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For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation).

The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world

The British Museum in London

The Uffizi Gallery, the most visited museum inItaly and one of most important in the world. View toward the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence

A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing

through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.[1] Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside. The continuing acceleration in thedigitization of information, combined with the increasing capacity of digital information storage, is causing the traditional model of museums (i.e. as static “collections of collections” of three-dimensional specimens and artifacts) to expand to include virtual exhibits and high-resolution images of their collections for perusal, study, and exploration from any place with Internet.


The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg

The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as "museums" (or rarely, "musea"). It is originally from the Greek Μουσεῖον (Mouseion), which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses (the patron divinities in Greek mythology of the arts), and hence a building set apart for study [2] and the arts, especially the Musæum(institute) for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I [3] Soter about 280 BCE. The first museum/library is considered to be the one [4] of Plato in Athens. However, Pausanias gives another place called "Museum," namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used [5] to sing on the hill and died there of old age and was subsequently buried there as well. [edit]Purpose

Hampton Court Palace, the great gatehouse.

Museum purposes change from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects. They displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a [6] historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia. Some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Generally speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display. Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500 year old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes. The daily activities, historic clothing, and even temperature changes immerse [7] the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been.

The museums of ancient times, such as the Musæum of Alexandria, would be equivalent to a modern graduate institute.

The State Historical Museum in Moscow

Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City

Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts. These were often displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. Public access was often possible for the "respectable", especially to private art collections, but at the whim of the owner and his staff. The oldest such museum in evidence was Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, dating from c. 530 BC and devoted to Mesopotamian antiquities; it apparently had sufficient traffic as to warrant labels for the ordered collection, although there is no source for this information. The oldest public museums in the world opened in Rome during the Renaissance. However, many significant museums in the world were not founded until the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment:     the Capitoline Museums, the oldest public collection of art in the world, began in 1471 when Pope Sixtus IV donated a group of important ancient sculptures to the people of Rome. the Vatican Museums, the second oldest museum in the world, traces its origins to the public displayed sculptural collection begun in 1506 by Pope Julius II the Amerbach Cabinet, originally a private collection, was bought by the university and city of Basel in 1661 and opened to the public in 1671. the Royal Armouries in the Tower of London is the oldest museum in the United Kingdom. It opened to the public in 1660, though there had been paying privileged visitors to the armouries displays from [8] 1592. Today the museum has three sites including its new headquarters in Leeds. the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'archéologie in Besançon was established in 1694 after Jean-Baptiste Boisot, an abbot, gave his personal collection to the Benedictines of the city in order to create a [9] museum open to the public two days every week. the Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg was founded in 1717 in Kikin Hall and officially opened to the public in 1727 in the Old St. Petersburg Academy of Science Building the British Museum in London, was founded in 1753 and opened to the public in 1759. Sir Hans Sloane's personal collection of curios provided the initial foundation for the British Museum's [10] collection. the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, which had been open to visitors on request since the 16th century, was [citation needed] officially opened to the public 1765

 

also à royal palace. and now a museum.  The Constitution house of Isfahan in Isfahan These "public" museums. The Constitution house of Isfahan. The museum is open to the public every day. It did [11] not open to the public until 1824. is now modern day Istanbul. Turkey  The Charleston Museum was established in 1773 thereby making it the first American museum. Historically located in Constantinople. in Isfahan. however. Iran is a house that belonged toHaj Aqa Nourollah (one of the big political leaders in the constitution era of Iranand Isfahan). later an Ottoman mosque. the Belvedere Palace of the Habsburg monarchs in Vienna opened with a collection of art in [citation needed] 1781 the Louvre Museum in Paris (France).   the Hermitage Museum was founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great and has been open to the public since 1852. There is a lot of information about the constitution era of Iran and a lot more information about Haj Aqa Nourollah's social and caltural activities. pas opened to the public in 1793 The Orthodox Church. Hagia Sophia was once the pride of theByzantine Empire. were often accessible only by the middle and upper classes. It could .

After Napoleon was defeated in 1815. A period of intense museum building. both Natural History museums and Art museums alike. The fabulous art treasures collected by the French monarchy over centuries were accessible to the public three days each "décade" (the 10-day unit which had replaced the week in the French Republican Calendar). many moved to emulate their European counterparts in certain ways (including the development of Classical collections from ancient Egypt. the first public museum was the Louvre Museum in Paris. Nevertheless. the collections grew and the organizational task became more and more complicated.working . In Victorian times in England it became popular for museums to be open on a Sunday afternoon (the only such facility [citation allowed to do so) to enable the opportunity for "self-improvement" of the other . In France. prospective visitors to the British Museum had to apply in writing for admission. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s concept of liberal government.” Universities became the primary centers for innovative research in the United States well before the start of theSecond World War. His plan was never fully realized. particularly those related to high culture. were founded with the intention of focusing on the scientific discoveries and artistic developments in North America. founded in 1677 from the personal collection of Elias Ashmole. Greece. Visitors in small groups were limited to stays of two hours. American museums eventually joined European museums as the world's leading centers for the production of new knowledge in their fields of interest. in both an intellectual and physical sense was realized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (this is often called "The Museum Period" or "The Museum Age"). Mesopotamia and Rome). confiscating art objects as he went. As such. [citation needed] . needed] The Ashmolean museum. In London for example. many of the treasures he had amassed were gradually returned to their owners (and many were not). Tony Bennett has suggested the development of more modern 19th century museums was part of new strategies by Western governments to produce a citizenry that. As Napoléon I conquered the great cities of Europe. objects and artifacts. opened in 1793 during the French Revolution. To incorporate the masses in this strategy. which enabled for the first time free access to the former French royal collections for people of all stations and status. became instruments for these “new tasks of social [13] management. rather than be directed by coercive or external difficult to gain entrance. The Conservatoire du muséum national des Arts (National Museum of Arts's Conservatory) was charged with organizing the Louvre as a national public museum and the centerpiece of a planned national museum system. museums to this day contribute new knowledge to their fields and continue to build collections that are useful for both research and display. was set up in the University of Oxford to be open to the public and is considered by some to be the first [12] modern public museum. Even by 1800 it was possible to have to wait two weeks for an admission [citation needed] [citation needed] ticket. While many American museums. the private space of museums that previously had been restricted and socially exclusive were made public. but his concept of a museum as an agent of nationalistic fervor had a profound influence throughout Europe.classes. monitored and regulated its own conduct. however.

