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International Journal of Current Research in Science, Social Science, Languages. Volume-I, Issue-i.
ISSN: 2319-7579
By New Modern Publications, Aurangabad.

Volume-I

Issue-I

OCT2012

New Modern Publications,Behind ITI, Nagar Road, Beed.431122MS India

October 1, 2012 ISSN-2319-7579

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LANGUAGES. VOLUME-I, ISSUE-I.

Volume-I, Issue-I July-Oct 2012 Total Research Papers :-30 Table of contents
1 2 3 4 Editorial Page 1-2, Full Text ROOFTOP RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT BY DOMESTIC SOURCES : S. S. Bhosle1 and P. P. Pangrikar2 Page:-3-7 Deforestation and imbalanced rainfall-A Global issue : Amol Deo Chavhan Page :8-15
मानळी आरोग्य आणि मानळी जीळनाच्या वळकासासाठी पािी: डॉ. एस.एस. कदम.: Page:-16-20

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BOREWELL WATER IN PARLI-VAIJINATH, DIST BEED, Maharashtra.Vidya D Gulbhile , Prakash D. Deshmukh, Page:-21-27 An overview of Sustainable Water Management: Dr. Anil Dbimdbime, Ms. Sonali Khade, Page:-28-39 IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION ON RAINFALL IN JALNA DISTRICT – A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS:Dr. A. T. Doke, Kum. Trupti Kamble: Page:40-46 Water Related Problems of Health and Sanitation In Shirur (ka) DistBeed. C. V. Donglikar, J. J. Kshirsagar, A. N. Dharasurkar Page:47-51
जऱसंळर्धन : सामाजजक जािीळा : प्रा.अननता गायकळाड, प्रा.रमेऴ खंडागले ., Page :52-59

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ऱातर जजल्ह्यातीऱ जऱससंचन : एक भोगोसऱक अभ्यास : ू श्री.तातऱे सोनाऱी बलीराम, Page :60-67

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Women and water management: an integrated approach : Dr. Varsha. S. Zanver: Page :68-74 Ministry-Developmental Programmes and water Resources : D. N. Gatlewar, M. T. Musande, G. T. Rathod: Page :75-80 Limnology and Fishery status of a fresh water reservoir Majalgaon on Sindphana River in Maharashtra State : Ingole S.B., Naik S.R. Kadam G.A, Page :81-88 WATER LITARACY AND SOCIAL AWARENESS , Rajashree J. Jawale :Page :89-95 A STEP TOWARDS DOMESTIC WATER CONSERVATION, Khandat M. S., Page :96-100

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RAIN WATER HARVESTING AND CONSERVATION, Vasant Mali and B. N. Pande, Page:101-103 Roof top rain water harvesting for augmenting ground water recharge, M. R. More1 S. D.Vikhe2, Page :104-109 ROLE OF WOMEN IN RAIN WATER CONSERVATION AND IT’S MANAGEMENT, Musle B. B.Page :110-113 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT FOR MOISTURE CONSERVATION, Narke S.Y., Dr. N.S .Kore, Thombare P.Y, Page :114-120 AN OVERVIEW ON “WATER CONSERVATION AT HOUSE HOLD LEVEL, Nuzhat Sultana M. B., Page :121-126 Women and water management: An integrated approach, P. P. Pangrikar* and S. S. Bhosle, Page :-127-130 EFFECT OF GEOHYDROLOGICAL CHARACTER ON DEVELOPMENTOF WATER SHED A CASE STUDE’S,Prof. Pathrikar D. F., Dr. Doke A. T.:Page :131-144 RAIN WATER HARVESTING IN A HOSPITAL –A STEP FURTHER, Priti R. Pardeshi*, Karuna S. Pardeshi** & Rajendrasing S. Pardeshi, Page :145149 METHODS OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING, Smt. R. B. Kulkarni, Page :150-157 Role of an Individuals in Water Conservation & its Management, R. K. MOMIN1 AND ABDUL RAHIM2, Page:158-160 ROLE OF SOCIETY IN LAND, FOREST & WATER CONSERVATION, Dr. Madhav G. Rajpange, Page :161-177 RAIN WATER HARWESTING – A KEY TO ENRICH THE WATER SOURCES, Rajkumar M. Sanga1, Dr.Pradip B.Bramapurikar1, Dr.Smita Basole2, Shilpa Digraskar, Page:178-182 Prominent Status of Water in Human life and in its Welfare - a Review, Sangeeta Sasane, Page:-183-192 A Study of Water literacy Awareness programme among the Trainee teachers of SNDT Women college of Education, Prashant Pagare, Chetna P. Sonkamble, Page :-193-200 HEALTH IMPACTS OF WATER POLLUTION, Dr.Savita Sukte, Dr. Ravi Sawant*, Dr.Uttam Salve, Page:-201-205 Water quality analysis for roof top water harvesting, S. D. Vikhe* M. R. More** H.W. Awari, Page:-206-215

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ROOFTOP RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT BY DOMESTIC SOURCES
S. S. Bhosle1 and P. P. Pangrikar2
1. Balbhim Arts, Science and Commerce College, Beed and 2. R. B. Attal College of Arts , Science and Commerce, Georai.

Review: Rooftop rain water management is the process of collecting and storing water for future productive use. Since it is quite easy to collect rainwater falling on roofs in a tank or sump for future productive use. Water professionals are becoming increasingly worried about water scarcity. The UN World Water Development suggests that population growth, pollution and climate change are likely to produce a drastic decline in the amount of water available per person in many parts of the developing world. Domestic Roof water Harvesting provides an additional source from which to meet local water needs. In recent years, Domestic Roof water Harvesting systems have become cheaper and more predictable in performance. There is a better understanding of the way to mix Domestic Roof water Harvesting with other water supply options, in which Domestic Roof water Harvesting is usually used to provide full coverage in the wet season and partial coverage during the dry season as well as providing short-term security against the failure of other sources. Interest in Domestic Roof water Harvesting technology is reflected in the water policies of many developing countries, where it is now cited as a possible source of household water. Rainwater systems deliver water directly to the household, relieving the burden of water-carrying, particularly for women and children.  The basic roof water harvesting system Rain falls onto roofs and then runs off. The run-off is extremely variable – for the typically 99% of each year that it is not raining, run-off flow is zero. However if the run-off is channeled into a tank or jar, water can be drawn from that store whenever it is needed, hours, days or even months after the last rainfall. Moreover as the jar is generally located immediately next to the building whose roof the rain fell on, roof water harvesting is used to supply water to that very building, with no need for the water to be carried or piped from somewhere more distant. The essential elements of a roof water harvesting system, are a suitable roof, a water store and a means of leading run-off flow from the first to the second. In addition, some rain water
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harvesting systems have other components to make them easier to manage or to improve the quality of the water.  The roof To be „suitable‟ the roof should be made of some hard material that does not absorb the rain or pollute the run-off. Thus, tiles, metal sheets and most plastics are suitable, while grass and palm-leaf roofs are generally not suitable. The larger the roof, the bigger the run-off flow. The rainwater reaching a roof in a year can be estimated as the annual rainfall times the roof‟s plan area, but in the tropics only about 85% of this water runs off the roof. The remaining 15% is typically lost to evaporation and splashing. If the rain falls mainly as light drizzle, as in some more temperate countries, even more than 15% will be lost in this way through slow evaporation. Often, and especially in areas of low annual rainfall, the available roof area is not big enough to capture enough water to meet all the water needs of people in the building. In this case, either the roof must be extended, or roof water harvesting can only be one of a number of sources of water to meet need. In fact, getting water from more than one source is the usual practice in most rural areas of developing countries, and is reviving in popularity in richer countries.  The water-store A rain water harvesting system with a large water store will perform better than one with a small store. A small store such as a 500 liter jar will often overflow in the wet season (because rainwater is flowing in faster than household water is being taken out), „wasting‟ up to 70% of the annual run-off. It will also run dry before the end of the dry season. However, a small store is cheaper than a larger one and gives cheaper water. The designer of a system can choose the combination of cost and performance that best suits the user‟s needs and funds available. Almost all water used by human beings derives from rainfall. However, it is always necessary to store water, so that it can be used when rain is not actually falling, and it is often necessary to transport it from where it falls to where the user is located. Roof water harvesting differs from other water supply modes in that there is no need to transport water, since it is used within a few meters of where it falls as rain. It does not use the soil as its storage medium, as is the case for almost all other modes.
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In the Domestic Roof water Harvesting systems, water is normally stored in 1,000 to 10,000 liter household tanks – also sometimes called „jars‟ or „cisterns‟ – and it is these tanks that dominate the cost of the system. In water supply other than Domestic Roof water Harvesting, the cheapest and most common way of storing water is in the ground itself, in an aquifer whose top surface (water table) rises and falls with the seasons. However, there are often problems with aquifers. They may pollute the water they hold with such natural minerals as iron, fluorides or arsenic, with manmade nitrates derived from fertilizers or sometimes with pathogens from latrines. They may be too thin or too deep, and in areas of crystalline rock they can be impermeable, 23 preventing water flowing through them. Aquifers are hard to „manage‟ and in many countries the community finds it hard to prevent the water table dropping year by year due to excessive pumping. Often an aquifer is far below the settlement it serves, so that water must either be lifted from deep wells or carried uphill from valley springs.  We can broadly describe Domestic Roof water harvesting by its six main characteristics: • Collects only the rain falling on the available roofs (which occupy only a small fraction of the local land area on which rain falls). • Requires a suitable roof type (normally a „hard‟ roof, such as iron sheets, tiles or asbestos) and On-site water storage (normally a tank). • Delivers water direct to the house without need for water-carrying • Does not require favorable local topography or suitable geology. • It is a household technology, and therefore does not require communal or commercial management. • Gives chemically clean and usually biologically low-risk water.

References:
1.Thomas, T.H. and Martinson, D.B. (2007). Roofwater Harvesting: A Handbook for Practitioners. Delft, The Netherlands, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.(Technical Paper Series; no. 49). 160 p. www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 5

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2. A. K. Dwivedi and S. S. Bhadauria,(2009), Domestic rooftop water harvesting- a case study, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 4, NO. 6, Aug 2009. 3. CGWB. 2000. Guide on Artificial Recharge to Ground Water prepared by Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, New Delhi. May. 4. IE-NLC. 2006. Rain Water Harvesting and Water Management Proceedings of 22nd National Convention of Environmental Engineers, 11-12 November 2006, Organized by Institution of Engineers (India) Nagpur Local Centre, November. 5. LRHF. 2001. A Report Domestic Roof Water Harvesting and Water Security in the Humid Tropics prepared by Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum under Domestic Roof Water Harvesting in the Humid Tropic, June. 6. Mudrakartha and Chopade. 2002. Srinivas Mudrakartha and Shashikant Chopade Closing the Demand Supply gap through Rain Water Harvesting-A Case Study of Sargasan, Gujrat, India, Paper Submitted toInternational Symposium on Artificial Recharge (ISAR-4), Adelaide, Australia, September.

7. T.W.D.B. 2005. A Manual prepared by Texas Water Development Board Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting Texas Water Development Board, Austin, Texas, Third Edition.

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Deforestation and imbalanced rainfall-A Global issue
Amol Deo Chavhan
Assistant Professor in Law Manikchand Pahade Law College, Aurangabad.

Normally the concept of forest means an area which comprises trees, shrubs including greenery on the planet. The word "forest" comes from Old French forest which means, "forest, vast expanse covered by trees". The terminology of “Foresta” was first used by Carolingian scribes in the Capitularies of Charlemagne to refer specifically to the king's royal hunting grounds.1 Simply, forest means a part of land which covered and comprises by the wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees and shrubs which cover cities, or any place worldwide. The only thing is that it must compress the some area by the trees and shrubs. Our plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50% of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere. Although forests are classified primarily by trees, the concept of a forest ecosystem includes additional species (such as smaller plants, fungi, bacteria, and animals) as well as physical and chemical processes such as energy flow and nutrient cycling.2 Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. Like as Boreal forests occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen and coniferous. Another kind of forest is Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist forests, tropical and subtropical dry forests, and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. Again Physiognomy classifies forests based on their overall physical structure or developmental stage (e.g. old growth vs. second growth).

2 2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest. 15/11/2011 Stamets, Paul (2005). Mycelium Running. Ten Speed Press. pp. 35. ISBN 1580085792.

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And lastly, Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and the dominant tree species present, resulting in numerous different forest types With the advancement and expansion of the society the concept of forest going to change. In ancient days in India, trees were worshiped and equal to God. The importance of the forest is placed in our Dharmashastra and Vedas. Due to that, in India the importance of forest was on prime place. Due to the advancement of technology and rapid growth in every walk of Human life the concept of forest is going to change. The mankind uses the natural resources as per their convenience and need. As a part of human tendency the trees and like beautiful creatures of our plant are destroyed and arbitrary used by the human beings for their selfish purpose. Due to rapid growth in population and in all walks of life the forests are cut, and due to that, new problems of deforestation are putting to death behind our mankind. The human beings are not feared about the excessive use of forest for their own and selfish purpose. Not only in India but also on the globe level various laws and treaties are made for the better protection and conservation of forest but if we see the reality it is simply on paper due to lack of awareness among people about the importance of forest. Because the ratio of plantation and cutting of trees till not matching. Deforestation is not a new concept it is a kind of same wine in new bottle. Our planet now days chasing ever hanging problem of deforestation. Deforestation is nothing but a cutting and removal of the plants, trees and shrubs from the earth. The dictionary meaning of the deforestation is nothing but a removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.3 Some of known example of

deforestation is to use the forest land for non forest purpose i.e. for agricultural, residential or like purpose. Sometimes the concept of deforestation is logically misused or misconstrue in a sense that, any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area in conformance with sustainable forestry

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SAF net Dictionary Definition for [deforestation]. Dictionaryofforestry.org (2008-07-29). Retrieved on 2011-05-15.

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practices is correctly described as regeneration harvest. In short we can say that, deforestation is nothing but a process of converting forested lands into non-forest sites, exclusive for the purpose for crop raising, urbanization and industrialization. The concept of deforestation is very serious concept, because it causes great effect on our planet as well as our surroundings. Effects of deforestation are diversified it can not affect on one part of human life but it cause the various problem in every sector of human life. It effects can be classified under various heads, it causes to Human Health, biodiversity, atmosphere, agriculture, environment and social settings and so on. The deforestation is directly related to cutting of forest it means it is like cutting a lungs and heart from human being. Without the lungs and heart man can‟t be live like wise without forest and trees the balance of environment can be disturb and imbalance. Deforestation and effect on rainfall. Now a day‟s deforestation is a global issue and all nations are fighting and try to save the life of next generation. So many conferences organised worldwide about the importance of forest and environment, not only this various guideline are provided by the U.N. for the protection and conservation of forest. Basically the problem is with the rapid growth in Pollution. Forests are greatly helping reduce the amount of pollutants in the air. So, the depletion of these groups of trees is greatly increasing the risk that carbon monoxide would reach the atmosphere and result in the depletion of the ozone layer, which in turn results to global warming and like threat to the human being. The most everlasting effect of deforestation is climate change. Changes to the surroundings done by deforestation work in many ways. One, there is abrupt change in temperatures in the nearby areas. Forests naturally cool down because they help retain moisture in the air. Due to the climate change and ozone depletion in environment the major effect to the environment would be on the water table underneath the ground as well as rainfall in rainy season. Due to the disturbance in cycle of environment and global worming the timetable of rainfall is going to change. Due to deforestation the rain fall is tremendously reduce and water level is going to decrees. For that reason the problem of natural drinking water come to arose. Due to the decrease in level of water under surface the
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supply of underground water also dry. Now, just imagine what happens when there would not enough forests anymore then? Normally the water from rain flow through the soil surface and not be retained by the soil. If deforestation is going too continued then we lose everything from this beautiful planet. After some time it causes a human life without food or shelter, and leads to the disappearance of ways of life which have existed largely unchanged for thousands of years. In near future we get water but not consumable water because due to deforestation the cycle of rainfall is tremendously disturbed. The day will not so long where we tell the story about drinking water to our grandchildren‟s by showing the portrait of water. The destruction of the tropical rain forests would bring about a disastrous imbalance in the amounts of carbon dioxide produced and recycled, leading to a build up in the atmosphere, and increased climate change. Add to this the fact that many of the trees cut down to provide space for agriculture are either burned or left to rot, releasing even more carbon dioxide, and clearly we have a recipe for disaster. The whole of nature is a vast interrelated system which currently exists in a more or less balanced state. Tampering with such important factors as the rain forests could bring about irreversible damage to the world as we know it.4 Rainfall is also created due to deforestation it create air pollution and release small particles, known as aerosols, into the atmosphere and due to that ultimately the cycle and timetable of rainfall cause great harm. In areas with lots of smoke, "cloud droplets form around the aerosol particles, but may never grow large enough to fall as rain," say researchers with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center who studied the effect. Thus large forest fires have the effect of further reducing rainfall, leaving burned areas more prone to dryness and future fires.5 Problems due imbalanced rainfall:1. Lack of drinking water 2. Shortage of water for agriculture purpose.
4 5

http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/ontheline/explore/nature/rainforest/deforest2.htm 14/11/2011 http://rainforests.mongabay.com/0906.htm

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3. Increase of Desert. 4. Deflection in underground water level. 5. Lack of industrial growth. 6. Environmental hazardous. 7. Damage to planet. Etc. International Efforts for protection of Environment:- taking in to consideration the worst position of forest the effort has been taken at International lave. The issue of deforestation is not concern with one state it is a worldwide problem. Taking in to consideration the above fact, the United Nation Organisation and other NGO‟s take the precautionary steps for the conservation of forest and greenery on the planet. So far as the India is concern, the parliament enacts the various forest laws for the protection and conservation of forest. The provision also deals with the various special provisions relating to reserve forest. To cutting of forest and like activities which trend to degradation of forest it‟s amounts a crime and the culprit may punish under the respective law. This changes in India and same in the other counties is only happen due to endless efforts by the United Nation Organization. Report from the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, 1972United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992., Stockholm Conference, Johannesburg Declaration, United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, Earth Summit 2002, these are some endless effort by the U.N. for the protection and conservation of forest at international level. Not only this now recently Norway also announced an additional $500 million (410 million euros) pledged by Germany for the United Nations' REDD Plus program, which stands for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.6 On 11 March 2010 French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, opened an international conference on deforestation in Paris. The main focus of the International Conference on the Major

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Deforestation conference in Norway 27.05.2010 source http://www.dwworld.de/dw/article/0,,5612801,00.html

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Forest Basins was funding for REDD i.e. (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests, and stock enhancement) activities during 2010-2012. France and Norway are leading this effort to foster new climate partnership in 2010.7 Taking in to consideration the above fact sheet, it is conform that, the deforestation is global issue and the efforts are taken worldwide for the protection and conservation of forest. No doubt, the efforts are endless and energetic which are taken by the state and at international level but the problem is not cure it may because of lack of awareness among the masses about the importance of forest and impact of deforestation on humankind. It is call of time to make more aware the public about the said problem which is ever hammering on the globe. In short we can say that, if there is no forest then there is no question of water for human beings.

References:Books/Article 1. Doabia Justice T S Doabia Environmental and Pollution Laws in India ISBN: 97881-8038-636-7 2. Indrajit Dube Environmental Jurisprudence- Polluter‟s Liability ISBN: 978-818038-152-2 3. Kailash Thakur, environmental Protection Law and Policy in India 1997. 4. P Leelakrishnan Report from the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, 1972 ISBN: 978-81-8038-132-4 5. P. Leelakrishnan Environmental law in India 3rd edition 6. Dr. S.R. Myneni Environmental Law 2008 edition Asian Law House. 7. Tiwari, A.K. Environmental Laws in India ISBN: 8176298220. Internet sources.
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France and Norway team up to combat deforestation Posted by Jennifer Helgeson on March 16, 2010 France, REDD+

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1. http://depssa.ignou.ac.in/wiki/images/0/0b/Effects_of_Pollution.pdf 2. http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/pollution-effects.html 3. http://www.tpub.com/content/advancement/14325/css/14325_12.htm 4. http:/www.windows2universe.org/milagro/effects/pollution_effects_overview.html 5. http://www.legalserviceindia.com 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution 8. www.oneworld.net 9. www.mnforsustain.org/climate_health_effects_of_air_pollution_mis... 10. www.angelfire.com/ak/medinet/effects.html -

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LANGUAGES. VOLUME-I, ISSUE-I. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BOREWELL WATER IN PARLI-VAIJINATH, DIST BEED MAHARASHTRA Vidya D Gulbhile , Prakash D. Deshmukh late. Laximibai Deshmukh Mahila College Parli-vaijinath, Department of Botany, late shankarrao gutte college dharmapuri drgulbhilevd@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT Water serves as a most essential medium for the growth of animals, plants and many organisms.

It plays vital role for regulation and growth of organisms. Suitable water is a prime need for health living of all organisms including human being. Water pollution means any such contamination of water or any such alteration of physical , chemical or biological properties of water caused by dumping or discharges of any sewage , trade effluent or any other liquid , gases or solid substances into water directly or indirectly which create nuisance or render the water harmful or injurious to public health. In short , any physical , chemical or biological changes in the properties of water which make it unsuitable for consumption or its desired uses is called as water pollution. The present study deals with assessment of the ground water quality of borewells in ParliVaijinath Maharashtra. The samples of different sites analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters . The water samples were collected for about one year . The condition of these borewell in various seasons to assess the suitability of ground water for drinking purpose has been studied. The Thermal Power Station and some small scale industries like Koromandal Cement Factory, Vaidynath Sugar Factory, Jagmitra Textile Industry are located in this city. Their effect on chlorides, salinity and total hardness were beyond the permissible limit according to WHO and ISI standards. Key Words : Physico-chemical Parameters. Borewell water . INTRODUCTION Water is a universal solvent essential for all the living beings. Uncontrolled and continuously growing population, unplanned urbanization , rapid industrialization and excessive use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural practices are responsible for the deterioration of water quality. www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 14

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The quality of any water resource is measured in term its physico-chemical parameters. Specific range of physico-chemical parameters decides its quality. Both nationally and internationally reliable and safe water supply is an essential base for development and stability. The World Health Organization [WHO 1985] estimated that the burning dung and drinking of contaminated water together cause eight million deaths per year. Seventy percent of India’s fresh water is polluted as per conventional standard . Hence there is an immediate need to survey and document quality of water for future implementation program . A regular monitoring of water quality not only prevents diseases and hazards but also checks the water resources form going further polluted. The ability of water to dissolve minerals determines the chemical nature of the ground water. Therefore, it needs a constant monitoring of chemical parameters throughout the year in all seasons. For any region hydrochemical studies, a set of obsrvation of tubewell water is to be selected and sampling has to be done periodically. The hydrological cycle is responsible for our weather, it makes our river run and balance the level of ground water (Yadav et al 2009). The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the ground water quality at Parli-vaijinath, Maharashtra. MATERIAL AND METHODS; Parli-Vaijinath is situated at 18 degree 51’ 0”(18 degree 51 minutes North latitude) and 76 degree 27’0” East longitudes. The Thermal Power Station and some small scale industrieslike Koromandal Cement Factory, Vaidynath Sugar Factory, Jagmitra Textile Industry, are located in this city. The water sample for physico-chemical analysis were collected from Parli-Vaijinath, at four different sites. Site 1- Vidyanagar Site 2-L.L.D.M.College Site 3- Bank colony Site 4- Thermal Colony

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LANGUAGES. VOLUME-I, ISSUE-I. Water samples were collected in one litre plastic bottles, sample collection was usually

completed during morning hours between 8.00 am to 10.00 am every time, during the year June 2010 to May 2011. pH, dissolved oxygen, chloride, salinity, total hardness were analyzed in accordance with Trivedy and Goel 1986 Kodarkar et al 1998, APHA 1992.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The physico-chemical parameters of water obtained from different bore well of selected sides are maintained in Table-1

TEMPERATURE The maximum air and water temperature mean ranged between 21 and 31.5 degree centigrate the overall air and water temperature of the season were 29.83 and 22.63 degree centigrade. The maximum air temperature during summer season was 31.5 degree centigrade and minimum air temp during winter season was 21 degree centrigrate . The maximum water temperature during monsoon season 24.9 degree centrigrate and minimum water temperature during winter season was 21 degree centrigrate .

ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY The electric conductivity was maximum during winter season 1.1mmohs/ cm2 and minimum during summer season 0.93 mmohs/cm2. The overall seasonal mean was 1.00 mmohs/cm2 the

conductance is beyond the prescribed limits by WHO and ISI similar results were recorded by Satyanarayana et al in 1992 . pH The maximum pH 7.8 was recorded in summer and minimum in winter 6.8 the overall seasonal mean was 7.4. www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 16

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DISSOLVED OXYGEN The dissolved oxygen values were maximum 2.9mg/l in winter and minimum in monsoon 2.8mg/l . The overall seasonal mean was 2.8 mg/l. The values of dissolved oxygen are beyond the permissible limits given by WHO and ISI.

CHLORIDE The higher values of chloride 538.2 mg/l were recorded in monsoon and lower in winter 256.5 mg/l. The overall seasonal mean was 370.7 mg/l . The high values of chlorides were recorded due to pollution of ground water consumption of water with high concentrations of total dissolved salts has been reported to cause disorder of alimentary , nervous also causing miscarriage of cancer [ Reddy and Subha Rao 2001].

SALINITY The higher values of salinity were recorded in monsoon 991.2 mg/l and lower in winter 468.2 mg/l. The overall seasonal mean was 658.9 . The high levels of salinity , make water unfit to use for any purpose and low levels can create health problems. High salinity values were also recorded by Vinay Kumar 1996.

TOTAL HARDNESS The total hardness values were maximum during summer 795.2 mg/l and minimum during winter

456.5 . The overall seasonal mean was 639.0 mg/l . The high values above permissible limits by WHO and ISI were recorded from summer and monsoon. Total hardness calcium and magnesium above limits causes encrustation in water supply structure and adverse effect on domestic use Dhamiji 1995 , Nagraj et al 2005 . The present study show physico- chemical variations of borewell water in Parli-vaijinath , Maharashtra. The study was carried out during summer, monsoon and winter seasons. Salinity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness and chloride in this season were beyond the permissible limit according to WHO and ISI www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 17

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standard . It may be due to the addition of industrial effluent and thermal effluent in ground water. To improve suitable quality of ground water for drinking purpose there should be continuous monitoring of pollution level. Table – 1 Seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters of borewell water, Parli-Vaijinath Maharashtra during the year June 2010 – May 2011

Parameters Atmospheric temp [`C]

Summer 31.5

Monsoon 30

Winter 28

Average 29.83

WHO _

ISI _

Water temp [`C]

22

24.9

21

22.63

_

_

Electric conductivity[micromohs/cm2] pH

0.93

0.99

1.1

1.00

0-1000

0-1000

7.8

7.7

6.8

7.4

6.5-9.2

6.5-9.2

Dissolved oxygen [mg/l]

2.9

2.8

2.9

2.8

6.2-7

6.2-7

Chloride [mg/l

317.5

538.2

256.5

370.7

2001000 -

200-600

Salinity [mg/l]

517.5

991.2

468.2

658.9

-

Total hardness [mg/l]

795.2

665.5

456.5

639.0

200-600

200-500

WHO [1999] : World Health Organization ISI [1983] : Indian Standard Institute

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REFERENCES APHA 1992 Standard method for examination of water & waste water , New Yark. Dhamija S K and Yatis Jain 1995 Studies on water quality index at Jabalpur [ M.P.] Pollu. Res. 14 [3] : 341.346 Kodarkar M S, Diwan A D, Murugan N, Kulkarni K M and Anuradha Ramesh 1998 Methodology for water analysis IAAB, Hydrabad publication No .2 Nagraj M, Nagraju D and Balsubramaniyam 2005 Ground water quality of mandya taluk Karnataka, India, J.Ecotoxicol.Environ . Monit. 15(2): 169.178. Trivedy R K and Goel P K 1986 Chemical and Biological method for water pollution studies Env. Pub. Karad. WHO 1999 Guidelines for drinking water quality vol. 9. Surveillance and control of community supplies, World Health Organisation, Geneva.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors express their sincere thanks to Principal Late. Laximibai Deshmukh Mahila College, ParliVaijinath, Dist. Beed and Principal Late. Shankarrao Gutte College Dharmapuri Dist. Beed.

