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Chapter II: Indriya (Faculties)
Contents Overview Attribute Study of the Indriyas (Table) 75 Dharmas of the Abhidharmakosa Development of ―Dharma Lists‖ Related Ennumerations of Dharmas Attribute Study of Viprayukta Dharmas (Table) 24 Conditions Hetu, Pratyaya, Phala Study On the Succession of Mental States (Table) 28 29 30 36 38 41 41 42 44
Basic outline of Chapter II Karika K1-8 K9-22 K23-34 K35-48 K49-65 K66-73 Indriyas (Faculties) Inclusion/Subsumption and other exposition in terms of the Indriyas Citta-Samprayukta Dharmas: Mental Factors associated with mind Viprayukta-Samskaras: Mental Factors disassociated from mind Hetu, Phala, Pratyaya: Causes, Results, Conditions Enumeration and succession of cittas
Vasubandhu may be trying to give a more sutra-based foundation to the exposition of the samskaras before unfolding the later Panca-vastuka formulation. Indriya is the title of the 2nd chapter of the Abhidharmakosa. Soothill‘s definition of the Chinese: ―根 mūla.48: ―A Sutra enumerates twenty-two indriyas‖). being the common cause of all consciousnesses of visible things. A possible rationale for considering each of the five sensations as indriyas can be seen particularly in the analysis of the indriyas in terms of which realm (dhatu) they are included in and how they are abandoned (heya – through seeing or meditation or not abandoned). The commentaries characterize Chapter I as being concerned with ―substance‖. the citta-viprayukta-samskaras (conditionings disjoined from thought). sovereignty. a root. The unconditioned dharmas are treated in both chapter I and II. origin.‖ (AKB II. but functions or causal forces. whereas each visible thing merely aids the arising of but one consciousness. as well as the mind/consciousness (citta/vijnana) group (just 1 dharma). After the analysis of the indriyas. 22 Indriya Indriya: literally. A root. power. on Sutra. pratyaya & phala) in a teaching category based in the sutra literature (AKB I. An analysis of the indriyas occurs in karika 1-22 of chapter II of Abhidharmakosa. active or well. control. as the eye is able to produce knowledge. power and strength. Ayatana and Dhatu. sense. accordingly as the eye is active or weak: now visible things do not exercise a similar influence. ―belonging to Indra‖. a somewhat miscellaneous collection of teachings. Chapter I covered the rupa (material form) group of dharmas. but in this case. Chapter II with ―function‖. directive force. organ. a 'power'. ayatanas and dhatus). The same holds for the other sense organs and their objects.‘ The eye is predominant.2) ABHIDHARMAKOSA DEFNITION: TRANSLATIONS: Indriya: predominating influence. Vasubandhu may have wanted to ground his treatment of samskara (caitta & viprayukta) as well as causality (hetu. can be viewed as a dynamic synthesis (what defiles? what purifies?). PLACE IN ABHIDHARMAKOSA: The classification of the five sensations (which constitute the single dharma of vedana) as five distinct indriyas may seem out of place when compared to the other faculties included in the 22 indriya. M. To some extent.W. Indriya comes to connote supremacy. see overview below). Indriyas are treated in Ch VIII. Chapter II then goes into an exposition of the caitta (mental factors). indriyam. faculty. FIVE SENSATIONS: . The presentation of the indriyas at this point in the Kosa can be seen as flowing out of the analysis of the sense-organs at the end of Ch I. Some commentaries note that the analysis of the indriyas takes up the points not addressed in the analysis of the dhatus. (2) the visual consciousness is clear or obscure. As the dharmas are not things. in terms of Indriya. for (1) it exercises this predominance with regard to the arising of the consciousness that knows visible things. Chapter II then unfolds the mental dharmas and the dharmas not associated with mind (which comprise the 4th skandha: samskaras). can be viewed as a static analysis (what is pure? what is impure?) whereas Chapter II. a chief deity. he changed it from Samskara (formations) to Indriya (faculties). Vasubandhu lays out the dharmas associated and not associated with mind along the lines of the less traditional Panca-vastuka (five groups) formulation (this was an later Abhidharma development). as faith is able to bring forth good works…‖ DEFINITION: ―‗Predominance‘ means ‗predominant power.Abhidharmakosa Chapter II: Indriyas (Faculties) Overview: Chapter II continues the analysis of Chapter I in laying out the basic underlying principles of the Abhidharma approach. basis. Chapter II begins with an exposition of the indriyas which continues the treatment of traditional teaching categories from Chapter I (which analyzed skandhas. that which is capable of producing or growing. organ of sense'. Vasubandhu follows up the exposition of the dharmas with a treatment of causality (K48-73. there is a study of the 75 dharmas (and some thoughts on the development of ―dharma lists‖. causality and the succession of mental states. controlling faculty. but when meaning an organ of sense. controlling principle. 'faculty of sense. In the Hrdaya texts. After the analysis of the indriyas (see below for summary and table). or source. in terms of Skandha. Chapter I. In general terms. Vasubandhu preserved most of the chapter headings in the Kosa from the Hrdaya texts. By treating the indriyas first. After the analysis of the indriyas below. Samskaras and Causation. dominance. function.
811.5. body mental organ. of highest knowledge. 13-19.9. kāyendriya.9. 意根 7. activity) Perception of objects ―Support of Transmigration‖ V/N N K/R M Predominate with regard to: Predominate with regard to: K1 K2-6 In Kamadhatu (K) In Rupadhatu (R) In Arupyadhatu(A) .11.14 Eight: 4. upekṣendriya. jīvitendriya. of learning [Darsana. 舌根 5.14 6 sensory faculties. confidence A/S N K K/R/A M/N faculty of energy. the term indriya above) which are combined with other groups to form the 22 indriyas – see ―Teaching Categories‖ column) Chapter II: K9 1. of perfect knowledge [Asaiksa.220.127.116.11-19 Eight: 4. 眼根 2.22 22.6. 鼻根 4. puruṣendriya.14 Three: 6. 命根 organ of sight. prajñendriya. S N K/A K S/M sorrow. pain. daurmanasyendriya. suffering. 3 Pure Faculties (K9: these = indriyas 6.―That which Nirvana . 樂根 12. life S V N K/R/A M Gender. mind female organ S S S S S K10 K11 K12 K13 K17-19 Five: 1. bases (6 ayatana) V/N V/N V/N V/N N N N N K/R K/R K/R K/R M M M M viprayukta-samskaras: sexual organs = sabhagata. 慧根 20.6.13-19 above) A N K n/a N Thirteen: 5. prolonging) Defilement (as the defilements attach to the sensations) A/S V/N K/A/N K/R/A S/M/N male organ S V/N N K M 10. 13-20 Purification (leading to (15-19) and Actualization (20-22) of abandoning the defilements) Ascending Acquisitions & Purification . nose organ of taste. enthusiasm faculty of memory.9. ājñātādvīndriya. bodily & mental faculty of faith. 定根 19. joy. a Mahabhumika) sensation of displeasure.9. 捨根 15. ghrāṇendriya. organs.6. ―Origin‖ 4 things (beauty. 13-19. 苦根 11. 女根 8.9. 念根 18.104.22.168. jihvendriya.13. vīryendriya. sukhendriya.14 Seven: 5. zeal.9-11. strīndriya. 信根 16. Beyond Training] A/S A/S A/S A/S N N N N K K K K K/R/A M/N K/R/A M/N K/R/A M/N K/R/A M/N 15 & 16 Kusala-mahabhumikas) A N K n/a N Eleven: 6.21 Eleven: 6.14 Four: 5. 具知根 A N K n/a N Final-knowledge (supramundane) faculties. Meditation] faculty of one who has already come to know. ear organ of smell.14 Eight: 5. subdivides.6.14 Five: 3. mindfulness faculty of absorption.14 Five: 4. Chinese Translation(s) Vipaka (V) retribution or not (N) (non-neutral) Sasrava (S) impure Anasrava (A) pure Teaching categories (subsumed as dharmas…) (Note: Indriya are used in the early (see definition and translation of sutras in reference to a number of lists.11.9. bodily S V/N K/A/N K M Seven: 5. duḥkhendriya. saumanasyendriya. 喜根 14. manaīndriya.9.5.14 Three: 6.9. bodily sensation of pleasure.dharmas. of having learned [Bhavana.14 Five: 2. sensation of dissatisfaction.Kusala (K) skillful Akusala (A) unskillful Avyakrta (N) non-defined Abandoned by Seeing (S) Meditation (M) Not Abandoned (N) How many indriyas (and which indriyas) are possessed when one possesses this indriya? Indriya – Sanskrit. samādhīndriya.―That which does prepares for purification‖ purify it‖ Four: 6.13. 9: arising.14-19 Eight: 4. ājñendriya. tongue organ of touch. wisdom faculty of "I shall come to know the as yet unknown‖.5.13.9-14 Five: 6.14 Duration ―Prolongs‖ vital organ.9. śraddhendriya.11.9.9. 身根 6.14 Three: 6.6. 精進根 17. life = jivita) 3 physical faculties (maybe S V/N N K M 2 things (6: rebirth. 7-8: 2 differentiations.6. 憂根 13.14-19 Eight: 4. smṛtīndriya.9-11.6.9. mental faculty of sensation of A/S V/N K/A/N K/R S/M/N satisfaction. meditation faculty of discernment of dharmas.6. mind.14-19 Defilement ―Enjoyment of support‖ 5 feeling or sensation faculties (vedana. śrotrendriya. Seeing] faculty of knowledge (ajna). 巳知根 A/S V/N K/A/N K/R S/M/N 5 spiritual (or moral) faculties (bala) (17-19 are Mahabhumikas.911. eye organ of hearing.11. 未知當知根 21.13.9. cakṣurindriya. mental faculty of sensation of A/S V/N K/A/N K/R/A S/M/N indifference.14-19 Eight: 4. anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya.14 Eight: 5-7. 耳根 3. 男根 9.9. protection.
I. [PSP: ―The object of the body. square. I. round. Vasubandhu argues they are merely ―designations‖(prajnapti).3: rupa is that which is susceptible to being struck (rupana). TASTE is of six types. I. from Tibetan) ya) forces of causal efficacy. and the same aspect. Physical Existence.17). Sthcherbatsky. bitter.-10. is one that is information (vijnapti). is the five sense organs. mental organ). unrevealing. but they designate the same object.‖] 9. it is (thought. red. ―have an object‖ (salambana.44 [PSP: ―Clear form that has tangible entities as its object. darkness). heat (usnata) & mobility (irana). body are situated [allover] like the body [itself]. is one that is non-information (avijnapti). I. Kunsang. from Tibetan) ° BTTS (Courier Font.‖ because they take form according to their object. etc. to the extent that it is the support (asrayabhuta) of itself. because they are similar to one another and are not separated from each other…The mind and its mental states are associated by reason of five equalities or identities.Rupa 色 (visual object.44 [PSP: ―Clear form that has smells as its object. = ―sense data‖) motion – see above). flavors) 10. mind. Citta.12-13. visaya 五境 5 objects) articulate sound.10 Color and shape. events.10. rupa-vastuka. see I. ODOR is fourfold. 8 more colors (cloud. Dhammajoti translation. I. humidity (sneha). basis for a consciousness. of an object-base such as a visible.3-4 (instead proposes a ―transformation of the mental series. forms. pungent. yellow. body (sense)) 6. and are ―associated.-10. Form.10. low. the mind that the mind is termed citta because it is spotted (citta) by good and bad elements. II. tangible. SOUND is eightfold.24) 7. efficacies. etc. Also see matter. The atoms composing the organ of the 2.75 Dharmas七十五法 of the Abhidharmakosa 阿毘達磨倶舍論 Dharmas 法 (factors. like quills (salaka). and perform. water/humidity.44 [PSP: ―Clear form that has sound as its object.Srotra 耳 (auditory faculty. subtle mate(1. The atoms composing the organ of the tongue are [situated] like a half moon. The atoms composing the organ of the nose are within the [nasal] cavity. and experience is the keynote of Buddhism.9. (also a few extra translations of some terms…) [Included in brackets are comments. Hence these three names express different meanings. dust. [PSP: ―The object of the tongue. matter. shape.44 [PSP:―Clear form that has color as its object. salty. which I offer here. the atoms which compose the organ of the eye. exposition on avijnapti in Ch IV.): Panca-vastuka. ―struck‖) & III.‖] 8. Patt. I. high.‖ because they grasp their ―sphere. glow.-5. glare. Also see I. The mind is termed citta because it accumulates (cinoti). ORGAN OF SMELL. respectively. hunger. close to Anacker) Definition The first word is the translation by Poussin & Pruden (UPPERCASE) (Pruden influenced by Jha). and 8 shapes (long. etc. subtle material element.Gandha 香 (olfactory object.‖] 4. etc. and informative [form]. Consciousness is the impression relative to each object. English translations: ° Dhammajoti (in bold) ° Miscellaneous (Jha. which covers a very similar set of dharmas from the orthodox Vaibhasika Sarvastivada 5th c.Sparstavya 觸 (tangible object. which does not exist in experience. = 5 artha.16. and number = karika (verse). Water (ap). Point of support. the second (citta) interact with the first.‖] 11. Point of support (asraya. eye (sense)) 1. it is of consciousness) vijnana. Citta Dharma 心法 (1 dharma) 1. notes and additional definitions from: AVA = Abhidharmavatara by Skandhila. ear) ear are situated within the "birch leaf" of the [inner] ear. fire/heat. = 5 indriya 五根 5 organs.] Vasubandhu (100 Dharmas Shastra): The first (rupa) are supreme. Gesture the thought and thought-concomitants [of the doer]. Rather than being ―real‖ (drav° Guenther/Kawamura (Tohoma italics. termed manas because it knows (manute) and it is termed vijnana because it distinguishes its object (alambanam vijnanati). [without its particular details].‖] 3. etc. the viprayukta-samskaras (14) and the asamskrtas (3) in Ch II. or twenty-fold: 4 primary colors (blue. and consciousness (vijnana) designate the same thing.‖ PSP (Anacker): ―materiality which has arisen from manifest action or meditational concentration: it is invisible and exercises no resistance. and are ―associated‖ in five ways. Chinese (T1560.‖) 8. Bhasya: prajnapti = these 18 dharmas are refuted in the Kosa-Bhasya: Avijnapti in Ch IV. to begin with. Sweet. either agreeable or disagreeable. touch. smoke. softness. Rupa Dharmas 色法 (Matter. avoids the dualism of mind and matter. weight. ORGAN OF TOUCH. I. in dependence on the primary elements: this is called the avijñapti. [PSP: ―The object of the ear. The TANGIBLE is of eleven types.Rasa 味 (gustatory object.Kaya 身 (tangible faculty. the same object. of time (kala). attributes.9. i. shade. There is a serial continuity also in a person whose mind is distracted. The atoms composing the organ of the 5. I. NON-INFORMATIVE.faculties) rial element (sentient materiality. subtle material element. See AKB I. I. like cumin flowers.‖] 2. Tsering.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti IV. VISIBLE MATTER is twofold. ORGAN OF SIGHT. are situated on the pupil of the eye.) PSP (Anacker): ―It is awareness of an object-of-consciousness. I.34) or ―a subject of consciousness. [Guenther: ―Our merest sense-experience is a process of Gestaltung or formulation. non-indicative. PSP = Pancaskandha-Prakarana by Vasubandhu. Citta-Samprayukta Dharmas (46 Caitta in 6 groups) (Associated (Intimately Combining) with Mind) 心所有法 The mind and its mental states ―have a support‖. ORGAN OF TASTE. Point of support.‖] 1. or who is without mind. subtle material element.Caksur 眼 (visual faculty. and the last (asamskrta) are revealed by the previous four. nose) 3. even. spirit (manas). a moment the mind that follows. PSP also starts its analysis of the dharmas with the elements. commentary.‖] 9.11.9..‖] skandha.9.10. short.white).9. similar and united. Citta or Vijnana 心法 III. reals. “Five Categories”. lightness. Fire (tejas) & Air (vayu). Avijnapti 無表 (non-informative 11. including the Bhasya. cold.9. DDB. which is color. 4 primary elements (earth/solidity. and in all 4 cases. character (Sthcherbatsky). mist. visibles) (distinct from the rupa of rupa. An action which is of the same species as the informing action – [being also material and an action] – but incapable of [such] an inforunrevealing of intent) mation. sour. Caused by (1) animate or (2) inanimate beings. translucent matter). tongue) 4. I. Engle translation (or Anacker when noted). [AVA: ―An action which can by itself inform [others] a specific variation in element with no manifestation. (3) articulate speech and (4) non7. sound) (6. thirst. identity of support (asraya). of object (alambana). I. (4) because they are . phenomena… distinct types of real forces): #.10. I. MIND (citta) & CONCIOUSNESS (vijnana). ° Rahula/Boin-Webb (Arial Narrow Underlined) [Basic outline (Roman numerals: Rupa.29 for discussion of rupa in terms of pratigha (―impact‖. Point of support. [AVA: these dharmas are 11 kinds of derived matter. with specific natures (svabhava): solidity (khara). Physical Elements) (11 dharmas) Rūpa. the third (samprayukta) are shadows manifest by the preivous two. I. ―have an aspect‖. and avijñapti. wind/ 10. the functions of supporting (dhrti). The translation of rupa by Gestalt. maturation (pakti) & extension (vyuha). standpoint.] 12. and to the extent that it grasps the support through the organ and its object (asritabhuta). That is: the mental states (sensation. Stalker…) ° Anacker (underlined) ° Haldar (Tohoma font) ° Engle (italics & underlined. The mind and its mental states ―have a support‖ because they rely on the organs (organ of sight. of aspect (akara). sight. The names mind (citta).T1614). Sanskrit. cohesion (samgraha). Material Form. Definition(s) from the Abhidharmakosa: roman numeral = AKB Ch #. in this same way. Batchelor. in a general manner. Point of support. it is manas (i. from Chinese) ° Lusthaus (italics.‖ that is. I.‖ Corresponds to 1 mind & 5 sense consciousnesses and manas. ―have an object‖..‖ (Mental factors apprehend particular characteristics. I. elemental constructs. smell) II. [PSP: ―The object of the eye.‖] tactile. hardness. I. the fourth (viprayukta) are positions in which the previous three are not found. Some say attitude. ORGAN OF HEARING. [PSP: ―The object of the nose. Derived from 4 primary elements: Earth (prthivi). Good and bad odors that are either excessive or non-excessive.‖ ―have an aspect. conveys sensation). uneven). Rahula & Boin-Webb translation.‖ Stcherbatsky: ―The vehicle of moral qualities. pure or impure.44 [PSP: ―Clear form that has tastes as its object. etc.) and the mind are associated (1-3) because they have the same support. astringent.Sabda 聲 (auditory object.Ghrana 鼻 (olfactory faculty.‖] 5. unmanifest. I. subtle material element. SAM = Abhidharma-samuccaya by Asanga. I. and equality in the number of dravyas. is named consciousness (vijnana)…which apprehend visible and other objects only generally.Jihva 舌 (gustatory faculty. a Yogacara text. touch) (6. entities. qualities. five objects.34 [AVA: ―The specific cognition. 6. visible.