institutional code of ethics. Managers must also set legal and ethical standards and [16] maintain involvement in the museum profession.[edit]Management Vatican Museums The roles associated with the management a museum largely depends on the size of the institution. bylaws. many small.” . they should not reach outside the original mission statement of the institution. and collections policy. budget management and monitoring. Ireland. local museums lack this guidance since [15] accreditation with AAM requires a museum to operate on an annual budget of at least $25. as new directors commonly have new ideas for the institution they work for. interpersonal relations. the Board and the Director establish a good system of governance that is guided by various other documents such as an institutional or strategic plan. Together. “Administration of the organization requires skill in conflict management. While change and growth is often good for a museum. Unfortunately. Florida According to museum professionals Hugh H. Miami Art Museum in Miami. A change in leadership may ultimately effect changes at the museum. but every museum has a hierarchy of governance with a Board of Trustees serving at the top.000. Genoways and Lynne M. The Director is next in command and works with the Board to establish and fulfill the museum’s mission statement and to [14] ensure that the museum is accountable to the public. The American Association of Museums (AAM) has also formulated a series of standards and best practices that help guide the management of museums. and staff supervision and evaluation.

Public Programmer/Educator – creates programs for the public and designs interactives for exhibitions. Collections Management/Registrar – responsible for the care and maintenance of all objects in the museum’s collection. This position also oversees volunteers and docents at the museum. Ex: Curator of Modern Art. Collections Managers and Registrars uphold the Collections Policy. etc. They have the vital role of creating exhibition space that is navigable by the visitor. These positions and all other employees should work together toward the museum’s institutional goal. records information about objects in databases-such as an object's provenance. there may be a curator assigned to each collection of objects the museum holds. collections managers/registrars. building operators will work with Collections Managers to maintain appropriate levels of temperature and [17] humidity which can affect the stability of the objects. educators may also research the collections and write text for exhibitions. Curator of Natural History. Registrars oversee the accessioning process. exhibition designers. Brazil. which formally accepts objects into the museum's collection with an accession number and detailed record. These positions include but are not limited to curators. Educators work with the Board.Various positions within the museum carry out the policies established by the Board and the Director. tracks movement of objects in and out of the museum on loan or on exhibition. and building operators. Exhibition Designer – designs and installs the exhibition under the supervision of the curator and collections manager. Building Operators – oversee security and maintenance of the museum. Curator of History. In larger institutions.     [edit]Museum planning São Paulo Museum of Art in São Paulo.  Curator – research the collection and most often write the text labels for exhibitions. Director. Depending on the institution. and Curator to ensure that the needs of the public are met as laid out in the institution’s mission statement. . public programmers/educators. which guides what is and is not accepted into the museum collection. In larger museums.

uses many artifacts in their memorable exhibitions. employs this technique in its shoe exhibition. In contrast. theories.. is not without its own problems. These staff specialists may also be charged with supervising contract design or production services. and interactive exhibits.. have missions reflecting curatorial guidance through the subject matter which now include content in the form of images.. editors.. determining the most effective. Canada. or "the substitution of the name of an attribute or [18] adjunct for that of the thing meant. and preparators or art handlers. through schematic design. located in Ontario. is one such business. Such a use of metonymy contributes to the dehumanization of the victims as they are reduced to a heap of . Jennifer Hansen-Glucklich argues. Museums of all sizes may also contract the outside services of exhibit fabrication businesses. Hansen-Glucklich explains. Interpretive museums. The process will often mirror the architectural process or schedule. writers. the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. as opposed to art museums. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D. for example. Simply a pile of decaying leather shoes piled against a bare. contract document. design development. This metaphysical link to the victims through the deteriorating and aged shoes stands as a surviving vestige of the individual victim. created through a museum planning process.C. the latter two were designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates. audio and visual effects. despite their varying styles. the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles and the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia. however. Some museum experiences have very few or no artifacts and do not necessarily call themselves museums. Metonymy. A feasibility study. This technique. moving from conceptual plan. Museum creation begins with a museum plan. organization and experiences needed to realize this vision. employed properly. analysis of comparable facilities and an interpretive plan are all developed as part of the museum planning process. [edit]Exhibition design Main article: Exhibit design Most mid-size and large museums employ exhibit design staff for graphic and environmental design projects. audience research and evaluation specialists. sensory response the viewer will naturally through this use metonymic technique. Predator Exhibits. This exhibition design intentionally signifies metonymically the nameless and victims themselves. In addition to traditional 2-D and 3-D designers and architects.. Exhibition design has as multitude of strategies.when victims’ possessions are collected according to type and displayed en masse they stand metonymically for the victims themselves . fabrication and installation. gray concrete wall the exhibit relies heavily on the emotional.See also: Museum planning and Interpretive planning The design of museums has evolved throughout history. can be a very powerful one as it plays off the real life experiences of the viewer while evoking the equally unique memory of the victim. but strong. memorable stories are told or information is interpreted. including exhibitions. Metonymy.C." is a technique used by many museums but few as heavily and as influentially as Holocaust museums. engaging and appropriate methods of communicating a message or telling a story. The process involves identifying the museum's vision and the resources. The exhibit design process builds on the interpretive plan for an exhibit. D. software designers. being notable examples where there are few artifacts. Notably. and methods but two that embody much of the theory and dialogue surrounding exhibition design are the metonymy technique and the use of authentic artifacts to provide the historical narrative. ". these staff departments may include audio-visual specialists.

