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two lectubre

two lectubre

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Published by Steven Best
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Published by: Steven Best on Dec 29, 2012
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Energy Balance

§  Basal Metabolic Rate - Amount of energy consumed to maintain vital functions.
(about 60-75% of total energy)

Lecture 6 Energy Balance and Obesity The Digestive System

§  Varies with:
§  Age §  Gender §  Body Composition

Energy Balance
§  Physical Activity represents the body’s second largest energy need. §  Regular activity reduces the risk of:
§  Cardiovascular Disease §  Osteoarthritis §  Diabetes
-High Blood Pressure

Health Risks of Obesity
§  Obesity is a a condition characterized by excess weight due to fat. §  Health Risks
§  Cardiovascular Disease §  Increased LDL levels §  High Blood Pressure §  Diabetes


Salivary Glands 2.  Mucosa (innermost) 2. Esophagus 4. 1.  Muscularis 4. Small Intestine 6.Pancreas 2. Stomach 5.Liver 3.  Chemical Digestion 3. 1. Mouth 2. Anus Accessory Organs 1.  Prep for Swallowing 4. Pharynx 3.  Serosa (outermost) The Digestive System – The Mouth §  The mouth serves 3 important functions.  Quality Control 4 2 .Gallbladder 4.  Submucosa 3.  Mechanical Digestion 2. Eliminating undigested materials Overview of Digestive System Structures §  The walls of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are composed of 4 layers. Absorbing Nutrients 3.The digestive system is responsible for: 1. Large Intestine 7. Breaking down the foods we eat §  Physical Digestion §  Chemical Digestion Overview of structures in the GI tract Main Organs 1.

§  Initiating of swallowing is a 2-step process.  Respiratory passageways are sealed as food moves to the esophagus (involuntary). 2. §  Salivary amylase begins digesting polysaccharides to oligosaccharides.Mechanical/Chemical Digestion in the Mouth §  Mechanical Digestion in the mouth §  Teeth grind/chop food into small pieces.  The tongue pushes a bolus of food into the pharynx (voluntary). The Digestive System – The Pharynx The Digestive System – The Esophagus §  Muscle contractions (peristalsis) move food down the esophagus to the stomach. 3 . 1. The Digestive System – The Pharynx §  During swallowing. §  Tongue assists mechanical digestion. food passes through the pharynx then enters the esophagus. §  Chemical Digestion in the mouth §  The salivary glands secrete saliva.

3. Mucus §  Protects the stomach from HCl and pepsin. 4 . The Digestive System – The Stomach §  Mechanical Digestion in the stomach §  The stomach has 3 layers of muscle §  These muscles churn food until it becomes a liquid called chyme. The Digestive System – The Stomach Mechanical Chemical Digestion Digestion Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach þ þ Proteins þ þ þ Carbs Absorption §  Sphincter muscles control openings to the stomach. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) §  Kills bacteria.The Digestive System – The Stomach §  Functions of the stomach §  Food Storage/Transmission §  Mechanical digestion §  Chemical digestion Chemical Digestion in the stomach The gastric glands of the mucosa secrete: 1. 2. Pepsinogen §  Activated by HCl to form pepsin. Breaks connective tissues. Pepsin begins digestion of proteins to amino acids.

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