Smrti 念 (mindfulness.15).‖] 5. not to forget what has been done.e. Cetana 思 (volition.‖ Anacker: zest. cognitions.‖ AKB II. MEMORY. or will be done in the future. 触 (contact. that feeling-tone) [aggregate] can be divided into six groups of feeling (vedana-kaya): from feeling born of eye-contact through feeling born of mind-contact.‖ PSP: ―The certitude that an object determination.‖] 3.‖ PSP (Anacker): ―Entering attention.e. as too ideas. discriminating. remains on an (concentration. whether it is generated correctly.‖ . appreciative ―Discrimination with respect to that same object. oneobject(viii. etc. i. they are of the same time period as the mind. Samadhi 定. Samadhi is the unity of the object with the mind (cittaikagrata): 22.23 How do we know that these ten mental states. pleasant. It is differentiated into three kinds: wholesome.‖ III. meditation) VIII. II. II. bad. .‖ SAM: approbation. mental derivatives. one idea. Omnipresent.51: ―The companions of the mind are: the mental states…From the point of view of time. II. namely the apprehension(determination) of "marks" (nimitta) such 15. see also VI. and immeasurable. in other words. only with difficulty even when one is content to consider each of the mental states as developing in a homogeneous series. each type is represented by only one individual substance (dravya): in any given moment there can be only one mind produced. it directs thought towards an tion.24 [AVA: ―that which alerts thought i. It is also the holding in thought of an object that has earlier been experienced." The place of origin of a dharma is the bhumi of this dharma. Ye-shes rGyal-mtshan: ―To be aware of the mere facticity and haecceity of an object is mind.] the correct understanding of things as they truly are. the object and the 17. II. wisdom. stabilization. that is. mental states.‖ Dhatukaya:"When the caittas are born. intellect. conception.32. II.24 See also II. female. and which situation‖) enables thought to come in contact with the object. belief. it 21. the place of origin.24. (cetana) and that which is produced through volition. in this association. . II. Manaskara is the modification (abhoga) of the mind. of great dharmas (that is.‖] 4. Cetana is that which conditions. Smrti is non-failing with regard to the object. is discernment of the dharmas (i. Prajna.: but this does not mean that every mental state includes all these dharmas. undertaking.‖ Anacker: ―holding to certainty. If the differences of the taste of vegetables.53.1 prajna in relation to patience. tastes that we know through a material organ. etc.‖ In terms of result: ―The companions have the same result (purusakaraphala & visamyogaphala).‖ They are termed ―companions of mind‖ from the point of view of time because ―they have the same arising. II. like the mind which they accompany. discernment.24. in an uninterrupted series. and of goodness. or one mental state of each type (see ii. unfavorable (akusala) or neutral (avyakrta) activities. and the same nisyanda as the mind: ‗same‘ indicates identity. the dharmas that are always found in all minds. Adhimukti is approval. feeling. for example.‖] 7. II. will. the same vipaka. DESIRE FOR ACTION. Vedana is the threefold sensation. consciousness. 三摩地 (agra=alambana. of dharmas of great extension. Chanda 欲 (predilection. a dharma by virtue of which the mind does not 19. IV. one of the 3 kusala-mulas (roots of good).24 [AVA: ―This is that which comprehends. motivation. and shapes the mind (cittabhisamskara). Adhimoksha 勝解 (resolve. knowledge.1:―[Sautrantikas: minds which have the same object constitute samadhi: samadhi does not exist separately. egocentric demanding) into done by a citta. See also III. are the specific characteristics of the mind and its mental states. Also VII. that are found everywhere). to become involved with the object by way of other specific functions is said to the be the operation of mental events. last. Great Grounds. See also II.14. aspiration. coexist in one and the same mind? Subtle. object. distinct in nature. General) (10 dharmas): Bhumi or sphere signifies "place of origin.‖ PSP: ―The desire for an object that has been thought about..7-8. how much more so when one envisions them in the (psychological) moment (ksana) in which they all exist. etc. Vedana 受 (sensation.simultaneous. notion.II.53c-d). Sparsa is the state of contact arisen out of the encounter of the organ. and the consciousness are as sensory contact. discrimination. affect: pleasure (sukha).‘ we understand the word ‗same‘ in the sense of concomitance: the companions arise.24[AVA:―Concentration is that which causes thought to be focused on an object. desire. and so on. rapport) (Guenther‘s if they were touching one another. mental engagement. the object and the consciousness. to this one.24. Includes amoha. The aggregate of feeling (vedana-skandha) comprises three types of 13. etc. view. female or male. incorrectly. great. or otherwise.) of an object (ii. by virtue of which it cherishes it in order to so express it. conviction. name (nama) and the signified (artha) [of a dharma]…It is the thinking. appreciation.‖ PSP: ―three types: limited.34 [5 identities or equalities. idea. and neither-suffering-nor-pleasure (aduhkhasukha). conceptualization) cause of reasoning (vitarka) and investigation (vicara). but their arising is distinct. [AVA: ―Volition is that which renders thought [karmically] creative – it is mental karma.‖] 18. i.‖] 9. DISCERNMENT. Volition is mental action: it gives rise to two actions.‖ SAM: ―Its function consists of directing the mind to the domain of favorable (kusala). this is the dharma by virtue of which the mind. I.33). II. knowledge. directionality of mind) bodily and vocal action. associativecombining conceptually the appearance (nimitta). the object. unique mind there is found associated one sensation. Sparsa 觸. "to bend" or "to apply" the mind towards an object.30 (being non-physical. and neither-painful-norpleasant." Guenther/Kawamura: intensified interest which stays with its object. Blessed One said that it is the foundation of mindfulness.2).24 [AVA: ―Mindfulness is that recollection. in other words. ABSORPTION or CONCENTRATION. they confident resolve) all approve the object and that is adhimoksa. long or short. When we say ‗the same arising . Manaskara 作意 (mental applica.14. attraction. . (Sautrantikas object to simultaneous arising of mental states: ―Sensation. unwholesome and non-defined.II.e. ACT OF ATTENTION. Mati (=prajna) 慧 (understanding. how much more so is this true with non-material dharmas that are perceived through the mental consciousness.] 10.34b-d). CONTACT. 6. informs. One discerns them. or neutral. intention. painful. friend or enemy. Mahabhumikas 大地法 (Universals. Samjna is…that which grasps the marks (male. concomitants of mind.24 [AVA: ―Predilection is the liking for an 16.15: What is prajna? The intelligence. cognizance.‖ In terms of goodness: ―The companions are good. forget the object. about which a determination has been made exists in just that manner. and perish at the same time as does the mind. Again. unquestionably. Its function consists of keeping the mind on the object. It accords with vigor. on the basis of this objective reference. This is the aggregate of ideas. inspection) which enables thought to remember an object clearly. II. This is also to say that it moves forth the thought. and (5) because. bad. Caitta: factors of mind.‖ PSP: ―avoidance of inattentiveness toward a familiar object. ―It is the action of remaining [fixed] on an object chosen by choice. etc. resolution.‖] 20. sensation. enables one to be free from diffidence with regard to an object perceived.8. the dharma by virtue of which the organ. It has the characteristic of enlivening the thoughtconcomitants. [The 5 anusayas which are wrong view (drsti) are defiled understanding (klista-prajna). SENSATION is painful impression. or neither. Samjna 想 (ideation. discernment. touch.‖ As discrimination) amoha: PSP: ―The antidote to ignorance – [that is to say. they don‘t actually ―touch‖) [AVA: translation: ―the totality of a given ―Contact is that which is born of the coming together of the faculty. II. interest. will) ―desire towards a range of events of which there is consciousness. I. The dharmas that are inherent in the mahabhumi are called mahdbhumika. memory. is now being done.) Also. exists in all the bhumis.24 [AVA: Resolve is the affirmation with regard to an object. IDEATION. suffering (duhkha). the same duration. 2. and it is activity of the mind.‖ SAM: ―It is the will-to-do which is in direct relation to the desired object. are difficult to distinguish. seeing.[AVA: ―They are named sensation because they are the cause of craving (trsna).‖ PSP: ―The determination that occurs upon the convergence of three.‖ i.‖]Bhasya: pointedness of mind. and. i.1: The variety of the world arises from action (karma). etc. by perception. which the karika designates under the name of mati. APPROVAL. of result. See more below) 1.‖] 14. The "great sphere" or mahabhumi is so called because it is the sphere.‖ PSP: ―the shaping of consciousness in relation to that which is good. VOLITION. It is volition conscious effort.‖ SAM: ―mental tenacity. and the same destruction as does the mind. Chanda is the desire for action.24 (The chief Samskara (see I.1). volition. as blue or yellow. wish. PSP: judgement.