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An overview of Sustainable Water Management
Dr. Anil Dbimdbime, Ms. Sonali Khade Department of Environmental Studies G. Saraf Girls' College (Arts & Commerce) Malad (W), Mumbai - 400 064 Email: dhimdhimeanil@gmail.com, kimyasonali@gmail.com

Abstract
Water is indispensable for existence and survival of plants, animals and humans. The freshwater is the lifeline for agriculture, manufacturing and numerous other activities. In the recent past we witnessed the misuse and pollution of water all over the world. Water around the world is getting polluted due to human activities and the availability of potable water in nature is becoming rare day by day. If we do not take radical measures to conserve water, there will not be clean water left. Water demand in various sectors is increasing rapidly and this resource is no more an unlimited one. India is no exception to this trend. In view of the strong need to have judicious and sustainable development of water resources, we must undertake ecologically balanced strategies to tackle water scarcity situations. The sustainability of water resources is of the paramount importance for sound economic and social development of India. Therefore, in the present paper the authors dealt with the scenario of water resources of India and their management for sustainable development.

Introduction

Water is the most important of all resources as most living things are made up mostly of water. The planet we live in is covered by about 71% of water. This film of water helps to maintain the climate, dilutes the pollutants and is essential for all living things. Even though most of this water is saline, a fraction of fresh water is constantly recycled and purified by the hydrological cycle. This fresh water (3%) is the lifeline for agriculture, manufacturing and numerous other activities. Water is scarce resource and it is becoming scarcer as time passes.
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With increasing population and economic development, the demand for water has also increased in domestic, industry, agriculture and energy sector. In the international conference on water security at the Hague, Netherlands (March 2000), it was stressed that access to safe and sufficient water and sanitation are the basic human needs and are essential to help, well being and empowerment of people. And estimated 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water, 2.5 billion people has no access to proper sanitation. It is estimated that by the 2025 two thirds of the world's population is likely to live in countries with moderate or severe water shortages. Many scientists had identified water shortage and global warming as the two most worrying problems for the new millennium. Thus keeping in view of the above facts, the main aim of this paper is to understand quantitative limits, temporal and spatial challenges of water and to assess the various water conservation techniques with special reference to India.

Sustainable Development and Water

The UN Committee of World Environment and Development published "Our Common Future" in 1987. In 1992, the "Agenda 21" was approved by the assembly of Global Environment and Development. The main theme of this two historical events is sustainable development. The emphasis now is on sustainable water resources development as an integral part of national development programs. There are however, different opinions on what constitutes sustainable development. First the development and utilization of water resources, should be continuous and sustail1able. Second the development and utilization of water resources should be able to meet the requirements of social and economic development.

Integrated water planning and management based on a comprehensive ecosystem assessment, taking full account of the use of water in human activities is the main principle behind the sustainable development and management of water resources. Without the sustainable development of water resources, there will be no sustainable and stable development of society and its economy. Likewise without the support of the water resources system, the requirements of social and economic development will put undue strain on the water resources which could eventually destroy the water resources system. Sustainable development can be ensured only when the rural areas received benefits of development. For these efforts to succeed rural people should be drawn into the process of decision making so
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that the decisions are better informed and more closely tailored to the needs of the local people.

It is well known that various human activities are dependent on water for survival. While man has helped himself to be benefit from water resources development, wastage water and overexploitation of the surface and ground water resources has lead to problems of droughts, water logging, depleting groundwater resources and water pollution. The decrease of the water quantity and the degradation of water quality have not only led to environmental degradation but also has jeopardized the sustainable development and utilization of water resources. There are four main problems of water resources management: (i) the disparity between water demand and water supply in the urban and rural areas, (ii) the recurring problem of floods and droughts, (iii) water logging and salinity resulting in loss of agricultural areas, and (iv) 'water quality related problems due to natural (arsenic, fluoride) and manmade causes (nitrates). There are other problems like loss of storage due to siltation of reservoirs, fall of groundwater levels, recession of glaciers, and salinity ingress in coastal areas. Harmonious development of water resources is therefore essential to manage the above water related problems to ensure sustainable development and utilization of water resources.

Quantitative and Qualitative limits to water use

Water availability in India The two main sources of water in India are rainfall and the snow melt of glaciers in the Himalayas. It is estimated that some 5,000 glaciers cover about 43,000 sq. km in the Himalayas with a total volume of locked water estimated at 3,870 cub. km. Considering that about 10, 000 sq. km are located in the Indian territory, the total water yield from snow melt contributing to the river runoff in India may be of the order of 200 cub. meter per year. India receives an average annual precipitation of approximately 4,000 BCM in the form of rainfall and snow melt. After accounting for percolation, evaporation and other losses, less than 50% (1, 869 BCM) is the total surface flow. In view of the constraints of topography, uneven distribution over space and time, water storage technologies and interstate issues, the total utilizable quantity of water is estimated to be 1, 122 BCM per year of which 690 BCM and 430 BCM and utilizable surface and groundwater respectively.
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Current and future water requirements

Currently, more than 80% of the 750 BCM water used in India is for irrigation. The balance 20% is used to meet domestic, energy, industrial and other requirements. With the rapidly growing population and industrial and urbanization activities, the demand for water is expected to increase even faster. Estimates indicate that by the year 2025, the total water demand of 1,050 BCM will be close to the total utilizable water resources of 1,122 BCM in the country. Though projections are not available beyond 2025, it is evident that the country can face an acute water crisis unless clear and strategic measures are taken now.

Temporal challenge

Almost 80% of rainfall occurs in the four months of monsoon, June-September. In peninsular rivers, where there is no contribution from snow melt, monsoon flow accounts for more than 90% of the annual flow. In this context, retention and storage of water becomes imperative.

Spatial Challenge

Precipitation in India is not uniformly distributed and varies from less than 100 mm per annum in Rajasthan to more than 2, 500 mm in Assam. Against a national per capita annual availability of 2, 208 cub. m of water, the average availability in Brahmaputra and Barak Basin is as high as 16, 589 cub. m while it is as low as 360 cub. m in the Sabarmati basin. Water availability of less than 1, 000 cub. m per capita is considered by international agencies as scarcity conditions. The Cauvary, Pennar, Subarmati, East flowing rivers and west flowing rivers are some of the basins with security conditions. In majority of the river basins. present utilization is significantly high and is in the range of 50-95% of utilizable surface resources. In several basins there is also an over withdrawal groundwater tables and also salt water intrusions. of groundwater leading to lowering of

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Development of water resources Rainwater harvesting:- surface water conservation

The infrequent rain, if harvested over a large area, yield considerable quantities of water. The examples of ancient rainwater harvesting involve water and moisture control at a very simple level. Often, these consist of rows of rocks placed along the contours of slopes. Contour terraces (also known as linear borders) have been found to be in use in various parts of India. Runoffs captured behind these barriers also allows for the retention of soil, thereby serving as an erosion control measure on gentle slopes.

Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs

Another method of rainwater harvesting is collection of rainwater from rooftops. This method has advantage over others in which water is harvested from ground catchments in I the sense that water remains without contaminants and is suitable for meeting most domestic requirements. Corrugated galvanized iron roofs have been used to harvest rainwater in many humid regions. For cost effective systems, the roofs can be made of tiles which can be produced on self-help basis. The runoff from rooftops is collected in different kinds of storage tanks which cap be above or below ground. This kind of water harvesting system is specially suited for areas having rainfall of considerable intensity spread over a large part of the year.

Groundwater conservation

Due to frequent incidence of drought and overexploitation of groundwater, the water table has been declining in many parts of the country. To maintain the groundwater resource indefinitely, a hydrologic equilibrium must exist between all water entering and leaving the basin. The techniques available for maintaining this equilibrium are as follows:

Artificial recharge

As the main source of groundwater recharge is rainfall, in its absence the only alternative to replenish the groundwater is to do this by artificial means. Artificial recharge augments
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the natural infiltration of precipitation or surface water into underground formations. It can be done either by direct or indirect methods. In direct methods surface water from a or lake is conveyed to a suitable site, where it is made to enter the aquifer in one water the other. Spreading of water can be achieved by: (i) Flooding water in a relatively flat area. (ii) Constructing basins by construction of dykes or small dams and spreading water on them and (iii) Distributing water to a series of ditches or furrows. A common method of indirect recharge is based on locating a battery of wells at short distance (50 m) parallel to the bank of a river or lake. As the water is abstracted from the wells, more water joins the aquifer from the river banks. In hard rock regions, methods of well recharge have been conducted in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. In many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kamataka and Rajasthan, percolation tanks have been constructed across the water courses for artificial recharge.

Groundwater sanctuary

Groundwater sanctuary in hard rock areas can be developed by impounding the flow of water by constructing dyke across the flow direction of groundwater. A subsurface dam across a valley will convert it into groundwater sanctuaries, and water from there can be drawn during periods of need. Materials like clay, bricks and concrete can be used to construct the dykes, depending upon the local conditions.

Reducing evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration losses can be reduced by reducing evaporation from soil surface and transpiration by plants. The water loss can be prevented by placing water-tight moisture barriers or water retardant mulches on the soil surface. Non-porous materials such as paper, asphalt, latex, plastic film or metal foil could also be used for reducing evaporation from soil surface. Residues of the previous crops can also act as a moisture barrier which requires stringent weed control measures. Conservation of soil moisture is greatly improved by 5-10 mm thick gravel mulches.

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Improving irrigation practices

Drip irrigation in which only the adjoining portion of the plant is irrigated is a suitable method of irrigation in water scarce areas. This method is particularly suitable for row crops. Other methods of irrigation like sprinkler irrigation, subsurface irrigation are also suitable for water scarce areas. Use of gated pipes for irrigation can save seepage loss of water in field laterals. In this method, instead of laterals, gated pipes are used to carry water to the head end of the field and depending upon the requirement of water, the gates are opened.

Reduction of seepage and improving irrigation efficiency

In water scarce regions, unlined ditches are used to convey water from its source to the field and a considerable quantity of water is lost by seepage before it is delivered to the field. The discharge capacity of the canal can be increased and the recurring cost of maintenance can also be reduced by lining of field channels.

Reuse of water

Reuse of water can significantly reduce the stress on water resources. Waste water after proper treatment can be used for irrigation, industry and even for municipal use. Proper biological treatment of sewage is required before it is put to agricultural use. Industrial waste water can also be used for irrigation after proper chemical treatment.

Inter-basin and intra-basin water transfer

Creation of storage and inter-basin transfer of water from surplus to deficit regions would be a better approach for achieving the objective of equitable distribution of water while ensuring its optimum utilization. If the water surplus rivers like Ganga and Brahmaputra could be linked with the water deficit rivers of peninsular India, the recurring problems of floods and droughts can be managed to a large extent. The inter-basin water transfer concept has been put into practice in India in Periyar diversion scheme, Kurnoo Cuddapah Canal, Beas Sutlej link and Rajasthan canal. As a part of long term strategy to tackle the problem of floods
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and droughts, the Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India has established the National Water Development Agency in 1982. A national perspective plan has been prepared which envisages two components as follows: (i) The Himalayan river component comprising storage and canal linkages systems to transfer surplus water from Kosi, Gandak and Ghagra to the west; Brahmaputra-Ganga link to augment the lean season flows of Ganga; the Ganga-Yamuna link to serve the drought areas of Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and parts of Uttar Pradesh and south Bihar. (ii) The peninsular river component which envisages diversion of surplus waters of Mahanadi to the Godavari and the surplus there from to the Krishna, Pennar and Cauvery with terminal dams on Mahanadi and Godavari so that the drought prone areas in the south can be benefited. Water within a basin can also be transported from surplus regions to regions of water deficit. These transfers have to be properly planned keeping in mind the interest of water users in both the receiving and supplying basins.

Watershed development programs

Watershed development programs typically attempt at improving the water regime through engineering and vegetative measures to maximize the potential of natural resources and increase the income of inhabitants. While supply side measures include engineering interventions such as soil and water conservation measures, check dams, bunding, and other structures together with forestry practices which regulate or even increase water flows, demand sides measures include improved farming practices to reduce the requirements of water.

Traditional water harvesting systems

India is endowed with a diverse range of traditional water harvesting structures which have over centuries catered to community requirements. These systems are often highly effective, well adapted to local ecological and social conventions and often outperform methods based on modern agronomic knowledge. Some of the indigenous practices are as
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follows: (i) In the western and central Himalayas, diversion channels called Kuhls or guhls were built to draw water from hill streams. The length of these channels varied from 1-15 km and carried a discharge of 15-100 litres per second. (ii) (iii) (iv) In Meghalaya, a two hundred year old system of tapping stream water for irrigating plants by using bamboo pipes is prevalent. It is like a modern drip irrigation system. The zabo system of cultivation in Kikruma village of Nagaland is combination of torestry, agriculture and animal care with soil erosion control. The ahar-pyne system of irrigation is found in south Bihar. Ahars are rectangular catchment basins and pynes are channels constructed to utilize the water flowing through hilly rivers. (v) (vi) Kunds found in the Thar dessert are covered underground tanks with an artificially prepared catchment area to increase runoff. It was developed to supply drinking water. Karnataka has been a forerunner in managing traditional water harvesting structures like arakere, volakere, devikere, katte, kunte and kola. The maximum number where tanks-40,000 tanks still exist today. (vii) Khatri is a unique way of water storage in various parts of Himachal Pradesh. These are hand-hewn caves located on both sides of the road beneath huge rocks. Once these Khatris are carved out, they are provided with an iron gate and locked. The water seeps into these reservoirs from the rocks and is collected inside and is sufficient for daily use. (viii) a special water harvesting structure in Kasaragod district of Northern Malabar is called surangam, a tunnel dug through a laterite hillock from the periphery of which water seeps out. (ix) One third of the irrigated area of Tamilnadu is watered by ancient tanks called eris, which have played an important role in maintaining ecological harmony, flood control, preventing soil erosion, reducing wastage of runoff and recharging ground water. (x) Some tribal’s of Nicobar Island make extensive use of split bamboos in their water harvesting system. The split bamboos are placed along a slope with the lower end leading into a shallow pit. These serve as conduits for rain water which is collected, drop by drop, in pits called jack wells.

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Changes in water pricing structures

An effective tool for achieving water conservation is to work out an imaginative pricing policy. The higher rates can be proposed for water use beyond a base line amount. Some economic incentives for using small quantities of water may be given to consumers for encouraging water conservation.

Changes in water use patterns

The changing water oriented lifestyles, habits and uses include taking short shower, reducing bathing frequency, fewer toilet tlushings, reuse of residential waste water. Other measures include curbing the habit of leaving taps open when not required, restricting the use of water for watering lawns and gardens etc. Planned water allocation and distribution measures may include proper and regular checks on water distribution system.

Educating people on water conservation

The water conservation education and information to convince the water users about the seriousness of water scarcity or shortage are the vital components of any water conservation program. To do so, water manager should also given sufficient background information and training on water conservation program. There is a need to include such education system at different levels in schools and colleges, so that students are made aware of water conservation practices and are educated to learn to live with water scarcity. An understanding of water supply and its use for development of a conservation ethic in urban areas is essential for achieving water conservation.

Conclusion:

It is recognized that water is going to be one of the major issues confronting India in the new millennium. It has emphasized that proper water administration is a critical component of sustainable development. The environmental challenges of water resource development and management can be addressed through following approaches: 1. by pursuing decentralization and community water management initiatives,
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2. 3. 4. 5.

by fostering local institutional development and capacity building, by promoting economic instruments for efficient and sustainable water resources management, by supporting innovative approaches to water resource management with the use of appropriate technologies by integrating traditional and modem techniques, by abatement and treatment of water pollution.

In this way, we can both consume less water and reap greater benefits of water conservation. The required strategies take not only money and political will, but time as well. Every one has a stake in seizing these opportunities to chart a decisive course of action for meeting goal of sustainable water management.

References:

1. Sustainable Development - A. K. Shrivastava; APH Publication Corp. (2004) 2. Water Resources Development and Management- H. Chandrasekharan, R. K. Sharma, and K. V. Sundaram; Mittal Publication,New Delhi (2004) 3. Water Harvesting: Ecological and Economic Appraisal- Archana Misra; Author Press Publ. (2006) 4. Oxford handbook of water resources in India – edited by John Briscoe and R.P.S. Malik; The World Bank (2007)

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IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION ON RAINFALL IN JALNA DISTRICT – A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

Dr. A. T. Doke, Kum. Trupti Kamble

Head, Department of Geography, Swa.Sawarkar College, Beed.

INTRODUCTION: Water is life of all organisms. It is essential for life of the earth. Plants, animals and human beings cannot survive without water. Every need of human being directly or indirectly depends upon water; therefore water is very valuable and basic natural resource. The

hydrosphere is very vast and its water is abundantly available on the earth. But out of total water resource 97% water is salty and only 3% is pure. Out of the total (3%) pure water 2% water is locked in the form of ice at high latitudinal & altitudinal part of the earth. So only 1% pure & fresh water is useful for human beings for their several needs, in forms of rivers, streams, lakes, ponds etc. According to the international standard perhead perannum 17003 mtrs. water is essential. At present scenario in about 31 countries water is not available according to international standard. Water distribution crisis among many neighboring states and nations exits to the shortage of water. There have been many water distribution policies for avoiding the crisis of water distribution among the neighboring states and nations. They are Maharashtra-Karnataka, India – Bangladesh, Egyipt-Ethopiya etc. But in future some nations will violet the existing water distribution policies and create more possibility to start war for water between the neighboring nations. So water shortage is global and sensitive issue. In this condition water resource, its conservation and its management is very essential. Rainfall is the basic resource of water. Day by day rainfall is decreasing due to the changes of climate and over deforestation. Forests and rainfall are complementary to each other. Rainfall determined the extent and nature of forest cover. Forest cover creates the favorable condition
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for rainfall. Various factors such as location, distance from sea, relief & forest cover etc. Influence the rainfall. So rainfall is essence of the earth and forest cover are essence of the rainfall. The research paper, the researcher has tried to find out the impact of deforestation on annual average rainfall in Jalna District during the period of 1989-90 to 1994-95.

STUDY AREA:
For the present investigation Jalna District is selected this district is part of Deccan trap and drained Godawari, Purna and Dudhna and its tributaries, Study area lying between 190 1’ to 200 3’north latitude and 750 4’ to 760 4’ east longitude and it is situated average height of 534 mtrs from mean sea level. In general climate is hot summer. The average maximum temperature is high as 400 C in the month of May and average minimum temperature fall up to 100 C during the month of December. The study area receives rainfall chiefly from South-West Monsoon between June to September about 80% out of the total rainfall. Annual rainfall average is about 705.6 mm and 687 mm in respectively 1989-90 & 1994-95.

LOCATION MAP : Jalna District

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OBJECTIVES: 1) To study the forest resource of Jalna District. 2) To Study the Spatio-temporal rainfall distribution of the district. 3) To find out impact of deforestation on annual average rainfall of the district. 4) To create the awareness among the people for conservation and management of forest and rainwater resources. 5) To give the some meaningful suggestions.

DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY: The present study based on only secondary data, which is obtained from socio economic review of the Jalna district for the period of 1989-90 to 1994-95.

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The collected data were processed and represented by suitable statistical and cartographic techniques.

Area under forest and annual average of Rainfall (1989-90 to 1994-95, Area in hect. & Rainfall in mm) Sr. No. 1989-90 1994-94 Tahsil Area under forest Annual average Rainfall 1989-95 1994-95 Area under forest 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Bhokardan Jafrabad Jalna Ambad Partur District Average
Ref. Socio-economic review of Jalna district (1989-90 to 1994-95

Volume of Change

Annual average R.F.

1550 200 2500 600 200 5050

1600 200 1700 1400 100 5000

640 604 710 712 862 705.6

664 646 685 727 713 687

+ 50 00 - 800 +800 - 100 -50

+ 24 + 42 - 25 + 15 + 149 - 18.6

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION: i) Total area under forest is about 5050 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 705.6 mm. in Jalna district during 1989-90 and area under forest is about 5000 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 687 mm in 1994-95. The volume of change found in forest and annual average rainfall are negative 50 hectares and negative 18.6 mm. respectively. So it is clear that deforestation of district is badly affected the rainfall. ii) In Bhokardan tahsil total area under forest is about 1550 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 640 mm in 1989-90. During the 1994-95 total area under forest is about 1600 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 664 mm. The

volume of change take place in forest and annual average rainfall are positive 50 hectares and positive 24 mm respectively. It indicate that increase the area under forest to increase annual average rainfall. iii) In Jafrabad tahsil total area under forest is about 200 hectare and annual average rainfall is about 604 m.m. in 1989-90. During 1994-95 total area under forest as same 200 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 646 m.m. In this tahsil volume of change occur in forest and annual average rainfall are zero and positive 42 m.m. respectively so it shows that not only forest cover is affect the rainfall but also many other factors like that wind, location, sea distance, relief & etc. iv) In Jalna tashils total area under forest is about 2500 hect. and total annual average rainfall is about 710 mm is 1989-90, and total area under forest is about 1700 hect. and annual average rainfall is about 685 m.m. during 1994-95. The volume of change is area under forest and annual average rainfall is negative 800 hect. and negative 25 mm respectively so it is clear that deforestation has negatively affect the annual average rainfall in this tahsil. v) Total area under forest is about 600 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 712 mm in Ambad Tahsil during 1989-90. As against the total area under forest is about 1400 hectares and annual average rainfall is about 727 mm in 1994-95. The volume of change is found area under forest and annual average rainfall positive 800
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hect. and positive 15 m.m. respectively in Ambad Tahsil.

So it indicate that

performance of forest is positively affect the annual average rainfall. vi) In Partur tahsil total area under forest is about 200 hectares and total annual average rainfall is about 862 m.m. in 1989-90 And it is 100 hect. and 713 mm respectively occur in 1994-95. The volume of change is take place area under forest and annual average rainfall is negative 100 hectares and negative 149 mm respectively. So deforestation is badly affected the rainfall in this tahsil.

CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION: Rainfall is increase from west towards the east part of the Jalna District. In the context of the finding the above stated conclusion, the some recommendations for conservation and management of forest and rainwater. i) In regards to land use, the district has recorded only 0.86 percent forest cover and there has been start deforestation in almost all the tahsil. Therefore, require special attention, it felt that there should be made aware among people about deterioration of forest and their short term and long term consequences. ii) To protect the existing forest cover and also to create new forest area, forests are protect the water, soil and many valuable resources. iii) To actively implement the policies for conservation and management of rainwater and forest resource. iv) To prepare the management for utilization of available water resource, according to the requirement. References: i) ii) Encyclopaedia of Resource Geography. - P.K. Jauhri A Textbook of Envirament Science – Arvind Kumar.
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iii) iv)

Jalchintan - Dr.Sudhir Bhongle. Socieo-economic Review of Jalna District. (1989-90 to 1994-95)

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Water Related Problems of Health and Sanitation In Shirur (ka) Dist-Beed.

C. V. Donglikar, J. J. Kshirsagar, A. N. Dharasurkar Dep- Home-Science Kalikadevi College Shirur (ka) Beed

Dep- Botany, P. V. P. College, Patoda Beed

Dep- Botany, P. V. P. College, Patoda Beed

Abstract: It is a well-known fact that clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living. Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings on the earth, yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this. With special reference to Taluka Shirur (ka) of Beed district, the conditions are very harsh. People living here face various health and sanitation problems related to water. So in order to study this water related problems a study was conducted with an objective, Objective: “To study various water related problems of health and sanitation in Shirur (ka)”. The results of which indicate, severe water related health problems associated with sanitation, which need an urgent concern.

Introduction: It is a well-known fact that clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living. Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings on the earth, yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this. Freshwater resources all over the world are threatened not only by over exploitation and poor management but also by ecological degradation. With special reference to Taluka Shirur (ka) of Beed district, the conditions are very harsh. The climate of Beed district is hot and dry. Summers are very long ranging almost five months from mid February to June. Natural water sources get dry by the end of November-December. Rains are scarce and occur only during the monsoons from June to September. Humidity is low and winters are dry. Soil is coarse and rocky

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with low vegetations and forests. In recent times there are frequent droughts, shrinking water reservations and extreme shortages of drinking water especially in rural areas like Shirur (ka). Because of these harsh circumstances people living here face various health and sanitation problems related to water. So in order to study this water related problems a study was conducted with an objective, Objective: “To study various water related problems of health and sanitation in Shirur (ka)” Material and Methods: Data of various water born diseases in people of Shirur (ka) was collected from Primary Health Care Center. While collecting the data specially the data belonging to period of February to July was collected. Also a survey was conducted in Shirur taluka to know the no of people having houses with toilets, to study the problems associated with sanitation. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done with simple percentage frequency method Results: 1) Results of data collected from Primary Health Care Center indicate various diseases related to water Sr.No 1 Causes
Bacterial infections

Water-borne diseases Typhoid, Dengue Cholera Paratyphoid fever Bacillary decentary

2 3 4

Viral infections Protozoan infections Insects and Parasites

Infectious Hepatitis (jaundice) Poliomyelitis Amoebic dysentery Malaria, ChikenGunia

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2) When a survey was conducted to know no of houses with toilets it was found that; a) 62%of people don‟t have toilets at their houses. They go open space for toilet. b) 35% of people not having toilets at their homes are from Lower class. 27% are from Middle Class and the remaining 38% of people who have toilets at their homes, are from Higher Class. c) 43% of people don‟t have toilets because of water scarcity, which they face for nearly six months. d) 29% of people say that they don‟t afford preparing toilets because of financial problems.