The museum attempts. A well designed exhibition should employ objects and artifacts as a foundation to the narrative but not as a crutch. The suggestion is that if enough details and fragments are collected and displayed. the use of authentic artifacts can not only be misleading but as equally problematic as the aforementioned metonymic technique. at times. visible and comprehensible. While at times juxtaposed. the alternative technique of the use of authentic objects is seen the same exhibit mentioned above." While a powerful technique Hansen-Glucklick points out that when used en masse the metonym suffers as the memory and suffering of the individual is lost in the chorus of the whole. "The danger of such a strategy lies in the fact that by claiming to offer the remnants of the past to the spectator. located in the Navarino Island. to archive the [19] unachievable. is the southernmost museum in the world and preserves artefacts of the Yaghan people. museums but the degree to which and the intention can vary greatly." While any exhibit benefits from the legitimacy given by authentic objects or artifacts the temptation must be protected against in order to avoid relying solely on the artifacts themselves. The theory behind this technique is to exhibit artifacts in a neutral manner to orchestrate and narrate the historic narrative through. in other words. the provenance of the artifacts themselves. to help create the narrative as well. . ideally. if not all. the museum creates the illusion of standing before a complete picture. a lesson any conscientious curator would be well to keep in mind. a coherent and total truth concerning the past will emerge. Hansen-Glucklick explains. [edit]Types The Martin Gusinde Anthropological Museum. While albeit necessary to most some degree in any museum repertoire.indistinguishable objects and their individuality subsumed by an aesthetic of anonymity and [19] excess. The use of authentic artifacts is employed by most. The basic idea behind exhibiting authentic artifacts is to provide not only legitimacy to the exhibit's historical narrative but.

science. Some. [edit]Art museums Main article: Art museum . botanicaland zoological gardens.Types of museums vary. aviation history. covering many of the categories below. encyclopedic museums have collections representative of the world and typically include art. from large institutions. location. Many are in the open air.agriculture or geology. Others display artifacts found in archaeological sites inside buildings. applied arts. local history. folk art. These appear in its Shipwreck Galleries. and cultural history. technology. such as the Western Australian Museum. military history. such as the Agora of Athens and the Roman Forum. cultural history. This Museum has also developed a 'museum-without-walls' through a series of underwater wreck trails. science. anthropology and ethnology. The type and size of a museum is reflected in its collection. Bogotá Colombia. archaeology. exhibit maritime archaeological materials. Categories include: fine arts. philately. craft. or a notable person. museums of modern art. e. children's museums. natural history. history. A museum normally houses a core collection of important selected objects in its field. [edit]Archaeology museums Archaeology museums specialize in the display of archaeological artifacts. to very small institutions focusing on a specific subject. Another type of museum is an encyclopedic museum.g. Commonly referred to as a universal museum. Gold Museum. Within these categories many museums specialize further.history. a wing of the Maritime Museum.

furniture. The Louvre in Paris was established in 1793. anthropology. and a library. soon after the French Revolution when the royal treasures [21] were declared for the people. leaving history. There may be collections of applied art. archaeology. This showed the beginnings of removing art collections from the private domain of . Another early public [10] museum was the British Museum in London. also known as an art gallery. After the house of Medici was extinguished. Collections of drawings and old master prints are often not displayed on the walls. The science collections. the art treasures remained in Florence. the first being the Hermitage in Saint [citation needed] Petersburg which was established in 1764. primarily paintings. The gallery had been open to visitors by request since the sixteenth century. artist's books and other types of object. Video art is often screened. forming one of the first modern museums. history. it later evolved into a display place for many of the paintings and sculpture collected by theMedici family or commissioned by them. New York An art museum. It was a "universal museum" with very varied collections covering art. and sculpture. is a space for the exhibition of art. including ceramics. The Czartoryski Museum in Kraków was established in 1796 by Princess [22] Izabela Czartoryska. The first publicly owned museum in Europe was the Amerbach-Cabinet in Basel. non-European and pre-Renaissance art. originally a private [20] collection sold to the city in 1661 and public since 1671 (now Kunstmuseum Basel). but kept in a print room. usually in the form of art objects from the visual arts. The Uffizi Gallery in Florence was initially conceived as a palace for the offices of Florentian magistrates (hence the name). metalwork. library. archaeology. illustrations. and in 1765 it was officially opened to the public. and prints [citation needed] and drawings. The specialised art museum is considered a fairly modern invention. paintings and modern sculpture have since been found separate homes.Museum of Modern Art. which opened to the public in 1759. applied art. and science. Its first building was built in 1678–1683 to house the cabinet of curiosities Elias Ashmole gave Oxford University in 1677. The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford opened on 24 May 1683 as the world's first university art museum.