one of the 3 akusala-mula (roots of evil. it goads the thought of those sunk in the mire of transmigration to get out quickly.That is.‖] 34. It is produced on account of the dominant influence of oneself and of the Dharma. and the [Three] Jewels.] the abandoning of nonvirtuous entities together with the cultivating of those virtuous entities that are their antidotes. free from modification. II. desire & serenity towards action…‖] 24. dread of blame. II. the aptitude of the mind. Asraddhya 不信 (lack of faith or . indolence) 35. Equanimity. 26. passive-ty. reasons relating to the world.25 [AVA: ―Faith is that belief.‖ SAM: ―It is mental disquiet in him who pursues a pleasant object.26 (Sthcherbatsky: Universally obscured elements present in every unfavorable citta. absence of quietude or serenity) 36. effort. aspiration. ignorance. lack of hatred) 9.26 [AVA: ―It is the heaviness [of the mind and body].‖ PSP: ―lack of trust.clumsiness) laziness. trust) which causes clarification of thought with regard to its object. faithlessness) belief and lack of clarity of mind toward karma and its results. 2. one dreads evil. suppleness. results of actions (vi. II. According to another opinion. mindfulness.29).‖] (non-harmfulness) avoidance of harm. iv.69). II.25 [AVA: ―Vigor has the nature of being energetic in the production persevering effort. II.‖(depression. diligence) and cessation. Prasrabdhi is the dharma through which the mind is clever.] compassion. avoidance some in their specific nature. ignorance is associated with the five sensations. 勤 (vigor. and apt. Wholesomes. are klesamahdbhumikas. The mental states that belong to this sphere. 癡 (delusion. NON-DILIGENCE the opposite of diligence. gloominess) ―Unfitness and immobility of the mind‖ Anacker: ―[and]thickheadedness. shame in of the World. Great Grounds of Afflictions) (6 dharmas): The sphere of the mahaklesadharmas is termed mahaklesabhumi. Its function consists of removing every obstruction.26 [PSP: ―Lack of calmness in the mind.怠 (slackness. INDIFFERENCE. DISBELIEF is the opposite of faith. Being associated with all the klesas. II. Pramada 逸. 10.26 [AVA: ―It is the inability to guard thought. Hri 慚 (modesty. confidence-trust. Avihimsa 不害 (harmlessness. It is a mental freedom opposed to the emanation of craving. thesis of effort. It is a dharma which removes mental turbidity. which is not in accord with faith. Kausidya 懈怠. the 33. II. the taking possession of. Alobha 無貪 (non-greed. and are also productive of other wholesome dharmas‖ –AVA)) Generosity.lld). Klesa-mahabhumikas (Defiled universals.‖ Anacker: ―firm conviction. carelessness) development of the good due to craving. like a non-friend.‖ PSP: ―causes one to engage in activities of body.‖ Anacker: ―any non-guarding of citta from afflictions. NON-VIOLENCE is non-cruelty. Apramada 不放逸 (diligence. the untrue.‖] (lack of antipathy) absence of anger. absence of proper knowledge.25.32 [AVA: ―Shame has the consideration for others. APTITUDE.‖] 5.‖ PSP: ―Embarrassment about objectionable acts for shame in external sense. carefulness.‖] 28. By the force of this. or mind inattentively.II.73c).] loving-kindness. concern) attachment to effort. AVA: ―Modesty internal sense. tranquility. or sloth. Apatrapya 愧 (shame.25 [AVA: ―Equanimity with regard to the aversion to the untrue and the inclination indifference. modesty) or the Dharma‖ SAM: ―shame at doing wrong because of another person. fear of sin.26 [PSP: ―the mind‘s lack of exertion toward virtue.‖ SAM: ―lack of mental effort caused by the pleasures of sleep and rest. cultivation of virtues as its precondition. II. see IV.8). is mental indifference. conscience. absence of energy.‖] (acquiring and preserving good qualities) (exertion) 25.‖ PSP: ―The attitude of non-harming.] dissatisfaction and freedom from acquisitiveness.68. It is lack of intrinsic awareness) characterized by non-discernment…like a blind man. Diligence is bhavana.25 [AVA: ―Calm is fidence. abiding in equilibrium. [PSP: ―The antidote to dread of blame. II.ii. It is opposed to torpor. ‗obscured‘ (nivrta = klista)‖) 1.‖] (mental dexterity. DILIGENCE. lethargy) 38. one [possessing it] scorns at lowly dharmas. [Universally good mental factors present in every favorable or skillful moment of mind. non-injury. etc. lack of speech.‖] 29.2. IDLENESS is the opposite of energy.lld). 3. bewilderment. absence of aptitude.‖ PSP: ―Belief. non-knowledge. confidence. shame.25 [AVA: ―Harmlessness is the mental goodness. 6. II. to the Three Precious Ones (vi. bash. one does not harm others. Virya 精進. non-clarity. Faith is clarification of the mind. a) Fear of the consequence of transgression.3. heedlessness. lack of mindfulness – [that is to say. confusion. the [Four Noble] truths.32 [Hri & Apatrapya: the ―Guardians fulness. and the cultivation of good dharmas… cientiousness. Advesa 無嗔 (non-hatred.‖] (courage) iii.sloth. mental fogginess. Styana 放逸 (torpor. non-violence) 32. AVA: ―Nescience in the three spheres. Absence-of-delusion (amoha).6. folly. lethargic negligence) 4. it is adherence to the doctrine of the 23. III. embarassment. which comes about by being linked with greed. renunciation) towards the true. by nature. abashment. non-conscientiousness. b) Modesty.25.light-ease. laxness. already named among the mahabhumikas.‖ Anacker: ―a lack of enthusiasm towards the beneficial in a citta.serenity.25 [One of the 3 kusala-mulas (roots of good – roots because: ―They are wholeor lack of greed. inactivity of mind. II. confusion.28. the dharma by which the mind remains equal. ―not always absolutely bad. and becomes averse to the harmful activities in which others indulge. [respectively]. addiction to desire.con.‖ and Hri is ―Embarrassment about objectionable acts for reasons relating oneself embarrassment. b) Respect for humans.‖](heaviness. or clarity of mind toward karma. 31. is the non-taking possession of and the non-cultivation of good dharmas. Fundamental/Major/Basic Afflictions." prajna. as mudi. DISSIPATION is non-calmness of the mind (vii. the [Four Noble] Truths and the [Three] Jewels. inner shame. It is named faith on account of being receptivity based on direct realization to the Three Jewels. excitedness. the thought neither inclines towards nor turns away from the true and the untrue [respectively]. zeal. PSP: ―The antidote to attachment – [that is to say. II.non-aggression. ABSENCE-OF-HATRED (advesa. ebullience) ness. ERROR is ignorance (iii. the cause-effect relationship and the existence [of the dharmas]. detachments. effortlessness of mind.absence 7.26 [AVA: ―Faithlessness is non-clarity of thought. all delusion). RESPECT. 放逸 (non-diligence. self-respect) is that which conforms to the proper. ENERGY is endurance of the mind. as a scale in perfect balance. By virtue of this. enthusiasm. that is.‖ SAM: ―It is maneuverability (karmanyata) [or pliability] of the body and mind acquired by relaxing the rigidity (dausthulya) of the body and agility. negligence. is "discernment.‖]( unconcern. absence of diligence. light. non-ill.‖ SAM: ―nonvigilence. toward action and its results. dexterity of thought) 4. The mental states that arise from this sphere are termed kusala-mahabhumikas: the dharmas that are found in all good minds. and to the Truths. but they are nevertheless. II. Upeksa 行捨 (equanimity.‖ [PSP: 37. Ch V. the third root of good. the mental states that exist in all defiled minds. Avidyā is a separate entity (dharma). hostility. Diligence is application to good dharmas…diligence is the guarding of the mind.‖ PSP: ―exertion of the mind toward virtue. also see IV. antidote to harmfulness – [that is to say. Sraddha 信 (faith.‖ Anacker: ―lack of trust in a citta.26.‖](excitability. ABSENCE-OF-DESIRE. non-belief. avoidance of hatred.5. II. Moha 無明. FEAR. vigilance. Kusala-mahabhumikas 善大地法 (Skillful Universals. Auddhatya 惛沈. stupidity. alertness) mind. decorum. II.‖ PSP: ―Evenness of mind.‖ PSP: ―fitness of body and mind. will.78b). self-control. that is. non-attachment) 30. hatred and delusion associated with idleness. II. non-faith. and is that which is not in accord with vigor. FAITH.‖ The absence of these two dharmas (Ahri & Anapatrapya) define akusala cittas. of the wholesome and unwholesome dharmas. a) Respect.‖ SAM: ―shame at doing wrong to oneself. opposite of vidyā or knowledge. and the antiindolence.8. 掉擧 (restless. TORPOR is the opposite of aptitude (vii. fearful submission. heedfulness. even.pliancy. Rahula/Boin-Webb: inertia. on the basis of the mental factors ranging from avoidance of non-laxness. veneration. It being opposed to the emanation of delusion. II.25 [(One of the 3 kusala-mulas (roots of good). etc.] 1. Prasrabdhi 輕安 (calm.cons. By the force of this. Virtuous Great Grounds) (10 dharmas): The "sphere" of the good dharmas of great extension is termed kusalamahabhumi.‖] 27. and non-cultivation of the beneficial.‖](desirelessness) of attachment. [One of the 10 anusayas (as avidya).quietude. PSP: ―The antidote to hatred – [that is to say. they may sometimes be indifferent (avyakrta) for the progress towards Final Deliverance.
Basic) Unwholesomes. trick. drowsiness.‖ PSP: ―It is a form of mental discourse that examines [an object] closely. Languor is a compression of the mind which rends it incapable of commanding the body. fury. II. aniyata. V. vicious elements of limited occurence) 1. The gross state of the mind. imprudence. of respect. ABSENCE OF FEAR. The dharma that causes a person not to see the unpleasant consequences of his inconsideration for others. V. APATHY.‖ SAM: ―mental debating (manojalpa) which seeks.‖ Anacker: ―tormented volition of citta which all of a sudden becomes intent on doing harm. ENMITY is aversion. lack of compassion or love. temptations. Grossness of mind. v. disrespect. and a (general) examination. Raga 貪 (greed. Ch V. V. one of the 3 akusala-mula (roots of evil). The condition of the person who does not see the consequences of transgression—the dharma that produces this condition. of or atrapa.26 (Universally ―bad‖ elements) 39. "Transgressions" are what are scorned by good persons.‖ Anacker: ―a discourse of inquiry by application. non-embarassment) v. which also forms a part of repugnance. etc. Derivative or Minor Afflictions) (10 dharmas): They are called this because they have parittaklesas for their spheres. covering. envious rivalry. It is this dharma which serves as the cause that accords with the operation of state. injuriousness. [AVA: ―Pride has the nature of being arrogant and caring for no-one. Non-virtuous Great Grounds) (2 dharmas): These two dharmas…are always found in bad minds. rancor) 43. lack of shame.‖] (non-shame) 40. action accomplished. THE SPIRIT OF VIOLENCE. karuna.27 (10 lesser evils. purity of precept.‖ Lusthaus translation of mraksa: ingratitude.47-48. ―The uncontrolled contraction of the mind‘s activity. which is opposed to either spiritual or material giving.‖ Anacker: ―a piercing sensation in manas.5. deceit. It is bad when it is relative to a bad action omitted or to a good action accomplished. initial mental particular type of wisdom and volition that is coarseness of mind.29) [One of the 10 anusayas. as a result of which one would not accept any rightful admonition. hatred. illusions.—is anapatrapya ment. HYPOCRISY is hiding one's faults. PSP:―Acrimony [expressed] through heated words. Anapatrapya 無愧 (shamelessness. 2. Subtlety of mind. Vihimsa 害(harmfulness. [AVA: ―that by 44. mental consciousness on its object. covetousness.27-28. THE SPIRIT OF DECEPTION. not associated with lust. etc.‖ Anacker: ―taking hold of breaking friendship.30) [AVA: ―the inability to sustain the psycho-physical series.V. V. regret) [PSP: ―The mind‘s sense of remorse.33 [AVA: ―Reasoning has the characteristic of state. bad. dishonesty) 4.14). guile.28c-d) in an isolated state. [subsequent] discursive by manas…a more precise state of citta. Struck by the wind of ideation. Middha 睡眠. because these unpleasant consequences engender fear. which are sometimes associated with a good mind. results from an attachment to one‘s own physical appearance. (Mentioned in II. Kaukrtya 惡作 . changable) 1. Consequently they are called akusala-mahabhumikas. malice) 46.‘‖ PSP: ―Acquisitiveness of mind that opposes generosity. Vicara 伺 (investigation. ahrikya is the absence of shame vis-a-vis oneself. VICARA.4950 [PSP: ―[The impulse to do] injury to sentient beings. Ahrikya 無慚 (non-modesty.‖] 9. miserliness.5. lack of remorse. Variables) (8 dharmas): There are other mental states that are indeterminate. duplicity. fixingcausing thought to be subtle. deliberation) 55. Aniyata 不定 (Indeterminates. Upanaha 恨 (enmity. 2. and with regard to persons endowed with these qualities.‖ Anacker: ―deceitfulness of citta [to make secret one‘s flaws]. Avarice is "tenacity" (agraha) of the mind. 悔 (remorse. Cheating is the dharma that causes one to delude another. possessiveness. Mada 憍 (pride. V. No clearly delineated definition in AKB? Aniyata as it . discursiveness. Envy or mental dissatisfaction concerns the prosperity of another.‖ Anacker: ―agitation of citta at the attainments of another. or a sign of longevity or of any intoxicating advantage‖] 50.‖] resentment. envy) virtue of which the mind becomes unable to bear the excellences of others. ‗What belongs to me must not go to others. also see IV. Maya 誑 (deceptiveness. perfidy. and sometimes with a bad or a neutral mind. V.‖ SAM: ―mental contraction which is part of delusion languor. V. searching.‖ SAM: ―mental repentance. an irritation 41. except that it is] a fineness of mind. jealousy. torpor) because of a certain cause of languor. PRIDE-INTOXICATION is the abolition of the mind of one who is enamored with his own qualities.] crisy.‖ PSP: ―The complete vexation of mind at another‘s success. in the commission of a transgression. 6.‖](vexation) rage. [PSP: ―Lack shamelessnesss. LUST is associated with pleasure and satisfaction. Irsya 嫉 (jealousy. Esteeming evil is that which causes one not to accept remonstrances.47-48 [AVA: ―that which causes the mind to be hoarding with regard to one‘s own belongings and wealth.‖ PSP: ―delight of someone who is infatuated with [his or her] own well-being. grudge. learning and complacency. DISRESPECT is lack of veneration…the lack of fearful submission with regard to the qualities (maitri.47-48 (II.49-50 [PSP: ―A deviousness of mind fraudulence. Mraksa 覆 (concealment. repentance. V. II.33 49. wile. stinginess.3. investigating. 眠 (sleep. "Unpleasant consequences" are called in lack of dread of blame. trickery. worry.‖] modesty. II. selfThe drunkenness of pride. Parittaklesa. selectiveness) manas…an indistinct state of citta. Unfixed. JEALOUSY. deception. II. STUBBORNNESS. flattery.28. sleepiness. indigination) that has become evident. 2. discursive reflec-tion.‖] (analysis) thought. pretense. lineage. VITARKA.) of oneself and others. mental dharma opposed to respect. obstinacy. strength. which results from the repeated thinking over of the objects of anger. causing thought to be gross with regard to an object. malice) vi.‖ Anacker:―being enslaved by unpleasant speech.‖] 45. conceit. vengeance. V.‖ SAM: ―It is a display of false virtues by him who is set on gains and honors.48 [AVA: ―hiding one‘s own evil. youth. Parittaklesa-bhumikas 小煩惱地法 (Defilements of Restricted Scope. It is also named discriminative reflection. (can enter into various combinations. lack of self-respect) of embarrassment about objectionable acts for reasons relating to oneself. ANGER is irritation of the mind with respect to living beings and to things (sattva & asattva). II. REGRET relative to an error. selfishness) 48. Double-dealing or crookedness of mind causes one not to say things as one should.49-50. II. self-satisfaction) contentment arising from health. wrath.‖] 52. GREED. hypothat adopts a means of concealing one‘s faults. which infatuation.‖ PSP: ―Adherence to enmity. parsimony. Languor can be good.‖ PSP: ―Concealment of objectionable acts. spite.48 [PSP: ―Animosity of mind toward a current source of harm belligerence. Hostility is what is translated into deeds and words harmful to another. Matsarya 慳 (avarice. cruelty.‖ PSP: absent-mindedness. dissembling. II. sustained application of mind. self-admiration. be it favorable (kusala).‖ Anacker: ―unwillingness to recognize one‘s own faults. 3. transgressions.55. slyness-concealment) 47. II.‖ ill-will.‖ ness. Krodha 忿 (anger. dreamy state.32 [PSP: ―Lack of embarrassment about objectionable acts for reasons relating to others. The subtle state of the mind. irreverence. etc (kevala aveniki avidya. absence of abash. incli. discerning. II. unfavorable (akusala) or neutral.49-50 [AVA: ―the harboring of hatred within and not letting go of it. V. of pro-priety.‖ PSP: ―a form of mental discourse that investigates. contrition. lack 1. 10.‖] 53.‖] 42. (Major. anger or hostility.49-50 [PSP: ―The displaying of something that is untrue [in order to] deceive others.‖ SAM: ―Not subsequently abandoning the intention of revenge.‖ SAM: ―It is cruelty. DISSIMULATION. judgment. or to explain something in a confused manner. boast.‖ Anacker: ―A discourse of examination reflection. "small defilement. hostility. is like [the previous mental factor. Akusala-mahabhumikas 不善 (Unskillful universals.‖] (deliberation) 4.49-50 [AVA: ―Clinging to various reproachable things. illusion) ―Resist recognizing own faults.iv. It precise analysis.32 According to other Masters. Pradasa 惱(depraved opinionated. not to deny when one should. or neutral. Vitarka 尋 (reasoning. V.menacing. Sathya 諂 (dissimulation. [verbal] maliciousness.33 [AVA: ―Investigation has the characteristic of 54.68. malice.‖] 7. Irregulars." means avidya or ignorance (iii. it operates in a gross manner.‖] 8. anapatrdpya is the absence of shame vis-a-vis others. haughtiness. When is regret good? When it is relative to a good action omitted or to a bad 51.the Karika bhaya or fear. lack of conscience. eloquence. ahri is a immodesty.‖ SAM: ―joyful mental inflation. distinct from that of regret.‖ SAM: ―mental debating which reflects. is ahrikya.
