stars do not gain mass after they begin to burn. as solar wind blows away all dust and gases not already within the star. Picture a vehicle at the edge of the visible universe moving away from us at the speed of light. There is no such thing as a black hole or neutron star. The energy level I refer to is due to temperature. Velocity relative to distant objects is irrelivant. one on a front wall and one on a rear wall. it traveled one light years distance in one year. and during this time. Other say that the motion of the frame is due to expansion. a particle moving at the speed of light would have no spin(no field). The fact is. relative to us. it would be moving at twice the speed of light relative to us(in one direction) and at a speed of zero in the other direction. Some would say that relativity doesn't apply because the photon isn't moving in a constant direction. causing a supernova.
0. It .4.838 billion 2. At that point it begins to move toward us at an ever increasing speed. Space at the edge of the observable is expanding at 5. Space at this location is moving at about 9/10 of the speed of the galaxy.764 billion 0.2 million 126.824 billion yrs 14. Lets assume the edge of space.912 billion yrs 13. Just how far away was the galaxy when the light left it.9 million 226.6 million 691.4. As the universe continues to expand. filling the so-called empty spaces around and within electrons.7 times the speed of light while the galaxy and space around it moves away at 5.8 million 399. not a wild guess. until finally it is moving through space that is moving away from us at less than the speed of light.2c .7c . photons. it might seem that this justifies the belief in a big bang and a universal expansion.9 million 307. relative to us.000 km/sec relative to the medium it is passing through.3.4 million 70.2c .2 light years away. In an expanding universe.2.7 times the speed of light.728 billion yrs 3. and molecules.5 million yrs 27 million yrs 54 million yrs 108 million yrs 216 million yrs 432 million yrs 864 million yrs 1.166 billion 1. There is something else in the atmosphere that scientists can't see that does cause the overall density to more closely match the inverse square law. Galaxies have been detected at a redshift of z=8.000 billion . and the light now moves away from us at 9/10 of it previous speed. IF MY UNIVERSE WAS EXPANDING As I mentioned earlier.147 billion 4.2 million 1.7 times the speed if light.937 billion 4.398 billion 78. the medium of space is also in motion.8c + 1.475 million light years away when the universe was only 6. when light left the galaxy was 38. It's not even close.8 million 615.308 billion yrs speed relative to us age of universe These numbers are fairly close approximations.2c + 0. has always moved at around 5.456 billion yrs 6. Lets assume that the edge of the observable universe.900 billion 2.849 billion 19.4 means that space is expanding at the speed of light.75 million yrs 13. where the galaxy lied when the light left it. the light get farther away from us and farther away from the edge of the galaxy.0c 6. atoms. When the universe has expanded to 77 million light years radius. At first glance.3c + 0.7c .475 million 76.7 times the speed of light.2c .231 billion 2. A red shift of z =1.1. the light is about 70. Objects half way to the edge would be moving 2. protons.0.6 million 1.75 million years old.699 billion 39.95 million 153. Objects 1/6 of the way out would be moving less than the speed of light.7c . The light would be moving away from us at 4.3.462 billion 4. These are magneton particles.1.7c .924 billion 9.7c .2c .85 times the speed of light.560 billion location of light in light years 38.796 billion 81. Radius of universe in light years 38. light always travels at 300. but always at the speed of light relative to the medium.2.The Earth's atmosphere is not compressed such that the density falls of by the inverse square law that Newtons gravity inplies.
no orbital motion exists among planetary objects where all objects move at similar speeds. coalesces into proto planets before cooling. This constant recycling maintains a constant ratio in an neverending universe. in which light heading our way would spread out. The red shift we see is due to solar polution within the medium of space that scatters smaller photons more that it does red photons. Fusion is said to be a clean source of energy. If the medium was moving toward us. Some distant objects can only be seen in infra-red light. Even the bunching and scattering that occurs when the light enters our atmosphere is minimized. rocky planets. But think about the beam of light we see today. The doppler affect in sound waves creates a frequency change due to the motion of a sound producing object toward or away from the listener. But Einstein says it's constant to everything. So why is the motion so different? First of all. this transition causes photons to spread apart or bunch up. no bunching or scattering occurs. This matter. Stars are not much hotter at their cores than they are at their surface. Light moves at the speed of light within the medium of space which is relatively motionless everywhere. When the medium that the photons travel through is in motion relative to the observer. The existance of black holes at the centers of these galaxies implies a similar situation when it comes to the masses involved.308 billion years. making the light appear bluer. where air molecules oscillate in place rather that travel as photons do. and enters a new medium. it is constant to the medium. not red shift. Photons do however experience a similar phenomenon. These proto planets gather atmospheres.even eliminates the need for an inflationary period. causing the light to appear redder. and didn't believe there was a medium in space. and the fusion at the center of the galaxy fuses the particles into the building blocks of matter. (a solar system or galaxy). Light from it would appear much the same as light from the sun. and if light is constant to everything.56 billion light years long that were emitted over a period of 14. They will not orbit the center of the galaxy but will fall into the center where they collide to create the fusion thought to exist within stars. The stars break down atoms into particles. I say it isn't constant to everything. The galaxy we see was 14 billion light years away when the light left it (14 billion years ago) and it is 14 billion light years away today. no sustained orbital motion of stars would form the spiral arms present in spiral galaxies. some becoming stars. if it was not for solar polution within the medium of space that absorbs. An expanding universe. The galaxy we see today was only 6. It forms a continous line of photons 81.5 million light years away. It does not stretch photons. If the medium was moving away from us. There is a medium in space. gas giants. Are scientists off by a factor of 500 to 1 when calculating distance with paralax view? You could of course simply say that I am wrong about the speed of light being constant to the medium. GALACTIC MOTION The motion of stars within a galaxy is nothing like planetary orbits around a star. Thirdly. reflects and deflects certain energies of photons more than others. As the photons exit the moving medium. . The temperature of stars is due to this fission and the energy it creates. would cause blue shift. Light is not a wave. Stars are fission reactors.75 million years old and about 38. there are no black holes as I have already shown. Secondly. the bunching up of photons creates scattering of smaller photons. while still in molten form. but the particles emitted by the sun are extremely harmful to humans outside the earth's protective ozone layer and magnetic field. My universe is static. and certainly not in the sense of a sound wave. regardless of their orbital radius. only the medium. not fusion. the photons speed relative to the viewer must be added or subtracted from the speed of the medium. So just what is happening within a spiral galaxy? The stars within the arms of the galaxy are in freefall. The % of shift is based on the objects velocity relative to the speed of sound.
The Microwave Background Radiation. and comets. The universe is infinite or at least much larger than we imagine. OLBERS' PARADOX Olbers' paradox states that if the universe were infinite. reflected or refracted. The universe is almost ageless. and there is no end in sight. Unfortunately this applies to few wavelengths and never to the point of infinity. depending on the dusts and gases present in their route back to the galactic plane. Was this 14 billions years ago. Not likely. This only happened in the early days of the universe. the so-called proof of the big bang. While under the gravitational influence of the galaxy. TO BE CONTINUED . when no large objects already existed. Long wave infrared and microwaves seem to travel much farther than visible light. is merely proof of Olbers' paradox. This of course assumes that light will travel infinitely without being absorbed.asteroids. Dust particles do not clump within a gravitational field. only large objects have enough gravity to do this. the night sky would be infinitely white.
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