Paul Getty Trust.000 visitors per year. authors. especially centered on the first president. Director of the British Museum. the majority of these museums operated on less than $50. While historic house museums compose the largest section within the historic museum category they usually operate with small staffs and on limited budgets. The earliest projects for preserving historic homes began in the 1850s under the direction of individuals concerned with the public good and the preservation of American history. Still other museums adopt a more aesthetic approach and . Encyclopedic museums have advantages. or nearly 200 million people. [edit]Historic house museums Main article: Historic house museum Within the category of history museums historic house museums are the most numerous. Initially homes were considered worthy of saving because of their associations with important individuals. however. While some historic home museums are fortunate to possess a collection containing many of the original furnishings once present in the home. where they were seen as sites for educating the masses in taste and cultural refinement. Many are run entirely by volunteers and often do not meet the professional standards established by the museum industry." James Cuno.aristocracy and the wealthy into the public sphere. While museums like Mount Vernon and Colonial Williamsburg were visited by over one million tourists a [26] year. institutions that offer visitors a plethora of information on a variety of subjects that tell both local and global stories. along with Neil MacGregor. some scholars and archaeologists argue against encyclopedic [24] museums because they remove cultural objects from their original cultural setting. like former presidents. or businessmen. encyclopedic museums play an especially [23] important role in the building of civil society. Furthermore. losing their context.000 annually. Americans have fought to preserve structures characteristic of a more typical American past that represents the lives of everyday [25] people including minorities. Others. Increasingly. These museums are also unique in that the actual structure belongs to the museum collection as a historical object. The survey also revealed a significant disparity in the amount of visitors between local house museums and national sites. more than fifty percent of historic house museums received less than 5. The establishment of historic house museums increased in popularity through the 1970s and 1980s as the Revolutionary bicentennial set off a wave of patriotism and alerted Americans to the destruction of their physical heritage. usually of the elite classes. Some museums choose to collect pieces original to the period while not original to the house. "With 3% of the world's population. The tradition of restoring homes of the past and designating them as museums draws on the English custom of preserving ancient buildings and monuments. mostly national. are two of the most outspoken museum professionals who support encyclopedic museums. They encourage curiosity about the world. many face the challenge of displaying a collection consistent with the historical structure. An independent survey conducted by Peggy Coats in 1990 revealed that sixty-five percent of historic house museums did not have a full-time staff and 19 to 27 percent of historic homes employed only one full-time employee. fill the home with replicas of the original pieces reconstructed with the help of historic records. President and CEO of the J. [edit]Encyclopedic museums Encyclopedic museums are large. Since the establishment of America’s first historic site at Washington’s Revolutionary headquarters at Hasbrouck House in New York State. Americans have found a penchant for preserving similar historical structures. live outside the country of their birth.

or a house with an interesting history. art. volunteers and professionals also must decide which historical narrative to tell their visitors. [edit]History [27] museums Museum of the Filipino People. the birthplace or home of a famous person. period speech. Antiquities museumsspecialize in more archaeological findings. usually the one deemed most historically significant. Some cover specialized curatorial aspects of history or a particular locality. interpreters use costumes. Philippines. History museums cover the knowledge of history and its relevance to the present and future. artifacts of all kinds. Because historic homes have often existed through different generations and have been passed on from one family to another. such as Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum orRobben Island. A common type of history museum is a historic house. Another type of history museum is a living museum. others are more general. See also: Medical History Museum (disambiguation) [disambiguation needed] [edit]Living history museums Main article: Living museum Living history museums recreate historical settings to simulate past time periods. and restore the home to that particular period.use the homes to display the architecture and artistic objects. To reflect the time period. These museums feature reconstructions of particular time periods and/or locations and are staffed by historical site interpreters who often reflect the time period. and language. A historic house may be a building of special architectural interest. It is similar to historical reenactment. archaeological objects. Manila. and character impersonations while performing daily tasks and crafts of the period. including buildings. Some museums grapple with this issue by displaying different eras in the home’s history within different rooms or sections of the structure. These museums have found particular popularity in the [29] United States and Canada. including documents. . particularly those that mark public crimes. Historic sites can also become museums. Such museums contain a wide range of objects. Others choose one particular narrative. A living museum is where people recreate a time period to the fullest extent. providing visitors with an [28] experiential interpretation of history.