taking living beings". perceptionless It is an absorption entered from the 4 dhyana. uncertainty doubting turn of with regard to the Four Noble Truths. generic similarity. have resemblance between them. It is like [a man] being undecided when confronted with an inter-section or a straw-man. thought-less ecstasy. afflicted anusayas.‖) obtainment. for a certain time. they resemble the mind. aversion) IV.‖ SAM: ―a designation (prajnapti) indicating the increase and diminution of favorable (kusala) & unfavorable things. aprapti. are discussed in detail: ordinary pride. as well as the dharmas "that fall into the series of munionship. among the Non-conscious Ones. impure and non-defined [dharmas].33[One of the 10 anusayas. [In the first case he is uncertain as to which is the right way to take. 59. II. vitality) basis for the designation (prajnapti) of the four births and the five planes of existence…it is also called the lifeprinciple (ayus). 7 (and sometimes also 9) types of mana. hate. skepticism) uncertain – when seeing from afar or in darkness – as to whether it is a real man or simply a straw-man.32 (Mentioned in II. egoism. Ch V.29) [One of the 10 anusayas. II. absorption absorption as a precipice. there is 66. exaggerated pride. II.II. As it is mistaken for deliverance. but a ‗thing of designation‘.) ARISING produces or causes to produce conditioned things. Jīvita is life (āyus) (The ayus of the three spheres of existence). the five grasping heaps.‖ without conception. they are not of the nature of rupa or physical matter. one of the 3 akusala-mula (roots of evil).36 (instead proposes a theory of seeds (bija). are not the objects of consciousness. they are included within the samskaraskandha: they are called the cittaviprayukta samskaras. pride.‖ Anacker: ―tormented volition towards sentient beings. he is mind. it is like a seed which places a certain power in the sprout to grow. womb. the mind and future dharmas are. reward of noamong the deities who lack conception. 2. Pratigha 嗔 (hostility.‖] 8.29) [One of the 10 58. possession. ignorant pride.42 [PSP: ―cessation of inconstant minds and mental factors (non-stable events) that is preceded by a form of attention that conceives of deliverance. force of life-duration. antipathy. caste. as tranquility or stillness (not as deliverance) and practiced by the Aryans. also see IV. human commonality. named ayus. Mana 慢 (conceit. (asamjni-samapatti).‖] 6. Warmth & consciousness are simply retribution. Sabhāgatā ("genre" or sameness of class designation) is that which causes resemblances between (group-homogeniety.41[PSP: ―a result of the state of composure without conception non-perception. concentration or samadhi of Bhasya: prajnapti (above) extinction) LIFE. Sknadhila and importance.‖ II. Citta-Viprayukta-Samskara Dharmas 心不相應行法 (Not Associated with Mind. Asamjni-samapatti 無想定 th (ideationless attainment. attainment without cognitions (or of non-perception (non-thought concentration) Bhasya: prajnapti (―What is called ‗absorption‘ is simply the non-existence of the or of thoughtlessness). He understands the two thesis. etc. craving.]‖] nation. II. repugnance.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (―Arising. II. duration. The support of warmth and conscious65. extreme pride.55 (Mentioned in II. and forming the faculty.‖ PSP: ―Strong affection for. General: found in all being. of motivating dispositions which have been projected by past action.眾(衆)同分 GENRE. class similarities in striving and inclination among sentient beings. and do not value entering it. obtaining) connected with something attained. com. SAM: It is exaltation of the mind which rests on the idea of self. (Like asamjnisamaptti:) it is a dharma that arrests the mind and its mental states. its aging. stage(bhu). (cupidity-)attachment. etc. Vicikitsa 疑 (doubt. is arrogance.] II. non-discrimination.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti II. V. AVA: ―It is characterized 57. existence. a calamity. etc. no-thought samadhi) [The argument is also extended with regard to asamjnika (non-consciousness) & nirodha-samapatti. (1) because they are disjoined from the mind.‖ PSP (Anacker): ―any close interrelationship of affiliation. Hatred is associated with displeasure and dissatisfaction. There can be premature death – not solely from the exhaustion of jivita. origin. and (2) because. previously nonexistent formations in relation to a class affiliate. ―The Aryans consider this serenity.‖ PSP (Anacker): ―It is.40 (―the state of Prthagjana is a series in which the dharmas of the Aryans have not arisen. and attachment to. as regards any events taking part in an organism. arising.‖ SAM: ―a designation indicating the resemblance of individualities of commonality of species. ness…a cause of the duration of the series. Ch V.) APRAPTI. anger. likeness. It is an absorption entered from the 4th Arupya-dhyana (neither-conception-nor-non-conception). HOSTILITY. being non-material. indecision. arrogance) extraordinary pride. Not clearly delineated definition in AKB? AVA: ―That which causes hesitation in the mind indecision.‖] 7.45 [AVA: ―projected by previous karma.can function in meditation? AVA: ―greed (raga) for sensual pleasure.35 AKA: Non-concurrent Formations. Mana. cessation. Prapti and aprapti are in opposition: everything that is susceptible of prapti is also susceptible of 60. Prapti 得 (acquisition. [karmic] divestment) 61. 63. PSP. pride or conceit. Asamjnika 無想.‖ In AKB Ch V. pretension. animosity. sex. II.36 [AVA: ―All non-acquisitions are of the non-veiled-non-defined nature only. appropriational intent. II. Particular: differentiations according to sphere(dhatu).‖] Bhasya: prajnapti non-possession. as well as a portion of the constant minds (more stable events).‖ there is prapti or aprapti of this dharma…Prapti is: ―cause of the arising of the dharmas‖ or ―origin of the obtainment. state of composure that is a that is preceded by a form of attention that conceives of abiding [in a state of ease]. arrest the mind and its mental 62. Nikaya-sabhaga 同分. and its disappearance. deconditioning. regarded tion attainment. 無想果 (ideationlessness.) types) NON-CONSCIOUSNESS is that which.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (no need to substantialize similarities. similarity of different beings among the various types of beings.43 [PSP: ―cessation of inconstant serenity of cessation. Non-associated Compositional Factors. origination.‖] (fruition in thoughtless heaven) Bhasya: prajnapti (see below) thought. (Like asamjnika:) it is a dharma that arrests the mind and its mental states. he doubts [which is true]. not a thing in and of itself (dravyadharma).41 [AVA: ―The cause for the part in an organism.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (1..‖ Anacker: ―adherence to any fixed intent in appropriating aggregates. lifethe cause for the uninterrupted series of the six entrances (ayatana) [of the human personality].living beings…A dharma by virtue of which living beings. realm(gati). for a certain time.state of composure mind for a certain period of time. Rather. Jati-laksana 生相(productiona force of internal cause which makes them achieve their specific functions. PRIDE. annihilation trance. conditioning. twomindedness.36 [AVA: ―the cause which permits the affirmation: ‗One achievement. similar class. passion) 56. wrong pride. DOUBT. attainment. separate things in and of themselves…in fact. selfby mental elevation when one compares one‘s own virtues with those of others. birth) are not entities. whatever is not the object of consciousness cannot be a mark…[rather] production or arising is the fact that the series begins. any continuity. pride of inferiority. Prapti is acquisition and possession…When a conditioned dharma ―falls into the personal series.‖] without discrimination. Dharmas Disassociated from Mind. [state of] states…By this dharma. cessation is in possession of a certain dharma. 3. serving as life-force. Jivitendriya 命根 (vital faculty.68 No clearly delineated definition in AKB? Aniyata because it can function in meditation? AVA: ―It is named hostility as it is characterized by the delight in harming and not being benevolent to sentient beings.‖ PSP: ―The origination of characteristic.45 [AVA: ―When dharmas are produced. in the second case. dispossession. Dharma Not Interactive with Mind. non-achievement. Ch V. bodily parts as regards sentient beings. Nirodha-samapatti 滅盡定 (cessa. nonII. and the cessation of inconstant minds and mental factors of a being who has been born having no conception. Aprapti 非得 (non-acquisition. realm of Thoughtless beings) NON-CONSCIOUS ABSORPTION. for lust and hatred have respectively happiness and dejection for their aspect. ambivalence. collection.‘…pure. hindered from being produced and do not have the power to arise.‖ PSP (Anacker): ―It is being [karmic] accrual. no-thought. PRAPTI. II. attainment of minds and mental factors (non-stable events).ABSORPTION OF EXITINCTION.44) 64. disappearance or impermanence is . condition of beings" or "special state of the person‖. the error of pride.‖] (absorption of cessation) cessation. the production of the moment. It is retribution. V. Disjoined) (14 dharmas) These dharmas are not associated with the mind. desire.
‖) 71.‖ SAM:―It is cessation which is not disjuncproductive cause). he goes.‖ That is. Non-phenomenal. phenomenal. which is conditioned: Cavities are called the space element. pada.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti II. distinct from others. cessation attained without tion. category of letters.45 [AVA: ―The cause which 67. bodies expressions [that describe] the essences of entities. extinction the objects of "junction. ―The modification of their continuum in relation to that. gha…) II. Collections of akṣaras…or phoneme (varna). II. growth. not by the comprehension of the Truths. „Name‟ body.the end or cessation of the series.‖ Anacker: ―denotations for the own-beings of events. is explained etymologically as ―that which has been created (krta) by causes in union and combination.55(―When.OLD AGE makes them (conditioned dharmas) deteriorate. in its nature. takes place 75. the difference between its successive states. nirvana is basically the non-arising of defilements.45 [AVA: ―Impermanence is that which causes a present dharma. Collections of vākyas: a) "Phrase" is understood as vakya. decrepitude. old age. and which causes the understanding [in each case] the respective signified…producing in others a comprehension of the signified to be illuminated. and impermanence. Anityata-laksana 滅相.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti II. ga." b) that which causes one to comprehend the different modalities of activity. collection of for example the words ―warmth. and it is the permanent non-arising of the heaps that is related to an antidote to the mental afflictions. and that by reason of the force of the consciousness. Each [disjunction occurs] separately…The objects of "disjunction" are as numerous as by analysis. stability. It is only possible to indicate its general characteristics. formation of syllables. II. will cook.55.‖ PSP: ration-characteristic. "Impermanent are the samskaras . Apratisamkhya-nirodha 非擇滅 APRATISAMKHYĀNIRODHA. created. „Predicate‟ body.47[PSP: ―The expressions [that describe] the distinguishing characteristics of phrase-group. they are ‗phonemes‘ because they cannot be replaced by any alternative form.5 Note: empty space. Vyanjana-kaya 文身 (syllables. duration.7. cessation through ble.‖ Space has for its nature not hindering matter which. This is why the Sutra says that he has obtained Nirvana.‖ ―odor. (more in II. Pada-kaya 句身 (phrases.45 [AVA: ―Deterioration is that which impairs [ a dharma‟s] efficacy of projecting fruit. they are not samskaras disassociated from the mind as the Sarvastivadins believe. Unconstructed.‖ Anacker: ―actual sound through which the other two are disclosed. Sthiti-laksana 住相(durationenables [a dharma] to stay temporarily. light and darkness.‖]Bhasya:prajnapti(above) V.‖ PSP: ―they are what allow both of them to become group. It is acquired simply by (or not through contemplation).. is named the durationcharacteristic. .‖) acquired knowledge) SPACE is ―that which does not hinder. [Kaya or "body" means "collection‖] II. quality. Collections of saṁjñās. a. but by the insufficiency of the causes of arising.6. groups of consonants." I.‖ ―The Bhiksu…through the possession of the Path. Jara-laksana 異相.47 [PSP: ―The words (or names). analytic cessation. and which is also called disconnection or visamyoga. for space is not displaced by matter.‖] (group of stems) Bhasya: prajnapti(―Are not words.manifest. so as to be able to project a distinct fruit.6 [AVA: ―absolutely obstructs the production of a future dharma. II. he reads. ether. is real. syllable support of speech. The "extinction" of which one takes possession by this prajna is called contemplation).‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (see above) extinction.‖ PSP: ―cessation that is not a separation.55: [The Sarvastivadins:] This dharma. arising. spatiality) distinguish from the space-element. word-group) (force imparting significance to words) (vac) by nature. of their continuum in relation to that. since there would be nothing to accommodate them.‖) . groups of words) entities.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (see above) continuity/abiding) 68. 虚空 (space. kha. eternals) [Note: I – IV above are Samskrta Dharmas – conditioned. the absence of seeds for future defilements. subsistence. Pratisamkhya-nirodha 擇滅 dharmas is pratisamkhyanirodha (ii. in fact.55) [or Nirvana]. it is. has obtained a personality contrary to the defilements.‖ of names. freely in space. and consequently ‗sound‘ (sabda)? Hence they form part of the rupaskandha. dwelling. Pratisamkhyana or pratisamkhya signifies a certain pure (cessation through deliberation (or prajna. C) These four dharmas. there ought not to be the production of resistant things.‖ Anacker: ―discontinuity in the stream. disappearance.) (force im. name and form. he cooks. independent of the force of consciousness and by reason of the mere absence of causes there is an absence of arising dharmas. not through deliberation. and which understanding. extinction through intellectual power. and phonemes (naman.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti II. phrases and syllables are those which are produced with the collection of syllables. nonanalytic cessation. Nama-kaya 名身 (words. alphabet. cessation occasioned pratisamkhyanirodha.] PRATISAMKHYĀNIRODHA is disjunction…(Conscious) disjunction (visamyoga. Akasa 空. cessation without understanding. I. and also of not being hindered by matter.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (see above) VYANJANAKAYA.55 (―Pratisamkhyanirodha or Nirvana is—when both the defilements already produced and the existence already produced are destroyed—the absence of any other defilements or any other existence.. only the Aryans "realize" it internally. which concern a certain person: for example. by saying that there is a real entity (dravya). Utterance‟ body. 老相 (deterio.‖) 74. because the latter permits the manifestation of all kinds of activities.. 72. collection development necessary for a complete sentence. category PADAKAYA. d.‖ etc. he bodies of sentences. or red.‖ Anacker: ―any nonunselected (or through lack of a separation from cessation without antidotes to afflictions figuring in. for example. it is black. I.‖ PSP: ―The destruction (impermenence-characteristic.64).. A different type of extinction.. are the characteristics of conditioned things…a dharma in which they are not found is unconditioned. formation of phrases. because meanings are communicated on the parting significance to articulate sounds) basis of names and assertions. destruction) 70.28 [AVA: ―accommodating resistant things…if it were non-existent. vowels and consonents.. which consists of the absolute hindering of (cessation independent of deliberation arising. characteristic.‖ Anacker: ―an alteration in the stratum of those like change.‖ Anacker: ―the serial abid-ing. phrases. whose activity having been impaired [by the deterioration-characteristic] to enter into the past. this is what is called apratisamkhyanirodha. which is good and eternal.55) acquired knowledge) [Nirvana. and contrary to a new existence.‖) DURATION stabilizes them (conditioned dharmas) or causes them to last. II. ii. I.57d) from the impure 73. 無常相 IMPERMANENCE destroys them. Non-created) (3 dharmas): A) The unconditioned has neither cause nor result. propagation in the stream of those like that. II.‖ PSP: ―cessation that is a separation. constructed. he cooks. They are also the [basic] sounds [of spoken language]. nomenclature. I. II.‖ ―sound.‖ Anacker: ―denotations for the particularities of events.‖ There is no dharma which is engendered by a single cause (II.47 [AVA: ―Words.‖ SAM: ―It is the absence of matter (rupa). yellow. vyanjana) ‗voice‘ of nouns. category NAMAKAYA. aging/decay) that. rendering it incapable of further projecting another distinct fruit. bodies of phonemes. vocabulary. and it is the permanent nonarising of the heaps that is unrelated to an antidote to the mental afflictions. conditioned. one says.the unconditioned lasts eternally in its own nature.45. Also II.‖] Bhasya: prajnapti (see above) 69. Moreover. the comprehension of the Truths. . extinction which is the deficiency in the conditions. ―Name‖ or ―word‖ is understood as ―that which causes ideas to arise. a discourse. or he cooked. B) Samskrta. Asamskrta Dharmas 無為法 (Unconditioned.55 (―Space is solely the absence of any tangible thing. ―This non-existent thing is the most distinguished of all non-existent things. death.‖ PSP: ―The uninterrupted succession of their continuum in relation to that. a phrase allowing the of words. It is so called because it is obtained. and time of phrases (or assertions). cessation attained with receives the name of pratisamkhyanirodha. AVA: ―The absolute annihilation of all unsatisfactoriness…that which causes the non-production of unsatisfactoriness. (immutable.‖ PSP: ―A place for form. duration is the series continuing from its beginning until its end.(ka. changing. evolution or old age is the modification of the continuous series. each for himself. for example the stanza. but indescribaattained by selection.