Discussion:
As per the results, direct and indirect human costs of this are enormous and include extensive health problems, high labor costs, particularly women (primarily) are forced to travel long distances each day to haul water to meet even the most minimal needs, and severe limits on the extent and form of economic development. As a result of the lack of clean water and sanitation services, there are thousands of cases of water-related diseases and sanitation problems every year

Most intestinal (enteric) diseases are infectious and are transmitted through fecal waste. Pathogens - which include virus, bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms - are disease-producing agents found in the feces of infected persons. These diseases are more prevalent in areas with poor sanitary conditions. These pathogens travel through water sources and interfuses directly through persons handling food and water. Since these diseases are highly infectious, extreme care and hygiene should be maintained by people looking after an infected patient. Hepatitis, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid are the more common water-borne diseases that affect large populations in the tropical regions. Exposure to polluted water can cause diarrhea, skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other diseases, depending on the pollutant that is in the water body. Stagnant water and other untreated water provide a habitat for the mosquito and a host of other parasites and insects that cause a large number of diseases. Among these, malaria is undoubtedly the most widely distributed and causes most damage to human health.
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Preventive measures: Water-borne epidemics and health hazards in the aquatic environment are mainly due to improper management of water resources. Proper management of water resources has become the need of the hour as this would ultimately lead to a cleaner and healthier environment. In order to prevent the spread of water-borne infectious diseases, people should take adequate precautions. The city water supply should be properly checked and necessary steps taken to disinfect it. Water pipes should be regularly checked for leaks and cracks. At home, the water should be boiled, filtered, or other methods and necessary steps taken to ensure that it is free from infection. To make analytical techniques to be effective, there is a need to enhance human and technical capacity for risk communication. This could take the form of public education on climate change and sanitation, associated health impacts. To enhance awareness and to influence lifestyle, behavior, and individual choices to protect and improve health, Government, NonGovernment, social and educational institutions should come forward to spread awareness regarding water, health and sanitation problems. Such health promotion materials could manifest as low-tech flyers, folk art, public forums, and advertisements as well as more high-tech materials including web-based and mobile-phone–based alerts. On the other end of the spectrum, developing capacity could take on a more holistic approach, such as region- and city-specific climate action plans and early warning system for heat stress events, droughts, hurricanes, and floods. References:     Deepti Rani, Environmental Studies, Human population and environment, Aradhana publications, pg 219-254 Drinking Water and Human Health, www.usawaterquality.org/---/health/default.html. Health impacts of water pollution, edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/water/health.html. Importance of water and human health, www.freedrinkingwater.com/water---/waterhealth.html.
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   

Seth, S. K., Kaul, O.N. and Gupta, A. C., 1963. Indian For.,89 Seth, G.K., 1976, Know Your environment, Science Reporter, 13(1) : 7-11 Water for human health, www.safewater.org/pdfs/---/water and human health. Water and sanitation-Healthy India Healthy india.org/envirnmentalhealth/water_snitation.html

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Women and water management: an integrated approach
By Dr. Varsha. S. Zanver Shri Yoganand Swami Arts College , Basmat Nagar Dist. Hingoli , Maharshtra

Abstract The present research study is planned with objectives like role of women in water conservation and find out the different measures how the rain water can be conserved for upbringing of the overall status of family. Women and men assume distinct responsibilities in using and managing water and water systems. Women bear a greater burden in contending with those natural disasters not only do their normal responsibilities increase, but female-headed households are disadvantaged in terms of relief and rehabilitation. In recent years, there has been a growth of awareness among the community regarding the need to manage the natural resources like land, water and vegetation on a rational basis. The project like watershed management has to be implemented for rural women. . Watershed development involves conservation, regeneration, and judicious utilization of natural resources. It aims to bring about an optimum balance between the demand and use of natural resources so that they remain sustainable over time. The components of watershed development are Soil and land management, Water management, Crop management, fodder development, Livestock management, Rural energy management. Other farm and non-farm activities and development of community skills and resources . Further women should be trained for plantation of trees that suit specific soil conditions are chosen for cultivation. The cultivation of fruits and vegetables are promoted and supported through field training, credit support and seed distribution. Horticulture has enabled families to have a steady source of income as compared to the unreliable income

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Women and water management: an integrated approach By Dr. Varsha. S. Zanver Shri Yoganand Swami Arts College , Basmat Nagar Dist. Hingoli , Maharshtra Introduction Water is essential for all forms of life and crucial for human development. Water systems, including wetlands, coastal zones, surface waters and aquifers, provide a vast majority of environmental goods and services, including drinking water, transport and food. Globally, irrigated agriculture draws down 70per cent of all renewable water resources, and industry and energy supply also consume a sizable share. However the rainfed agriculture plays an important role in Indian economy covering 68 per cent of the total net sown area spread over 177 districts. Uncertainty in production due to fluctuations in total rainfall and changes in its distribution, decrease in relative productivity in rainfed lands etc. affect the livelihoods of many poor and marginalised farmers. As the world‟s population has tripled over the last century, the use of renewable water resources has grown six fold. But water‟s sustaining role in ecosystems

remains undervalued, despite the fact that minimum flows in water bodies are needed to support environmental health and increasing human demands. Faced with shortages and a grim future if current trends continue, there is a growing understanding that sustainable water management requires water governance, including integrated water resource management. Integrated water resource management coordinates the development and management of water, land and related resources. It seeks to maximize social and economic welfare in an equitable manner, to sustain ecosystems and to bring together the technical, ecological, social and political spheres. An essential part of an integrated approach is the participation of stakeholders, including local communities Water deprivation is a major concern, involving both the quality and the availability of water. There are several primary threats to water supplies, starting with pollution with organic and chemical substances, a major concern in many industrialized and developing countries. Major sources include inadequate sewage systems, waste disposal, industrial effluents and agricultural residues. Pollution disrupts not only the ecological balance but also harms the health of the entire community. Eighty per cent of all sickness in the world is attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation, and water-borne diseases – such as diarrhoea, malaria, schistosomiasis and hepatitis A – kill 3.4 million people (mostly children) every year. Water

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may also disappear through the irreversible degradation which takes place when wetlands, flood plains and coastal ecosystems are destroyed .(B.Mishra 2000) Women‟s reproductive and productive roles: Women and men assume distinct responsibilities in using and managing water and water systems. In most societies, women and girls collect every litre of water for cooking, bathing, cleaning, maintaining health and hygiene, raising small livestock and growing food. Rural men need water for irrigation and larger livestock, but women often care for the milk cattle and young animals and recent studies found that more than 50 percent farming aspects are done by women. They also oversee family health. There is a tendency to overemphasize women‟s reproductive roles in (Ex. in making bricks and in plastering), for crops and food processing, and in transport. But women have pressing needs too for water to engage in economic production, including agriculture and microenterprise. Gender disparities ensure that those needs frequently go unmet, with discrepancies in land tenure, access to water, participation, resource control, capacity and skill development, marketing and commercial linkages. (Zaheer Abbas, 2011) .Women bear a greater burden in contending with those natural disasters not only do their normal responsibilities increase, but female-headed households are disadvantaged in terms of relief and rehabilitation. From a gender perspective, therefore, conservation of aquatic ecosystems can be viewed as critical in terms of improving women‟s access to resources essential for livelihoods, such as forests, fish species and agricultural land. (Dublin Principle 2010) Better-off women might have private wells for irrigation and domestic purposes, resources to buy safe water or treat unsafe water and domestic help to bring water from other sources. Poor women and girls do not have such options and end up with contaminated supplies. Many also lack basic education on efficient use and pollution prevention, even as they may have learned strategies to conserve water. Similar considerations apply to a related and sometimes major problem for women: sanitation. In most communities, women must walk long distances to find some privacy, often in bushes or fields, where their personal safety is at risk. There is an increased incidence of sexual and physical assault when women have to walk to remote areas to defecate. Proper sanitation facilities are therefore a top priority for women and girls. Methodology: Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water.

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By the 1970s, women in several parts of the world had started actively organizing to stop degradation of their water systems. Village women in the Chipko movement in India held on to the water-saving capacity of their forests by opposing felling by contractors. Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement), also in India, has struggled for years to stop the damming of the Narmada river. Women, under the leadership of Ms. Medha Patkar, are in the forefront of the Movement. Although the submergence of villages has started, the crusade for justice continues. In recent years, there has been a growth of awareness among the community regarding the need to manage the natural resources like land, water and vegetation on a rational basis. The project like watershed management has to be implemented for rural women.

A Watershed can be defined as the entire upstream topography around a defined drainage channel which feeds water to the lands below. A watershed may vary from a few hectares to several thousands of hectares. Watershed development involves conservation, regeneration, and judicious utilization of natural resources. It aims to bring about an optimum balance between the demand and use of natural resources so that they remain sustainable over time. The components of watershed development are Soil and land management, Water management, Crop management, fodder development, Livestock management, Rural energy management. Other farm and non-farm activities and development of community skills and resources .The aim of watershed intervention is to raise the water table in specific regions, protect land from soil erosion, improve the soil‟s ability to absorb rainwater, and improve vegetative growth and agricultural productivity. Several land development mechanisms are adopted by Gram Vikas to transform barren land to sustain certain crops and trees. Ponds have been excavated to harvest rainwater allowing the land to regenerate further enhancing livelihood potential. So Self-Help Groups(SHG) has to be formed . These groups can collectively accrue savings to fund incomegenerating activities such as agriculture, livestock rearing, fish farming and horticulture. A typical SHG is comprised of 10 to 15 members of the community who agree to deposit monthly savings into a fund, a portion of which can eventually be borrowed to fund community businesses.( Ratnakar 2011)). A training programme must be organized for SHG women by expert group to aware about basic record keeping and financial accounting in simple way and encourages the group to undertake income-generating activities. When the group gains the ability and confidence required to successfully manage their funds, they are linked to local banks. By linking them to local banks they are able to access external funds and government loans. Further
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women should be trained for plantation of trees that suit specific soil conditions are chosen for cultivation. The cultivation of fruits and vegetables are promoted and supported through field training, credit support and seed distribution. Horticulture has enabled families to have a steady source of income as compared to the unreliable income that comes from focuses on livelihood diversification for enhancing livelihood security through skill development, training and strengthening Self Help Groups to access sources of finance and avenues for marketing. Summary and conclusion Women and men assume distinct responsibilities in using and managing water and water systems. Women bear a greater burden in contending with those natural disasters not only do their normal responsibilities increase, but female-headed households are disadvantaged in terms of relief and rehabilitation. In recent years, there has been a growth of awareness among the community regarding the need to manage the natural resources like land, water and vegetation on a rational basis. The project like watershed management has to be implemented for rural women. . Watershed development involves conservation, regeneration, and judicious utilization of natural resources. It aims to bring about an optimum balance between the demand and use of natural resources so that they remain sustainable over time. The components of watershed development are Soil and land management, Water management, Crop management, fodder development, Livestock management, Rural energy management. Other farm and non-farm activities and development of community skills and resources . Further women should be trained for plantation of trees that suit specific soil conditions are chosen for cultivation. The cultivation of fruits and vegetables are promoted and supported through field training, credit support and seed distribution. Horticulture has enabled families to have a steady source of income as compared to the unreliable income Suggestion Women‟s equal participation in decision-making is a prerequisite for more equitable access to both water and sanitation, and could lead to services that respond more effectively to men‟s and women‟s different demands and capacities. Hence through Self Help Groups there has been a growth of awareness among the community regarding the need to manage the natural resources like land, water and vegetation on a rational basis.

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Recommendation : Women playing influential roles at all levels over the long term could also hasten the achievement of sustainability in the management of scarce water resources. References: Asian Water management (2010) : A news letter Participatory Watershed Management Training vol.No.6 Asma EL Kashmi, Francis Segond,( 2008) Women in water management Proceedings of the International Workshop held at Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane. B. Mishra ( 2000) A successful case of participatory watershed management at Ralegan Siddhi Village in district Ahmadnagar, Maharastra, India* Dublin Principle(2010) Women and water management: an integrated approach An International Conference on Water and the Environment Development Issues Pr Michael Peyron (2008) Women in water management and related issues: International workshop at School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco Ratnakar (2011) A successful case study by Jaya Devi from Munger resists Naxals, works for rainwater conservation, and creates 285 self help groups.A Bihar Days Magazine Zaheer Abbas (2011) Workshop on Water Management: A workshop on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by the joint efforts of Lake Conservation Committee and Mohan Singh Mehta Memorial Trust (MSMMT) under banner of Global Water Partnership and India Water Partnership at Udaipur Rajasthan

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Ministry-Developmental Programmes and water Resources
D. N. Gatlewar, M. T. Musande, G. T. Rathod,

Jawahar Arts, Science and Commerce College Anadur. Tq. Tuljapur, Dist. Osmanabad. gatlewar75@gmail.com

Abstract
. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is dedicated to improving the quality of life

through the sustainable management of water resources, water protection, and water and wastewater treatment. As an international organization, it has a responsibility to ensure that all regions of the world benefit from its expertise. These select technical papers from WEFTEC represent part of that expertise. India is endowed with a rich and vast diversity of natural resources, water being one of them. Its development and management plays a vital role in agriculture production. Integrated water management is vital for poverty reduction, environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development. National Water Policy (2002) envisages that the water resources of the country should be developed and managed in an integrated manner.

Introduction:
Water has played a very significant role in shaping the course of the earth‟s history and continues to play the leading role in the drama of life on earth. Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and every plant contains a substantial proportion of tree or combined water in its body, and no kind of physiological activity is possible without water. Water is, of course, necessary for animal life, while moisture in the soil is equally imperative for the life and growth of plants and trees. The conservation and utilization of water is thus fundamental for human welfare Water management involves the participatory approach of empowering communities especially women to provide, protect and safeguard their own water sources (Vijita, 1996). Until recently, the states were major and sole player in managing water resources. The results of this centralized
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control were largely a catalogue of failures-unrepaired, rundown water systems and washed funds. State plays a critical supportive, supervisory and regulatory role; the civil society mobilizes, sensitizes and trains the community to manage water. System emphasizes equitable and sustainable management of water as a community resource: and involvement of women in the resources management, while drawing on their traditional roles as key water users. The Major activities carried out under Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Scheme of Ministry of Water Resources [During the years 2007-08 to 2010-2011] The IEC Scheme aims to create awareness among various target groups about the importance of development and management of water resources in a holistic manner with due emphasis on a coordinated effort for addressing various water related issues. The Scheme covers the overall scenario of water resources, dependency on water for various requirements of the society, the urgent need for conservation of water and preservation of its quality, the advantages of adoption of integrated approach and participatory management etc. To achieve the objectives of the scheme the activities have been suggested under IEC Scheme:(1).

Publicity through Electronic Media:
Electronic Media Campaign through telecast/broadcast of video/audio spots of 30 sec.

duration on Water Conservation in Hindi and 14 regional languages on DD National, DD News, Regional Channels of Doordarshan and FM, National News, Vividh Bharti and Local Radio Stations of All India Radio during the years 2008-09, 2009-10 & 2010-11. During the year 200910 Lok Sabha TV was also utilized for Electronic Media Campaign by telecasting of video spots as well as the film on Farmers‟ Participatory Action Research Programmes. (2).

Painting Competition on Water Conservation issues:
A three tier painting competition on water conservation themes was organized by the

Ministry for the students of 4th, 5th and 6th standards in 21 States/UTs of the country. The objective of organizing the painting competition was to engage the attention of children towards the need of water conservation and to inculcate in them the habit of judicious use of water right from their formative years. In all 267522 students from 5070 schools had participated in the school level competition. Out of these, 50 students from each State/UT were selected by the jury for
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competing at the State Level. The State Level Painting Competition in these States/UTs was organized on 14.11.2010. The top three winners from each State/UT were called to participate in the National Level Painting Competition on 21.1.2011 at New Delhi. The winners were awarded a cash Prize of Rs. 1 Lakh (1st prize), four second prizes of Rs.50,000/- each, eight third prizes of Rs. 25,000/- each and ten consolation prizes of Rs.10,000 each, along with a Certificate and a memento. (3).

Publicity through newspapers / magazines:
Every year, Advertisements on Do‟s and Don‟ts for Water Conservation, measures for

Water Conservation and policies and programmes of the Ministry etc. are released on important occasions in newspapers publishing from various parts of the country and in a few magazines. During the year 2007-08, a special feature on water was also released in the in flight magazine „Swagat‟. (4).

Publicity through participation in Exhibitions/Fairs:
Every year Ministry along with its organizations participates in India International Trade

Fair held at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi by way of its pavilion depicting various working models, diorama of water cycle etc. and by putting up interactive kiosks, quiz shows and cultural programmes for students. Booklets, pamphlets, stickers and other publicity materials and freebees like key rings, paper caps carrying the messages of Water Conservation are distributed to the visitors. Certificates of participation in quiz shows are also distributed to the children. During the years Ministry has participated in the ASOM International Trade Fair at Guwahati, Indian Science Congress at Shillong, SAARC Trade Fair held at Thimpu, Bhutan, Thrissur Pooram Exhibition at Thrissur, Science and Technology Expo at Nainital, Congress, Shillong, 14th National Exhibition at Kolkata in 2010-11. Apart from these the Central Water Commission and Central Ground Water Board, organizations under the Ministry participate in large number of fairs and exhibitions to promote the message of water conservation. (5).

Organization of Workshops/Seminars:
Various Workshops/Mass Awareness Programmes/Water Management Training

Programmes/Jal Yatras etc. were organized through field offices of CWC/CGWB and under CADWM.
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Other major Workshops/Seminars organized by the Ministry/its organizations were Editors‟ Conference on Social Sector Issues organized in association with Press Information Bureau, 13th Asian Regional Conference at Kolkata, a workshop on remote sensing was organized by MoWR at New Delhi, three Workshops on Water Conservation, Artificial Recharge and improving Water Use Efficiency were organized for the benefit of Armed Forces at Kargil, Gangtok and Jaipur during 2009-10 with all logistic support of Army, Conference of Principal Secretaries/WALMIs was organized at New Delhi, Workshop on „Integrated Water Resources Management‟ at Shillong etc. (6).

Publicity through Mass Media Transport Vehicle:
Publicity through posters, banners, hoardings at Railway Stations, Bus shelters and Metro

Stations/Platforms/Trains/Pillars is carried out throughout the country. (10). Publicity through Post Offices located in various parts of the country: Printing and Distribution of 5 lakh Meghdoot Postcards during 2007- 08 and 6 lakh Meghdoot Postcards during 2008-09 carrying the messages of rooftop rainwater harvesting in English/Hindi and regional languages. Commemorative Postage Stamp on Water Year-2007 was released in December; 2007.Water issues abound throughout the world with every region having its own distinct challenges. That is why the Water Environment Federation is committed to connecting the best people and ideas from around the world each year at their Technical Exhibition and Conference. With over 20,000 attendees from all regions of the world, no water challenge goes unmentioned.

Conclusion:
Water is very important natural resource on the earth, for all living beings. It is needed to create awareness for the water resource issue among the human being. Before to create awareness, people must know the seriousness of water resource. Therefore with help of scheme of ministry of water resource, the government has successfully drawn attention of people towards water resource issue along with various publicity issues. All these media advertisements, organization of seminars and conferences, exhibition, postures as well as students participation hammering on the people to understand the role of water in their life. So, the curiosity and responsibilities of people toward water resources, is going on to increases day by day. .
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Acknowledgement:
Author is thankful to Principal Dr. A. K. Mudkanna, Jawahar College Anadur for inspiring and motivating me to prepare this paper.

References:
1) A hydro meteorological approach to the forecasting of inflows to alpine lakes. McGowan, H. A.; Sturman, A. P. (1996). Physical Geography, 17(6): 513-533. 2) A recurrent neural networks approach using indices of low- frequency climatic variability to forecast regional annual runoff. Coulibaly, P.; Anctil, F.; Rasmussen, P.; Bobee, B. (2000). Hydrological Processes, 14(15): 2755-2777. 3) A study on impact of climate variability/change on water resources in the Philippines‟. Jose, A. M.; Francisco, R. V.; Cruz, N. A. (1996). Chemosphere, 33(9): 1687-1704. 4) An analysis of the feasibility of long-range stream flow forecasting for Colombia using El Nino-Southern Oscillation indicators. Gutierrez, F.; Dracup, J. A. (2001). Journal of Hydrology, 246(1-4): 181-196. 5) Agarwal, Anil (1999) Making Water Management Everybody‟s Business: Water Harvesting and Rural Development in India. 6) Bruce, M and D. Shrub sole, (1994). Canadian Water Management: Vision for Sustainability, Cambridge, ON: Canadian Water Resources Association. 7) Venkateswaran, S. (1995), Environment, Development and the Gender Gap. New Delhi: Sage Publishers.

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Limnology and Fishery status of a fresh water reservoir Majalgaon on Sindphana River in Maharashtra State.
Ingole S.B., Naik S.R. Kadam G.A. Shri Siddheshwar Mahavidyalaya Majalgaon, Dist Beed Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded. M.S.

ABSTRACT

Majalgaon Dam was constructed on the River Sindphana which is a tributary of River Godavari, in Beed District (Maharashtra, India) in 1987. The River Sindphana has been under constant threat of pollution by sewage and industrial wastes, disposal of dead bodies, deforestration, excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, bathing and water development programmes. The dam has a catchment area is 3840 sq. km. It is of great Importance for the region because its water is used for human and cattle consumption, power generation, fish production and irrigation. A total of 21 species of phytoplanktons, 24 species of zooplanktons and 16 species of fishes were identified.i.e. Catala, Cyprineus Corpio, Labeo Rohita, Silver Carp, Mrigal, Barbus, Ticto, Ophiocephalous, Mestembaleusarmatus, Wallago attu etc. Water quality of the dam was also studied for physico-chemical parameters including total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, BOD, COD, and total hardness etc. for one year (June 2009 to May 2010). Results reveled that water quality is normal and favorable for the cultivation of fishes.

Water Quality, Fish Production, Pollution, fish production and socio-economic condition of fisherman.
Keywords:

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Introduction
India has a large network of river, canals, lakes and ponds, which contribute more than 30% of the total fish production. Majority of our people suffer from hunger and malnutrition. Fish is an excellent food for man and provides protein, fat and vitamin A and D, which are essential for the health of man. Fish is also provide source of vitamin B, it food rich in protein is specially preferred for containing essentially amino acid such as Lysine and methionine abundantly required for formation of phospholecithine in gray matter of the brain unsaturated fat in fish also reduce the risk of formation of high blood cholesterol. Phosphorus and several minerals are also present in it. They have good test and easily digestible. Besides being a rich source of food, fishery provides job opportunities also. By product of fishes i.e. fish manure, isinglass and several other production of commerce. Considerable studies on fish diversity from different fresh water bodies of India have been carried out during the last few decades Hamilton Buchanan (1822), Day (1878), Mishra (1962), Jayram (1981) Thomus et.al. (1989), Talwar & Jhingrah (1991), Menon (1992), Rao et.al (1999). Sarkar and Banergee (2000), Mishra et.al. (2003). There are over 19000 reservoirs in India. Covering 3, 15,366 ha. And many more are under construction. (Suguman 2000) Reservoir Fishery in India is also important from social economic point of view as it has the potential of providing employment to about 2 million people (Khan Et.al.1999). According to Sreenivasan (1993) the Maharashtra is endowed with an area of 1, 79,430 ha. Under reservoir and the state produces 516 tones of fish of these area the state fisheries corporation was operating in 6,272 ha. Of reservoir and marketing the catches. The present investigation was under taken to study the aquatic vertebrate animals with reference to fishes from Majalgaon dam reservoir water. It is a second stage of Jayakwadi Project of Nath Sagar. It is irrigation project of Maharashtra state. It

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0 8 0

is situated in the latitude 16 16 N and longitude 73 26E. It is multipurpose type like irrigation and power production and also fishing purposes Fig No: 1 Majalgaon Project on GOOGLE MAP

Table No. 1: Highlight of Majalgaon dam reservoir. Name Type Majalgaon dam Jaikwadi project Stage – II Multipurpose production) River Basin Location Year of start of Construction Year of completion
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(Irrigation

and

Power

Sindphana Godavari 2 Km. u/s of Majalgaon Dist-Beed (M.S.) 1977 1987
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Catchment area A.V. Rainfall in C.A. Submerged area

3840 Sq.Km. 800 mm. 7813 Ha.

Material and Method
The fishes were collected from the Majalgaon dam reservoir with the help of fisherman during the year June 2009 – May 2010. The specimen were preserved in 10% formalin and subsequently identified following work of Lagler (1956) Menon and Talwar (1972), Day (1878), Datta Munshi & Srivastav (1968), Jayram (1981) and Talwar & Jhingran (1991).

Result and Discussion Fish as constitute economically a very important group of animals. A large
number of dams and reservoir has been constructing during the recent year to provide water for irrigation and power production. These bodies of water offer immense scope for fish culture for successful fish farming in dam and reservoir. The Sixteen species of the fish fauna in this study belonging to four order and six families are given in the table No. 2 among them order Cypriniformes was dominant with eight species to be followed by the Mastalimbeliformes,

Osteoglossifomes, and Ophiocephalifomes each with one species. Valsangkar (1993) recorded 17 indigenous and 5 introduced fish species from Shivaji Sagar reservoir. Sakhare (2001) recorded 23 fish species belonging to 7 orders in Jawalgaon reservoir in Solapur district. Pawar and Madlapure (2002) recorded 16 fish species belonging to 5order in sivur dam.

FISH PRODUCTION ON MAJALGAON DAM
It was very difficult to find out the exact fish production of the Majalagaon Dam reservoir because fisherman never maintain the record noted of their catches. It was
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very difficult to find out the growth rate of fish from the reservoir because of non availability of scientific data.The total production was approximately 4.5 tone and costs was in rupees 2.30 lakh per year.

MARKETING OF FISH
Fisherman themselves catch the fishes and sold them at distance market at Aurangabad, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Gulbarga, Nizamabad. They also sold fishes at local market Majalgaon. Nitrud, Talkhed, Patrud , Takarwan, Rajegaon, Dharur, Wadwani, Telgaon, Georai, Parli, Beed and Pathri. Fishes, after assembling, were sold to the merchant and send them to distance market. While transporting fishes, fishes are packed with ice in bamboo boxes.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY
Manik Shah Fish Business Co-operative Society Bhatwadgaon Tq. Majalgaon Dist. Beed. State Maharashtra. 1 Date of Registration - 15 Dec. 1987. 2. Registration No. - BHR / MGN / RSR / CN / 1053. 3 Total no. of member - 41.

Socio-Economic Condition of Fisherman
The most important factor that influence the utilization and development of the fishery resources in the socio-economic condition of the fisherman.. This caused them to depend upon middle man for the marketing of their producer and naturally the major portion of the profit goes in the pocket of middleman. The fisherman of this society are belong to the casts such as, Bhoai – 90 % Fisherman & Muslims – 10 % fisherman

Suggestions for Improvement of Fisheries and Socio-economic Condition of the Fisherman

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For the development of fisheries that increases the fish production and socio-economic condition of fisherman following recommendations such as, 1) The fisherman community should be tread in modern methods of fish culture and fishing, so that production can be increased of the reservoir. 2) The well equipped fish seed production center highly progressively of fish seed production. 3) They should be a constant cold storage plant to keep the fishes for sell in different seasons. 4) Fisherman should be provided with educational and health facilities, so that their children can be learnt and heath of fisherman should be normal. 5) Fisherman should be educated so that they can leave away their addiction. 6) Illegal fishing should be stopped, so that loss of fish can be checked. 7) Fisherman should have speedy transport facilities and storage facilities so that they can transport product quickly to the distance market. 8) Pollution due to agricultural waste and demonic sewage should be prevented. 9) In the future, stocking policy and total survey of the available stock is necessary. 10) Regularly the study of ecological as well as biological aspects should be done for efficient management of the reservoir.

Future Scope for Development of Fisheries of Majalgaon Dam Reservoir

At present study the future scope of the production increased at Majalgaon Dam reservoir such as –

1) Adequate stocking of fish seed is necessary. They were stocked C. mrigal, Cyprinus
carpio. If fish seed of Ciprous, Rohu, Mrigal and Catla catla is stocked then it will increase the production.
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2) Marketing should be done through the co-operative society only instead marketing
through agents.

3) Fresh water prawn can be cultured along with Indian major carp. 4) Illegal fishing should be prevented. 5) Complete irradiation of weeds like Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Typha and Ipomoea from
the tank. So that fishes can swim freely in the reservoir and neting operation will not be hampered.

6) Mixed fish culture should be adopted such as culture of Indian major carps and
exotic carps to increase production.

7) Removal of predatory fishes is necessary. 8) It is suggestive to culture fresh water prawn along within major carps to increase
production from the reservoir.

9) Fisherman should be educated for the development of reservoir fishery. References:

1) Agarwal S. C. (1994) ‘A handbook of fish farming‟ Narendra Publishing House, Delhi-11, FF. PP 8 16 2) Alikhuni K. H. (1957) ‘Fish culture in India‟ Form Bull. India Coun. Agri Resi.20.144 pp. 3) Day Francis (1971) „The fishes of India‟ Vol. I & Vol. II. 4) Datta Munshi and Srivastava M.P. (1968)-Natural history of fishes and systematic of fresh water fishes of India. Narendra Publication House Delhi. 5) Day F. (1944) The fishes of India being a natural history of the Burma and Ceylon. Fourth

Indian Reprint vol. I & II Jagmander Book Agency, New Delhi. 6) Hamilton B.F. (1822) - An account of fishes found in the river Ganga and it branches Edinburg and London VIII + 400 p.p. plate 39. 7) Jayaram K.C. (1981) -The freshwater fishes of India Pakistan, Burma and Shrilanka, Hand Book Zoological Survey of India No. 2, XII + 475 pp. 8) Jhingran V. G. (1982) „Fish and fisheries of India‟ Hindustan publishing corporation, New Delhi, India, PP 54, 86, 167, 261, 283, 292.