of which the Intrepid Sea. [edit]Military and war museums See also category: Military and war museums . At its best. Connor Prairie Pioneer Settlement. This living history narrative developed because of the availability of small historical buildings and inaccurate replicas. This museum began as an open air museum and. living history museums have become more widespread. Many living history farms and similar farm and agricultural museums have united under an [30] association known as the Association for Living History. and Agricultural Museums (ALHFAM). Some of these first museums that are now well known in the United States are Colonial Williamsburg. The relative authenticity of living history farms varies significantly. Arthur Hazelius. rural representation of Wichita resembles Western movies and Wild West myths more than the bustling urban city that Wichita quickly became. These museums focus on the interpretation and preservation of shipwrecks and other artifacts recovered from a maritime setting. For a more comprehensive list. the growth of new social history beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and excitement over the United States Bicentennial in 1976 gave living history displays new credibility and use. Examples are the San Francisco Maritime Museum and Mystic Seaport. However. They explore the relationship between societies and certain bodies of water. Living history museums have also been criticized for their ability to teach. and even directors in film. Military-focused maritime museums are a third variety. maritime museums can be primarily archaeological. the Association for Living History.Plimoth Plantation. Farm. [30] idyllic. particularly from those that believe “living history is antiquarian. they most accurately reflect the past appropriate to the time period while at their worst they may portray gross inaccuracies in an attempt to portray a certain idealized image. A second type is the maritime history museum. Farm. Scott Magelssen’s idea that living history museums produce history as others do. as metioned above.” In response to this question. there are also many different types of maritime museums. [edit]Maritime museums Main article: Maritime museum Maritime museums are museums that specialize in the presentation of maritime history. Just as there is a wide variety of museum types. Air and Space Museum is an example. dedicated to educating the public about humanity's maritime past. and Agricultural Museums (ALHFAM) has stated that they distinguish between an unchanging past and an interpretation of a constantly changing past. though some [29] military garrisons in North America used some living history techniques. by 1891. Sweden. It additionally was affirmed by the ALHFAM that they also support Dr. such as [30] teachers in classrooms. and Old Sturbridge Village. Museum professionals must grapple with these issues of conflicting audience and institutional needs which impact the overall structure of living history.The beginnings of the living history museum can be traced back to 1873 with the opening of the Skansen Museum near Stockholm. prodding from the city. living history museums were relatively nonexistent outside of Scandinavia. One such example is Wichita’s Old Cowtown Museum. or downright misleading. First. began the museum by using [30] his personal collection of buildings and other cultural materials of pre-industrial society. For years. which in its small. see List of open-air and living history museums in the United States. culture or archaeology. Since this time. had several farm buildings in which visitors could see [29] exhibits and where guides demonstrated crafts and tools. and the influence [31] of Hollywood. authors in monographs. The museum’s founder.

and decorations. see List of natural history museums. wartime propaganda and exhibits on civilian life during wartime. D. among others. Other mobile museums have no "home site". Evolution. A military museum may be dedicated to a particular or area. and biodiversity are major areas .The Canadian War Museum Military museums specialize in military histories. dinosaurs. Vital Historical Society and the Walker Art Center. Some institutions. such as St. Museums of natural history and natural science typically exhibit work of the natural world. The National Museum of Natural History inWashington. such as the Imperial War Museum Duxford for military aircraft. They typically include displays of weaponsand other military equipment. anthropology and more. Deutsches Panzermuseum for tanks or the International Spy Museum for espionage. [edit]Mobile museums Mobile museum is a term applied to museums that make exhibitions from a vehicle. uniforms. The National World War I Museum for World War I or more generalist.C. [edit]Natural history museums For a more comprehensive list. where a museum in a particular country will have displays organized around conflicts in which that country has taken part. Exhibitions educate the public on natural history. zoology. they are often organized from a national point of view. use the term to refer to a portion of their collection that travels to sites away from the museum for educational purposes. The focus lies on nature and culture. environmental issues. and use travel as their exclusive means of presentation. such as the Canadian War Museum or the Musée de l'Armée. such as a van. oceanography.

Denver Museum of Nature and Science and the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. natural science museums. which originated in France.. the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris. which became the model for subsequent open-air museums in Northern and Eastern Europe. The first one was King Oscar II's collection near Oslo in Norway. as wooden [citation needed] structures may be translocated without substantial loss of authenticity. usually in settings of recreated landscapes of the past. Illinois. Notable museums include theNatural History Museum in London. inspired by a visit to the open-air museum in Oslo. D. the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. the Smithsonian Institution'sNational Museum of Natural History in Washington. the Oxford University Museum of Natural History inOxford. The World's first open-air museum was founded in 1881. In 1907 it was incorporated into the Norsk Folkemuseum. An old farmhouse at the Salzburger Freilichtmuseum in Großgmain nearSalzburg. and eventually in other parts of the [33] world. In 1891. [edit]Open-air museums Main article: Open-air museum The open-air museum of King Oscar II atBygdøy near Oslo in the museum guide of 1888. the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller. Most open-air museums are located in regions where wooden architecture prevail. Open-air museums collect and re-erect old buildings at large outdoor sites. opened [32] in 1881. A rather minor Natural history museum is The Midwest Museum of Natural History is located in Sycamore. Artur Hazeliusfounded the Skansen in Stockholm. . A more recent but [citation needed] related idea is realized in ecomuseums.

Due to the flexibility of the pop-up museums and their rejection of traditional structure. Colorado. currently located on Manhattan's Upper East Side. even these latter provisions need not be supplied by an institution. in some cases the themes have been chosen collectively by a committee of interested participants while exhibitions designated as pop-ups have been mounted in places as varied as [35] community centers and even a walk-in closet. These temporary museums are finding increasing favor among more progressive museum professionals as a means of direct community involvement with objects and exhibition. Museum of Motherhood.a pop-up museum that existed for nine months during 2008-9..founded in Detroit. [edit]Science museums For a more comprehensive list. an example of shared historical authority.a series of pop-up museum events held at various sites [36] across the United States focusing on the history and stories of local LGBT communities. Museum of Science and Industry.Chicago . Michigan in 1996 this contemporary art museum is [35] generally acknowledged to be the pioneer of the concept of the pop-up museum. located [37] in downtown Denver. Has extended past its original close date & is seeking a permanent home. the pop-up concept relies solely on visitors to provide both the objects on display and the accompanying labels with the professionals or institution providing only the theme of the pop-up and the space in which to display the objects. the pop-up museum is generally defined as a short term institution [34] existing in a temporary space. Denver Community Museum. see List of science museums.[edit]Pop-up museums A concept developed in the 1990s. Often. The Pop-Up Museum of Queer History. Some examples of pop-up museums include:     Museum Of New Art (MONA).