Canonical Abhidharma texts include proto-types of a list of dharmas. citta (consciousness) Absorption (jhana) (5 factors): vitakka (thought-conception). otappa (fear of blame) Six Pairs of Wholesome (yugalaka) (12 factors): kaya-passaddhi (tranquillity of cetasikas). diassociated. manasikara (attention). arupa-raga (attachment to immaterial existence). cetana-kaya (6 volitions). samma-dhitti (right view) Guardians of the World (lokapala) (2 factors): hri (moral shame). sati (mindfulness). unrepelled. smrti (mindfulness). sukha (pleasure). these states. independent. Almost all of the terms in the lists of dharmas can be traced to Sutra/Sutta sources. upeksa (indifference) Dharmas (5): vitarka (reasoning). equanimity. The sub-groups signify sets of internal relations within the same moment of consciousness. Klesa-maha-bhumika (basic defilements) (10): asraddhya (lack of faith). the zeal. vaci-duccarita virati (abstinence from wrong speech). adhimokkha (decision). pramada (carelessness) Paritta-klesa-bhumika (minor defilements) (10): krodha (anger). viksepa (distractedness). sankappa (thought). kausidya (idleness). Sariputra had insight into states one by one as they occurred. contemplating at each point the arising and perishing of the mental states. a dharma may have multiple functions corresponding to its multiple spheres of relation which correspond to groups of factors of which the factor is a member. not having been. mada (pride). with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. sanna (perception). irsya (envy). akusala and avyakrta minds. adosa (non-hatred). kava-duccarita virati (abstinence from wrong action). the contact. He understood thus: ‗So indeed. the Pancavastuka (5 categories) developed to better accommodate the distinctions of the formations associated (samprayukta) and disassociated (viprayukta) from mind as well the unconditioned (asamskrta). panna (wisdom). drstiparamarsa (attachment to views). each of which can have a variety of external relations. vihimsa (harmfulness). avikkhepa (undistractedness) Supplementary (ye-va-panaka) (9 factors): chanda (intention). asamprajanya (non-discernment). vicara (investigation). perception. Sariputra entered upon and abided in the first jhana. duhkha (pain). the rapture. silavrataparamarsa (wrong view of rules & rites) Sparsa (contact) (5): pratigha-sparsa (contact by sensorial reaction). vidya-sparsa (contact by knowledge). olfactory. and mind. pradasa (vexation). vedana (feeling). the pleasure. viriya (energy). and relations to this. karuna (compassion). citta-pagunnata (proficiency of citta). ―cessation of perception and feeling‖. the discernment of the mental states occurs in highly developed meditation states. There are also prototypes in the canonical Sarvastivada texts. vicikitsa (doubt) Driti (views) (5): satkaya-drsti (personality belief). viriya (energy). kaya-ujukata (uprightness of cetasika). manaskara (attention). as well as a state here defined as beyond the 4th arupa-jhana. sati (mindfulness).Development of ―Dharma lists‖ The Skandhas. ―And the states in the first jhana – the applied thought. jivita (vitality) Path (magga) Factors (5 factors): samma (right): view (ditthi). upanaha (enmity). tangible. citta-kammannata (wieldiness of citta). citta-lahuta (lightness of citta). anapatrapya (absence of fear of blame) Kaya (6 groups of 6): vijnana-kaya (6 groups of consciousnesses: visual. sparsa-kaya (6 groups of contacts. cetana (volition). secluded from unwholesome sattes. energy. free. gustatory. avyapada (non-ill-will). The lists included in this text incorporate a number of Sutta teachings and makes no attempt at avoiding repeated instances of one dharma. dvesa (hatred). vayarna (effort). These categories were developed considerably by the Abhidharmikas. samjna-kaya (6 notions). ahrikya (absence of shame). matsarya (avarice). somanassa (joy). bhikkhus. citta-ujukata (uprightness of citta) Helpers (upakaraka) (2 factors): sati (mindfulness). come into being. The Dhammasangani (Pali Abhidhamma) enumerates the mental states associated with kusala. vedana-kaya (6 feelings). which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought. ajiva-duccarita virati (abstinence from wrong livelihood) Nyayaponika Thera argues that the repetition of terms above is actually a key aspect of the vision of mental functioning offered in the Dhammasangani: In a given moment. known to him those states arose. etc. Ayatanas and Dhatus can be seen as precedents for the formulation of a list of dharmas. hri (moral shame). sathya (dissumulation). rupa-raga (attachment to material existence). samadhi (concentration). mental). visual. tatramajjhattata (equanimity). they vanish. vijnana (consciousness). Traditionally. sparsa (contact). Here is the enumeration of mental states in a good mind: Sense (phassa) impression (5 factors): phassa (contact). kaya-kammannata (wieldiness of cetasikas). cetana (volition). auditory. ekaggata (onepointedness) Faculties (indriya) (8 factors): saddha (faith). citta-muduta (pliancy of citta). kaya-lahuta (lightness of cetasikas). amoha (non-delusion) Ways of Action (kusala-kamma-patha) (3 factors): anabhijjha (non-covetousness). daurmanasya (dissatisfaction). mithya-drsti (wrong view). The Dhatukaya includes the following enumeration of dharmas: Maha-bhumikas (basic states) (10): vedana (sensation). trsna-kaya (6 cravings) . having been. avidya-sparsa (contact by ignorance). antagraha-drsti (extreme views of nihilism & eternalism). avidya (ignorance). the Buddha states: ―During half a month. mano (mind). saurmanasya (satisfaction). ayoniomanaskara (wrong attention). In this Sutta. the sustained thought. known they were present. Sariputra is closely linked to Abhidharma. citta-passaddhi (tranquillity of mind). In this Sutta. vicara (discursive thinking). chanda (desire). decision. past and future cittas. samadhi (concentration) Powers (bala) (7 factors): saddha (faith). adhivacana-sparsa (verbal or mental contact). In the Sarvastivada. maya (deceit). panna (wisdom). mindfulness. volition. sampajanna (mental clarity) Pairwise Combination (yuganaddha) (2 factors): samatha (calm).‘ Regarding these states. feeling. samadhi (concentration). known they disappeared. kaya-pagunnata (proficiency of cetasikas). quite secluded from sensual pleasures. bhikkus. vipassana (insight) Last Dyad (pitthi-duka) (2 factors): paggaha (exertion). samadhi (concentration). piti (interest). musita-smrti (forgetfulness). adhimoksa (approbation). and the unification of mind. sati (mindfulness). mudita (sympathetic joy). na-vidya-navidya-sparsa (contact by neither-knowledge-nor-non-knowledge) Indriya (faculties) (5): sukkha (pleasure). Klesa (defilements) (5): kama-raga (sensuous attachment). There is one notable sutra source for the notion of an assemblage of mental states associated with mind: Majjhima Nikaya 111 Anupada Sutta: One by One as They Occurred. with a mind rid of barriers…‖ This same formula is then repeated as Sariputra ascends the 4 rupa and 4 arupa-jhanas. and attention – these states were defined by him one by one as they occurred. he abided unattracted. detached. kaya-muduta (pliancy of cetasikas). mraksa (hypocrisy). auddhatya (restlessness). prajna (discernment). Now Sairiputra‘s insight into states one by one as they occurred was this: ―Here. samjna (notion). otappa (fear of blame) Wholesome Roots (kusala-mula) (3 factors): alobha (non-greed).). mithyadhimoksa (false resolve).
a beautifully coherent and internally consistent approach to understanding the world and liberation. Additionally. and although the various schools adopted various numbers. there are really 84. . there are 660 dharmas. they should not be allowed to make us forget the Buddhist conception of universal flux. etc. the 75 Dharmas include an extensive taxonomy of defilements. by establishing the dharmas as basic categories which subsume or include (samgraha) a range of intensity and quality (for example. It seems clear that the early lists were somewhat open-ended. Guenther adds. since they so easily induce us to believe that a static-mechanistic model and quantitative aspects will suffice to account for all organismic activity. Vasubandhu does not actually present an explicit enumeration of the 75 dharmas in the Abhidharmakosa. The Lokottaravada taught that only the unconditioned factors are real. In general. in keeping with the practical function of the formulation in a tradition that emphasizes the primacy of mind in its analysis of the basic human problem and its resolution. Entry into Abhidharma) enumerates what may be considered a more orthodox presentation of the Sarvastivada dharmas. c). volition and ideas are called mixed because they have the same object—which is our opinion—or because they are simultaneous.‖/―and others of this type‖). bandhana (9 bondages). optimism. loneliness. Definitions of the dharmas became more refined. self-hatred. hopelessness. The dharma lists came to represent a quick way of summarizing what a particular school regarded as real (and not real). ideas. obsession. fear of loss. ―Whatever the defects of numerical limitations may be. this sense was lost. depression. covering all cases.‖ However. But actually there aren't just 660 dharmas. nivarana (5 hindrances). a disciple of the great scholar and translator Xuanzang. perception and so on. but the Bhasya refutes the existence of 18 of these dharmas (as noted above: Bhasya: Prajnatpi). It is often not clear as to why certains dharmas are included and others not. ‗The dharmas of sensation.‖ Master Hua states (in his commentary on the 100 Dharmas of Vasubandhu): ―There aren't just one hundred dharmas. but from later writings such as the Panca-Skandha-Prakarana and the Thirty Verses. He was perhaps more drawn to how the dharmas relate. yoga (4 yokes). asamprajanya is defiled prajna. low self-esteem. The Sarvastivadin approach to liberation is to some extent a set of stages defined in terms of the abandoning or elimination of defilements.‖ The 75 dharma system may represent the presentation in the Kosa.) and wholesome factors (friendliness. Guenther is especially critical of the ―numerical dogmatism‖ of the dharma lists. appear on some lists and not on others.36 the list of viprayukta-samskara-dharmas ends with an ―etc. guilt. power lust. The numerical lists developed. Skandhila also employs traditional teaching categories in his exposition (avoiding the abstraction of the Panca-vastuka). how they are studied. they are not separate. prejudice. The 75 dharmas represent Pu-guang‘s distillation of Vasubandhu‘s presentation of the Sarvastivadin system. not only to indicate simultaneity. Skandhila also includes the 3 roots of unwholesomeness (aksuala-mula) and extensive enumeration of defilements including (as does AKB Ch V): samyojana (9 fetters). There are a few expressions in the Kosa which suggest that these lists were not closed (for example. IV) dharmas). The lists of dharmas are the product of extended analysis but in this process the abstract presentation could be deceptive (the map is not the territory). He includes the 3 roots of wholesomeness whereas in the 75 dharma system. (see below). viksepa is defiled samadhi. Vasubandhu while presenting the Sarvastivadin system. and its approach to a comprehensive description. These texts identify 5 mental factors present in every mind. anusaya (7. etc). the coming together of the three is contact. however. ideas or volitions which are not simultaneous…Sautrantika response: ―The question is thus posed whether sensation. Mipham Rinpoche considered the lists open-ended: ―With these mental states are mainly stated the distinctions of the general mind bases and the virtuous and negative mental states. it would appear that Vasubandhu did not subscribe to this Sautrantika position. sensations. but non-delusion is subsumed under mati/prajna (a maha-bhumika). the list above from the Dhatukaya and other early lists did not contain explicit enumerations of kusala (skillful) dharmas which became standard in the later formulations. The Mahasamghika incorporated a larger number of unconditioned factors (including dependent co-arising). altruism. upadana (4 clingings). The Sarvastivadin master Skandhila (in Abhidharmavatara.).‖ Geshe Tashi Tsering proposes a number of mental states that can be added to the traditional categories of afflictions (gloryseeking. 10 & 98 proclivities). Ch II includes the samprayukta (associated. Also.Tendencies to abstraction led to elimination of repetitions in such enumerations. klesa (defilements).‘ From this Sutra we conclude that there are no consciousnesses. It should be understood. Vasubandhu did not feel drawn to an explicit enumeration. upaklesa (10 secondary defilements).‖ Enumeration was a common device in early Buddhism perhaps primarily serving a mnemonic function. patience and impatience. The presentation of these dharmas is distributed in Chapters I and II (Ch I includes the rupa dharmas (I). that there are a tremendous number of different kinds. non-greed & non-hatred are kusala-maha-bhumikas. such as sadness and elation. and so forth. which result from the different kinds of grasping patterns apprehension. III) and viprayukta (disassociated. etc. ideas. into artificial and arbitrary limitations to further investigation of topics in general and toward a rigidly defined system in terms of the enumeration of dharmas. as it initially must have been only meant as some indeterminate number. much more emphasis on psychological phenomena than on physical. and consciousness are mixed.‘ ‗Mixed‘ signifies ‗arisen together. as you say. AKB II. structuring his work around the 5 skandhas and the unconditioned dharmas. together there arises (sahajaba) sensation. however. Skandhila includes two dharmas not enumerated in the 75 dharmas: pramodya or rati (delight) and nirveda or arati (disgust). The Sautrantika objects to the simultaneity of the caitta (mental factors). ogha (4 floods). mindlessness) is nothing but defiled smrti. but also to indicate immediate succession…[The Sarvastivadins:] But the Sutra (from the Madhyama) says. ―It has been unfortunate that a number should have been taken as absolute. is not confined by the substantialistic tendencies of that system. difficulty and ease. volition. citta dharma (II) and the asmaskrta dharmas (V). appears to be responsible for abstracting the 75 dharmas from the Kosa. But in later efforts at a comprehensive presentation. by insisting on their absolute number of factors they set themselves an artificial barrier which hampered further progress…The Sautrantika must be credited with not caring for a rigidly numerical schema. musita-smrti (forgetfulness. kayagrantha (4 bodily ties). in II. paryavasthana (10 envelopments). for example. volition.32 quotes a Sutra from the Samyuktagama: ―By reason of the eye and visible things there arises visual consciousness. asrava (3 outflows). we see in the 75 Dharmas. etc. how they function in cyclic suffering and liberation.000 dharmas.‖ This is the Sautrantika stance. Sautrantikas note: ―the word ‗together‘ (saha) is used. Lists of dharmas were developed in a number of the early non-Mahayana schools of Buddhism. The four great elements. Pu-guang (7th. grief.