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9) Khan A.A., Kartha K. N., Percy Dawson and George (1991) –Fish harvesting system in Indian reservoir proc. Of Nat. workshop on 1000 energy fishing 8-9 August 1991. 10) Lagler J. H., Gass T. E., Petty John W. A. and Demarre J. (1956) ‘Domestic water treatment‟ McGraw Hill Book Co. New. York. 11) Lagler K.F. (1956) -Freshwater fishery biology W.M. C. Brown and Co Jowa. 12) Misra K.S. (1962) - An aid to the Identification of the common commercial fishes of India and Pakistan. Rec. Indian Mus. 57 (1-4) 1-320. 13) Rao P.S. (2000) -Problems of management of fish marketing and co. operative FIE PC/73/10 Bombay. 14) Sarkar L. and Banerjee S. (2000) Ichthyofauna of Damodar river system pro. Zool soci. Calcutta 53(1) : 41-54 15) Sugunan (2000) -Reservoir fishery of India FAO fisheries Tech. paper No. 345. FAO Rome 1-424. 16) Srinivasan (1993) - Reservoir fishery of India, fishing chimes 13(1) : 18-21 17) Sakhare V.B. (2001) -Ichthyofauna of Jawalgaon Reservoir in Sholapur district of (M.S) Aqua Biol. 16(1) 31-33. 18) Talwar P. K. and Jhingrah A. G. (1991) - Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent countries Vol. 1 & 2. Oxford & BH Publishing co. Privt. Ltd.

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WATER LITARACY AND SOCIAL AWARENESS

Rajashree J. Jawale Assistant Professor, Ismailsaheb Mulla Law College, Satara Introduction: Water is life. Water Literacy means knowing where all your water comes from and how you use it. Everything you do and everything you touch is connected to water. Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water. The human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses. Water is for drinking, water for sustainable development including environmental integrity, and the eradication of poverty and hunger, indispensable for human health and welfare.

Water Literacy and its importance:

Water is essential for all forms of life and crucial for human development. Integrated water resource management coordinates the development and management of water, land and related resources. It seeks to maximize social and economic welfare in an equitable manner, to sustain ecosystems and to bring together the technical, ecological, social and political spheres.

Water Literacy empowers people to achieve this fine balance between usage and replenishment to manage their own water supply. Accessing and controlling water can have dramatic and wide-ranging results on farmers‟ incomes and lives and is vital for economic independence. An essential part of an integrated approach is the participation of stakeholders, including local communities. The human right to water is indispensable for leading a life in human dignity. The human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses. Rain water conservation – Need of the hour:

There is need to see the problems and reasons which are affecting on rain water conservation.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Population Growth Environmental pollution Climate change – Global warming Environmental degradation Shortage of fresh and Drinking Water Vast Industrial Growth

Gender inequality in rainwater conservation:

Disadvantaged women should be protected in Indian society by providing proper education. Because Up lifting the grass root level women with the mainstream of the society is the fundamental object of the constitution of India. Special measures should be taken to eliminate discrimination, universalize education, eradicate illiteracy, create a gender-sensitive educational system, increase enrolment and retention rates of girls and improve the quality of education to facilitate life-long learning as well as development of occupation/vocation/technical skills by women to conserve water. Globalization has presented new challenges for the realization of the goal of women‟s equality, the gender impact of which has not been systematically evaluated fully. Women should treat equal with men in conservation of water.

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on rain water conservation:

In Environmental protection there is skill of conservation of water. If we do study in various aspects, we will understand the Role of people and stakeholder in rainwater conservation.

1. Scientific approach and rain water conservation:

Environment protection and its preservation is today the concern of all. Environmental destruction and pollution has threatened the human life, health and livelihood. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth is near surface air and oceans since the mid 20th century, and its projected continuation. As we know the cause of global warming is the increase of carbon dioxides (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere, so
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in order to protect ourselves from the harmful effects of the global warming we should try to control the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere of the earth , Urbanization , Industrialization , increased population, increasing vehicular use, changing life suttee and decrease in forest cover are some of the factors responsible for increased rate of emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere of the earth. It will bring Major changes in water distribution and have impact on water resources. 2. Social approach on rain water conservation:

Communities are empowered at a grassroots level to take local action to improve their health, income and education through better water conservation. Thousands of acres of land rejuvenated through irrigation with 30% increase in crop productivity Inputs: Range of educational programs, workshops, events and films. Technical assistance to build dams recharge wells, harvest rainwater in rural areas, Work with industries to fulfill environmental CSR policies Knowledge and awareness about the need for and how to conserve water amongst: students, farmers, homeowners and industry .

3. Legal approach and water conservation:

At National and International Level legal approach has been taken in protection of Environment and ecology, also to preserve water recourses. Right to life is fundamental human right and Right to clean and healthy water is part and parcel of right to life with dignity under Article 21 of the constitution of India.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, Education should be directed towards the full development of the human personality and strengthen respect for human rights. The constitution ( fourty second ) Amendment Act, 1976 incorporated Art 48 (A) and Art 51 (1) (g) in the constitution of India. Thus environment protection received an express constitutional sanction and become a matter of national concern. The enactment of the water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974. Law Is an instrument of social change. Legislation is an effective instrument of policy implementation. Principle of the Stockholm Declaration provided that man has the fundamental right freedom, equality and adequate
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conditions of life in an environment of quality that permits a life of dignity to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. Case In Shri sachhidanand pandey V/S state of W.B. AIR 1987 Sc.11098. The Supreme court pointed out that whenever a problem of ecology is brought before the court, court is bound, to bear in mind articles, 48 – A and 51 – A (g) of the constitution.

SOCIAL AWARENESS IN RAIN WATER CONSERVATION: 1. Public Participation: Empower communities to safeguard their own water supplies through education and awareness raising, coupled with a wide variety of simple technological solutions to conserve and access groundwater and harvest rainwater. A process for enlarging people‟s choices. These choices primarily reflect the desire to lead a long and healthy life; acquire basic knowledge; and have an access to resources essential for a decent standard of living. 2. Educate women – Empowerment of women: Education has a direct impact on women empowerment as it creates in them awareness about their rights, their capabilities and the choices and opportunities available to them. Women and girls bear the brunt of collecting water and water supply can drastically alter female school attendance. Technical intervention is needed but local communities need to know how to use and maintain equipment, basic water conservation techniques and change the way water is used. It is very important that women are empowered and that their capacities are enhanced through a process of imparting literacy and educating them, as it has been rightly believed that education and empowerment of women are genetically linked phenomenon and they can be declined only at a great peril of vast humanity. Promotion of gender equality in education is essential for human resource development. By educating a woman you educate the whole family. 3. Youth Training Programmed: Water Literacy sets standards and benchmarks for water information that should be known by every young adult by age 18 as basic knowledge for healthy and sustainable knowledge in the 21st century. What Can I Do? 1. You can make a big difference by conserving water most effectively. 2. Things everybody can do right now
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Understand the energy-water connection. Conserve water in your home and garden Keep your car tires from polluting our waterways. Help people less fortunate than you. Learn as much as you can about water then spread the word. Teach everyone about Water Literacy and share what you know.

4. Understanding Rain water conservation – an urgent need: 1. Understand reasons why you need to learn about water supplies now. 2. The global economy means that you are using water from around the world. it should be saved. 3. Mountain glaciers are melting on all continents. Rivers will fail. Irrigation will fail. We should take care of environment. 4. To have energy systems you must have water systems. Understand the connection. 5. Much irreplaceable groundwater is permanently gone. We need to manage groundwater more wisely 6. Billions of people live without clean water and their children are dying. Suggestions: 1. Water Literacy sets standards for water information that every young adult should know by age 18 as basic knowledge for healthy and sustainable living in the 21st century. 2. Empower communities to safeguard their own water supplies through education and awareness raising, coupled with a wide variety of simple technological solutions to conserve and access groundwater and harvest rainwater. 3. Education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process. 4. An essential part of an integrated approach is the participation of stakeholders, including local communities. 5. Prioritizing water issues is an urgent global requirement. Water literacy and social awareness are very important to conserve rainwater. Conclusion: Water is an increasingly precious commodity, and extreme weather is amplifying annual floods and droughts with devastating effects on rural . Women is the best Advocate in conserving water. Public participation is important in environmental protection. Save Tree- Gain Water. Water is very important for sustainable development including environmental integrity, and the eradication of poverty and hunger, indispensable for human health and welfare. Prioritizing water issues is an urgent global requirement. Water literacy and social awareness are very important to conserve rainwater in Today‟s world. The democratic socialism aims to end poverty, ignorance, disease, and inequality of opportunity. This socialistic concept ought to be implemented in the true spirit of the Constitution.
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REFERANCES

1)

Article by Geetanjali Sanu, Implications of Indian supreme courts innovations Development,Journal LEAD)

for

environmental jurisprudence. (Law , Environment and 2) 3) 4)

Kailash Thakur , Environmental protection Law and policy in India (1999) P.S.Jaswal , Environmental Law , (Ed2006) P.Leela Krishnan, Environmental Law cases Book second Ed. Student series , Lexis

Nexis,Butter worths (2006) 5) 6) Accessing Higher Education: The Dilemma of Schooling Women, Minorities, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Contemporary India Author(s): Karuna Chanana Source: Higher Education, Vol. 26, No. 1, Perspectives on Higher Education in India, (Jul., 1993), pp. 69-92 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3447878 http://rainwaterconcepts.co.in/index_htm_files/Port%20folio%20enterprenure.pdf http://allianceforwatereducation.org/why-its-urgent/ http://allianceforwatereducation.org/water-literacy/ http://allianceforwatereducation.org/water-essay-contest/ http://allianceforwatereducation.org/our-mission-2/ http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/TrainingManual/MODULE1.PDF http://water.org/learn-about-the-water-crisis/lessonplan/ http://www.rainwaterconcepts.co.in/Video.htm Tiwari on Environmental Law.

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A STEP TOWARDS DOMESTIC WATER CONSERVATION
Khandat M. S., Mrs. K. S. K. College, Beed. Abstract Thousands have lived without love, not one live without water –W. H. Auden. A step to conserve water is the step to secure the future. The most essential among all the natural resources on earth is water. Global conservation of water has also increased twice as much as the population during last twenty years .Water conservation is what that can reduce the scarcity of water. It aims to improve the efficiency of use of water and reduce losses and waste. Where there is water, there is life. Life exists around numerous uses of water which makes it important for survival and luxury. It is a part of biosphere that should not be overused, ignored or taken for granted. Thus, water should be conserved to sustain our domestic needs for future. Hence, water conservation has become the need of the day. Present study was an effort to get information about attitudes of house wives of Beed from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state about the above said tropic. In India, domestic water management is mostly seen by house wives. Sample size consisted of hundred house wives. All of them were from middle and high income group. Education level of the women was from 10 th to graduation level. Almost all the families were having municipal tap connection. Information was collected about use of water by families. It was observed that drinking water and kitchen (98 %), Bathroom and toilet (80 % ) , Laundry and utensil washing ( 78 %), garden and vehicle cleaning ( 20 %) were the priority uses stated by women. Data was further analised about the different methods of water conservation used by them in bathroom, in kitchen and outside. Being prompt in repairing leaky plumbing (86 %), collecting rain water in bore well (5 %), taking shorter baths (39 %), running only full loads of laundry and dishes (48%), water use restrictions (21%) i.e. not running tap water while brushing teeth, not rinsing razor under running water, not washing utensils and cleaning vegetables under running water, avoiding washing flooring , sideways with running water instead of wiping it off with clean water, not running tap while washing two wheelers or four wheelers . Rain water barrels or tap filled overflowed water of tank had outlet to the garden plants or attached to the bore well connection. Water used in the kitchen was reused only by 12% families. Thus, it can be concluded that domestic water conservation is not a great cause of concern by middle and high income families. Efforts should be made to create awareness about it. Keywords: water conservation, domestic water use, housewives, and methods of water conservation.

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INTRODUCTION: Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing and agricultural irrigation. Water conservation has become an essential practice in all regions, even in areas where water seems abundant. In addition to saving money on domestic utility bill, water conservation helps prevent water pollution in nearby lakes, rivers and local watersheds. Conserving water can also extend the life of domestic septic system by reducing soil saturation and reducing any pollution due to leakage In many developing countries, water consumption is as low as 20 liters per day for the average person. In developed countries, the figure is 153 liters of water per day. The environment agency is urging people to use less water. In 2005, the ground water levels were lower than they have been for 20 years, affecting the wildlife. By using less water money is saved and impact of drought will be lessened on our environment. Thus, this strain on water resource is partly as a result of new technology and behavior such as frequent showering, washing machines etc. Objectives- Hence, present study has been under taken with following objectives. 1. To know the socio economic status of house wives 2. To study the priority uses of water by house wives 3. To observe various methods of water conservation used by them Sample size: Total hundred house wives from Beed city of Maharashtra state were surveyed. Questionnaire cum interview method was used. Statistical analysis: Percentage and other statistical applications were completed. Results and Discussions: Obtained data was then analyzed and discussed as follows.     Samples were from Bhagya Nagar, Kotecha colony, Adarsh nagar of Beed city i.e from urban area of Beed city. About social status of house wives 91%were Hindus and 9 %were Navbudhas. About educational status of housewives, it was observed from 10th to 12 th( 15 % ), class 12th to graduate level (45%) and graduate and above educated were (40 %). About income level, it was observed that in 27% families monthly income was more than Rs 30000 per month as husband and wife both were earning, where as 52 % were having monthly income from Rs20000 to 30000 and 21 % were earning income up to Rs 20,000 per month. About family size, 48 % were having 2to 4 members, 28 % having 5 to 6 per family members and 24 % families were having more than7 members in a family.

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Table no 1. Attitudes about priority use of water by families: Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Particulars Drinking water and kitchen Bathroom and toilet Laundry and utensil washing Garden, plants and vehicle cleaning Cleaning of flooring and house Percentage 98 80 78 20 48

In the above Table number 1 attitude of housewives about priority use of water were discussed. It was noticed that almost 98% housewives stated that drinking and kitchen use was most crucial than any other purpose. Table No. 2 Water supply facilities in the families: Sr. No. 1 2 3 Tap connection One Two Bore well facility Percentage 71 9 40

It is denoted in Table 2 that majority of families were having single tap connection. Nearly 40% families were using bore well water, too. Only 9% high income group families were having double connection. Thus, use of water is related to income level of families.

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Table No. 3: Methods used for water conservation in families: Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 Methods Being prompt in repairing leaky plumbing Rain water harvesting (collecting in bore well) Taking shorter baths Running full loads of laundry and utensils Water use restrictions  Not running tap while brushing teeth  Rinsing the razor not under running tap  Washing utensils not under running water  Cleaning vegetables in a water filled pan  Avoid washing of flooring sideways with running water  Not running tap for cleaning two wheelers or four wheelers  Reusing overflow water from roof tank  Using rain water barrels for outside purpose percentage 86 5 29 48 21

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Table 3 illustrates about various methods used by families for water conservation. It was observed that leakage repairing practice was followed by 86% families. Educational status of housewives was better so were the different ways adopted by them in the kitchen or bathroom or outside home. Major causes of water wastage in family: 1. Children- More water is used for bathing and lazy to turn off tap while brushing. 2. Old aged family members- Not turning off tap correctly after each use. 3. Servants- While washing clothes and while cleaning utensils, running water is preferred. It is found that irregular timings of water supply and electricity load shedding timings are mainly responsible for water conservation by families. Summary: Installing water efficient plumbing fixtures and appliances contributes to conserving water and energy and reducing waste water flow. Benefits include reduced utility bills for
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homeowners and a cleaner higher quality environment for all. By reducing use of water or by saving water one can preserve the energy needed to get it into homes and treat it. Conclusion: Conservation is important in reducing water and energy use and waste flows to sewage treatment plants and septic systems. Household water and energy consumption are linked. Recommendation: Conducting Water literacy program for housewives is a need of time irrespective of income level, educational level and age. References: 1. Article- House holds water conservation http//pubs.cas.psu.edu/free pubs/pdfs 2. Water conservation,http://www.monolake .org/about/water conservation. 3. Domestic water conservation, By Grey water, Rain water and other innovations By Bryan flowers, Feb 2004, http:/www.csa.com/discovery guides/water/overview.php 4. How much water do you use? Uswitch. com/water. 5. Water is life – domestic use of water, By Nichole Abrashinsky. Icbse. com. 6. Water conservation- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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RAIN WATER HARVESTING AND CONSERVATION
Vasant Mali and B. N. Pande Dept. of Botany Anandrao Dhonde Alias Babaji Arts, Commerce and Science College Kada, Tq. Ashti Dist. Beed. (M.S.). MGM‟s Institute of Biosciences and Technology N-6 CIDCO. Aurangabad - 431003 (MS)

Introduction: For centuries, people have been depending on wells tanks and rain water for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes. Farmers have been using various methods depending on geographical location for the conservation and usage of water for farm activities. With increase in population and unplanned agricultural activities, the quality and quantity of water has declined and the prevalence of droughts has increased. It has therefore, become necessary to harvest rainwater. Rainwater harvesting and water conservation and promotion of a forestation cannot be delayed further, because the severity of water shortage is being experienced in many regions. The term rain water harvesting refers to direct collection of rainwater falling on the roof. Or on to the ground without passing through the stage of surface run off on land. The rain water harvesting is a technique of collection rainwater and storing it in by construction special water harvesting structures for later use. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table. Water management has always been practiced (in our communities) by people since ancient times. But such practices have become pale during the past few decades mainly due to lack of awareness. Currently ecologist feel that a return to traditional methods of rainwater harvesting practices is urgently required to overcome the problem of water crises. In India, The ministry of water resources is venturing to make rain water harvesting a part of everyday life in our villages and cities as a movement of people. Objectives: Following objectives are there for rainwater harvesting: a) It check the runoff water and avoids flooding
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b) It helps in meeting the increasing demand of water c) It helps in raising the water-table by recharging ground water d) It provides ground water supply during season e) It reduces the ground water contamination. METHODS OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING: A) The rain water that falls on the roofs of building or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground tanks or diverted to some abandoned well. The collected water may be drawn from the tank or well by using hand pump or motor for future use. B) In foot hills, water flowing from springs is collected water can be supplied to the town through pipes. C) Artificial recharging is an indigenous technique of rainwater harvesting by collecting the rainwater in earth check dams (bands) and ponds (Johads) to increase water in the wells and tube wells. It helps in protecting water resources and assures a constant supply of clean water. In ancient times rainwater was collected in tanks(Talab) wells (Bawaris) ponds(Johads) Haud etc. in villages and cities and the stored water was used during the lean season D) In arid and semiarid regions artificial recharging is done by construction shallow percolation tanks. E) Rain water from large catchment areas is collected in check dams. This technique has been nicely used in Rajasthan by Rajender singh(Magsaysay Award winner) popularly known as “ Water man”. IN INDIA EXAMPLES OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING AND ARTIFICIAL RECHARGING OF GROUND WATER 1) Madhya Pradesh: More than 1000 check dams constructed. More than 1050 tanks constructed. Increase in food production: by 38 % in the past 10 years. 2) Rajasthan (Dist. Jodhpur)
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More than 2000 storage tanks constructed by Residents of Jodhpur in 25 villages. Tanks keep the stored water fresh for 4 or 5 months. 3) Maharashtra – More than 7000 percolation tanks have been built after the severe drought of 1971-72. It converted the drought hit area into green lands. 4) Gujarat (Dist. Saurashtra) Saurashtra Lok Manch of Rajkot district prevented drying up of wells by Roof Top Rainwater harvesting and recharging of wells as a movement. 5) In Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi campus the water table has raised from 0.8 to 1.00 meter after it was recharged with water trapped through four check dams. And through roof Top rain water harvesting- 2 wells got recharged. THE ADVANTAGES OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING: Increase in ground water level, Rejuvenation of dried up wells, Improvement in the quality of ground water through dilution helps in reducing floods fury. Future generation is assured of water References: 1. Sharma, J.P. (2009). “Environmental studies.” Published by University Science Press [An Imprint of Laxmi Publications (p) Ltd.], Daryaganj. New Delhi 2. 2. Manoharachary, C. and P. Jayarama Reddy (2004) “Principles of Environmental studies.” Published by B.S. Publications, Sultan Bajar, Hyderabad – 95 (A.P.). 3. Narayana, N.V. Rainwater Harvesting (Private Communication). 4. Shetty, E.D. (2002). Neeru-Meeru; Dr. M.C.R. Human Resources Development Institute of A.P. Hyderabad. 5. Athavale, R.N. “Water Harvesting and Sustainable supply in India:” In Environment and Development series. 6. Pawar, R. (2004). “Rain water harvesting” YASHADA: 1-9.

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Roof top rain water harvesting for augmenting ground water recharge
M. R. More1 S. D.Vikhe2 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani Assistant Professor, Department of Farm Structure, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani

2.

Abstract

Over the years, rising population, growing industrialization and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to conserve water by constructing different soil and water conservation measures on watershed basis. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of ground water recharging by rainwater harvesting is gaining importance. In urban areas, the construction of houses, foot paths and roads have left little exposed earth surface for water to soak in. In rural areas, runoff water meets rivers, which then slightly dry up as a result of withdrawal of Monsoon. If this water can be stored in different water harvesting structures, it can seep into the ground and recharge the groundwater supply. Rainwater harvesting has become a very popular method of conserving water especially in the urban areas. Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and storing it underground for later use. Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharging are becoming very important issues. It is essential to stop the decline in groundwater levels and conserve surface run-off during the rainy season. Municipal Corporations in India have introduced bylaws making rainwater harvesting compulsory in all new structures. Such rules should also be implemented in all the other cities to ensure a rise in the ground water level. Conservation of water in the agricultural sector is essential since water is necessary for the growth of plants. A depleting water table has made matter serious. Various methods of water harvesting and recharging have been undertaken over the country to tackle the problem. Key words: Roof top rain water harvesting, recharge

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Introduction: Due to over population and higher usage levels of water in urban areas, water supply agencies are unable to cope up demand from available surface sources especially during summer seasons. This has led to digging of individual tube wells by house owners. Even water supply agencies have resorted to ground water sources by digging tube-wells in order to augment the water supply. The replenishment of ground water is drastically reduced due to paving of open areas. Indiscriminate exploitation of ground water results in lowering of ground water table (GWT) rendering many bore-wells dry, which has led to drilling of bore wells of greater depth. This further lowers the water table such frequent fluctuations in GWT results in presence of higher concentration of salts in ground water. In coastal areas, over exploitation of ground water results in seawater intrusion thereby rendering fresh ground water bodies‟ saline. In rural areas also, government policies on subsidized power supply for agricultural pumps and piped water supply through bore and open dug wells are resulting into decline in ground water table. The solution to all these problems is to replenish ground water bodies with rainwater by manmade means. The rainwater‟s environmental advantage and purity over other water alternatives makes it the sustainable option, even though the precipitation cycle may fluctuate from year to year. The collection of rain water not only leads to conservation of water but also energy since the energy input required to operate a centralized water system designed to treat and pump water over a vast service area is bypassed. Rainwater harvesting also lessens local erosion and flooding caused by runoff from impervious cover such as pavement and roofs, as some rain water is captured and stored. Rain water quality almost exceeds that of ground or surface water as it does not come into contact with soil and rocks where it dissolves salts and minerals and it is not exposed to many of the pollutants that often are discharged into surface waters such as rivers, and which can further contaminate groundwater. However, rainwater quality can be influenced by characteristics of area where it falls, since localized industrial emissions affect its purity. Thus, rainwater falling in non-industrialized areas can be superior to that in cities which are dominated by heavy industry or in agricultural regions where crop dusting is prevalent.

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Rainwater is harvested using an installation of pipes and tanks in an arrangement that allows for automatically or manually diverting the first flush of rain that is contaminated with dirt etc. deposited on the catchment‟s area followed by collection in a storage tank for further use. The installation also includes some equipment to supply water into consumption outlets via pumping or gravity flow depending upon the arrangement. Provision may also be made for chemical dosing and water filtration. A brief description of the components, their functions and inter-connection follows: The size of a roof catchment area is the building‟s footprint under the roof. The catchment surface is limited to the area of roof, which is guttered. In domestic Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Systems rainwater from the house roof is collected in a storage vessel or tank for use during the periods of scarcity. Usually these systems are designed to support the drinking and cooking needs of the family at the doorstep. Such a system usually comprises a roof, a storage tank and guttering to transport the water from the roof to the storage tank. In addition, a first flush system to divert the dirty water which contains roof debris collected on the roof during non-rainy periods and a filter unit to remove debris and contaminants before water enters the storage tank are also provided.

Components of roof water harvesting system:
A typical Rooftop water harvesting system comprise of following components, 1) Roof Catchment: The roof of the house is used as the catchment for collecting the rainwater. The style, construction and material of the roof effect its suitability as a catchment. Roofs made of corrugated iron sheet, asbestos sheet, tiles or concrete can be utilized as such for harvesting the rainwater. But thatched roofs are not suitable as it gives some colour to water and also the water carries pieces of roof material (such as palm leaves). 2) Gutters: Gutters are channels fixed to the edges of roof all around to collect and transport the rainwater from the roof to the storage tank. Gutters can be prepared in semi-circular and rectangular shapes as shown in figures. Locally available material such as plain galvanized iron sheet can be easily folded to required shapes to prepare semi-circular and rectangular gutters. Semi-circular gutters of PVC material can be readily prepared by cutting the PVC pipes into two equal semi-circular channels. Bamboo poles can also be used for making gutters if they are
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locally available in sufficient quantity. Use of such locally available materials reduce the overall cost of the system. 3) Pipes : Pipes carries the rainwater from the gutters to the storage tank. Pipe is joined with the gutters at one end, and the other end is connected to the filter unit of the storage tank as shown in figure below. PVC or GI pipes of diameter 50 mm to 75 mm (2 inch to 3 inch) are commonly used for down-pipe. Bamboo can also be used wherever available in suitable size. 4) Filter The filter is a container with filter media such as coarse sand, charcoal, coconut fiber, pebbles and gravels to remove the debris and dirt from water that enters the tank. The container is provided with a perforated bottom to allow the passage of water. The filter unit is placed over the storage tank. 5) Storage Tank: Storage tank is used to store the water that is collected from the rooftops. storing larger quantities of water the system will usually require a bigger tank with sufficient strength and durability. 6) Soak Pit : A Soak pit is dug in the ground, beneath the tap of the storage tank and constructed in brick masonry and filled with broken bricks and filter material. Design requirement The design of the Rooftop rain water harvesting structures is made considering the water demand, catchment area with respect to the type of roof, roof coefficient which is depend on type of roof, rainfall of the region, period of water scarcity and per capita water requirement . Table 1: Estimation of water demand and availability of water from roof 1 Water demand ( Litres) No. of households x period of water scarcity x per capita water requirement 2 Water Availability Roof ( Litres) from Total roof area x rainfall x

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coefficient of roof

Cost Estimation Cost Estimation of Rooftop rain water harvesting structure involves the cost of conveyance of the materials, material cost and labour cost . However, the overall cost of the structure depends on the orientation of the building and lead. It also includes cost of materials such as pipes, gate valves, filter, clamps etc.

Care and maintenance 1. Roof must be clean before starting of Monsoon 2. Outlets of the pipe must be fitted with nets. 3. No. of outlets should be minimum to reduce the cost.