In Glendale. Also residing in the American Southwest are living history towns such asTombstone. or even Rimsky-Korsakov Apartment and Museum in St Petersburg (Russia). historical. have recently been created. Ohio. To explain complicated inventions. IMAX content provides a more immersive experience for people of all ages. [38] . Science museums and technology centers revolve around scientific achievements. which may provide 3-D viewing or higher quality picture. These are usually web sites belonging to real museums and containing photo galleries of items found in those real museums. Other music museums include live music recitals such as the Handel House Museum in London.000 years. a combination of demonstrations. Some museums may have exhibits on topics such as computers. and artistic significance of beads and related artifacts dating as far back as 15. may consist ofplanetaria. cultural. and the animal kingdom. interactive programs and thought-provoking media are used. Corral and the Tombstone Epitaph) in which visitors can learn about historical events from actors playing the parts of historical figures like Wyatt Earp. This historical town is home to a number of "living history" museums (such as the O. This new presentation is very useful for people living far away who wish to see the contents of these museums. known as Net Museums. aviation. physics.K. [edit]Specialized museums Antique cuckoo clocks in the interior of Cuckooland Museum. Arizona. astronomy. in particular.CLSU Living Fish Museum CLSU.Colonial Williamsburg (in Williamsburg. or large theatre usually built around a dome. Doc Holliday. As a result. and marvels and their history. and John Clum. Arizona the Bead Museum fosters an appreciation and understanding of the global. Music museums may celebrate the life and work of composers or musicians. such as the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inCleveland. Science museums. railway museums. A number of different museums exist to demonstrate a variety of topics.Philippines. Museums may have IMAX feature films. Also new virtual museums.

such as the Museum of World Treasures in Wichita. TheNational Museum of Crime & Punishment explores the science of solving crimes. Some real life museums are also using the internet for virtual tours and exhibitions. Germany Another example of a specialized museum. such as children's museums or toy museums in many parts of the world. such as the Regional Museum of the National University of San Martin. The Corning Museum of Glass is devoted to the art. Tarapoto.S. Some virtual museums have no counterpart in the real world. with the expansion of the web. Museums targeted for youth. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum and the "Borusseum". for example. Korea is host to the world's first museum devoted to the history and development of organic farming. history. The art historian Griselda Pollock elaborated a virtual feministmuseum. On March 23.A. the Museum of Toys and Automata in Spain. The "Borusseum" is a museum aboutBorussia Dortmund in Dortmund. and science of glass. which hosts the world's largest and finest collection of antique cuckoo [39] clocks. U. KS. often exhibit interactive and educational material on a wide array of topics. Online [42] initiatives like the Virtual Museum of Canada and the National Museum of the United States Air Force provide physical museums with a web presence. are institutions of the sports category. which has no physical location and might be confused with the city's own museum.Virginia). is another great example of a town devoted to preserving the story of America through reenactment.Germany.. as well as online curatorial platforms such as [43] Rhizome. is the Cuckooland Museumin the United Kingdom. Peru. depicts American social history in miniature. Interpretation centres are modern museums or visitors centres that often use new means of communication with the public. in this case devoted to horology. In some cases. and which opened in [40] 2011. spreading between [45] classical art to contemporary art. [edit]Virtual museums A recent development. museums cover an extremely wide range of topics together. The Great American Dollhouse Museum [41] in Danville. with exhibit captions in both Korean and English. is the establishment of virtual museums. such as LIMAC (Museo de Arte [44] Contemporáneo de Lima). Kentucky. In other instances. . the museum about Borussia Dortmund in Dortmund. the Namyangju Organic Museum. Whitney Museum in New York organized what it called the first ever online Twitter museum tour. museums emphasize regional culture and natural history.

Chicago Botanic Garden and Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario). Berlin Zoological Garden.[edit]Zoological parks and botanic gardens Zoos are considered "living museums" Main article: Zoo Although zoos and botanic gardens are not often thought of as museums. and to study.Brooklyn Botanic Garden. the San Diego Zoo. and Zürich Zoologischer Garten in Switzerland. inspire action. They exist for the same purpose as other museums: to educate. the Philadelphia Zoo. they are in fact "living museums". the Taronga Zoo in Sydney. COFFEE MUSEUM Coffee is a favored drink around the world however it is especially loved in its place of origin. develop and manage collections. Frankfurt Zoological Garden. The coffee plant has played a major role in Ethiopian life for hundreds of years. Notable zoos include the Bronx Zoo in New York. Missouri Botanical Garden in St. It seems appropriate then that Ethiopia's national museum dedicated to coffee should be built in Kafa. This museum will be a center for research on Coffea arabica and will guide the visitor through the world of coffee production. the London Zoo. They are also managed much like other museums and face the same challenges. Louis. . Notable botanic gardens include Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. the Los Angeles Zoo. Visitors will gain a deeper appreciation of their favorite beverage. the Saint Louis Zoological Park. the birthplace of coffee. Jardin des Plantes in Paris.