Life Phenomenon: 17. to be extinguished (the defilements). 26. 17. forgetfulness. volition (#14) b) 5 limited to a particular object: aspiration (#16). syllables (#72). (2 dharmas. II. sati (mindfulness). Unwholesome Occasionals (10): 18. Mutable Phenomenon: 22. hypocrisy (#46). decay. Comparison with Sarvastivada 75 dharmas: the Abhidhammatta-sangaha includes an extensive analysis of the possible sets of mental states that can include each citta. saddo (sound). Pathavidhatu (earth element). 24. 7. CONCEPTION (SAMJNA): as dharma #15 above. vedana (feeling) 3. etc. Limiting Phenomenon: 19. adosa (non-aversion). Also – for more on dharmas. jivitindriya (life faculty). thina (sloth). X. rupam (visible form). 35. malleability. a person who has not acquired the way. gandho (smell). group homogeneity (#61).) (I-IV: 4 ultimate realities): I. 38. continuity. see the section on Dharma Theory in the Introductory materials. 42. impermanence.) (VI. kaya-kammannata (wieldiness of cetasikas). idleness (#35). cessation through deliberation (#73). distraction. disbelief (#36). conception (#15). 37. anottappa (recklessness). Translations: Stefan Anacker in Seven Works of Vasubandhu & Artemus Engle in The Inner Science of Buddhist Practice. 15. 32. there are a number of differences. 11. kaya-duccarita virati (abstinence from wrong action). wieldiness. tejodhatu (fire element). citta-ujukata (uprightness of citta). moha (ignorance). kabalikaro (edible food). ignorance (#33). 49. d) 6 root mental afflictions: desire (#55). macchariya (stinginess). NON-CONCRETE (ANIPPHANNA) (10): VIII. cetana (volition). 21. 6. 44. II. enmity (#42). MENTAL FACTORS (CETASIKA) (52): ETHICALLY VARIABLES (ANNASAMANA) (13): I. Illimitables: 50. MATTER (RUPA) (28): CONCRETELY PRODUCED (NIPPHANNA) (18): I. vicikiccha (doubt) BEAUTIFUL FACTORS (SOBHANA) (25): I. purisattam (masculinity). IX. non-greed (#39). 23. 46. ajiva-duccarita virati (abstinence from wrong livelihood). IV Sexual Phenomena: 14. ottappa (fear of blame). piti (enthusiasm). karuna (compassion). cakkhu (eye-sensitivity). Abstinances (3): 47. 33. panna (understanding) III. Related Ennumerations of Dharmas The Panca-Skandhaka-Prakarana (PSP). it is as consciousness (#12). 25. lobha (greed). space element. vaci-duccarita virati (abstinence from wrong speech). Heart Phenomenon: 16. stubbornness (#45). ekaggata (one-pointedness) 6. mudita (sympathetic joy). 4. citta-passaddhi (tranquillity of mind). Nutritional Phenomenon: 18. there is only one unconditioned dharma (rather than 3): nibbana. ahirika (shamelessness). XI. viriya (energy). Characteristics of Matter: 25. 23. 10. Theravadin sources are not included in the translation study or definitions of the 75 dharmas above. 45. violence (#50). vicara (sustained thinking). kaya-pagunnata (proficiency of cetasikas). chanda (zeal) UNWHOLESOME FACTORS (AKUSALA CETASIKAS) (14): I. mana (conceit). 11. 24. FORMATIONS (SAMSKARA): ASSOCIATED WITH MIND (51 dharmas): a) 5 universals: contact (#17). 16. kukkucca (regret). attention (#20). fear (#28). investigation (#54). Hadaya-vatthu (heart-base). e) 20 secondary afflictions: anger (#41). saddha (confidence). concentration (#22). 9. 41. Occasionals (pakinnaka) (6): 8. III. recollection (#19). 19. non-conscious absorption (#63). tatramajjhattata (equanimity). kaya-lahuta (lightness of cetasikas). Objective Phenomena: 10. IV. lightness. kaya-ujukata (uprightness of cetasika. Beautiful Universals (19): 28. Universals (Saddharana) (7): 1. deceptiveness (#48). sotam (ear-sensitivity). 5 objects and avijnapti (as dharmas #1-11 in the Table above) II. production. vayodhatu (air element). 36. hatred (#56). 7. citta-muduta (pliancy of citta). 8. absorption of axtinction (#64). but as the storehouse consciousness (alayavijnana). 13. SENSATION (VEDANA): as dharma #13 above. dosa (aversion). Non-delusion: 52. apodhatu (water element). 39. arising (#66). Twofold: with and without remainder Note: Although there is clearly much overlap between the Theravada enumerations of dharmas and the Sarvastivadin. itthattam (femininity). cessation not through deliberation (#74). middha (tropor) . views (under prajna (#18)). is an explication of the dharmas by Vasubandhu that seems to lie somewhere between the 75 dharmas of the Abhidharmakosa and Vasubandhu‘s later Yogacara enumerations of the dharmas (see below). vocal intimation. defined in terms of all the possible combinations of cetasika which accompany them. V. Tibetan Yogacara translations are included as the Yogacara formulations are based on the Sanskrit tradition of the Sarvastivadins. bodily intimation. torpor (#37). Great Essentials (mahabhuta): 1. III. sensation (#13). dissimulation (#43).82 dharmas from the Theravada text. II. 48. Communicating Phenomenon: 20. 22. ghanam (nose-sensitivity). 12. quality (or state) of being an ordinary being (not included in the 75 dharmas (but see Ch II. raso (taste). citta-lahuta (lightness of citta). 2. VI. sleep (#52). manasikara (attention). Abhidhammatta-sangaha by Anuruddha (10th-11th c. vitakka (applied thinking). 20. CONSCIOUSNESS (VIJNANA): as awareness of the object. IV. NOT ASSOCIATED WITH MIND (14 dharmas): acquisition (#59). doubt (#58). 12. 29. non-diligence (#34). Final Deliverance. 4. reasoning (#53). uddhaca (restlessness). pride (#57). citta-pagunnata (proficiency of citta). issa (envy). impermanence (#69). vital faculty (#65). dissipation (#38). kaya-passaddhi (tranquillity of body). jivha (tongue-sensitivity). MIND (CITTA) (1): Anuruddha analyzes 89 (or 121) cittas. phrases (#71). 2. definition. old-age (#68). 26. 34. 15. IV. A Discussion of the Five Aggregates. 43. Unwholesome Universals (4): 14. diligence (#24). jivitindriya (life faculty). K40 where it is discussed with non-possession (#60)). 27. ditthi (wrong view). 9. 27. 28. duration (#67). the analysis of unwholesome factors is not as extensive while the study wholesome factors is expanded to include the ―6 pairs‖ (35-46). For this reason. resolve (#21). kayo (body-sensitivity). respect (#27). VII. [the remaining rupas are derived (upadaya):] II. 30. hiri (moral shame). non-consciousness (#62). 21. aptitude (#25). f) 4 indeterminate: regret (#51). does not include the category of ―dharmas disassociated from mind‖ but many of these dharmas have correlates placed in concretely produced & non-concrete rupa. greed (#47). non-delusion (subsumed under prajna (#18)). pride (#49). equanimity (#26). 5. 13. effort (#32). it is not included in the 75 dharmas. 31. I. absence of fear (#40). envy (#44).) UNCONDITIONED (ASAMSKRTA): These are not included in the 5 skandhas (which only encompass conditioned dharmas) but are included in the analysis of the 12 ayatanas (4 dharmas): space (#75). 40. 51. III. MATERIALITY (RUPA) (15 dharmas): a) The 4 elements (see Chapter I Study of the 5 Skandhas) b) That which is derived from the 4 elements: 5 organs. phassa (contact). non-violence (#31). disrespect (#39). alobha (non-attachment). 3. non-hatred (#30).) V. Sensitive Phenomena: 5. citta-kammannata (wieldiness of citta). adhimokkha (determination). lack of awareness (these last 3 are not in the 75 dharmas). NIBBANA (1): to be blown out. sanna (perception). discernment (#18) c) 11 virtuous: faith (#23). suchness (not in the 75 dharmas). . words (#70). II. kaya-muduta (pliancy of cetasikas).
etc. 94.The unconditioned dharmas include 2 additional dharmas: 98. 4 of the indeterminates. 91. color) analyzed to grandest extent 極迥色  pertains to space [space-form. unskillful. includes a list of 105 dharmas: 11 rupa. 2nd and 4th truths without retribution with-retribution or without non-defiled defiled or non-defiled not karma may or may not be karma ―Thus. and is the standard list of mental factors encountered in the Tibetan tradition (e. non-trainee or neither abandonable through cultivation abandonable through cultivation or not to be abandoned subsumed under 1st & 2nd truths subsumed under 1st. kala comes before. self-pride (asmimana) and ignorance (avidya). 88. Number/calculation [numeration] (saṃkhyā). and the 6 consciousnesses (1 mental & 5 sense) . 86. rather than after.In the analysis of rupa. or non-defined neither-trainee-nor-non-trainee nature of trainee.g. 23 dharmas not associated with mind. connected link.The category of secondary defilements is expanded from 10 dharmas to 20. continuity] (pravṛtti).‖ (MVS) The 100 Dharmas (next page). Seriality [sequence. . a single particle] a. the characteristics of the Great Elements differ in innumerable ways from those of the derived matter.There is one additional virtuous dharma: non-delusion. definitive distinctiveness. 5 defiled universals.  the suchness of unfavorable things (akusaladharmatathata). The Abhidharmasamuccaya. 'Motionless' Cessation (āniñjya). The 100 dharmas does not include the quality of being an ordinary being (nor the dharma non-possession of the 75 dharmas).Like the analysis in the Thirty Verses. Otherwiseness [discontinuity] (anyathātva). location. regular sequence. which differs from the 100 dharmas in the following ways: . to a sign. e. & status. orientation] (deśa).  the suchness of neutral things (avyakrtadharmatatbata).] . 93. They include identical classifications of the 51 dharmas associated with mind (this same list of 51 mental factors also appears in Vasubandhu‘s Thirty Verses (Trimsika). one of his later important Yogacara works.] (often. Synthesis [combination. as in a dream] d.The 6 unconditioned dharmas have been expanded into 8 by dividing suchness into 3 distinct dharmas:  the suchness (essential nature) of favorable thingsm(kusaladharmatathata).Consciousness also includes the storehouse consciousness. 3 translations/interpretations are included below): 100 Dharmas (Lusthaus) ―Formal Thought Objects‖: Abhidharmasamuccaya (Rahula/Boin-Webb) [Hopkins]:  the infinitely small [from aggregation. Determinant (karmic) Differences [distinction. the Rahula & Boin-Webb translation from Abhidharmasamuccaya. by including the 2 unskillful universals. .The analysis of the defilements is quite different: the 6 root afflictions includes 1 of the defiled universals. Non-concrete form (space. The 100 dharmas expands on the PSP list in the following ways: . 99. but adds 11 dharmas: 74. gradation] (anukrama). confused memory asaṃprajanya: lack of awareness. and in Arial Narrow Underlined. by the addition of: the quality of an ordinary person (prthagjanatva) [included in the PSP list above]. 87. in bold: Erik Pema Kunsang translation from Gateway to Knowledge. . and 8 unconditioned dharmas. 89. . Cessation of Associative-thinking and Pleasure/pain (saṃjñā-vedayita-nirodha). and 3 dharmas not included in the list of 75 dharmas: muṣitasmṛtitā: forgetfulness. self-love (atmasneha). avijnapti has been replaced by a 5-fold analysis of ―matter included in the sphere of mental objects‖ (note that there seems to be variant interpretations (or traditions) of these 5 sub-types. Differentiation of species (visabhāga). external. Mind in Buddhist Psychology. there are two groups: 5 universals & 5 particular .There is one additional unconditioned dharma: suchness or thusness or as-it-is-ness. union] (yoga). internal.g. and attentive. e. desultoriness [distraction has sub-categories: 3-fold: towards the outer. and 94. rather than 8 indeterminates. perhaps because they are subsumed in the standard list of the defilements. diverse regularity] (pratiniyama). 92. and 6-fold: inherent. rigid. . is quite similar to the list from the PSP. Area (space) [direction. 90.).8 consciousnesses are distinguished: the storehouse consciousness.promise] c. 55 dharmas associated with mind. 85. the manas.There are only 4. . [brackets: from the BTTS translation: Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas. [These are not usually included in enumerations of the dharmas.The dharmas not associated with mind does not include non-possession but does include the quality of being an ordinary person. manas [the 7th consciousness] is associated with 4 ever-present (sarvatraga) defilements: selfview (atmadrsti).The list of dharmas not associated with mind has been considerably expanded from 14 dharmas to 24. Otherwiseness (anyathātva). Concrete form analyzed to minutest extent 極略色 b. 8 consciousnesses. Differentiation of species [dissimilarity] (visabhāga). Systematic Operation [revolution.The analysis of rupa includes the 4 elements and the explicit distinction of the primary elements and derived matter (also see below) . Forms produced and mastered in Samadhi 定所生自在色 . by Asanga.g.Rather than 10 universals. Innermost impression of perceptual form 受所引色  pertains to the imagination [imaginary form. . . rather than 24. non-alertness vikṣepa: distraction. Forms arising through False Conceptual Construction 遍計所起色  produced by supernormal powers [appearing in meditation] e. and the non-inclusion of: 74. Speed [rapidity] (jāva). assemblage] (sāmagrī). desa. inattentiveness.] . gathering. Differences between the great elements and derived matter according to the Sarvastivada school (from Dhammajoti): GREAT ELEMENTS (MAHABHUTA) DERIVED MATTER (BHAUTIKA) Invisible Visible Resistant Resistant or non-resistant with-outflow with outflow or outflow-free non-defined skillful. space only appears to mind]  pertains to the discipline of commitment [from a vow.This list of 86 dharmas differs from the list of 75 dharmas in the following ways: . The Mind and its Functions. from a text attributed to Vasubandhu.23 dharmas not associated with mind. Time (kāla). the inner. Unifying [interaction. and 1 dharma (views) not included explicitly in the list of 75 dharmas.