4. All the pipes , joints , elbow should be checked for leakage and damage. 5. Roof leakage should be removed whenever it is observed. 6. Flush valve should not be closed for first two storms. 7. Regular testing of water quality must be done.

Literature Cited:

Dwivedi, A.K. and BhaduriaS.S. 2009. Domestic roof water harvesting a case study. Journal of Engineering and applied sciences. Vol. 4, NO 6 PP31-38 Sehgal, J.D. 2008. Rooftop harvesting of rain water A sustainable water resource in South East asia. Souvenir, Fourth international conf. of SWEITAES, Singapore PP 1-8

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ROLE OF WOMEN IN RAIN WATER CONSERVATION AND IT‟S MANAGEMENT Musle B. B. Department of Chemistry, Shri Guru Buddhiswami Mahavidyalaya, Purna (Jn.) Dist.Parbhani (M.S.) ABSTRACT: Water is a basic resource to life. Water scarcity has increased over the years, inspite of the various movements and drives organized towards water conservation. Women face water scarcity in every society. They spend most of their time in fetching water. Women can manage water in all significant ways: however more efficiently as better domestic water managers‟ i. e. cooking, cleaning, washing etc. Thus, women can be helpful more than their counterpart i.e. men for rain water conservation. INTRODUCTION: Water is life. This colourless, odourless and tasteless liquid is essential for all forms of growth and development - human, animal and plant. Also, water is a fundamental basic need for sustaining human economic activities. Not only does water support a wide range of activities, it also plays a central symbolic role in rituals throughout the world and is considered a divine gift by many religions. Availability of water in the desired quantity and quality, at the right time and place, has been the key to the survival of all civilizations. No other natural resource has had such an overwhelming influence on human history. As the human population increases, as people express their desire for a better standard of living, and as economic activities continue to expand in scale and diversity, the demands on fresh water resources continue to grow. While water is a renewable resource, its availability in space (at a specific location) and time (at different periods of the year) is limited, by climate, geographical and physical conditions, by affordable technological solutions which permit its exploitation, and by the efficiency with which water is conserved and used. Much of the world‟s fresh water is consumed by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors. Increasing water demands and the inadequacy of these sectors to effectively manage this resource, has lead to crises situations in many parts of the world - crises over the availability of adequate and appropriate quality water. The limits of sustainable use in each climatic region are determined by local climate, hydrological and hydro-geological conditions. In many parts of the world, the amount of water being consumed has exceeded the annual level of renewal, creating a non-sustainable situation. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and other international declarations have clearly recognized that access to water is a fundamental right of people. Water has become the most commercial product of the 21st century. This may sound bizarre, but true. In fact what oil was to the 20th century, water is to the 21st century. The stress on the multiple water resources is a result of a multitude of factors. On the one hand, the rapidly rising population and changing lifestyles have increased the need for fresh potable water. On the other hand, intense competitions among users in agriculture, industry and domestic sector are pushing the ground water table deeper. Are you aware that only about 2.5% of the water on the Earth can be drunk? The balance 97.5% is salt water that we cannot use unless it is desalinated. Of the 2.5% that we can use, about three-fourths are frozen in the ice caps and glaciers, leaving just one quarter for household use. Fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams underground and glaciers.
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Rainwater harvesting is of course a focus area for sustainable agricultural production but attention should also be paid for efficient management of the available water resources. Even if 5 per cent of annual rainfall were harvested properly, that will produce substantial quantum of water to the tune of 900 million liters. There are two main practices of rainwater harvesting. In the traditional method, storage of rainwater is done on the surface for future use in the form of underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc. Other method is a new concept of rainwater harvesting where different type of structures like pits, trenches, dug well, hand pumps, recharge wells, recharge shafts, lateral shafts with bore wells and spreading techniques are generally used. Rainwater harvesting saves water, improves soil moisture, improves the quality of water, allows drought proofing, prevents flooding, saves energy required to lift water, reduces soil erosion and above all it is an ideal solution of water problem in areas having inadequate water resources. In Bangalore, the city authorities are trying to boost the aquifers by rehabilitating the city‟s 60 ancient tanks. In parts of Delhi also, where old tanks and ponds have been cleared of garbage and refilled with water, the water tables are rising. By some estimate, 20,000 villages in India are now harvesting their rains. We have to keep in mind that we cannot make more rains, so we have to manage water better. A women‟s worth In many parts of the world, especially developing countries women have a primary responsibility for ensuring sufficient resources to meet their families‟ needs. In the rural areas, women manage essential household resources like clean water, fuel for cooking and heating and fodder for domestic animals. Women are usually disproportionately affected by environmental degradation because they tend to be more dependent on natural resources in order to carry out their productive activities. In most households in developing countries, for example, women are primarily responsible for growing crops, tending livestock, gathering fuel, and collecting and using water. Degraded environments threaten women‟s health, directly and indirectly, and also mean that women must spend more time and effort to find fuel or produce food, for meeting household needs. Poverty adds a further dimension to this relationship, because poor women are unable to afford preventative or curative healthcare services. Toxic chemicals and pesticides in air, water and earth are responsible for a variety of women‟s health risks. In China‟s Gansu province, for example, discharges from a state-run fertilizer factory have been linked to a high number of stillbirths and miscarriages. Water pollution in three Russian rivers is a factor in the doubling of bladder and kidney disorders in pregnant women, while in Sudan a link has been established between exposure to pesticides and peri-natal mortality with the risk higher among women farmers. Harvesting rainwater yields better status for women: Water shortages are common in both urban and rural areas of many developing countries. Rainfall fluctuations and frequent droughts together with poor water storage facilities mean that water supply is erratic, and much water is wasted through illegal connections and leakages. Poorer communities suffer most, by frequently receiving water that is not of potable quality and by paying a higher price for it. Rainwater harvesting can provide communities with greater water security, by collecting rainwater and storing it for use in the dry season.

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Techniques include: Rooftop catchment – covering the roofs of huts and animal shelters with iron, plastic, thatch, reeds or mud and channelling rainwater into storage tanks through gutters. Ground catchment – construction of an earth dam or pan. Rock catchment – collecting run off from rocky areas and channelling the water into storage tanks. Construction of sand dams – a concrete wall is built across a river in a rocky area. Water collects in the sand and evaporation is reduced. Women play a key role in local water management – they have considerable knowledge of water sources, availability, quality, and conservation techniques. It is women who carry the burden of water collection, and who perform most water-related activities (bathing children, cooking, tending crops, watering livestock and washing clothes). Water management schemes in the past that have excluded women or that have not empowered women to actively participate, have often failed. Reasons for this include cultural dictates, lack of awareness on the part of authorities and development agencies, and lack of communication skills and confidence on the part of the women in the community to express their needs. In a pilot project carried out in several urban and rural areas in Kenya, the women have been given an opportunity to articulate their ideas and use their knowledge in the formulation of meaningful and appropriate policies. The women have been involved in construction, management, operation, and maintenance of rainwater harvesting and sanitation facilities. A participatory method was used, which included workshops, demonstrations, role play, exchange visits, video shows, and open discussions in small and large groups. The first step was to assess the communities‟ priorities, which included protection of water wells, prevention of diarrhoeal disease arising from contaminated water, water scarcity, poverty, and heavy workload of women. This was followed by an inventory of the existing water facilities, awareness raising, planning, training and empowerment, and construction. In Kajiado district, one of the beneficiary communities, 700 people now have greater year-round water security. The water supplies are owned by the community, and managed by a water council. Proceeds from the sale of women‟s beadwork are used for maintenance and upgrading of dwellings. Agnes Kimer from Kajiado, speaking at the Pan African Partnership and Implementation Conference of Water in December 2003 explained how she took part in the design and construction of the project. “We chose rooftop catchments and ferro-cement tanks as they would be easiest to maintain. We fitted the manyattas (traditional houses made of mud and thatch) with plastic roofing and guttering ourselves.” “At first I did not want to participate, but now my husband respects me much more because he sees what I have done for the community” she added. Agnes spends less time collecting water and now grows beans and vegetables for sale in the local market. Mildred Mkandla is External Relations Director of Earth Care Africa Monitoring Institute, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A development activist for 35 years, she coordinated the Pilot Project on Empowering Women in Rainwater Harvesting in Kenya. The project was implemented on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme by EarthCare Africa Monitoring Institute, with funding from the Government of Sweden.

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Conclusion: Women‟s vital role in rain water management in conventional context has been seen much within the domestic arena. In this role they are seen as responsible for the gender – specific task of procuring and managing and water for domestic use. The importance of understanding the contextual perspective of gender relations and ideologies in analyzing the conversion of women‟s role in water management, with such analysis in based upon a holistic study of the water conservation by women (in relation to men) as located in their given socio – cultural context. Gender – sensitive approaches to water resource management are desirable for achieving efficiency, social equity and gender – equality goals. Targets, such as those in the Millennium Development Goals relating to water, are not likely to be achieved unless gender perspectives are integrated into planning and implementation activities. Instrumental approaches to ensuring more reliable, sustainable and well – managed water supplies are essential to achieving access to water for all, and for ensuring the maintenance of water in the interests of ecological balance and needs of future generation. References
AURELI, A. & BRELET, C. (2004). Women and water: An ethical. Series on women and ethics, Essay 4. Paris, France: UNESCO. BALLABH, V. (2007). Governance of water; institutional alternatives and political economy. Jamshedpur: Xavier Labour Relations Institute. BRISMAR, A. (1997). Freshwater and gender: A policy assessment. Background paper to the Comprehensive Assessment of the freshwater Resources of the World, Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute. DIEGO C. (2006). Water: Women have a crucial role to play. Retrieved from the web, December 2, 2006. http:// ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=322547. Facts and figures: Women and water: International year of fresh water- 2003. Retrieved from the web, Dec.2, 2006. http://www.wateryear2003.org/en/ev.ph-URL_ID=2543&URL_TOPIC&URL_... KALBERMATTEN, J. K. (1991). Water and sanitation for all, will it become realty or remain a dream? Water International, pp. 121 – 126. KUMAR, M. D. & SINGH, O. P. (2007). Groundwater management in India; physical, institutional and policy alternatives. Anand: International Water Management Institute. LYER, R. R. (2007). Towards water wisdom;limits, justic, harmony. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Research. MAHAJAN, N. (2007). Women in water management. Kurukshetra, September, Vol.55, No. 11, pp-20-21. National commission for Women. Retrieved from the Web, December 1, 2006. File: // G: / Water and women. htm PROKOPY, L. S. (2004). Women‟s participation in rural water supply projects in India: Is it moving beyond tokenism and does it matter? Water Policy, pp. 103 – 116.

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WATERSHED MANAGEMENT FOR MOISTURE CONSERVATION Narke S.Y.*, Dr. N.S .Kore**, Thombare P.Y.*** *Jamkhed Mahavidyalaya, Jamkhed Dist- Ahmednagar. Email- sunilnarke23@gmail.com **Principal, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Mahvidyalaya, Mukhed, Dist- Nanded. ***Takali Dhokeshwar Mahavidyalaya, Takali, Tal- Parner, Dist-A‟Nagar. Abstract Water is our most precious natural resource and something that most of us take for granted. We are now increasingly becoming aware of the important of water to our survival and its limited supply. The human beings require water for various purposes. The most part o the earth surface i.e. about 71 percent is covered by water. Out of the total volume of 97 percent is covered by saline water, 2.1 percent is in the form of ice and glaciers and only 0.9 percent is fresh and potable water. In India rainfall is highly irregular and timeless particularly in rain fed area. There is significant spatial imbalance in water resource available and water demand. Therefore, it is become necessary to development of watershed management in rain fed area in India of moisture conservation for better agricultural practices in our future life. Introduction “Watershed is a topographical natural geo-hydrological unit draining runoff water at a common point by a network of channels and streams”. Watershed management is the judicious use of all resources of the watershed area to achieve optimum production with minimum hazard to the resources and for the well being of the people. Watershed management factors are applied to all the sensitive spots on the area leading to soil and water conservation and efficient water management. It is generally heard that in case of India even after realizing the total irrigation potential of the country, sizable area of the cultivated land will continue to depend on the rainfall. Obliviously watershed management will a key position in the national agriculture. Soil, water and vegetation form the resource base for agriculture and these are in the dynamic state. Water has been an important input for agricultural progress. The managing available water in agriculture is the pre-requisite for scientific crop husbandry. Soil, water and vegetation are the most vital natural resources for survival of life on the biosphere. These resources are under tremendous stress duet to ever increasing biotic pressure and mismanagement of recourses. The prosperity and development of nation depends to a great extent on natural resources and their sustainable management. Water is prime national key resource for watershed development leading to sustainable agriculture. In India even today about ¾ area is depends on in situ rainfall contributing almost 42% of national production. Now rainfall being the main source of water and its conservation is essential for successful crop production in rain fed area. Rain fed agriculture account for 63% of the country‟s arable land and provides 42% of the total agriculture production. However, the average crop productivity is quite low (one tone/ha). Besides uncertainties in rainwater availability, the swings in the onset, continuity and withdrawal pattern of monsoon and frequent dry spell make crop are subjected to wide range of soil moisture conditions and to diverse interplay of environment factors.
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What is watershed management?  Watershed management refers to rational management of land, soil, water and vegetation resources for sustainable development of watershed.  Watershed management aims at meeting the basic requirement of farmers in a watershed area for food, fuel, fodder and fiber and generating more income and employment for the farmers of watershed area while preserving the natural resources of the watershed area. Soil and water erosion Soil and water both are natural resources and related to each other. This is important part to understand seriousness of soil and water erosion in India. Soil erosion is the process of detachment of soil particles from the soil and transportation of the detached soil particles by wing and water. The detaching agents are falling raindrop channel flow and wind is the transporting agents are flowing water. Soil is one of our most precious resources. The loss of this resource, through land degradation processes such as wind and water erosion, is one of the most serious environmental problems we are faced with as it is destroying the means of producing our food. Soil erosion is a natural process and has occurred throughout geological history. Human activities, particularly agriculture and deforestation, however, have increased erosion rates, as they tend to remove the protective vegetation and reduce the stability of the soil. This human influenced process is termed accelerated erosion. Since 1950 accelerated erosion has resulted in the loss of 1/5 of the topsoil from the world‟s agricultural land and 1/5 of the topsoil from tropical forests. Recent estimates in India has observed, there is 328 million ha of India‟s geographical area but about 175 million ha (53.3%) is subjected to soil erosion. Recent estimates in India indicate that about 5,333 million tons of soil is detached annually, of this about 29 percent is carried away by rivers into the sea and 10 percent deposited in reservoirs resulting in loss of storage capacity. Soil losses can be tolerated before soil productivity is significantly affected depends very much on soil depth. On deeper soils regular erosion losses may be maintained for 100 to 200 years without any obvious loss of productivity, however any regular loss of soil in excess of natural replacement rates is unacceptable as it means that significant damage is being done to one of our primary assets - the soil. The adverse effects of water erosion  Loss of fertile top soil.  Loss of rain water.  Nutrient losses.  Silting up of reservoirs.  Damage to forests.  Reduced ground water potential.  Damage to reservoirs and irrigation channels.  Adverse effects on public health. Therefore, need of watershed development programmed is essential to increase the moisture of content in the soil, thereby leading to an increase in productivity. Components of watershed management  Soil and water conservation.  Water harvesting.  Crop management. Soil and water conservation
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Different methods are useful for soil and water conservation, these are: 1) Contour faming: It is the practice of cultivation on contour line, laid across the prevailing slope of the land where all farming operation such as ploughing, sowing, planting cultivation etc. is carried out approximately on contour. 2) Contour trenching: Excavation of trenches along the contour breaks slope length, reduce the flow of water velocity and water retention in the trenches. 3) Grassed waterways: These are also called vegetated drainage channels. They are either naturally formed or constructed as water courses and covered with grasses. These channels are used for the disposal of excess runoff. 4) Bench terraces: It reduces land slope and allow runoff from the upper side of the terrace to go into a lower portion where it spread out and infiltrates. Water harvesting: The principle of rainwater harvesting is to conserve and collect the rainwater when its falls according to local needs and geophysical conditions. In this process the ground water is also charged. Traditional water harvesting system has meet domestic and irrigation needs of the people. Worldwide, agriculture uses 69 percent of available water; about 29 percent is used by industries and only 8 percent used for domestic purposes. The concept of rainwater harvesting has therefore, come to conserve, collect, store and convey rainwater on a watershed basis for more sustained agriculture production. The water harvesting is the process of conservation of rainwater by collecting run off from rain in order to supplement soil moisture in an adjacent area. The collection and conservation of exceed rainwater directly in situ or in constructed reservoir for the use of crop production is an effective measure for stabilizing production in dry lands. Techniques of water harvesting: The water harvesting techniques are classified in the following groups: 1) Surface water harvesting: Field bunds, contour bunds, contour trenches etc. are the measures commonly known as short term water harvesting technique. This is most common and wide adopted several countries in the world. Long term water harvesting is generally done for building a water stock for the purpose of agriculture, irrigation, drinking, fish farming and ground water recharge. This is accomplished by constructing a reservoir in the area. These measures are mainly designed on the basis of peak rate run off, suitable collection site and minimum losses from seepage and evaporation. 2) Roof water harvesting: The technique of roof water harvesting is applied mainly for domestic purposes either for short or long duration purposes, depending upon the availability of roof water. This technique is highly suitable for the low rainfall is where scarcity of drinking water. 3) Runoff induced water harvesting: In low and scanty rainfall area, runoff is frequently induced by completely or partly scaling the soil surface by spraying chemicals. This is suitable for the areas where rainfall is scanty and is not sufficient to recharge the ground water. 4) In situ water harvesting: The collection of water in situ is achieved through micro catchments, which may be of two types; these are inter-row water harvesting and inter-plot water harvesting. 5) Flood water harvesting: Flood water harvesting structure is constructed across the stream to check the velocity of the flow for increasing the infiltration rate into the alluvium soil over the river bed. It helps in augmenting the ground water recharge below the streambed. Flood water harvesting structures have the benefit of less evaporation losses as compared to surface runoff
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harvesting structure. These structures reduce the damage of agricultural land through soil erosion, which in turn results in less sediment accumulation in the reservoirs. The most common types of flood water harvesting structure are masonry check dams, sand dams and sub-surface dams. This is very effective in raising the ground water tables in the watershed. Traditional methods of water harvesting and water harvesting structure: Water is the most precious commodity in the arid eco-system due to prevalence of unfavorable hydro-meteorological situations. These problems can be mitigated up to a certain extent by constructing rainwater harvesting structures which will increase the production as well as the stored water for drinking purposes. These methods are as follows: 1) Ponds: Small tanks constructed for storage of water. 2) Check dam: Construction in natural channels and impounds runoff water. 3) Percolation pond/wells: Construction across a natural water course having permeable formations to impound from streams and to recherché the ground water. 4) Nadis: These are small excavated or embanked village ponds constructed for harnessing to meager precipitation to mitigate the scarcity of drinking water in the desert. Nadis is constructed for storing water available from adjoining natural catchment during the rainy season and can hold rain water. The traditional Nadi has the limitations of high evaporation losses from free water surface. 5) Khadins: The khadins is a unique practice of water harvesting and moisture conservation in suitable deep soil plots surrounded by some most of natural catchment zone. In this system, run off from uplands and rocky surfaces is collected in the adjoining lower valley segments. The plots are vigorously built and managed to make the entire system of self-contained unit for cultivation. On the earthen bund, trees and grasses are established for increasing fodder and fuel availability. 6) Farm ponds: Farm ponds are small reservoir constructed for the purposes of storing water, essentially from surface runoff. Farm ponds are useful for providing supplemental irrigation to crops. 7) Anicut: Anicut is a structure constructed across a stream. It is an earthen fill section with a spill way and is designed to hold sufficient water to sub merge a substantial upstream area during the rainy season. The retained water sinks into soil profile and then deeps down to replenish adjacent wells. 8) Earthen bunds: A series f earthen bunds are constructed across the farmlands according to the slope of the land. These are not only conserving of rainwater but also prevent topsoil erosion by surface runoff. 9)Toba: A toba is a natural depression somewhere in the catchment area for collection of rainwater. The tobas is dug out pond on a low-lying area of the village pasture as catchment area. 10) Johad: Johad are simple mud and rubble concave shaped barriers built across the slop to arrest rainwater, with high embankment on three sides while the forth side is left open for the rainwater to enter. It improves the moisture level at the sub soil level in the fields, particularly in the downstream area, which recharges the ground water and wells. GROUND WATER RECHARGE: Declining trend of water level: Ground water is a dynamic resource, but it is not unlimited. Its quantity and quality varies from place to place and season to season. The water table shows rise and fall in response to changes in ground water storage. Increase of the storage due to recharge from rainfall and seepage from tanks, canal and irrigation water are reflected by the rise of water level, whereas withdrawal through pumping out, outflow and other losses are reflected by the
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decline of water level. In the recent past, the annual rainfall cycle has undergone surprising changes. The season of rainfall, its distribution over areas, intensity and duration have all changed in irregular way. The result is shrinking of ground water resources because of which wells are getting dry. Increase ground water recharge: The ground water recharging can be increased with surplus runoff water available during rainy season. Ground water occurs almost everywhere below the earth‟s surface. More than two million cubic miles of fresh water stored in the earth and half of that is within half a mile of the surface. When rainfall on the ground some of the water sinks into the ground. Such water present in underground spaces and cracks, soil, sand and rocks. Ground water in exploitable quantity, it availability depends on the rainfall, the topography, the water bearing properties of rocks and so on. Artificial ground water recharge:  Condition warranting artificial recharge.  Declining water tables.  Overcome inadequacy of surface water to meet societies demand.  To increase recharge in urban area this is reduced due to paving.  To improve ground water quality.  Enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time.  To improve the ecology of area, vegetation of area. Advantages of conservation methods:  No land wasted for storage.  Water saved from evaporation.  Conserved water not directly exposed to pollution.  Recharge aquifer serves as distribution system also‟  Reduces flood hazards.  Mitigates drought.  Reduces soil erosion.  No loss of cultivable land.  No displacement of population.  Water table is raised substantially results in reduction in lifting cost and energy saving.  The quality of natural ground water may improve in brackish and saline area. Success story of watershed management is reflected through some achievements in Hivare Bazar.

i)Hiware Bazar village before
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ii)After development of watershed
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development initiative. program. Popat Pawar was the force behind all the changes that transformed Hivre Bazar since 1989. 22 liquor shops and the bad habits of gambling and fighting eclipsed the village and its progress restricting the inhabitants. The direct adverse impact was visible in the form of migration of families to meet their basic survival needs. Agriculture and all the allied activities were unprofitable. The day dawned when a group of young people decided that things have to change for better. And, asked Popat Pawar to stand for the position of sarpanch, as he was not only literate but was also aware of the issues. Despite of the opposition from the family he fought and became the sarpanch for a year. During this period, he worked to improve the village's moral environment. Due to village's bad reputation the administration and deputed teachers for the village school considered as punishment posting - creating an environment not favoring learning. As a result for two months school was locked by the villagers with the demand that the gates will reopen as district administration deputes good teachers for the village school. This was their first step in the right direction. Later in the following years, concrete steps were taken by the villagers consciously to improve the standards of education and environment in which it is being imparted. Out of 217 households only 12 are landless. Total geographical area of the village is 976 ha [about 500 ha is arable] that is divided into three micro watersheds. Of this 70 ha is the forestland, which has been developed while working with close cooperation with the forest department. Presently, its entire management is villages' responsibility. The department even does not have their guard to protect the reserves. This relationship between the department and the villages was painfully developed. In 1992, the forest department rejected the request of the villagers, as the villagers due to free grazing ruined the departments' earlier works. However, the villager's persistence made the department reconsider in 1994, bringing joint forest management (JFM) programme to the village and the results are evidently visible to everyone. Under JFM and EGS water and soil conservation works were taken up in the upper reaches. In 1995, the Adarsh Gaon Yojana was launched. Hirve Bazar was selected as the village that could be developed as the model village in the taluka. Under this program, about 52 earthen bunds, two percolation tanks, 33 loose stone bunds were constructed. About nine check dams have also been constructed in a series on the downstream nallah. Crops grown are jawar, bajra, wheat, onion, potato, and vegetables along with floriculture and horticulture. The diary sector has also registered a remarkable improvement. In 1995, the villages' daily milk production was 250 liters, which is 2,600 liters, today. Even 35 families, who have migrated to Mumbai and Pune, have returned. The most remarkable change is that during the 'Ganpathy Utsava', instead of many idols the entire village got one idol, thus saving about Rs 21,000 which was gifted to the wife of a Kargil martyr living in the neighboring village. During the Latur's earthquake, the village has generously and collectively donated. Attitudes have undergone a change. Other instance is when 'samodayik kheti' (people normally don't employ labour - two or three families work collectively in each other‟s farm. Thus, solving the problem of labour and creating an environment of social cohesion, where people readily come together and work together) is prevalent in the village, primarily due to non-availability of labor. The village is also maintaining a patch of land where 100 different species of plants are duly preserved.

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After watershed development program these are success of Hiware bazar

CONCLUSION:  Generating water resource for irrigation.  Improvements in ground water recharge.  Reduction in runoff and soil loss.  Increase in crop production.  Available of fuel, fodder, fruits and timber from the watershed.  Control of soil erosion and land degradation.  Greenery over the denuded hills.  More employment to people.  Increase in milk production.  Increase income of the farmers.  Social fencing and development of soil funds.  Peoples participation for sustained development of hills. Reference:
Bargali S S ,2004. Cow dung burning is a threat to sustainable agriculture. National Seminar on Ecology and environmental Management: Issues and Research Needs, 8 th -9th January 2004, at Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra P.No.124.

Calegari A.,Darolt M.R., Ferro M., 1998, Towards sustainable agriculture with no tillage system. Adv.Geo.Ecol.,31: 1205-1209. A.C. Sadhu, 2010, Watershed Management, Workshop on Water conservation methods in Agriculture, Extension and Education Institute. Hiware Bazar, Report on watershed management.