a ranger station and information center will be built on the compound. it is one of the buildings that can be seen on the vintage streetcar tour of the historic downtown area.consists of grilled meca fish with lime juice. The winning dish . It's shaped like a little brick with a chocolate coffee bean on top and made of Belgian Gianduia truffle and Brazilian coffee The Coffee Museum at the Official Coffee Exchange in the port city of Santos. It runs every 30 minutes and is open year-round. The cafe sells gifts and special coffees from different areas in Brazil that can be toasted on the spot. Along with the museum. SP The Cafe. butter and herbs and can be found at many of the city's seafood restaurants. the Santos City Hall. can be found at the Cafe at the Coffee Museum. São Paulo. The tour is brief – about 15 minutes – and costs less than $1. After the tour is over. or Cafeteria. or Sweet Coffee. called Doce Café. Santos launched contests to choose the official city dish and candy. is not the only museum dedicated to coffee in Brazil. you can walk back to the Museum and visit. Coffee Museum in Santos. at the Coffee Museum has tables in the classy museum lounge and a more casual area (photo) for a quick coffee and snack. The starting point is in front of José Bonifácio Palace. Built in the 1920s. but it features unique architecture and attractions. .Meca à Santista .Whetted your appetite? The National Coffee Museum is currently under construction in Kafa and is expected to open in 2013. The winning candy.

unfinished.museudocafe. Admission: R$5/Seniors and other visitors with special discounts R$2. founded by Roberto Cochrane Simonsen. . In 1971. Outside the museum. looks at the city of Santos as it grows . the cafe remains open as well. looks out to sea and watches as Brazilian coffee departs to international markets. to the Santos bus terminal. in São Paulo. Alterations of the original project during construction.m. as part of the revitalization of the downtown area. in a grand way. On September 7. which is a ten-minute walk away from the Coffee Museum . the importance of coffee to the Brazilian economy. was the company responsible for construction. goddess of agriculture. The first electric streetcar came from Scotland in 1909. São Paulo.m. to 5 p.. To her right. A visit to Santos is one of the best day trips from São Paulo. Mercury. Restoration of the Coffee Palace was concluded in 1998. To the right of "Bolsa Official de Café".br Hours: Tue-Sat 9 as part of the celebrations of the Brazilian Independence Centennial. the Coffee Palace – Palácio do Café – was inaugurated. Sun 10 a..the closest end of a trail of development that would raise São Paulo state and particularly the capital.m.50 The Official Coffee Exchange opened in 1914. The building's outstanding features include a 120-ft tall clock tower and the statues above the main entrance (photo). Companhia Construtora de Santos.m. The area around the museum thrives on Friday nights.and buses run between the two cities at short intervals throughout the day.SP 11010-916 Phone: 55-13-3219-5585 Website: www. But the building fulfilled its purpose – to assert. when bars and snack bars have tables outside and bands play live. when coffee was Brazil’s main source of wealth. Coffee Museum: Rua XV de Novembro 95 Centro Santos . state capital. 1922. the coffee theme is present in the decorative coffee bean pattern of the boulevard pavement. the excellence of the professionals involved and the use of luxury materials took their toll on the budget and called for three loans. Check the 2012 schedule. Ceres.m. the city discontinued the use of streetcars and the one now running in the downtown area had been abandoned for years before it went through a year-long restoration process and inaugurated in 2000. to the forefront of Brazilian economy. Night Visits: Twice a month to 9 p. god of commerce.Animal-pulled streetcars started being used in Santos in 1871. on a Sunday afternoon such as the one when this photo was taken. to 5 p. However. It takes just one hour from the Jabaquara bus terminal. on Rua XV de Novembro. or November 15th Street.

Flashes cannot be used to photograph the Trading Room and it takes adequate lenses to get a good shot. Today.when most businesses are closed and a lot of people are on the beach toasting in the sun. The Coffee Palace was the site of the Coffee Exchange until 1950. But some of the best coffee in Brazil still comes from São Paulo. On the Museum's second floor. In early 2008. Brazil has the largest Nikkei (Japanese and descendants) community outside Japan. one of the greatest painters in the history of São Paulo State. available in the Museum's photo gallery. The central symbol on the imported marble floor of the Trading Room at the Coffee Museumbears the initials for Bolsa Official de Café. 1908. 2010 | By Tony . A full view of the trading room. with about 1. or Official Coffee Exchange. a noble neotropical wood. long after the Crash of 1929 had deeply affected coffee production in Brazil. as the ship Kasato Maru docked in Santos at about 5pm on June 18. According to the Coffee Museum. Today. Founder Braz Cubas is portrayed in the middle panel. It is advisable to walk around in a group.500. Coffee Museum.122. Minas Gerais is the country's largest coffee producer. the streets are quite empty.222 of whom were Italian . painted by Benedicto Calixto (18531927). The official start of Japanese immigration in Brazil can be dated practically down to the minute. permanent and temporary exhibits help learners discover the history of coffee in Brazil. 2. One of the walls is taken by the triptych The Foundation of Santos.273 immigrants – 935. As the country's coffee industry recovered. Santos October 18. shows the 81 chairs and the table made of jacaranda. new regions emerged as coffee growing areas. bringing the first 781 immigrants who signed up for the Japan-Brazil immigration program and 12 independent travelers.000 people.arrived in São Paulo State to work on coffee plantations between 1875 and 1930. the Museum held an exhibit honoring the Centennial of the Japanese Immigration in Brazil.