Carelessness pramāda 放逸 53. Cessation through Understanding pratisaṃkhyā擇滅無為 nirodha 97. Desire chanda 欲 15. Anger krodha 忿 37. Tactile/kinetic consciousness kāya-vijñāna 身識 6. Number/calculation saṃkhyā 數 93. Nose ghrāṇa 63. Unconditioned Dharmas Asaṃskṛta-dharmas 無為法 95. Cessation without Understanding apratisaṃkhyā非擇滅無為 nirodha 98. Life-force jīvitendriya 命根 73. Form Rūpa-dharma 色法 60. Stupidity mūḍhi 痴 33. Impermanence anityatā 無常 85. [subsequent] Discursive vicāra Thought III. Memory/mindfulness smṛti 念 17. Area (space) deśa 方 91. Non-embarrassment anapatrāpya 無愧 48. Non-harmfulness ahiṃsā 不害 D. Resist recognizing own faults mrakṣa 覆 39. Lack of [self-]Awareness muṣitasmṛtitā vikṣepa asaṃprajanya 失念 散亂 不正知 悔 隨眠 尋 伺 F. Indeterminate Aniyata 不定 56. Continuity/abiding sthiti 住 83. Forgetfulness 54. Serenity praśrabdhi 輕安 27. A. Appropriational intent rāga 貪 31. Speed jāva 勢速 89. Deceit māyā 誑 43. Initial mental application vitarka 59.net/yogacara/outlines/100dharmas-utf8. Distraction 55. Commonalities by species nikāya-sabhāga 眾同分 74. Otherwiseness anyathātva 不和合性 V. 'Formal' Thought-objects dharmāyatanikāni rūpāni 眼 耳 鼻 舌 身 色 聲 香 味 觸 法處所攝 色 IV. Torpor middha 58.acmuller. Time kāla 時 92. Lethargic negligence kausīdya 懈怠 52. Based on Vasubandhu's Baifa mingmen lun 百法明門論 Mahāyāna śatadharmā-prakāśamukha śāstra (Lucid Introduction to the One Hundred Dharmas) T1614 I. Determinant (karmic) pratiniyama 定異 Differences 87. Embarrassment apatrāpya 愧 22. Equanimity upekṣa 行捨 29. Seriality anukrama 次第 90. Aversion pratigha 瞋 32. Smelling-consciousness ghrāṇa-vijñāna 鼻識 4. Selfishness mātsarya 慳 42. Smell gandha 68. Ipseity tathatā 如來 . Birth/arising jāti 生 82.htm. Lack of Hatred adveṣa 無瞋 24.百法: From: http://www. Guile śāṭhya 諂 44. Envy īrasyā 嫉 41. The Eight Consciousnesses Citta-dharma 心法，八識 1. Ear śrotra 62. Embodied-conditioning Not Directly [perceived] by Citta Cittaviprayukta-saṃskāra-dharma 心不相應行法 71. Specific Viniyata 別 境 14. Associative-thinking saṃjñā 想 13. Body kāya 65. 'Motionless' Cessation āniñjya 不動滅無為 99. caitasika-dharma 心所法 / cittasamprayukta-dharma 心相應法. Cessation of Associativesaṃjñā想受滅無為 thinking and Pleasure/pain vedayitanirodha 100. Unifying yoga 相應 88. Differentiation of species visabhāga 異生法 75. Mental fogginess styāna 惛沈 50. Sensory contact sparśa 觸 10. Volition cetanā 思 12. Doubt vicikitsā 疑 35. 'Predicate' body pada-kāya 句身 80. Lack of Faith/trust āśraddhya 不信 51. Always-active Sarvatraga 遍行 9. Remorse kaukṛtya 57. Seeing-consciousness cakṣur-vijñāna 眼識 2. Eye cakṣus 61. [inner] Shame hrī 慚 21. Shamelessness āhrīkya 無慚 47. Dan Lusthaus. [visible] form rūpa 66. Confident Resolve adhimokṣa 勝解 16. Hearing-consciousness śrotra-vijñāna 耳識 3. [realm of] Thoughtless [beings] āsaṃjñika 無想果 78. Conceit mada 憍 46. Restlessness auddhatya 掉舉 49. Mental Disturbances Kleśa 煩惱 30. Tasting-consciousness jihvā-vijñāna 舌識 5. Sound śabda 67. Lack of Greed alobha 無貪 23. Touch spraṣṭavya 70. Secondary Mental Disturbances Upakleśa 隨煩惱 36. Taste rasa 69. Carefulness apramāda 不放逸 28. Perspectivality dṛṣṭi 惡見 E. [verbal] maliciousness pradāsa 惱 40. Discernment prajñā 慧 C. Meditative concentration samādhi 定 18. Arrogance māna 慢 34. Tongue jihvā 64. Synthesis sāmagrī 和合性 94. Attainment of Thoughtlessness asaṃjñi-samāpatti 無想定 76. 'Name' body nāma-kāya 名身 79. Warehouse consciousness ālaya-vijñāna 阿賴耶識 II. Focusing manas 意 8.100 Dharmas . (karmic) Accrual prāpti 得 72. Enmity upanāha 恨 38. Lack of Misconception amoha 無痴 25. Systematic Operation pravṛtti 流轉 86. Mental Associates caitta. Spatiality ākāśa 虛空 96. Advantageous Kuśala 善 19. 'Utterance' body vyañjana-kāya 文身 81. Pleasure/pain/neutral vedanā 受 11. Aging/decaying jarā 老 84. Harmfulness vihiṃsā 害 45. Empiric-consciousness mano-vijñāna 意識 7. Attainment of Cessation nirodha-samāpatti 滅盡定 77. Faith/trust śraddhā 信 20. Attention manaskāra 作意 B. Vigor vīrya 精進 26.
13. 18. however.5 results. Disappearance condition (vigata paccaya): identical with No. etc. "just like three sticks propped up one by another.. carries out an extensive analysis of the 24 conditions (paccaya). These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason. 13 & 14 relate to vipaka-hetu & vipaka-phala. 19. Nutriment condition (áhára paccaya): the 4 nutriments (see AKB Ch III K39-41) 16. prapti (acquisition) 2. Root condition (hetu paccaya): Just as a tree rests on its root. aprapti (non-acquisition) 3. bad (B). Absence condition (natthi paccaya): consciousness.v. asamjnika (non-thought) 5. 22 & 23). 5 (and 4.. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. namakaya (group of words) 13.) and objects. Rupa-(R): All 3 spheres All 3 spheres All 3 spheres R (Brhatphala) K&R K&R All 3 spheres All 3 spheres All 3 spheres All 3 spheres All 3 spheres K&R K&R K&R Belong to: Living beings Living beings Living beings Living beings Living beings Living beings Living beings All conditioned things All conditioned things All conditioned things All conditioned things Living beings Living beings Living beings Outflowing? Yes Yes Yes (No?) Yes Yes (No?) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Retribution? Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Good (G). nirodha-samapatti (attainment of extinction) 7. Dissociation condition (vippayutta paccaya): such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not having the same physical base (eye." 8. and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. (b) by way of proximity. 17. asamjni-samapatti (attainment of non-thought) 6. By Nyanatiloka Connections: the 4 conditions correspond to 1. which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of consciousness. as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena (see AKB Ch VIII). Pre-nascene condition (purejáta paccaya): refers to something previously arisen. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha). In one and the same state of consciousness. which has just passed. The 7th work of the Pali Abhidhamma canon. 6) and mutually (s. 7. Mutuality condition (aññamañña paccaya): same as 6. the fivefold senseconsciousness. 8. Repetition condition (ásevana paccaya): refers to the karmical consciousness. 20. Predominance condition (adhipati paccaya): 4 things. Presence condition (atthi paccaya): through its presence is a condition for other phenomena. Association condition (sampayutta paccaya): refers to the co-nascent (s. Path condition (magga paccaya): refers to the 12 path-factors. 6 causes.) are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency. 6. which forms a base for something arising later on. namely (a) by way of object. neutral (N)? Good.Analysis of the Citta-Viprayukta-Samskara-Dharmas (K36-47): 1. q. sthiti-laksana (durationcharacteristic) 10. leaving out No. 11. 19 corresponds to the samprayuktaka-hetu. 21. forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. 10. Priority condition (anantara paccaya) refers to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them. 15. 22. only 1 of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. Object condition (árammana paccaya): As object. 10. Decisive Support condition (upanissaya paccaya): is threefold. Contiguity condition (samanantara paccaya): same as 4. namely: concentrated intention (chanda). bad. nysanda-phala may connect to 12. Faculty condition (indriya paccaya): This condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya). 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. but responds to a number of similar questions. Non-disappearance condition (avigata paccaya): identical with No. Karma condition (kamma paccaya): pre-natal karma is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs. a way of escape from this or that mental constitution. etc. 5. 7. 3. 11. 2. anityata-laksana (impermanencecharacteristic) 12. padakaya (group of phrases) 14. 4. consciousness (citta) and investigation (vímamsá). Co-nascence condition (sahajáta paccaya): condition by way of simultaneous arising. similarly all karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots. vyanjanakaya (group of syllables) Spheres of existence (Kama-(K). nikaya-sabhagata (grouphomogeneity) 4. Source: Buddhist Dictionary 24. (c) natural decisive support. jati-laksana (birth-characteristic) 9. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena. 9. This is very different from the Abhidharma analysis of causality which developed in the Pali tradition. on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them. jara-laksana (old-agecharacteristic) 11. and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed. Patthana. Jhána condition (jhána paccaya): the 7 so-called jhána-factors. Post-nascene condition (pacchájáta paccaya): refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated. Support condition (nissaya paccaya): phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base. 12. neutral Undefiled-neutral Undefiled-neutral Undefiled-neutral Good Good Undefiled-neutral (Undefiled-neutral?) (Undefiled-neutral?) (Undefiled-neutral?) (Undefiled-neutral?) Undefiled-neutral Undefiled-neutral Undefiled-neutral 24 Conditional Relations: The next pages include an overview of the Sarvastivadin analysis of causality: 4 conditions. 14. 22. 7 & 8 relate to sahabhu-hetu. 21. above. no correlate for visamyoga-phala? . Karma-result condition (vipáka paccaya): karma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of karma-result for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena. in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta. 2. 1. energy (viriya). 6. as these are for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental phenomena associated with them. 3. jivitendriya (vital faculty) 8. 23.
or indirectly through not hindering its arising.50: Sahabhuhetu. Dhammajoti: ―the most comprehensive or generic condition. ―although a cause and a condition do not differ in respect of substance.‗produce‘ a result when it arises. all minds and mental states which have arisen are an equal and immediately antecedent condition. Cause and condition were used more or less synonymously in the sutrapitaka and early Sarvastivadin Abhidharma texts. coexistent causes. the five remaining hetus constitute hetupratyayata. from the arising of this that arises. the very possibility of a cognition presupposes a real/existent as its object. although transcending space & time altogether. all except the efficient cause are conditions qua cause. examining how dharmas work together and function. Karana-hetu (能作因): Efficient Cause. In this sense.‖ 3. Sahabhu-hetu (倶有因): Co-existent Cause. Dhammajoti: ―According to the Sarvastivada. Karika 49-65 In the dharma theory of the Sarvastivadins. dynamic mode of studying the dharmas. either in the sense of directly contributing to the arising of a dharma.all dharmas. Alambana-pratyaya(所縁縁): Condition qua Object. samprayuktaka. point of support for mind consciousness. however. past. predominant… The predominating condition is that which belongs to the greatest number of dharmas. The teaching of causes & conditions is thus discerning and articulating the dharmas. Sovereign Condition AKB II. Samanantara-pratyaya(等無間縁): Equal-immediate Condition. 2 absorptions from 3 (no object). with the exception of the last ones.6 Hetu (Causes). is one functioning as an efficient cause for murder?) 2. manas.52: Similar dharmas are sabhāgahetu or similar causes. are also said to serve as conditions of dominance. can become condition qua objects. The dharmas are established by virtue of making a unique causal contribution.] Skandhila: ―The conditioned dharmas that are fruits of one another or that together bring about a common fruit. without taking an object. in contrast to the static. united. Immediately Antecedent/Contiguous/Preceding Condition AKB II. Strictly speaking.the mind can think of anything . Four Pratyayas: Sutra teaching. 5 Phala (Results): Abhidharmakosa. even though in the analysis of the causal complex. conditioned as well as unconditioned. II. sabhaga.] Dhammajoti: ―An exemplification of this cause is the homogeneous causality in which the moral species of the succeeding effect is the same as that of the preceding cause. the main cause can be singled out. 1. characteristics and the thing characterized. Ch II. Condition qua Cause. Observed Object Condition AKB II. comparable to a seed…However. arising here.‖ [One significant instance of this kind of condition is the mental organ. Sabhaga-hetu (同類因): Homogenuous Cause.62 All the dharmas.[II. Mutual Causality) AKB II.‖(Not obstructing murder. namely the elements (bhuta). As thought can take any object . the one which continually passes away. everything exists).‖ AKB I. In fact. present or future.contributes to the arising of another dharma.e. General & Indirect) AKB II. the object serves as a condition for the cognition.59:This & Sarvatraga-hetu produce result when present or past. with the exception of themselves…because no dharma constitutes an obstacle to the arising of the dharmas susceptible of arising… all other hetus are included within karanahetu.it is the cause functioning as the condition. Belong to the same category (nikaya) and the same stage (bhu). Co-operating Condition AKB II. with Samghabhadra.II. samskrta or asamskrta. Simultaneous Cause (Reciprocal Causality.64:citta & caitta arise from all 4. corresponding to efficient cause: It is whatever serves as a condition. Reason-for-being (or Reason for existence) Cause (Generic. there is a difference in significance‖ (although the Vaibhasika master Vasumitra argued for no distinction) : Cause what pertains to the same species is a cause what is proximate is a cause what is unique is a cause what produces is a cause what fosters its own series is a cause what is direct. not united. sarvatraga & vipaka] Dhammajoti: "This is the condition in its capacity as direct cause in the production of an effect ..‖ 4. Similar Cause. are "objects of consciousness" of the mind and its mental states. causes as condition. are the dharmas that are causes one of the other…In the category of sahabhuhetu are then included all conditioned dharmas which are in a mutual relationship of causality…[The Sautrantika object to co-existent cause in the Bhasya. some of the efficient causes should also come under this category if they make some positive contribution in the causal process.‖ 2. & 2. Of the six causes. Object-support Condition.by not hindering .‖ (Accounts for the appearance of continuity in a series.[see the hetus below (& chart) – the 5 are: sahabhu. Predominating Condition. Hetu-pratyaya (因緣): Causal Condition. Dhammajoti: ―A citta or caitta serves as a condition for the arising of the succeeding citta or caitta: It both gives way to and induces the arising of the next citta-caitta in the series. cognition is cognition of an object: A cognition cannot arise by itself. the mind and the companions of the mind. Dhammajoti: "This is the most comprehensive or generic type of cause: It is any dharma that either directly or indirectly .) . defined as ―Of these six consciousnesses.61 The pratyaya that bears the name of hetu is five hetus…Excepting karanahetu. the unconditioned dharmas. arising in another . analytic study of the intrinsic nature of the dharmas which emphasizes how they are unique.‗grasp‘ a result in the present. singular a cause is that which generates unshared in its function that which induces the arising is a cause what produces is a cause Condition what pertains to a different species is a condition what is remote is a condition what is common is a condition what subsidiarily produces is a condition what fosters another's series is a condition what is indirect. The hetus unfold further distinctions in the teaching of causality to highlight and support specific features of the evolving dharma theory (both in general terms of articulating dynamic interactions of dharmas with distinct intrinsic natures. are an equal and immediately antecedent condition…If one excepts the last mind and the last mental states of the Arhat at the moment of Nirvana.59:Causes 1. and which is exercised with respect to the greatest number of dharmas. causal efficacy is the criterion for the reality/existence of a dharma. The study of causes & conditions is a synthetic. it is a common tenet of all schools of Buddhism that nothing is produced by a single cause. i. Principle: ―this being that comes to be.62 The cause termed kāraṇa is called adhipati.50: All dharmas are karanahetu with regard to all. In the Mahavibhasa and later. Arisen previously…[but] The Path is sabhāgahetu to an equal or superior Path .62 The mind and its mental states that have arisen. Parallel Cause (Similars Cause Similars) AKB II. a set of distinctions are made.multiple a condition is that which fosters shares with other dharmas that which sustains is a condition what accomplishes is a condition 1.‖ Emphasis on dependent coarising of experience.other dharmas by 2 (no object or equal-immediate). 4 Pratyaya (Conditions). Adhipati-phala(增上緣):: Condition of Dominance.‖ Six Causes (Hetu): The 6 causes can be subsumed within 2 of the 4 conditions (see chart below) and were formulated considerably later (as were the 5 results). This type of condition is called samanantara (equal and immediately antecedent) because it produces equal (sama) and immediate (anantara) dharmas. From the latter perspective.17] 3. and specifically in relation to sarvastiva.