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AN OVERVIEW ON “WATER CONSERVATION AT HOUSE HOLD LEVEL” Nuzhat Sultana M. B. Associate professor & HOD in Home Science, Khandat.M. S. Associate Professor in Home Science. Mrs. K. S. K. College Beed Over the year rising population, growing industrialization and expanding agriculture have create the demand of water. Therefore water conservation has become the need of the day. Water conservation is the responsibility of both water users and suppliers. There are various advanced techniques and devices, to help water conservation, such as grey water, recess rain water collection, water conservating landscaping and irrigation practices etc. Today most of conservation methods are used for external and internal use of water. Hence the present study was designed to identify the various methods or systems of water conservation at household level. One hundred families with three to four members from different areas of Beed district were selected, and given them knowledge and awareness about water conservation. After 20 days to study the impact of knowledge and awareness among rural women for water conservation and its management, with the help of survey method. The study result shows that indoor per capita use of water in each site ranged from 50.2 to 54.8 gallon/ day in dattanagar, police colony, vidyanagar, Balepeer of Beed district. The selected families were used 3.2 Galan/day water for drinking purpose. 25.5 g/d and 1.9g/d water was used for toilet and bathing respectively whereas 1.8g/d water was used for washing cloths and 1.8gal/day water use for dishwashing. But less amount of water i.e.1.5gal/day and 1.3gal/day was used for gardening and car washing. The study has found that most of the families adopted the new methods of water conservation when they know about it. So 14% families have changed their low flow fixtures and 22% families adopted water harvesting system at home. Whereas 50% house wives preferred to wash more cloth full loads in one setting in washing machine 14% families were used waste water for their gardening. It is concluded that systematic water supply planning have more important and effective for indoor water conservation and its management. Moreover study result shows that indoor usage of water can be reduced automatically by 30-40% by using new low flow fixtures and

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other water conservation methods. And it is very beneficial to install the water appliances i.e. (Water meter) at house hold level. Over the year rising populations growing industrialization and expanding agriculture have create the demand of water. Therefore water conservation has become the need of the day. A water conservation measure is an action, behavioral change, device, technology or improved design or process implemented to reduce water loss, waste or use. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation. Water conservation is the responsibility of both water users and suppliers. Both can employ numerous methods to preserve water supplies. There many advanced techniques and devices to help conserve water, such as grey water reuse, rain water collection, water conserving land scarping and irrigation practices, the installation of low –flow fixtures and appliances and proper swimming pool maintenance. Water users can conserve water by using “wise water use” methods, such as shorter shower, taking bath instead of showers, running only full loads of laundry and dishes, repairing leaky plumbing. The following methods can be used for external and internal use. 1. Grey water method:- This method of water conservation is require more investment and equipment on the part of home owners. Grey water recycling is defined as the reuse of water from the sinks, Showers, washing machines and dishwasher in a home. Currently grey water contributes 75% of total waste water flow to domestic sewers
(1)

Grey water

can be used for several water consuming activities, mostly outdoor washing and irrigation. Some studies have shown no adverse effect on Lawry‟s or ornamental garden where grey water has been used for irrigation.(2) 2. Installation of water efficient appliances:-In this method the installation of water efficient appliances and low-flow plumbing fixtures, such as low-flush toilets, faucet aerators, low flow shower heads find reduced water use washing machines and dish washers
(3)

Faucet aerators mix air with the water which serves to reduce splashing and

cuts of flow (4). A Study of Household water use concluded that the overall daily per person consumption declined to 4 liters, due to appliances rather than changes in water use habits (5).
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Another study demonstrated that retrofitting a home with water conservation devices accounted for 18 g pcd decrease in water use.(6) Installation of water conserving appliances can cut a community water consumption by 20% . (7) 3. Wise water use:- This method includes changes in water use habits including bathing and house hold cleaning. A more effective vigilance with leak detection and repair. A dripping faucet can leak up to 200 liters per day while a leaking toilet can account for 16000 liters per days (8). 4. Outdoor water used:- In some area 50% home owner‟s water use may be outdoors.(9). Most of the water may be used for lawn/garden maintenance or car washing. Lawn can accounts for about 32% of residential outdoor water use. Moreover the collection of rain water can potentially save 50% of domestic water consumption. This water can be used not only for garden and lawn watering, but even toilet flushing and clothes washing, because ran water is very soft and free of chlorine which makes it acceptable for different uses. (10) Management of water: - Water users should adapt the following rules for water conservation & its management. 1. Maintenance of water distribution system in the house should be more effective. 2. Water metering can be helpful to strict measurement of water use of each house holed 3. To encouraging the public to conserve water in times of shortage is possible but educating them to conserve water when there are no crises has become difficult (11). 4. The most successful efforts have been the creation of model homes, or other publicly viewable projects, employing water conservation technology. Objectives:1. To know the consumption of water for different purpose at house hold level. 2. To import the knowledge aware the families about the water conservation at household level. 3. To introduce the use of efficient watering system at house hold level.

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Methodology:- The study was carried out under the following heads. 1. Selection of area:- One hundred families of Dattanagar, police colony, Vidyanagar and Balepeer in the Beed district were selected randomly. 2. Selection of Sample:- One hundred families with three or four members in the family from the above areas of Beed district were selected randomly. 3. Selection of Method:- A Survey method was carried out with the help of questionair cum interview schedule. A survey of fifty families was carried out with the help of questionnaire cum interview schedule and impart the knowledge about water conservation and its management. After twenty days duration, to study the impact of knowledge and awareness among rural women for water conservation and its management. Result and discussion:-

Water gal/day
Drinking Leak Toilet Dish washing 1.5 15.5 25.5 17.8 1.3 Cloth Washing Gardening 3.2 Faucet Car washing

10

27

The above result shows that the per capita use of water in each site ranged from 50.2 to 54.8 gal/day. The selected families responded that they were used approximately 25.5gallen/day and 28.0 gallan/day water for toilet and clothes washing respectively. Where as 17.8 gallan/day water was consumed in leakages. But 15.5 gallan/day and 10.0 gallan/day water was used
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dishwashing and faucet respectively. Only 3.2 gal/day water was consumed for drinking purpose. In outdoor consumption only 1.5 gal/day and 1.3 gal/day water was used for gardening and car washing.
60% 50% 50% 40% 30% 22% 20% 10% 0% Washing their Water Low flow fixtures cloths in full harvesting loads system at home waste water 14% 14%

Application of efficient water conservation system

The study has found that most of the families adopted the different methods of water conservation, when they know about it. 14% families have fixed low flow fixtures in their house. 22% families were adopted water harvesting system at home. Whereas 50% families preferred to wash their clothes full loads in washing machine. 14% families ere used waste water for their gardening. Conclusion:It is concluded that water supply planning have more important for indoor water usage reduction. Moreover indoor usage of water can be reduced automatically by 30-40% by using new low flow fixtures and other water conservation methods. And it is very beneficial to install the water appliances i.e. (Water meter) at house hold level. References :

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1. http://www.fwr.org/wsaa/wsaa73.htm Foundation for Water Research, Allen House, The Listons, Liston Road, Marlow, Bucks, SL7 1FD 2. "> http://www.icgov.org/water/waterfaucetaer.htm (City of Iowa City, 410 East Washington Street, Iowa City, IA 52240) 3. Eriksson, E. Auffarth, K. Eilersen, A.M. Henze, M. Ledin, A. 2003. Household chemicals and personal care products as sources for xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater. Water S.A. Vol. 29 no. 2. pp. 135-146. 4. Achttienribbe, G.E. 1996. Domestic water consumption under the microscope. H2O Vol. 29 no. 100 pp. 278-279 5. DeOreo, W.B. Mayer, P.W. Lewis, D.M. Dietemann, A. Skeel, T. Smith, J. 2001. Retrofit Realities. Journal of the American Water Works Association Vol. 93 no. 3. pp. 58-72. 6. Clouser, R.L. Miller, W.L. 1980. Household water use: Technological shifts and conservation implications. Water Resources Bulletin Vol. 16 no. 3. pp. 453-458. 7. http://www.gippswater.com.au/environment/conservation.asp (Gippsland Water, Hazelwood Road, PO BOX 348, Traralgon VIC 3844) 8. Kavouras, L. 1995. Practical Xeriscape landscaping for public facilities. Proceedings of CONSERV 1996. American Water Works Asscociation. pp. 2930 9. http://www.rainharvesting.co.uk/conservation.htm Rainharvesting Systems Ltd, Cheltenham Road, Bisley, Stloucestershire GL6 7BX 30) Gregg, T. Curry, J. 1995. Xeriscape: Promises and pitfalls. Proceedings of CONSERV 1996. American Water Works Association. pp. 165-168.

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Women and water management: An integrated approach
P. P. Pangrikar* and S. S. Bhosle
*

Department of Botany, R. B. Attal College, Georai. Department of Botany, Balbhim College, Beed.

REVIEW: Awareness is growing of the importance of a gender approach to water supply and management issues. The present chapter examines the value of water systems and looks at women‟s reproductive and productive roles as they relate to using and managing those resources. Water is essential for all forms of life and crucial for human development. Water systems, including wetlands, coastal zones, surface waters and aquifers, provide a vast majority of environmental goods and services, including drinking water, transport and food. Globally, irrigated agriculture draws down 70 per cent of all renewable water resources, and industry and energy supply also consume a sizable share. As the world‟s population has tripled over the last century, the use of renewable water resources has grown six folds. But water‟s sustaining role in ecosystems remains undervalued, despite the fact that minimum flows in water bodies are needed to support environmental health and increasing human demands. If current trends continue, there is a growing understanding that sustainable water management requires water governance, including integrated water resource management. Integrated water resource management coordinates the development and management of water, land and related resources. It seeks to maximize social and economic welfare in an equitable manner, to sustain ecosystems and to bring together the technical, ecological, social and political spheres. An essential part of an integrated approach is the participation of stakeholders, including local communities. There are several primary threats to water supplies, starting with pollution with organic and chemical substances, a major concern in many industrialized and developing countries. Major sources include inadequate sewage systems, waste disposal, industrial effluents and agricultural residues. Pollution disrupts not only the ecological balance but also harms the health of the entire community. Eighty per cent of all sickness in the world is attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation, and water-borne diseases – such as diarrhea, malaria, and hepatitis A – kill 3.4 million people (mostly children) every year. Water may also disappear through the
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irreversible degradation which takes place when wetlands, flood plains and coastal ecosystems are destroyed. Women‟s reproductive and productive roles Water is critical and is at the core of woman's traditional responsibilities. Water is used for household care and health, and in their everyday duties women are most often the collectors, users and managers of water within the household. Water is also used by subsistence women farmers, who manage small vegetable and garden patches which needs irrigation outside of the house. These roles provide women with significant knowledge about water resources in terms of quality, supply, as well as storage. Their knowledge of water resources demonstrates the importance of women to the success of water resources development and conservation programs. Women are the promoters of sanitary practices within their homes, because good health, cleanliness and good hygiene is always their foremost responsibility. It is this responsibility that makes women diligent in securing good quality water for their everyday activities. However, when access to water is restricted, women are often forced to accept lower-quality water, thus subjecting their entire families to greater risks of diseases, because many illnesses can be transmitted by contaminated water. Women and men assume distinct responsibilities in using and managing water and water systems. In most societies, women and girls collect every liter of water for cooking, bathing, cleaning, maintaining health and hygiene, raising small livestock and growing food. Rural men need water for irrigation and larger livestock, but women often care for the milk cattle and young animals. They also oversee family health. Because of these differing gender roles, women and men have different stakes in water use. There is a tendency to overemphasize women‟s reproductive roles in relation to water resource management – in other words, those tasks that span providing, managing and safeguarding water for use by the family. Water is also used in building and repair work (for example, in making bricks and in plastering), for crops and food processing, and in transport. But women have pressing needs too for water to engage in economic production, including agriculture and microenterprise. Sometimes women‟s needs are in direct conflict with those of men: for example, food production can be an important source of family food and income for women, but women‟s access to irrigation is minimal.
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On the whole, women‟s equal participation in decision-making is a prerequisite for more equitable access to both water and sanitation, and could lead to services that respond more effectively to men‟s and women‟s different demands and capacities. Women playing influential roles at all levels over the long term could also hasten the achievement of sustainability in the management of scarce water resources. But only a few make it to the water corridors of power today. However, women do possess extensive knowledge, experience and common sense regarding the use and management of water resources, and these could be tapped. As highlighted before, women have primary roles involving the collection and utilization of water as well as the promotion of sanitary practices, and yet they are hardly involved in water related projects. Woman can do one thing she can take participation in the water conservation. A step to conserve water is the step to secure the future. The most essential among all the natural resources on earth is water. A drop of water is worth more than a sack of gold for the thirsty man. If each one of us makes efforts to save water today, it will save us later. Water conservation is the most effective and environmentally sound method to fight global warming. Water conservation is what that can reduce the scarcity of water. It aims to improve the efficiency of use of water, and reduce losses and waste.

Women can save water generally by following ways:
  

Turn the tap off when not in use especially when you brush your teeth or wash clothes. Do not leave the tap running while washing the dishes in the kitchen. Never throw the water unnecessary on roads which can be used for gardening and cleaning

The water supply should be limited in those areas which enjoys the unlimited water supplies.

     

Check the leakage of water in the toilets. Also get check the hidden water leaks. Avoid unnecessary flushing the toilets. Use minimum amount of water to bath. Water waste restrictions. Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of water. Water your lawn only when it is needed. Use a broom instead of pipe to clean the sidewalks or to wash the car.
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Capture the water that is leaking and repair it as soon as possible. Rainwater harvesting is another method to conserve water. You can use washing machine to wash clothes that does not consume much water.. Improvement in the water distribution system Educate the mind of the people in the rural areas to save the water. Promote the conservation of water through media and wall posters.

References:  “International Conference on Water and the Environment Development Issues for the Twenty-first Century”, Dublin, 1992. “Harvesting Rain water for Land Use”- Patricia h. Waterfall, Extension agent, university of Arizona Cooperative extension/low 4 program. Second Edition, October 2004 Revised 2006.   Smita Mishra Panda - International Research Workshop on „Gender and Collective Action‟ October 17-21, 2005 • Chiang Mai, Thailand. “WOMEN IN WATER MANAGEMENT” Proceedings of the International Workshop held at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, 26-28 March 2007.  “Women in Water Management: The Need for Local Planning” Mihir R. Bhatt Development in Practice Vol. 5, No. 3 (Aug., 1995), pp. 254-258.

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EFFECT OF GEOHYDROLOGICAL CHARACTER ON DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SHED A CASE STUDE’S

Prof. Pathrikar D. F., Dr. Doke A. T.*

Dept. of Geography R. S. S. collage Pathri, Tq. Phulmbri Dist. Aurangabad *Dept. of Geography Swa. Sawarkar College, Beed

ABSTRACT

The area under investigation stretch along side of Girja river basin. It falls with Khultabad and Phulmbri Taluka’s. Aurangabad dist. And Bhokardan at Jalna district. The Girja river basin is sub River basin of Purna which is basin of Godavari. The thickness and the extent of basaltic flow throw the focus on availability of ground water. Deccan basaltic flow the ground water occurrence depends mainly on the factors like jointing pattern and variation of thickness and lateral extent of different flows. The main objective behind the present study is to locate favorable sites for percolation of water. Effective percolation could be achieved through water conservation by resorting to certain water conservation measures for sustainability of ground water reserve.
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For the purpose in hand 18 scattered villages falling in the watershed GP20 along Bhokardan taluka bank of Girja river were geohydrological investigated. The area under investigation is 20 kms EW and 4.5 NS spread along side of Girja river. The msl of area caries in between 675m at maximum and 555m. at the minimum thereby exposing 99m vertical thickness for direct observation. On the basis of detailed well inventory carried out in 14 villages, a lithology showing geohydrological variation was prepared. With the help of Lithology and surface geological survey favorable as well as unfavorable sites for water percolation were demarcated such demarcations will be guideline for taking water conservation measures for ground water sustainability.

Introduction:
The state of Maharashtra now and again reels under the water scarcity geologically; major part of the state is covered by Deccan basaltic flow. This basaltic terrains as such has been labeled notorious as far as the availability of ground water is concerned. Uncertain availability of ground water in the terrain is due to heterogeneity in the nature of piles of basaltic flows which adversely affects the geohydrological characters of the rocks. The area understudy is unfortunately, a part of basaltic terrain in which no storage structures like major dams or medium projects have been constructed across the Girja rivers. Consequently the irrigation in the area and domestic needs of the people solely depend on whatever water is available in the existing dug wells. The wells do not suffice the need of the people because the percolation of water in the wells is not adequate in major part.
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ABOUT THE AREA:-

Location Map of study area:-

The watershed GP-20 as named Godavari Purna. Girja is the major tributary of Purna. It originality from (Ajanta ranges) Mhaismal Tq. Khultabad Dist. Aurangabad. It flows through Khultabad Phulmbri Taluka Aurangabad Dist. and Bhokardan Taluka Jalna district and meets the Purina river at the walsa Bhokardan Taluka. Study area falls between the Longitude 750 10’ to 750 48’ Latitude 200 5’ to 200 9’ and the total Arial distance is 89 Km. having elevation difference 340m (max 675 and min 555)
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The area of GP20 shows large variation in geohydrological characters.The 750m Average annual rain fall .(Tope sheets No.46-P-12,46-P16 of survey of India).

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE:

The area is undulating and has rugged topography falling in between the maximum elevation of 675m and minimum of 555m. The area has dentritic drainage pattern and is drained cover by Girja river its tributary. The Girja river is itself a tributary of Purna river.

Rainfall and climate:-

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The area under study fall in tropical and semi arid region of Maharashtra and receives an average rainfall of 750 mm. Due to Eastward slope most of the rainwater run off to Girja river. The climate of the region is characterized by three distinct seasons viz. summer, monsoon, and winter. The temperature ranges from maximum of 420c in summer to minimum of 120c during winter.

GEOLOGY OF THE AREA:-

The area falls in the terrain if Deccan trap basalt consisting of two major type of basaltic flows viz. compact basalt and amygdaloidal basalt, compact basalt is a thick and extensive flow. It may be aphanites or porphyritic in nature. Jointing pattern in the compact basalt plays important role in the percolation of water. But jointing pattern shows variation even within short distances. Joints may be inconsistent, broadly spaced or closely spaced. Top of the compact basalt is almost always hydrothermally altered and becomes amygdaloidal. Amygdaloidal basalt is not permeable when fresh. But it becomes permeable due to development of sheet jointing which is an intermediate stage of weathering. It also shows limited permeability at some places where it develops broadly spaced jointing pattern particularly when amygdales are scanty. Because of all these variations there are limitations in the occurrence of groundwater. In the area following flows are demarcated in (fig)and their characters are studied from the available scattered open dug wells i.e. from well inventory data.(Table- 1)
TABLE NO. 1 WELL INVENTERY SURVEY OF SELECTED VILLAGE FROM GP-20 WATER SHADE

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Sr.

Name of village in Meter

Attitude of village in Meter

No. Dugwell studies

Maxmum Depth of dugwell

Minimum depth of dugwell

Average static water level in Feb. 9.5

1

Khatgoen

582 to 588

18

14

6

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Latifpur Pimpri Talegon Khadki Ekpur Javkheda(bu.) Javkheda(ku.) Palaskheda Pimpalgon Janephal Kota Takli Chincholi Deulgoan Pimpalgon(sut.) Talni Bhalti

575 to 559 595 to 645 608 to 648 568 to 602 596 to 620 578 to 603 575 to 613 584 to 607 580 to 604 566 to 602 595 to 639 560 to 590 570 to 611 580 to 626 555 to 565 620 to 675 600 to 613

20 22 19 20 20 20 19 20 20 18 16 20 22 20 18 15 20

14 18 16 19 13 13 13 13.5 12 12 13 16 14 16 13 16 17

5 8 6 6 6 5 7 6 6 6 5 6 5 6 6 8 6

9 10.5 9 9 8.5 8 9.5 6.5 9 8.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 10 9 10 9.5

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Flow No. 1 : This is a the compact aphanitic basalt, occurring in the wells section of the low-lying villages such as Latifpur and Takli. The flow is observed from RL 570m to 576m. The lower part of the flow shows closely spaced jointing and is permeable. The top portion of the flow is hydrothermally altered and has becomes amygdaloidal having thickness 2.00m to 2.5m which is impermeable as seen in the well section of south of Pimpalgon(sut) . Flow No. 2 This is amygdaloidal basalt with medium size amygdales filled with zeolites and quartz. Chloropharite is abundant occurring in the flow and the flow shows high degree of weathering in the south and Western part of the villages of Latifpur and Pimpri the flow is fresh and impermeable. This flow is observed from 575 to 588m (13m thick). Flow No. 3 This is a thin band of red tachylytic basalt having 1 to 1.5m thickness. It is seen only at limited places in the well section of Northwest part of Latifpur and Northern part of Pimpri. Flow No.4 : It is a compact prophyrtic basalt with small to medium size plagioclase phenocrysts which are white in colour. The lower and middle parts of the flow from R.L. 568 to 582m shows favorable conditions for the percolation of the water. The flow shows closely spaced jointing which are interconnected at some places particularly along the nala band and it has undergone deep weathering as seen near Takli on the southern bank to the Girja river. The top portion of this flow has become hydrothermally altered amygdaloidal which is watertight. This portion is exposed from R.L. 578 to 582m seen NE of Latifpur and Javkheda.

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Flow No. 5 : This is a compact aphanites basalt in which vertical joints are prominent. The percolation of water is limited through the joints which are occurring from R.L. 575 to 584m as seen in the Northwest village Eakpur and northern part of Pimpri. The top portion of this flow is hydrothermally altered amygdaloidal having thickness of only two meters restricting down ward percolation of water. Flow No. 6 : This is a amygdaloidal basalt with fine to medium size amygdales filled with zeolites specially chlorophaeite. The flow is in highly weathered conditions with the development of sheet jointing through the extent flow i.e. from R.L. 604 to 609m. The ground water in this flow occur at shallow depth. Flow No. 7 : This compact porphyritic basalt is occurring in the well section from R.L. 560 to 575m in Chincholi, Ekpur, Javkheda(ku), Takli having a thickness of 15m. The flow shows change in the jointing pattern, in the middle part is closely jointed and in the lower part, it shows broadly spaced jointing. Part of the flow is exposed in Western part of Chincholi. The top portion of this flow is 12m thick, hydrothermally altered and has become amygdaloidal in the southwest of Bilolie. Flow No. 8 : This is an amygdaloidal basalt in which fine to medium size amygdales are filled with zeolite and silica. The flow is fresh, hard and massive hence impermeable. It is observed in the wells section of Northeast part of Pimpri and Eastern part of Dugong, It is exposed from R.L.580 to 587m.

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Flow No. 9 : This is a thin compact porphyritic basalt. It is exposed from R.L. 590 to 595m. Broadly spaced jointing has been developed in the flow. The jointing at some place are interconnected permitting limited percolation. At other places joints are not interconnected hence permeability is very less as in case of Southwest part of Kota Talni Eastern part of Talegon. The amygdaloidal top portion of this flow is having a thickness of 2 m. Flow No. 10 : It is a compact ahanitic basalt. With broadly spaced jointing pattern. It is exposed in between R.L. 590 to 609m. i.e.19m thick out of which 3 m (R.L.611 to 614m) is hydrothermally altered amygdaloidal top portion which is watertight. In general the flow shows poor percolation. Hence Southwest Kota and Pimpri Talegon South Takli suffer from scarcity of water. Flow No. 11 : This is the top most flow of the area occurring above R.L. 608. It is compact aphinitic basalt showing broadly spaced jointing pattern which is directly observed in the hill portion of Pimpalgon(sut) Discussion and Recommdations.

Fig 2 Sub Surface Geological Section of GP20 Watershed

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On the basis of surface geohydrological survey and well inventory data (Table No 1) Lithology has been prepared indicting carious flows occurring in the area. Their geohydrological characters favorable for percolation of water are being discussed here. Closely jointed compact basalt in the moderate stage of weathering factoring percolation is seen in flows no’s 1,4 and 5 also in the lower part of flow no.7 Amygdaloidal basalt with chlorophaeite as prominent secondary mineral develops sheet jointing in the rock which, then becomes favorable for percolation of water up to a shallow depth i.e. 6m to 10m such characters are seen in flow No. 2 and 6. On the other hand broadly jointed compact basalt flows no 1,10 and 11 fresh unjointed amygdaloidal basalt flow no. 8 and top portion of flow No.7 are poorly permeable.
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The geohydrological map prepared, as such (fig) indicates the boundaries between permeable and poorly permeable rock types. Geological map is given in fig. Hence it is recommended that water consecration structures are to be constructed. Parts of the watershed area. By adapting these measures water scarcity problem of Girja river basin of Aurangabad and Jalna district shall be minimized and adequate quantity of water will be available for irrigation and drinking purpose.
Geological Map – GP20

Symbol

Rock Type Jointed compact Basalt & Sheet Jointed Amyg. Basalt Unjointes Amyg. Basalt Dug well location

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Scale 2cm = 1 km

Index

ACKNOWLEMENT:

We acknowledge Dr. A. V. Tejankar Vic. Principle and Head, department of Geology Deogiri collage Aurangabad for his kind help in computations and in reviewing the manuscript ,and also thankful to Dr. Masoom sir their help at different stages in this work .

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1) 2)

Horton R--- Drainage basin characteristics Karmarkar B. M. Importance of geological studies in water shade development schemes.

3)

Kulkarni p. S., Dr. A.V. Tejankar:- Geological studies of SATANA WATERSHADE AREA Paper published in the proceedings of National

Seminar of “Geo-Environmental Hazards” held J. T. M. Engineering college, Faizpur, dist :jalgaon on 6-7 October 2003 4) Dr A.V. Tejankar :-Impact of geohydrological in the conservation of groundwater reserve in parts of Sindkhedraja tehsil of Buldhana district. 5) A.V. Tejankar, P.s. Kulkarni, Nature of volcanicity in central part of Deccan Basaltic Terrain of Marathwada University, Aurngabad. 6) A. V. Tejankar, “Petrochemistry if Dyke in Toranmal Ghat, Dist. Dhule(M.S.) National Seminar on Exploration methods of Natural Resources Dept. of geology Maulana AzadCollege Aurngabad 7 & 8 March 1998. 7) 8) 9) Integrated Watershed Management by Rajesh Rajoura Drainage basin characteristics- Horton R. Mule R. B. – Influence of geology in decelopment of watershade in the Deccan trap region Ph. D. Thesis subimitted Dr. Babasabhe Ambedkar Marthwada university, Aurangabad.2000 10) Rajesh Rajoura—Integrated Watershade Management.

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11)

A. V. Tejankar, P. S.

Kulkarni – “Availability of Ground Water in

Aurangabad Municipal Corporation area” Souvenir ground water management of Aurangabad city.

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RAIN WATER HARVESTING IN A HOSPITAL –A STEP FURTHER Priti R. Pardeshi*, Karuna S. Pardeshi** & Rajendrasing S. Pardeshi*** *Ramkrishana Paramhans Mahavidyalaya, Usamanabad **Asst.Prof, Dept. of Zoology, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune. Nursing home, Aurangabad (Maharashtra). Email: karunapardeshi@rediffmail.com, pritipardeshi75@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION: As is known to everyone, the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) has made rainwater harvesting mandatory in upcoming houses of 30 ft by 40 ft and above dimensions and also in existing houses built in 40 ft by 60 ft dimensions. There will be no water supply to those residences that have not adopted rainwater harvesting. In view of this; the Federation of HSR Layout Residents‟ Welfare Association took the initiative of educating the residents about RWH by holding a live demonstration at Samarthanam School. The rainwater harvesting consists of a wide range of technologies used to collect, store and provide water with the particular aim of meeting demand for water by humans and/or human activities. Water is an integral part of ecosystems functioning. Its presence or absence has a bearing on the ecosystems services they provision. Rain Water Harvesting, is an age-old system of collection of rainwater for future use. Systematic collection and recharging of ground water, is a recent development and is gaining importance as one of the most feasible and easy to implement remedy to restore the hydrological imbalance and prevent a crisis. The reality of water crisis cannot be ignored. India has been notorious of being poor in its management of water resources. The demand for water is already outstripping the supply. Majority of the population in the cities today are groundwater dependent. In spite of the municipal water supply, it is not surprising to find people using private tube wells to supplement their daily water needs. As a result, the groundwater table is falling at an alarming rate. Extraction of groundwater is being done unplanned and uncontrolled. Water harvesting is the deliberate collection and storage of rainwater that runs off on natural or manmade catchment areas. Catchment includes rooftops, compounds, rocky surface or hill slopes or artificially prepared impervious/ semi-pervious land surface. The amount of water harvested Depends on the frequency and intensity of rainfall, catchment characteristics, water demands and how much runoff occurs and how quickly or how easy it is for the water to infiltrate through the subsoil and percolate down to recharge the aquifers. Moreover, in urban areas, adequate space for surface storage is not available, water levels are deep enough to accommodate additional rainwater to recharge the aquifers, rooftop and runoff rainwater harvesting is ideal solution to solve the water Supply problems. This Rain Water System has been started in Jiaji Maternity & Nursing Home, Garkheda, Aurangabad(Maharashtra) which is a 10 bed hospital having daily OPD of around 60(Sixty) patients
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& around 100 admissions per month including 20(Twenty) deliveries per month. Marathwada region is always in short of Water since 1971-72 when they experienced a severe drought .Main source of water for Aurangabad is from Jaikwadi Dam & Harsul Dam which are unable to provide water for summer .This hospital was in need of at least 5000 liters per day . Average Rain days are 45 days only in a season which is to less for Aurangabad. This hospital where we are staying also in its compound only with our family. Hospital has installed this Rain Water System with Two filters so as to drink water also. Pipes from Two roofs coming and draining to the tube well through double filters make the water pure .We were not getting sufficient water for 4 months of summer. A hospital can save 5000 liters water daily hence 5000 liters from main reservoir can be available for at least 10 families (500 liters per family). If every hospital will apply this in Aurangabad city, they can provide water to at least 2000 water needy families. It should be done compulsory not to every hospital but every establishment.