The imposing building where the Bolsa Oficial do Café (the coffee stock exchange) operated in Santos. is host today to one of the most interesting museums you will visit in Brazil: the Museu do Café (coffee museum). state of São Paulo. .

. Big panels at the museum show scenes from daily life at the turn of the century. Santos was the HQ for the ever important coffee-producing sector of the Brazilian economy.For decades. On the first half of the XX century coffee was the main source of wealth for Brazil.

. First you will visit the wonderful pregão (pit).The museum is divided in two halfs. On the ceiling there’s an spectacular stained glass by local artist Benedito Calixto. the salon where coffee stocks where negotiated.

On an adjacent room several panels and utensils tell the story of coffee. .

The second floor of the building contains panels and all sorts of tools and items related to the history of coffee in Brazil. .

take one of the frequent buses running from the Terminal Jabaquara bus station (at the end of the blue line of São Paulo’s subway). Sundays. Alternatively.The Museu do Café is an unmissable Santos sight. Website: Museu do Café. Santos. Most of the panels are in Portuguese and English. Rua XV de Novembro nº 95. .00. Entrance fee: R$ 5. You can drive to Santos (between an hour’s drive and two hours depending on where you are in São Paulo). The bus will leave you within walking distance of the centre of Santos. from 09:00 till 17:00. Visiting times: from Tuesday to Saturday. Guided visits are in Portuguese. from 10:00 till 17:00. PRACTICAL INFORMATION: Address: Palácio da Bolsa Oficial de Café.

p. free guided tours at 4. The visitor learns all about coffee-production and coffee-trade and we show how the coffee bean found its way to the Engadine valley to be roasted in a pure alpine climate. Italy . Architects/Designers: Arkispazio and V12 Design Location: Via Pablo Neruda 2.m. Private tours are possible the whole year round on request. 20082 Binasco (Milan). You will learn all about the evolution of the coffee roasting process and about the incredible variety of the coffee plant.Caferama The Caferama. A whole section of the museum is dedicated to the coffee trade and its evolution and shows the importance of coffee in todays world. As a visitor one gains an insight into the cultivation and processing of coffee as well as into the daily work of the people involved.m. Badilatti`s own coffee-museum. for example chicory and how soluble or decaffeinated coffee is obtained. MuMAC – Museum of Coffee Machines in Milan The most important professional coffee machine manufacturer in the world »Gruppo Cimbali« celebrates its centenary with an own museum. Historical photographs and paintings show the social role of coffee over the last centuries and on display are various old coffee-roasters and antique coffee-mills as well as modern and automatic coffee machines of today. On Thursdays. Opening hours Caferama Monday to Friday from December to March and June to October from 3. – 6.m.. A section of the exebition shows also the use of surrogate products.p. offers a fascinating introduction into the world of coffee.p. At our small but stylish bar you can enjoy a good cup of freshly roasted coffee and take a souvenir home from our well-stocked shop. reservation necessary.

Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati The core of the new architecture is a building previously used as a warehouse. within which are located both the exposition area and a versatile open space suitable for events and exhibitions to the culture of coffee. Within 1. recounting the history of these extra ordinary objects. MuMAC narrates a story that spans across 100 years. . Both facades of the museum have been rendered with a delicate nonetheless technological technique: »LaCimbali red« slats of a composite material create a sinuous embrace that has been inspired by the flow of the aroma lifting off a coffee cup and at night a carefully designed illumination creates a strikingly backlit grid of light that evokes the energy living inside MuMAC.800 m².

Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati Drawing: Arkispazio .

visitors can enjoy both sides of these wonderful machines.Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati The internal garden is limited by this coffee-colored wall that is marked by nine trees which divide it into 10 equal spaces: ten decades of the century that symbolize the life and the achievements of Cimbali Group. The museum area offers an exposition divided into six historical periods from the beginning of the 20th century to the present: The area called »The early years« is characterized by a suspended ceiling and posters from Art Deco period. . In the area dedicated to the culture of the 50s and 60s (»Invention of the lever«) the visitor can find a reconstruction of a bar and an entirely cantilevered structure that supports the machines of the period where thanks to cleverly positioned mirrors. The exhibition of »The age of rationalism« includes a severe fascist colonnade and strict grid of orthogonal lines identifies the layout of the marble display stands.

Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati Site plan. drawing: Arkispazio .

therefore these machine are actual design icons. which is visible from any angle of the museum. drawing: Arkispazio Ground floor plan. drawing: Arkispazio Second floor plan. those designed for an increasingly fast society. This room has a full height red volume. drawing: Arkispazio »Under the banners of design« is characterized by a collection of design masterpieces of the late '60s and '70s: great masters of design have penned coffee machines in these decades.Section. Within this volume is visible an installation of the new LaCimbali M100 coffee machine designed by Valerio Cometti+V12 Design: a daring exploded view . »The new millennium« is where the display stands are coated in white resin and they smoothly emerge from the floor equally coated in white resin: this area portrays the most modern machines.

that allows to grasp the technological content and the level of complexity of such machine. Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati . becoming an invitation to reflect on the extraordinary journey that the coffee machine has made during these last hundred years.

 Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati .

 Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati .

 Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati .

Valerio Cometti Structural engineering: Francesco Terreni MEP engineering: Antonio Bozino Client: Gruppo Cimbali . Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati  Photograph: Angelo Margutti & Associati Project data Head designers: Paolo Balzanelli.

Built surface: 1.800 m² Opening: October 2012 .