” Universal and similar causes are overlapping categories.34]. mutual cause through association. arisen previously…are only the cause of defiled dharmas. a created thing is the result of the virile activity and the predominating result of the artisan who created it. The causal relationship between this fruit and its cause pertains to the domain of karma which is twofold. They arise later than a non-neutral dharma [a vipaka-hetu]. the efficient cause. personal and collective.57 Retribution is a neutral dharma. Dhammajoti: ―karmic cause…[leading] to a desirable or undesirable karmic retribution.]… refers to the agent [see adhipati-phala below].12). Associative Cause.56: it arises by reason of the “nonobstacle” of its cause. see vipaka-phala above. although the Path is not the cause of disconnection (=pratisamkhya-nirodha) one can say that it is the result of the Path. Predominating Result. Samprayuktaka-hetu (相應因): Conjoined Cause. Meditation. the second refers to both the agent and the non-agent. which we shall study in the Chapter on the Defilements (v. a given moment (ksana) of the organ of sight is the support 1) of a visual consciousness. Adhipati-phala(增上果): Fruit of Dominance.[Vasubandhu defined karitra as “virile activity. Separative Result.4.59: It is past when it produces its result. defilements belonging to categories different from them.55: It is the result of the Path. pertaining to sentient beings only. Pervasive or All Powerful Cause. Vipaka-hetu (異熟因): Retributive Cause. it presents no obstacle to the path. Nisyanda-phala (等流果): Emanation Fruit. Automatic or Uniformly Contiguous Effect AKB II. Anthropomorphic Effect AKB II.] (Nisyanda: ―flowing forth. issuing‖. with their following. What is the difference between these two causes? Some dharmas are called samprayuktakahetu. Virile Result. Immoral Cause. with the exception of the dharmas that are later than it… What difference is there between the result of virile activity and a predominating result? The first refers to the agent. correlates with the retribution cause. that is. Thus.) Five Results (Phalas): The fives results round out the exposition of causation. Sovereign Result. However.) 2. because they are weak… pure dharmas are not bound to any sphere of existence…[„vi‟ = difference] Vipaka is a paka or result dissimilar from its cause. For example. through Seeing. but there are similar causes that are not universal causes.delusion-conceit. which refers to the efficacy of a dharma. greed-hate.‖ (Includes the whole universe as the fruit of the collective karmas of the totality of beings. is unique to the individual.54: Bad dharmas and impure good dharmas are retributive causes…Neutral dharmas are not retributive causes. such a collective result is considered as a fruit of dominance [see adhipati-phala below].59: This & Sahabhu-hetu produce their result in the present only. II. because they function identically. Instead. Retributive Result. They then constitute a cause different from sabhagahetu [in which the category cannot be different]. They emphasize certain commonalities in the causes and also complete the vision of the path by including nirvana (which as an unconditioned dharma.”] (The virile result has a wide scope. which. the physical world (bhajana-loka) inhabited by living beings is the result of the moral actions of the totality of beings.‖ (II. for it is obtained due to the force of the Path…it is through the Path that an ascetic obtains possession (prapti) of disconnection… the Path causes one to obtain disconnection. causes through association which has the same support…For example. Dhammajoti: ―This is the most generic type of fruit. Xuanzang‘s trans: ―equal-flowing. Collective karmas are actions done collectively by a group of beings.Aggregate Effect AKB II. Dominant Effect. Purusakara-phala (士用果): Manly or Virile Fruit.” (It is not that disconnection (from defilements) is produced as an effect in a causal process. ―consistent consequences‖. Dhammajoti: ―This fruit. Visamyoga-phala (離繫果): Disconnection Fruit. Deliverance Effect AKB II. Belonging to living beings. Hence. Vipaka-phala (異熟果): Retribution Fruit. 1. Maturation Cause.) 3. and vice versa. resulting from virile action. Going Everywhere (Defilement) AKB II.]: it is through their power that there arises. Various views on which defilements constitute universal causes: all.57 Extinction through intelligence is disconnection…AKB II. because there is among them the five similarities or identities [see II.57 A result that resembles its cause is called outflowing.[produced by similar (sabhaga) & universal (sarvatraga) causes. has neither cause nor result).54: Former universals are sarvatragahetu or universal causes of the defiled dharmas of their own stage… Universals.53: The mind and its mental states are only samprayuktakahetu. it is only the predominating result of what is not the artisan [i.‖ Tibetan: ―cause-conforming‖. Heterogenous Effect AKB II.) 5. Emancipated Effect. by definition. and 2) of the sensation (vedana) and the other mental states which are associated with this consciousness…Whatever is samprayuktakahetu is also sahabhuhetu [co-existent cause]. Sarvatraga-hetu (遍行因): Universal Cause. etc.58 Any conditioned dharma is the predominating result (adhipatiphala) of conditioned dharmas. Personal karma results in an individual retribution. Fruition Effect. they are the cause of defiled dharmas in their own category and in other categories [nikaya. because it is similar to the activity of a person (purusakara)…[result of co-existing (sahabhu) and conjoined (samprayuktaka) causes. 5. Rather. its acquired by following the path. it is not named a retribution.) 4. „Category‟ refers to the method of abandoning. Concomitant Cause. 6.) 4 Pratyayas (Conditions) Hetu-pratyaya (Causal condition) 6 Hetus (Causes) Sahabhu-hetu (Co-existent Cause) Samprayuktaka-hetu (Associative Cause) Sabhaga-hetu (Similar Cause) Sarvatraga-hetu (Universal Cause) Vipaka-hetu (Retributive Cause) 5 Phalas (Results) Purusakara-phala (Virile result) Nisyanda-phala (Outflowing or Concordant result) Vipaka-phala (Retributive result) ----Adhipati-phala (Predominate Result) Visamyoga-phala (Disconnection Result) Samanantara-pratyaya (Equalimmediate Condition) Alamabana-pratyaya (Object Condition) Adhipati-pratyaya (Predominating Condition) --- ----Karana-hetu (Efficient Cause) --- . Interpenetrating Cause AKB II. Fruition Cause. Heterogeneous Cause (Karmic Cause) AKB II. Outflowing/Even-flowing Result. those abandoned through seeing.e. correlated to the most generic type of cause. Maturation Result. Reciprocal causality pertaining only to mind and its mental states. resulting in collective experiences.etc.‖ (Note: the retribution result is undefiled-neutral – that is. adhipati-phala has a broader scope]…II.58 A dharma is the result of the virile activity of the dharma through the force by which it arises…The activity of a dharma is termed its virile activity (purusakara).
including the tortures of the hells? Homage to this God!‖) . that is. 4-10 Six: 1-3. here is an attempt to trace out how the above analysis of conditions. Good mind in Kamadhatu Eight: 1-6. 8.Acquired (through effort) 8. 2. K65. 6. 3. etc. Adhipati-pratyaya (predominating condition).Innate (by birth) Seven: 1. 7-10 Seven: 2. the dharmas associated with a defilement. 3. 5.Mind of application 8. retributive dharmas or dharmas arisen from a retributive cause (vipakahetu. 11. that is the Path of Seeing (darsana-marga). which are analyzed in K67-71 in terms which types of mind can arise after each mind & which types of minds each mind can arise after: Types of mind which Types of mind which can 20 Cittas – 20 Types of Mind (A) (B) 12 Cittas – 12 Types of Mind this mind can arise after arise after this mind (B) (K71-72): (K66) (A) (K67-70): (K67-71): 1. 5-7 11. 5-7. Unfolding the Samanantara-pratyaya (Equal-immediate Condition): K66: ―We have seen that antecedent minds and mental states are the equal and immediately antecedent condition of subsequent minds and mental states. Good mind in Arupyadhatu 16.Acquired (through effort) 5. & adhipati-phala (predominating result) are explicated (mostly indirectly) in Ch III.Can create fictive beings Six: 1. K32. K85-94. 11. Pure 11. 12 Eleven: 1-6. Nisyanda-phala (outflowing result) and vipaka-phala (retribution): also see Attribute Study in Supplemental Materials. universal & similar causes (sabhagahetu) The associated cause (samprayuktakahetu) The associated cause The associated cause The associated cause Dharmas that are not mind and its mental states (―other dharmas‖ in the table) include material-form dharmas (rupa).Retributive mind 4. Mind & its mental states arise from 6 causes excluding: Also exclude. 9.Can create fictive beings Nine: 1. Undefiled neutral mind in Kamadhatu 6. Asaiksa (―beyond training‖) The last two columns – (A) and (B) are the same as columns 3 and 4 but applied to the 20 citta formulation instead of the 12: 1.Retributive mind 7.‖ This verse delineates 12 kinds of mind. on the world. 3. 8-10 18. Sabhaga-hetu (similar cause) is significant for its absence in ―momentary‖ (ksanika) dharmas: see Ch I. 6.Mind of attitude 14. Causality Unfolding in the Kosa: In terms of seeing how chapters I & II lay out fundamental principles which are then developed in and concretely instantiated in later chapters.Innate (by birth) Ten: 1-10 Four: 1-4 3. 8-12 9. 12 7 11 14 14 7 7 7 2 10 5 11 5 5 2 6 4 10 4 4 5 10 9 7 7 8 8 6 2 12 8 9 7 7 2 7 7 8 6 6 5 Arupyadhatu Rupadhatu Kamadhatu (A) = Types of mind which this mind can arise after and (B) = Types of mind which can arise after this mind.Mind of attitude 7. with the exception of the dharmas of retribution. 8. 5. 12. K23-34. defiled dharmas. karana-hetu (efficient cause). 9 12. the other dharmas. 11. K66-73. 9. the formations dissociated from mind (see K35-48).: ―do you say that God finds satisfaction in seeing the creatures that he has created in the prey of all the sufferings of existence. Ch V & VIII. 6. 5. also in Ch III.38b.Undefiled neutral mind in Arupyadhatu Three: 8-10 Four: 1. Samprayukta-hetu (associative cause) is exemplified in the section on mental states in Ch II. Visamyoga-phala (disconnection result) is treated indirectly in Ch VI: paths of deliverance. 4. K34. 3. Vipaka-hetu (retributive cause) and vipaka-phala (retribution) are primarily discussed in Chapter IV on Karma. 5.54c).8). But we have not explained how many types of mind arise immediately after each type of mind.Acquired (through effort) 2. Defiled neutral mind in Rupadhatu Three: 5-7 Six: 2-3. All 5 results are included in the study of results of various categories of action in Ch IV. 5. Defiled neutral mind in Arupyadhatu Six: 2-3. Undefiled neutral mind in Rupadhatu 13. and the citta-viprayukta-samskaras. Bad mind in Kamadhatu Ten: 1-10 Four: 1-4 4. 5. causes and results is worked out and exemplified in the Kosa as a whole (also see Ch III. K20-38 on dependent-origination): Alambana-pratyaya (object-condition) is exemplified in the analysis of the dhatus in Ch I. that is. 4-9. Good mind in Rupadhatu 10. the first pure dharmas.K60-61: Analysis of which dharmas arise from which causes: ―These is no dharma that comes from a single cause: the reason for being [karanahetu] and the mutually coexistant cause [sahabhuhetu] are never absent. Retributive mind 10. 2. Also see Chapter IV for how the first pure dharmas. 11. vi. Saiksa (―saint who is not an arhat‖) Five: 1. (K64: humorous sarcasm!? On the existence of God as sovereign. the defilements. Sahabhu-hetu (co-existent cause) is exemplified in Ch II. 12 19. that is.27) and the dharmas coexistent with this ksanti. 12 20. K38 & Ch VI: 19. Samanantara-pratyaya (equal-immediate condition) is unfolded in Ch II. ii. and the dharmas having their origins in a defilement (iv.Innate (by birth) Eight: 1. and the good dharmas. 8-10 17. 12 Four: 1. 8. 12) Nine: 1-6. creator. 11. duhkhe dharmajnanaksanti (i. 6. Defiled neutral mind in Kamadhatu Five: 1-5 Seven: 1-6. for other dharmas (see below): The retributive cause (vipakahetu) The universal cause (sarvatragahetu) The retributive and universal causes The retributive. Sarvatraga-hetu (universal cause) is discussed in Chapter V on the defilements (K12-18). 11 Five: 1. the neutral dharmas. do not include the similar cause (sabhagahetu). 9 5.‖ Four classes of dharmas are distinguished in clarifying how many causes produce the dharmas: 1. 5. 8-12 Nine: 2. 8-12 15. with the exception of the first pure dharmas 4. 8.
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