This is a need of time to make a law about water conservation & awareness to the public also. This paper shows you the effective Rain water Harvesting system implemented since 10 yrs with saving of 5000 litter water every day from the main reservoir of Municipal Corporation. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: Effective implementation of Rain Water Harvesting System in a hospital since 10 yrs for water conservation & to help environment hence to serve the society. This can be applying as a model to every hospital .Hence to save the water. MATERIAL & METHODS: This Rain Water System has been started in Jiaji Maternity & Nursing Home, Garkheda, Aurangabad (Maharashtra) which is a 10 bed hospital having daily OPD of around 60(Sixty) patients & around 100 admissions per month including 20(Twenty) deliveries per month. Marathwada region is always in short of Water since 1971-72 when they experienced a severe drought .Main source of water for Aurangabad is from Jaikwadi Dam & Harsul Dam which are unable to provide water for summer .This hospital was in need of at least 5000 liters per day . Average Rain days are 45 days only in a season which is to less for Aurangabad. This hospital where we are staying also in its compound only with our family. Hospital has installed this Rain Water System with Two filters so as to drink water also. Pipes from Two roofs coming and draining to the tube well through double filters make the water pure .We were not getting sufficient water for 4 months of summer. A hospital can save 5000 liters water daily hence 5000 liters from main reservoir can be available for at least 10 families (500 liters per family). If every hospital will apply this in Aurangabad city, they can provide water to at least 2000 water needy families. It should be done compulsory not to every hospital but every establishment
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RESULTS: This Rain water harvesting system is successful and getting daily 5000 liters water in summer season which was useful for drinking also. This system is running since 10 yrs hence is of almost importance in conservation. Underground water level is being charged every rainy season hence the activation of tube well done automatically. CONCLUSION: A hospital can save 5000 liters water daily hence 5000 liters from main reservoir can be available for at least 10 families (500 liters per family). If every hospital will apply this in Aurangabad city, they can provide water to at least 2000 water needy families. It should be done compulsory not to every hospital but every establishment /industry/hostels/malls/multiplexes/theatres so as to save plenty of water which we can provide to needy or we can conserve it for the future. It will not only save the water but also conserve it for future. It can also provide employment to the plumbers & also to the small scale industry for the manufacturing /maintains of the material for rain water harvesting.

Jijai Hospital Front View

Roof No. 1

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Roof No.1 –From where rainwater draining

Roof No. 2

Roof No.2 From where Rain water draining

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Root of the pipe:

Route of the Pipe with First Filter

References: Agarwal A and S. Narain . 2005. Dying wisdom: Rise, fall and potential of India‟s traditional water harvesting systems 4th edition. . Eds., State of Indias Environment, a citizens‟ report 4, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, (404 pp) GEO4. 2007. Global Environmental Outlook 4: Joshi, P.K., A. K. Jha, .S.P. Wani, Laxmi Joshi, RL Shiyani.2005. Meta analysis to assess impact of watershed program and people‟s action. Comprehensive Assessment Research Report 8, International Water Management Institute, Colombo. Shah, T. 2008. India‟s masterplan for groundwater recharge: an assessment and some suggestions for revision. Economic and Political Weekly (India) 43(51): 41-49. Sreedevi, T.K., Wani, S.P., Sudi, R., Patel, M.S., Jayesh,T., Singh S.N., Shah, T. 2006. Onsite and Off-site Impact of Watershed Development: A Case Study ofRajasamadhiyala, Gujarat, India. Global Theme on Agroecosystems Report No. 20, Pantacheru, AndhraPradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.Thomsen, R., V.H. Søndergaard K.I Jørgensen. 2004. Hydrogeological mapping as a basis for establishing site-specific protection zones in Denmark. Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 12, pp550-562
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METHODS OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING
Smt. R. B. Kulkarni Department of Physics, Swa.Sawarkarmahavidyalaya,Beed

E-mail: rbkulkarni9421@gmail.com
Abstract Due to increasing demand for arising of urbanization, increase in population, agriculture, greater electricity consumption, infrastructure growth and a depleting forest cover,the situation in new era is alarming about water war. This paper focuses on need for rain water harvesting, different traditional methods of rain water harvesting, ground water recharge as a modern method of rain water harvesting. Keywords: endowment, strata, gabion structures or a percolation pond.Aquifers, boulders, Trench, semi-arid regions Vulnerability, Sluices and spillways. How much water can be harvested? The total amount of water is received in the form of rainfall over an area is called the rainwater endowment of that area. Out of this, the amount that can be effectively harvested is called as water harvesting potential. water harvesting potential=Rainfall(mm) X collection efficiency Let us consider a house with a flat terrace of 200 sq. meter. Annual rainfall is supposing 500 mm. So, volume of the rainfall over the plot=Area of plot X height of rainfall =200 sq. meter X500 mm =200 sq.meter X 0.5 meter =100 meter cube
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=1,00000 lit If 60% of it is effectively harvested , 60,000 lit water can be harvested,which is twice the annual drinking water requirement 0f about 10 member family. Traditional 1)Catchment Any surface or the paved areas can be treated as catchment. Even the footpaths and roads can act as the catchment, as these areas too receive the direct rainfall. Rooftops are the best among them because of the large coefficient of runoff generated from them and there are less chances of contamination of water. Rainwater harvesting comparises:

2) Conveyance Conveyance system basically includes rain gutters and down pipes which collects the rain water from catchment to the storage tank. These rain gutters are usually built during the time of construction. They need to be designed appropriately as to avoid the loss of water during the conveyance process.

3) Storage The most important part of the rain water harvesting is the storage system. The storage system is designed according to the amount of water that is to be stored. The design and site (location) of the storage or the recharge system should be properly chosen. The area which receives the rainfall frequently, there a simple storage system could be constructed, to meet the daily water requirements. Otherwise the areas which receive the lesser rainfall, there the storage systems are quite essential. Rain barrels, underground or open slumps are mostly used to collect rain water. Neither makes sure that the storage system is properly sealed and does nor leak. Use Chlorine from time to time to keep the water clean. Traditional Methods of rain water harvesting-storage of rain water Kund:-Kund is constructed with local materials or cement primarily for tackling drinking water problems. It is a local name given to the covered underground tank. In sandy areas groundwateris
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moderate to highly saline with salts from 1,500-10,000 parts per million. Under such condition kund provides clean, convenient and sweet water for drinking.Kunds were owned by communities or privately by rich. During the great famine of 1895-96 kunds were widely constructed. Rain water is collected in kund from its sufficient catchment area and used whole year through.kund is having a opening.Kunds at Nasik are famous and known.

Khadin:-A khadin, is an ingenious construction designed to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture. Its main feature is a very long (100-300 m) earthen embankment built across the lower hill slopes lying below gravelly uplands. Sluices and spillways allow excess water to drain off. The khadinsystem is based on the principle of harvesting rainwater on farmland and subsequent use of this water-saturated land for crop production.Khadin near khandeshwari temple at Beed is well known to us.

Talab/ Bandhis:-Talabswere reservoirs. They could be natural, such as the ponds or could be man-made. A reservoir area of less than five bighas was called a talai; a medium sized lake was
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called a bandhi or talab; bigger lakes were called sagar or samand. They served the purpose of irrigation and drinking. When the water in these reservoirs dried up, the pond beds were used for cultivation.

Johads:Johads, in Rajasthan, were small earthen check dams built to capture and conserve rainwater, thus improving percolation and recharging ground water.

Baoris / Bers:-Baoris or berswere community wells, that were used mainly for drinking. Most of them are very old and they could hold water for a long time because of almost negligible water evaporation.

Jhalaras:-Jhalaras were man-made tanks, found in Rajasthan and Gujarat, essentially meant for community use and for religious rites but not for drinking. Often rectangular in shape, jhalaras
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have steps on three or four sides. They were ground water bodies which were built to ensure easy and regular supplyof water to the surrounding areas.

The jhalaras collected subterranean seepage of a talab or a lake located upstream.

water Temples or „Step Wells‟ :-Another most unique example for harvesting rainwater and providing water for drinking purpose in arid parts of our country was the step well.Step wells are also called water temples of India. The idea to construct step wells was initiated due to the need to ensure water supply during the period of drought. Some of the step wells were dug very close to tanks to get drinking water Vavadi, Bawdi, Bawri, Baoli, and Bavadi throughout the year. Step wells are also called Vav,

. Reasons for decline in traditional water harvesting system

Some of the reasons for the decline in traditional water harvesting system in our country are1. Westernization of the whole water distribution system 2. Apathy of policy makers towards water harvesting structures after independence and lack of innovative ways to deal with water related issues.
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3. Growing use of subsidized energized system (electrical powers) to exploit deep aquifers. 4. Declining interest on the part of community to nurture various traditional water harvesting systems. 5. Subsidized supply of fertilizers reduced the dependence of farmers on the tank silt. 6. Some of these tanks were encroached for farming, sand mining, expansion of city, waste dumping, industry, etc. Modern rain water harvesting method: Recharge of ground water Why recharge of ground water? There is more ground water than surface water Ground water is less expensive and economic resource. Ground water is sustainable and reliable source of water supply. Ground water is relatively less vulnerable to pollution Ground water is usually of high bacteriological purity. Ground water is free of pathogenic organisms. Ground water needs little treatment before use. Ground water has no turbidity and colour. Ground water has distinct health advantage as an alternative for lower sanitary quality surface water. Ground water is usually universally available. Ground water resource can be instantly developed and used. There are no conveyance losses in ground water based supplies. Ground water has low vulnerability to drought. Ground water is key to life in arid and semi-arid regions. Ground water is source of dry weather flow in rivers and streams.

Structures used for ground water recharge

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The storage of rain water on surface is a traditional techniques and structures used were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc. Recharge to ground water is a new concept of rain water harvesting and the structures generally used are :Pits:- Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifer. These are constructed 1 to 2 m, wide and to 3 m. deep which are back filled with boulders, gravels, coarse sand. Trenches:- These are constructed when the permeable stream is available at shallow depth. Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m. wide, 1 to 1.5m. deep and 10 to 20 m. long depending up availability of water. These are back filled with filter materials. Dug wells:- Existing dug wells may be utilized as recharge structure and water should pass through filter media before putting into dug well. Hand pumps:- The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow/deep aquifers, if the availability of water is limited. Water should pass through filter media before diverting it into hand pumps. Recharge wells:- Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. diameter are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells. Recharge Shafts:- For recharging the shallow aquifer which are located below clayey surface, recharge shafts of 0.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. deep are constructed and back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand. Lateral shafts with bore wells:- For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1.5 to 2 m. wide & 10 to 30 m. long depending upon availability of water with one or two bore wells are constructed.Lateral shafts are back filled with boulders, gravels. Spreading techniques:- When permeable strata starts from top then this technique is used. Spread the water in streams/Nalas by making check dams, nala bunds, cement plugs, gabion structures or a percolation pond.
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Benefits of Artificial Recharge in Urban Areas : Improvement in infiltration and reduction in run-off. Improvement in groundwater levels and yields. Reduces strain on Special Village Panchayats/ Municipal / Municipal Corporation water supply Improvement in groundwater quality -Estimated quantity of additional recharge from 100 sq. m. roof top area is 55.000 liters. Conclusion:

Save the liquid gold….. Thank You!

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Role of an Individuals in Water Conservation & its Management
R. K. MOMIN1 AND ABDUL RAHIM2 1 DEPT. OF BOTANY 2 LAB. OF ORGANIC SYNTHESIS MILLIYA SENIOR COLLEGE BEED (M. S.)

Abstract :There is no life without water, when we look at ocean or large lakes we may feel there is no need to conserve water but conserving water has become a prime environmental concern. Clean water is becoming increasing scarce globally in the last two decades the rapid growth of industrialization and urbanization has created negative impacts on lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. (Bharti 2007)

Introduction :
When we waste water we do not realize that it affects the lives of all of us in so many different ways water has to be equitably and fairly distributed so that household use agriculture and industry all get a share of the water. Its overuse and misuse due to various activation that waste water cause pollution has led to a serious shortage of potable drinking water. Thus water conservation is linked closely with overall human well being (Erach Bharucha 2010). In recent years due to increase in industrialization and industrial waste discharged into the pond and through pond they percolated to the ground water. When the water is used for irrigation purpose affects our cop health. The waste had consisting high concentration of toxic substances its accumulation in different tropic levels of ecosystem ultimately cause the health hazards among live stock and human beings via food Chain (Malic et. al. 2004) The waste water without any treatment may cause adverse effect on the health of human, domestic animals wild life and environment(Sharma et.al 1999) Thus contaminated ground water has deteriorated immensely the drinking utilities post agriculture irrigation and impacts on soil systems and crop productivity. These may affect the plant activities and generate some physiological changes in plant (Gary and Kaushik 2006) so it is essential to treat industrial waste water before discharging into the ground.

Traditional Systems of water conservation:
Traditional system of collecting water and using it optimally have been used in India for many generations. These have been forgotten in the recent past conserving water in multiple small percollations. Tanks and jheals was an important feature of traditional forms of agriculture villages all over the country had one or more common talabs. Tanks from
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which people collect or used water carefully. As Woman had to carry water to their homes over long distances this was a time consuming and labarious activity so the water could not be wasted. Many homes had a kitchen garden that when watered by the waste water. Conservation of water as done in traditional homes through a conscious effort.

Saving water in agriculture:
Drip irrigation supplies water to plants near its roots through a system of tubes thus saving water. Small percolations tanks and rain water harvesting can provide water for agriculture & domestic use. Rain water collected from rooftops can be stored or used to effectively recharge sub soil aquifers.

Saving water in Urban:
Urban people waste large amount of water leaking taps an pipes are a major source of water loss canals and pipes carrying water from dams to the consumer contribute nearly 50% of water lose during transfer. Reducing the demand for water by saving it is more appropriate than trying to meet growing demands.

Some precautionary measures of water conservation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Restoration of streams and other bodies of water to their natural conditions. Prevention of pollution of water by wastes. Usage of water should be economical Replacement of vegetation like trees grasses crops etc to maintain soil moisture. Building dams and taken to conserve water. Employment of correct types of cultivation to retain soil water. Preventing the rate of evaporation by covering the vegetation. To reduce flood damages & to conserve water for future use institution of flood control measures.

Conclusion:
Keeping all above in the mind it is concluded that water should be conserved and managed properly from misuse due to various activities and waste cause pollution has led to a serious shortage of potable drinking water & may travel among all the abiotic environmental components and ultimately reach in livestock & human beings.

Reference:
1. Bharti P.K. (2007) : Where is environmental science going in India, current science 94 (4) 414 2. Erach Bharucha 2010. Environmental studies Universities press (India) P.162, 163 3. Malik D. S., Yadav R. and Bharti P. K. (2004) Environmental conservation Journal 5(3) :101-104
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4. Sharma K. P; Sharma K. Bharadwaj S. M. and Chaturvedi R. K. (1999) : Journal of International Botanical Society, 78 : 71-74 5. Garg, V. K. and Kaushik P.(2006) : Influence of short term irrigation of textile mill waste water of growth of chickpea, Chemistry & Ecology 22(3) : 193-200.

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ROLE OF SOCIETY IN LAND, FOREST & WATER CONSERVATION
Dr. Madhav G. Rajpange Anandrao Dhonde Alias Babaji College, Kada.(M.S.)

Abstract
Our environment provides us a variety of resources both biotic and abiotic, to sustain life-support systems but heir huge consumption across the nation and society following a rapist and centrist tendency to attain economic growth somehow, anyhow or at whatever cost in a short period has created severe stress and strain on resource base land, water, forest, minerals etc. culminating in emergence of a variety of environmental problems at various levels and scales. It calls for an introspection of the problems and then placing on record the role played by individuals and institutions in rehabilitation our environment as a basis of resource utilization for sustainable life styles. Here certain observation as to environment problems associated with imprudent deal of the society with resource. Trinity-land, water and forest particularly during the last two centuries have been precisely presented. It will be in the fitness of things to point here some corrective measures the citizens on this earth have to adopt to prevent further damage to the environment which they are part of and have sacred duty to protect (it). Key words : Society, Resources, Environment, Development, Degradation, Sustainability and Participation.

Introduction :

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During the recent past the greed of the rich and need of the poor coupled with misuse and overuse of the resources with scant regard whatsoever for the life support system have accounted for considerable degradation of our environment. In fact at present humans are consuming 40 percent more than what earth can sustain resulting in serious problems of pollution, depletion of ozone layer, global warming and climate change along with loss of forests, soil and bio-diversity. All these pressing issues and problems have rather forced us to feel concerned with the fast changing scenario of environment. The United Nation successive meets at Stockholm (1972) on „Human Environment‟, At Rio de Janeiro (1992) on „Environment and Development‟, at Kyoto (1995) on „Climate Change‟, at Johannesburg (2002) on „Sustainable Development‟ and recently at Bali 93-14 December, 20070 on „Climate Change‟ bear testimony to the same. Although there has been noticed some change in people‟s attitude towards mother earth, still there is desired a lot more to create awareness and a sense of belonging among people towards judicious use of resources and protection of environment. Even today we feel that managing all this is responsibility of the government. We are now at the crossroads. Our numbers are growing rapidly, and with change in numbers, everything is liable to change. So unless concerted and united efforts are made now, tomorrow it may be too late. However, all is not yet lost and with careful environment management much can be saved and or repaired for the future. It is pertinent to note that individually as well as collectively we can play an important role in this endeavour by way of acting as watchdogs and keeping the government and other agencies abreast with the changing state of resources and environment bringing to focus the causal factors and processes involved in it. The role of public awareness is vital and the press and media can add a lot to our efforts in this direction. Politicians in a democracy also always responds
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positively to a strong publicly supported movement. The announcement of a committee on „State Agrarian Relations and the Unfinished Task in Land Reforms‟ to look into the demands of over 25,000 marchers (Janadesh 2007 movement) on various livelihood issues related to land and assurance of its implementation within a time frame by the Central Government is an example in point (Tripathi, 2007). Each of us should promote and practice the ways and means which safeguard the environment and inculcate good civic sense and hygiene. There have been several Government e.g. Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) etc. and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) like Bombay natural History Society (BNHS), World Wide fund for Nature – India (WWF-I), Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) etc. that the creating interest in protection of environment and conservation of nature and natural resources. Like institutions, there are several internationally renowned environment thinkers and activists who have made landmark contributions in shaping the environmental history of our country. Notable among them are Sundarlal Bahuguna, Salim Ali, S. P. Godrez, M. S. Swaminathan, Madhav Gadgil, T. N. Khoshoo, M. S.S. Varadan, Medha Patkar, Anna Hazare, Rajendra Singh, Balbeer Singh Seechewal, M.C. Mehta, Anil Agarwal, Sunita Narain, Vilas Salunkhe, P. R. Mishra, Sandeep Pandey Etc. Each of these thinkers looked at the environment from his own distinct perspective. Our environment provides us with a variety of resources both biotic and abiotic- to sustain life- support system but their huge consumption across the nation and society following a rapist and centrist tendency to attain economic growth somehow, anyhow or at whatever cost in a short period has created sever stress and strain on resource base-land, water, forest, minerals etc.– culminating in emergence of a variety of environmental problems at various levels and scales. It calls for an introspection of the problems and then placing on
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record the role played by individuals and institutions rehabilitating our environment as a basis of resources utilization for sustainable life styles. The Problems ; Rapid population growth and unbridled economic development have far reaching consequences both for the human well-being and environmental health. Pessimistic (conservationists) and optimistic (technologists) have conflicting views and ideas on this issues. The publication like „The Population Bomb‟ (1968); „Population, Resources and Environment‟ (1970); „The Limits to Growth‟ (Meadows et. al., 1972) and „Our Common Future‟ (1987) have expressed serious concerns with growing scarcity of resources and emergence o host of environmental problems and issues. The problems related to resource and environmental are varied in nature, large in number and alarming in magnitude. For limitation of space, here only problem regarding land, water and forest which have affected the major chunk of humanity across the globe have been precisely presented.

Land Degradation: The major means for increasing the food security for a growing population has been conversion of more land to agricultural use. During the last fifty years there has been phenomenal increase in the net sown area in our country, from 118.75 million ha (1950-51) to 142.23 million ha (1999-2000) i.e. increase of 23.48 million ha. However, due to huge population the per capita cropped are available is only0.19 ha as against 0.88 ha in USA, 1.25 ha in Argentina, 2.12 ha in Canada and 3.39 ha in Australia. Most of the best agricultural land, however, is
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already in production. The sordid part is that each year prime agricultural land is being lost either through expansion or urban areas and other developmental activities or degraded through unhealthy agricultural practices, over grazing, over irrigation, flooding, soil erosion, toxicity (from use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides). Etc. Every years between 5-7 million ha of land worldwide is added to the existing degraded farm land (Bharucha, 2005). In our country due to a host of anthropogenic and natural factors, soil erosion is contribution to degradation in about 45 percent of the cultivable area of the country (Varadan, 2002). The estimates of wastelands range from 76 million ha to 175 million ha. In a densely populated country like ours, one cannot afford to let so much land remain idle. Besides, agricultural land has been steadily polluted through non-point pollution of agro-chemicals; the consumption of fertilizers increased from 0.07 million tons (1951-52) to 18.39 million tons (2004-05) in a bid to boost the agricultural production and productivity. Similarly, to ensure good harvest of food grains the consumption of all sorts of pesticides has increased from 2.35 thousand tons in 1955-56 to 52 thousand tons in 1997-98. It has not only degraded out soils, but through agriculture run-off has also polluted both surface and ground water and being part of food chain system has adversely affected human health and wealth (Singh, 2006) Besides, there exists an acute inequality in landholdings. The number of marginal (<1 ha) and small holdings (1-4 ha) and small holdings (1-4 ha) constituting 57 and 32 percent of the total farming population and that of landless is continuously increasing due to increasing pressure of population. Rural rich owning 44 percent of the total cultivated land remain indifferent to the problem due to large land holdings (>10 ha) while poor are incapable to do much in maintain the soil in place. Under the existing scenario the cherished goals of social
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and economic equities cannot be achieved. The Padayatra of over 25]000 dalits and tribal people of eighteen states from Gwalior to New Delhi, walking 26 days (Oct. 2 to 26, 2007) covering 350 km in true Gandhian style to gift for various livelihood issues related to land clearly reflects the state of social and economics inequities. On the other side the Government has made a plan to earmark the land under Special Economic Zone, SEZ (SEZ Act, 2005) mainly to attract foreign investment. The number of SEZs with formal clearance now stands at 396, of which 149 have been already notified (Times of India, Oct. 20, 2007). Thousands of hectares of land including cultivable ones are being grabbed from the peasants in the name of SEZs. As a result anger is brewing. Ongoing tussle since last 11 months against the land acquisition for a proposed chemical hub in Nandigram (East Mindapore district, West Bengal) may be taken as an eye opener. For the SEZ at Nandigram, the proposed are is close to 12,000 acres which is a fertile multi-cropped land. Similarly, several other proposed SEZs are equally massive or even larger. The main plank of the farmer‟s protest is acquisition of their fertile land with which the settled peasantry have deep socio-economic and emotional attachment and that too on a throw-away prices and without any guarantee for employment in the past 10 months here was worth Rs. 4 Crore. About 50,000 man days of work have been lost, adding to the misery of the under employment in the area (Chattopadhyay, 2007). Farmers in Uttar Pradesh have also started their protests against the acquisition of their cultivable land for upcoming eight lane 1000km long and 100m wide Ganga Expressway from Ballia to Noida. According to Rajendra Singh, a well known water conservationist and Magsaysay award winner, this project would consume at least 80000 ha fertile and cause and annual loss of Rs. 250 crore in the form of good grains (Times of India, January 7, 2008)

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All these may prepare the ground for public movement in various parts of the country. Water availability: Water in spite of being available in abundance covering 71 percent on the earth‟s surface is scarcer in usable form and is getting scarcer due to spiraling patterns of consumption following rapid industrialization, ever increasing population, deforestation and intensive agricultural. It is to be kept in mind that only a little less than 3 percent of all water is fresh water. Of this, 2 percent is locked in glaciers and icecaps and merely 1 percent usable water is found in rivers, lakes and sub-soil aquifers. Even this much water is unevenly distributed and utilized among the within the countries. As predicted by the World Commission on Water, half of world‟s population will live under conditions of severe water stress by 2025 (World Development Report, 2003). Excessive and unwise uses of water on the one hand and deteriorating water quality on the other have compounded the situation. It is feared that future wars will be fought over water, not oil. It was in view of the gravity of the situation that the United Nations declared the year 2003 as International Year of Fresh Water and also the Government of India‟s followed suit. Each year we celebrate Water Day on March 22nd to highlight the importance of water for humanity. Studies indicates that person needs a minimum of 20 to 40 litres of water per day for drinking and sanitation, whereas more than one billion people worldwide have no access to clean water, and to many more, water supplies are unreliable. At the global level, thirty one countries are already short of water and by 2025 there will be forty eight countries facing serious water shortages. The United Nations has estimated that by the year 2050, four billion people will be seriously affected by water shortages. This will lead to multiple conflicts between countries over the sharing of water (Bharucha, 2005).
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Being one of the wettest countries of the world, India is rich in water wealth. Indian rivers carry to the ocean about 16,45,000 million m3, almost ten times the annual rainfall in the country (Valdiya, 1987). Still insecurity persists. We receive rainfall just for 100 hours spread across 100 days while the requirement is spread over 365 days (Singh, 2003). As a result, serious water shortages occur in many regions, partly due to uneven precipitation (over time and space)- the only source of replenishment, and partly due to excessive water withdraws for various uses. The inequities in distribution of water as to when and where it is needed and inaccessibility are the other dimensions of the problems. Inequities are so sever in cities that the poor often make it with an average of 16 litres. Presently bare 38 percent of all households of our country (urban: 65 percent and rural: 29 percent) have access to drinking water at home- a situation after 50 years of trying. (Saran, 2003). Water is increasingly becoming a source of conflicts between upstream and downstream users. The action plans to cleanse the Ganga and the Yamuna- the two holiest rivers of our country are testimony to our concern. The crisis further depends with water quality degradation owing to mixing of waste water of various sectors and leaching of contaminants. Due to proper quality of water, incidence of waterborne and water related diseases are increasing. The World Bank and WHO have estimated that every years 1.5 million children under 5 years die here of water borne diseases. Not only this, 21 percent of all communicable diseases are water related (India‟s Development Report, 1999-2000), Floods and droughts- the two extreme ends of the hydrological cycle related with too much and too little water respectively also create crisis situation. Therefore, the need of the hour is to ensure a continual and adequate supply of water of requisite quality for various uses without endangering the life of the reserve or the source. This task may be

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accomplished when the country men make water conservation a mission. It requires a massive water education initiative. Deforestation: Another dimension of impact of population growth and economic development on environments relates to forest. Surprisingly in spite of being fully aware of the role of forests in stabilizing climate, optimizing water yield, maintaining ecological balance by curtailing CO2 emission, reducing run-off and soil erosion, these are today in bad shape both in terms of nature and extent. It is simply because of treatment of forest as an economic asset rather than as an ecological component. According to a report of United Nations Environment Programme, Global Environment Outlook-4, 4500 square miles of forest are being lost across the world each year. Thus, the bio-diversity register of the planet is becoming thinner day by day. Some 30 percent amphibians, 23 percent mammals and 12 percent birds are under threat of extinction due to human activity, while one in ten of the world‟s large rivers run dry every year before reaching its natural ends- the sea (Times of India, 28 Oct., 2007). The forest depletion in developing countries with large population density is very severe. Even more pathetic is the state of tropical forest where the rate of deforestation far exceeds a forestation statistics. In tropical America and Africa, and 4.0 million ha / year of closed forest respectively are depleted as against only 0.4 and 0.1 million ha/years of a 4.1 ha/year of afforestation there (Rao, 1990). It has been proved that tropical deforestation adds to the green house effect. In opinion of Myres (1989), 30 percent global CO2 emissions in 1989 were due to tropical deforestation. That is why gradual depletion of tropical rainforests has a global concern. Despite knowing the multi-dimensional effects of deforestation on land, water and other environmental resources, to-day, the country has only 19.39
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percent of its geographic area under forest cover (State of Forest Report, 1999). The dense forest constitutes 11.49 percent while the National Forest Policy of 1952 and 1988 has recommended that India should have at least one-third of its total land area under forest cover. The picture is more gloomy when we compare the situation of states and union territories with the national average. As many as twelve states and five union territories have the forest cover well below the national average. Not only this, as many as fifteen states and union territories also have per capita forest area well below the national average of 0.05 has (State of Forest Report, 1997). The usual effects of depletion of forest resources are the erosion of top soil, drying u of water sources and siltation in watersheds, rivers and other rain harvesting areas. Extensive investigations carried out so far have revealed that (i) Extensive deforestation leads to increase in CO2 which even at the present rate is about 0.5 ppm per year contributing to an overall global temperature increase, (ii) typically estimated run-off in deforested areas is about 40-50 percent as against 20 percent or less in forested areas and (iii) the erosion rate in a deforested area is estimated to be about 7 tons/ha as against less that 1 ton/ha in the forested areas (Rao, 1990). And yet, there is no curb on this. The global response has been, indeed, woefully inadequate to solve this crisis. Society in environmental management: Land, water and forest form a major part of our national wealth. If we have to improve our living standard and secure acceptable quality of life for future generations, land must remain productive and fertile, water unpolluted and forests worth regeneration. But this task can be accomplished only if each of us plays a sincere role in rehabilitating our environment. Environmental concerns are no longer the exclusive domain of a few activities. These have rather become the concerns of the people at large. Better, it becomes a people‟s movement with
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strong public support rough participation of the stakeholders in every projects/ developmental activity so as to promote harmonious relationship between man and nature. It is in the fitness of things to quote Khosso (1991): Environmental has to be set right by the people and has to be for the people. The focus of individuals as well as communities should centre on integrated contribution in the efforts for conservation and development. Hereby people can help themselves and address local issues creating association with it. During the past couple of years people in various regions of India have cone novel work by mobilizing the people for their participation and inculcating awareness among them to protect their environmental movements have initiated a new political struggle for safeguarding the interests of the local people. „Chipko Andolan‟ and „Save the Bhagirathi and Stop Tehri Project‟ (in Uttarakhand), „Narmada Bachao Andolan‟ (A struggle for just resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced people in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat), „Appiko Movement‟ in the Western Ghats (in Karnataka), the campaign against Silent Valley Project (in the Malabar region of Kerala) etc. Are some of the important environmental movements, which are an expression of the socio-ecological effects of narrowly conceived development based on short-term criteria of exploitation (Karan, 1994). In addition, there are local movement against deforestation and acquisition of land for SEZs etc. Movements like Pani Chetana, Pani Panchayat, Jal Yatra etc. advocate emphasis on ecological principles for water use. Whenever, wherever and whatsoever a big project comes, it renders thousands of people homeless and in the process also thousands of acres of agricultural/forest land is lost. Not only this, these projects separates many more people from their economic resources and social networks. In the context, widespread protest works if the interest of local people and locals are involved and
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it has grassroots support. In majority of the cases, the beneficiaries are almost exclusively outside entrepreneurs and their customers. Local people get work as guides, porters, gardener, milkmen or manual laboures. The usual effects of these development activities remains the depletion/ degradation/scarcity of local resources including agricultural land. Therefore, it is imperative that environmental activities should highlight the movement‟s purpose through workshops, training session and rallies. The success of any movement depends on the unity of people irrespective of sex, age, case, ethnicity, religion, class and region and stress on shared interests in saving the environment (Karan, 1994). The aforesaid non-violent environment movements have provided a path for the resolution of conflicts over natural resources. In additions, the participation of local communities and other stakeholders in managing projects related with land, water and forest has helped in increased of the pace of regeneration, recharge and productivity. In majority of the cases, it has been observed that most of the people including authorities reaming insensitive and indifferent towards the problems. So, to get rid of the problem there is required attitudinal change and change in the mindset to have economic gains through short-cuts and peoples‟ involvement in safeguarding the environments and management of natural resources. Many persons with the co-operation of local people have done and sure still doing novel work in this regard. Sukhomajri village located in Shivalik range of the Himalaya in Haryana‟s Ambala district presents a model of community participatory management for the rest of the country right from early 1980s. There people have been utilizing their forest and water to their benefit. The credit goes to P.R. Mishtra‟s steady attempt which regenerated the local environment through change in attitude of the 80 households of the village in late 1990s. Also, the success story of Ralegaon Siddhi Village (Ahmednagar, district, Maharashtra) presents a model
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of environmental conservation for ht people across the country for which the credit goes to Anna Hazare, a social activist. Balisana village located in the dry Patan district of Gujarat presented another example of community drive to solve the crisis of water pollution (fluoride) through harvesting rain. The villagers took the help from an Ahmedabad based non-governmental organization, UTTHAN. Tarn Bharat Singh (TBS), a non-governmental organization run by Rajendra Singh popularly known as water warrior helped the villagers of Bhaonta- Kolyata of Alwar district (Rajasthan) to revive old johads (traditional earthen dams) on the condition that the villagers have to take upon themselves the task of regeneration. As a result they have water in their erstwhile dry wells round the year. Now they have proved that economic well-being is a by-product of ecological regeneration. To one‟s surprise, since 1986, 238 water harvesting structures have come up in the catchment area of the rive Arvari (Alwar District). Rajendra Singh, the Magsaysay recipient for community leadership in 2001, was the instrumental in the rebirth of the Arvari river and revival of other five rivers that had gone dry in Alwar and Karauli district of Rajasthan. Likewise, 160km long polluted black Bien river of Punjab revived into a pure and clean stream due to clean up campaign of Saint Balbeer Singh Seechewal, popularly known as Sarakowala Baba. All these demonstrate that one can handle the work even without government help. It only requires a whole hearted approach in solving the problem of common interest. The community Based Organization (CBOs) and NGOs have although proved their crucial role in forest management. Yet, it has been observed that dominant communities till tend to call the tune at the expenses of the marginalized groups (Varadan, 2002). Safeguards, therefore, need to be built into the constitution of CBOs and their functioning to ascertain participatory equity in the long run. The another unfortunate truth is that most of the watershed projects have
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failed to generate sustainability because of the failure of government agencies to involve the people. True, until there is people‟s participation in planning and execution of the project, it may not inculcate a sense of ownership among the people. So, fostering a sense of ownership is a must to ensure the success of any programme. The success stories of the above mentioned and some other projects stand testimony to the fact that participation and involvement of local communities matter a lot in managing and regenerating their resources, economy and environment. Community participation is not only confined to management of the land, water and forests. EXNORA International voluntary NGO (Chennai) has created widespread environmental and civic awareness by promoting direct community/street involvement in voluntary efforts of waste management and keeping the environment clean and green. The entire scheme is managed by the residents of respective street and community and it gives great satisfaction to all the participants and beneficiaries. The principle of community involvement has spread through the civic EXNORA movement which at present has between 900950 civic EXNORA, functioning in different parts, of Chennai. A similar kind of participation and involvement is required to save the river Ganga-the holiest of Indian rivers. Lakhs of rupees and almost 25 years have been wasted under the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) which was launched at Varanasi in 1986 during late prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi‟s tenure. But the sacred river Ganga still continues to get polluted. Prof. Veer Badra Mishra, a professor of hydraulic engineering and also mahanth of Sankat Mochan Temple has initiated Swachchha Ganga Abhiyan (Clean Ganga Campaign) since last 25 years under the banner of Sankat Mochan Foundation (SMF). He wants committed people to join hands with SMF voluntarily to clean the holy river Ganga and make it pollution free. Concluding remarks:
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The combined effects of greed and need of the society coupled with ever increasing numbers trying to attain prosperity through short cut approach i.e. somehow, anyhow and at whatever cost have put great stress and strain on our natural resources, particularly the basic one-land, water and forest. The fact remains that despite being indispensible for the very survival and sustenance of humanity, the resource trinity-land, water and forest is subjected to reckless exploitation rather than its treatment as very base of life support systems. Thus its misuse and over use has caused a cumulative effect reflecting in degradation of environment, low productivity, low income and lack of sustainability in development. In order to have harmonious relationship between development and environment and in this bid to take the stock of the situation United Nations convened several global meet of world leaders and specialists from time to time starting from Stockholm (1972) to Rio de Janeiro (1992), Kyoto (1997), Johannesburg (2002) and Bali (3-14 December, 2007) to discuss the issues of wide and far reaching consequences concerning the mankind and environment. It is, however, encouraging to note that people are becoming gradually aware of the varied problems arising out of increasing land degradation, waster scarcity and forest depletion. It is, therefore, right time to educate the people at various levels more and more about their role as an individuals and a part of society in management and protection of the resources and environment. The change in mindset of both haves and have no‟s towards mother earth along with their commitment, participation and involvement in the programmes and projects associated with human and environmental well-being is the need of the hour. It is only the earnest efforts and wisdom of the stakeholders that can save the humanity from food insecurity and environmental risks. Hope social scientists will succeed in delivering the goods to the masses in minimizing human sufferings by rewww.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 146

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examination the issues and problems afresh and translating the theory into action/ practice.

References : 1. Bharucha, E (2005): “Environmental Studies”, Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, pp. 13-49 2. Chattopadhyay, S. S. (2007) : “Fanning the Flames”, Frontline, Nov. 17, pp.27-32. 3. 4. Ehrlich, P. R. (1968) : “The Population Bomb”, Ballantime, New York. Ehrlich, P. R. and Ehrlich, A. H. (1970) : “Population, Resources, Environment”, W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco. 5. Karan, P. P. (1994) : “Environmental Movements in India”, Geographical Review, Vol. 84, No.1, pp. 32-41. 6. Khoshoo, T. N., (1991) : “Environmental concerns and Starategies”, Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 1-8. 7. Meadows, D. H., et. al. (1972) : “The Limits to Growth”, Universe Books, New York. 8. Myers, N. (1989) : “Deforestation Rates in the Tropics and Their Climatic Implication”, Friends of the Earth, London
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9.

Rao, U. N., (1990) : “Space Technology and Forest management with Specific Relevance to Develping Nations in Space and Forest Management”, 4th IAF, Dresden, Germany, pp. 1-10. Saran, R. (2003) : “How we live”, India Today, July 23, pp.34-42. Singh, A. L. (2003) : “urban Water Supply and Occurrence of Diseases – A Case Study of Low-income Households of Aligarh City, In D. N.”, Singh et. al. (eds) Water Crists and Sustainable Management, Tara Book Agency, Varanasi, pp. 250-266. Singh, S. (2006) : “Environmental Geography”, Prayag Pustak Bhawan, Allahabad, pp. 518-541. Tripathi, P.S. (2007) : “Rallying Forces”, Frontline Nov. 16, pp. 24-26. VAldia, K. S. (1987) : “Environmental Geology- Indian Context”, Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp. 91-136. Varadan, M.S.S. (2002) : “Guarding the Green Blanket”, The Hindu Magazine, March 17. Varadan, M.S.S. (2002) : “Watershed Management – People Matter”, The Hindu Magazine, June 2. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) : “Our Common Future”, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

10. 11.

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RAIN WATER HARWESTING – A KEY TO ENRICH THE WATER SOURCES
Rajkumar M. Sanga1, Dr.Pradip B.Bramapurikar1, Dr.Smita Basole2, Shilpa Digraskar Department of Life Sciences, Balbhim Art‟s, Science & Commerce College, Beed.

ABSTRCT: Rainfall and soil water are fundamental parts of all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems which supplies goods and services for human well-being. Availability and quality of water determines ecosystem productivity, both for agricultural and natural systems. There is increasing demand on water resources for development whilst maintaining healthy ecosystems, which put water resources under pressure. Ecosystem services suffer when rain and soil water becomes scarce due to changes from wet to dry seasons, or during seasonal droughts. Climate change, demand for development and already deteriorating state of ecosystems add to these pressures so that future challenges to sustain our ecosystems are escalating. Keywords: Ecosystem, Rainfall, Soil, Watershed. INTRODUCTION: Rainwater harvesting locally collects and stores rainfall through different technologies, for future use to meet the demands of human consumption or human activities. The art of rainwater harvesting has been practiced since the first human settlements. It has been a key entry point in local water management ever since, buffering supplies of rainfall to service the human demand of freshwater. As it involves the alteration of natural landscape water flows, it requires water managers to carefully consider the tradeoffs; however, it can create multiple benefits, offering synergies between different demands and users at a specific location (Malesu et al., 2005: Agarwal et al., 2005). To many water managers, rainwater harvesting is a technique to collect drinking water from rooftops, or to collect irrigation water in rural water tanks. However, rainwater harvesting has much wider perspectives, in particular if it is considered in relation to its role in supporting ecosystem goods and services.

Farms are undisputedly the most important ecosystems for human welfare. Rain fed agriculture provides nearly 60% of global food value on 72% of harvested land. Rainfall variability is an inherent challenge for farming in tropical and sub-tropical agricultural systems. These areas also coincide with many rural smallholder (semi-) subsistence farming systems, with
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high incidence of poverty and limited opportunities to cope with ecosystem changes. Water for domestic supply and livestock is irregular through temporal water flows and lowering ground water in the landscape. The variable rainfall also results in poor crop water availability; reducing rain fed yields to 25- 50% of potential yields, often less than 1 tone cereal per hectare in South Asia and sub-Sahara Africa. The low agricultural productivity often offsets a negative spiral in landscape productivity, with degradation of ecosystem services through soil erosion, reduced vegetation cover, and species decline. All vegetation uses rainwater, whether they are managed such as crops or tree plantations, or if they are natural forests, grasslands and shrubs. Often the ecosystems services from natural vegetation are not fully appreciated for its livelihood support until it is severely degraded, or disappeared, through for example, deforestation. Natural and permanent crop cover has the same effect as many rainwater harvesting interventions. By retaining landscape water flows, increased rainfall infiltration increase growth of vegetation, and decrease soil erosion, surface runoff and incidence flooding. Managing water resources in the landscape is thus management of the permanent vegetation cover to enhance biomass production for fibres and energy, to harvest non-timber forest products and to enrich landscape biodiversity. Although forest and trees consumes rainfall, they also safe-guard and generate many ecosystem services for livelihoods and economic goods.

Rainwater harvesting for management of watershed, agro-eco and Forests ecosystems Watershed management is a strategy which responds to the challenges posed by a rainfed agro-ecosystem and human demands. Typically these challenges include water scarcity, rapid depletion of the ground water table and fragile ecosystems, land degradation due to soil erosion by wind and water, low rainwater use efficiency, high population pressure, acute fodder shortage and poor livestock productivity, mismanagement of water sources, and lack of assured and remunerative livelihood opportunities. Therefore, the watershed management approach seeks to ensure human well-being and progress toward sustainable development through improved ecosystem services including food, fresh water, fuel wood, and fiber. Rainwater harvesting in the context of a watershed means collecting runoff from within a watershed area, storing it, and employing it for different purposes. Runoff collection is generally distinguished as in situ management, when the water is collected within the area of harvesting, and ex situ when it is diverted outside of the harvesting area. The storage is of crucial importance: for in situ rainwater
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harvesting the soil acts as the storage, whereas for ex situ rainwater harvesting the reservoir can be natural or artificial, where natural generally means groundwater recharge, and artificial means surface/subsurface tanks and small dams.

Other effects relate to both social and ecological aspects of the watershed management interventions: • Changes in food consumption habits, particularly the consumption of more vegetables. Rainwater harvesting has the potential • To mobilize and involve communities in securing access to water issues, building an effective structure can be a start for a process of self-management in village communities (Aarwal, 2001) • Rainwater harvesting can help to establish a culture of natural conservation and human synergetic existence in the environment amongst different sectors of the society • Rainwater harvesting operates as an effective tool for addressing the problems of „ecological poverty‟, as without water the process of ecological poverty cannot be reversed • A decentralized water conservation and management system may help in ensuring local food security and substituting for external/centralized water supply mechanisms within a decentralized system that preserves local regulations • Decentralized water supplies using rainwater harvesting technologies can lessen reliance on upstream land managers by downstream water users, both in terms of water quantity and/or quality • Rainwater harvesting can serve to remediate impacts on environmental flows in natural rivers by contributing to sustainable flows during dry periods. • Land development It was considered fundamental for enhancing agricultural productivity to check the soil erosion and increase the infiltration of rainfall • Water resources development- With the intention of increasing the sub-surface and ground water flows and to ensure their continuity throughout the year by increasing the storage of surface water using rainwater harvesting structures, implemented water storage, percolation tanks and masonry check dams • Agriculture intensification and diversification – worked on promoting appropriate farming technologies to the farmers and allowing farmers to test and adopt suitable technologies to build further on the regenerated resources. Diversification of crops (for instance, from cereal crop to
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vegetables or dry land horticulture) was another important strategy for optimizing farm productivity • Build and promote people‟s institutions around the natural resource interventions, both in terms of water users‟ groups and watershed committees, as well as creating institutional mechanisms for the supply of agricultural credit.

CONCLUSION: Rainwater harvesting can be a vital intervention in the rehabilitation of ecosystem services for enhancing human well-being in the context of watershed management. Its appropriate application can influence changes in the well-being of both human-oriented and ecosystem services. The changes are triggered through synergies across sectors; for instance, through interactions between agricultural practices, rainwater recharge, soil conservation and food security needs. However, it is important to recognize that the approach of harvesting rainwater in watershed management, through major and minor schemes, has its own limitations, both in terms of appropriateness of the precise interventions, their techno-economic feasibility, and their practical method of implementation. Therefore, close monitoring of the impacts is required in environmental, economical, social and technical terms during all the phases of the project cycle as well as after the end of the project.

REFERANCES: 1. AQUASTAT. 2009. AQUATSTAT online. FAO, Rome,

http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/dbase/index. stm 2. Barron, J., Noel, S. et al. 2008. Agricultural water management in smallholder farming systems: the value of soft components in meso-scale interventions. SEI Project Report, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm. 3. Agarwal A.,and S. Narain . 2005. Dying wisdom: Rise, fall and potential of India‟s traditional water harvesting systems 4th edition. . Eds., State of Indias Environment, a citizens‟ report 4, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi. 4. AA.VV.2003. Water Harvesting and Management 2003, Practical guide series 6, Inter Cooperation and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, New Delhi

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5. Arya, S.L., Samra, J.S. 2001. Revisiting watershed management institutions in Haryana Shivaliks, India.Central soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Chandigarh, India. 6. Falkenmark, M., Fox, P., Persson, G., Rockstrom, J.2001.Water Harvesting for

Upgrading of Rainfed Agriculture: Problem Analysis and Research Needs. Stockholm International Water Institute, Stockholm,Sweden. 7. Bruijnzeel, L.A. 2004. Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees? Agric,Ecos & Env. 8. Gnadlinger J. 2008. Rainwater Harvesting Management for Climate Change Adaptation in the Rural Area of Semi Arid Brazil. Presentation at 3rd International Workshop Rainwater Harvesting and Management for Climate Change Adaptation, IWA International Water Association Congress in Vienna/Austria.

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Prominent Status of Water in Human life and in its Welfare - a Review
Sangeeta Sasane Department of English, Swa. Savarkar College Beed. Beed - 431122,( M. S.) E-mail – sangeetasasane@gmail.com Abstract Human life itself is impossible without water because it can be substituted by nothing else. Human beings have always consumed fresh water and used the various natural surface water bodies for a whole range of purposes. The status of water is very prominent in human life. A statement “Life is water is life” interprets all about it. Considering the importance of water in human life the statement is referred in UN Conference at Mar del Plata in 1977, that is “All people, whatever their stage of development and social and economic condition, have the right to have access to drinking water in quantities and of a quality equal to their basic needs.” This paper gives reviews the importance of water in human life and in its welfare. Also it studies the significance of water resources, its present and future status and demand.
Key words – Water, Human Life, Health, Water Resources

1. Introduction
It sounds so simple. H20 - two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. This substance also known as water, is one of the most essential elements to health and is so important that your body actually has a specific drought management system in place to prevent dehydration and ensure your survival. Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, we would die in a few days. The human brain is made up of 95% water; blood is 82% and lungs 90%. A mere 2% drop in our body's water supply can trigger signs of dehydration: fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on smaller print, such as a computer screen. Mild dehydration is also one of the most common causes of daytime fatigue. Freshwater constitutes 2.5% of the total water on the planet. Half of the freshwater reserves support 86% of the population. Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning.
   

Water serves as a lubricant Water forms the base for saliva Water forms the fluids that surround the joints. Water regulates the body temperature, as the cooling and heating is distributed through perspiration.

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Water helps to alleviate constipation by moving food through the intestinal tract and thereby eliminating waste. Water helps to regulate metabolism

In addition to the daily maintenance of our bodies, water also plays a key role in the prevention of disease. Drinking eight glasses of water daily can decrease the risk of colon cancer by 45%, bladder cancer by 50% and it can potentially even reduce the risk of breast cancer [1]. India receives abundant rains. The average annual precipitation is estimated to be 4000 billion m3. Only 1000 billion m3 /year is available as usable surface water and ground water. At present the water consumption in India is about750 billion m3 /year for all the applications, viz. agricultural, industrial, domestic and commercial. In addition, a large number of villages in various parts of the country are known to be suffering from excess salinity, fluoride, nitrate, iron, arsenic and microbial contaminations of ground water. These invariably lead to widespread water borne diseases and cause enormous hardships to the inhabitants. A holistic approach is therefore called for to cope with the fresh water needs of the country in the coming decades. These involve; i) Large water supply schemes to meet the urban as well as rural needs of water for both irrigation and drinking, and piped water supply schemes for drinking water; ii) Rain water harvesting and artificial recharge of ground water sources; iii) Treatment of chemically and biologically contaminated ground water sources in rural areas for provision of safe potable water; iv) Augmentation of water resources in coastal areas by large scale desalination of abundant sea water, and v) Treatment of domestic/industrial effluents and recycling of usable water for irrigation and commercial purposes thereby diverting the water used in these areas for domestic consumption [2]. 1.1 Definition of Freshwater Resources Water is the most widespread substance to be found in the natural environment. Water exists in three states: liquid, solid, and invisible vapour. It forms the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and the underground waters found in the top layers of the Earth's crust and soil cover. In a solid state, it exists as ice and snow cover in polar and alpine regions. A certain amount of water is contained in the air as water vapour, water droplets and ice crystals, as well as in the biosphere. Huge amounts of water are bound up in the composition of the different minerals of the Earth's crust and core. Fig 1 shows the status of earth‟s water distribution.

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97.5% of water amount are saline waters and only 2.5% is fresh water. The greater portion of this fresh water (68.7%) is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Antarctic, the Arctic, and in the mountainous regions. Next, 29.9% exists as fresh ground waters.

Fig 1 - Status of Earth‟s Water Distribution [3] Only 0.26% of the total amount of fresh waters on the earth are concentrated in lakes, reservoirs and river systems where they are most easily accessible for our economic needs and absolutely vital for water ecosystems [3].

2. Human Health and Water
Water has a profound influence on human health. At a very basic level, a minimum amount of water is required for consumption on a daily basis for survival and therefore access to some form of water is essential for life. However, water has much broader influences on health and wellbeing and issues such as the quantity and quality of the water supplied are important in determining the health of individuals and whole communities. The quality of water does, however, have a great influence on public health; in particular the Microbiological quality of water is important in preventing ill-health. Poor microbiological quality is likely to lead to outbreaks of infectious water-related diseases and may causes serious epidemics to occur. The influence of water on health goes far beyond this as water is a principal medium for disease prevention. W.H.O. recognises that access to adequate water supplies is a fundamental human right. Infant mortality rates can be significantly reduced with improved water supply it will also lead to reduced incidence of morbidity and mortality [4].

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The benefits of drinking water daily include the improvement of many health conditions. Such as: exhaustion, nutrient absorption, toxins removal, circulation, angina, heartburn, hypertension (blood pressure), immune diseases and many more. Other benefits of drinking water daily are related to the kidneys. Kidneys need water to filter out waste and toxins from the body. A lack of water would allow the kidneys to dump their work to the liver and what happens is that the liver will not perform as well by not metabolizing the fat as it should do. Increasing your water intake is not really a choice on the contrary. Finally, for those having weakened immune systems, water contaminants can have more harmful effects as well as to anyone. To make sure water contaminants stay out, let water filter do it for you. Take action now and press on the banners below to place your order and enjoy the benefits of drinking water daily with purified water. Choose the filter of your choice right below. Cardiovascular diseases are, as a group, the leading cause of death in western countries. Sudden death from cardiovascular disease accounts for over 300,000 deaths per year in the U.S. Because of the importance of cardiovascular disease, major efforts have been made to identify risk factors and to take steps to reduce these risks. The findings of a six-year study of more than 20,000 healthy men and women aged 38-100 in the May 1, 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology found that women who drank more than five glasses of water a day were 41% less likely to die from a heart attack during the study period than those who drank less than two glasses. The protective effect of water was even greater in men. There is an increasing body of evidence that drinking water hardness and elevated concentrations of certain minerals in hard water may reduce the risk of cardiac death and, in particular, the risk of sudden cardiac death. Recent interest has focused on deficits in dietary magnesium. In developed countries, these deficits are potentially compounded by use of medications, such as diuretics, that further reduce body stores of magnesium. To minimize heart disease risk, the ideal water should contain sufficient calcium and magnesium to be moderately hard. No effort should be made to eliminate trace elements such as copper and iron where these elements are in short, dietary supply. Elements such as cadmium and lead, which can accumulate in the body, should be minimized. There is also concern that increased use of calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis may alter the ratio of calcium to magnesium intake, further exacerbating the deficiency in magnesium intake [5].

3. Benefits of Drinking Water Daily
There are many benefits of drinking water daily because the human brain is made up of 95% water, blood is 82% and lungs 90%. People just don‟t realize the benefits of drinking water daily are for the human body. Here are some of the benefits of drinking water daily. For example, all the human cells and functions depend on water for their functioning. Water is the base for saliva, for the fluids surrounding the joints, for the regulation of the body temperature and blood circulation, for the digestion and absorption of food, for the moving of the food through the intestinal tract and the elimination of waste, and the regulation of our metabolism. Other benefits of drinking water daily also include the prevention of diseases: colon, bladder and breast cancer and other types of ailments and disorders that affect the systems of our bodies. And the good news is virtually free. You can drink over 4,000 glasses of tap water for the price of a six-pack of cola.
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3.1 How Much Water For a long time, water has been undervalued and we haven‟t been very educated about it. Water is so vital to our health that it is worth pointing out the benefits of drinking water daily. Few people know, for example, that the body can use up to 10-12 cups of water a day for breathing, digestion, elimination and perspiration. If you don‟t replenish it daily our body will become dehydrated and this situation can worsen many health conditions. In order to avoid this situation, let‟s see how much water is really enough in order to enjoy the benefits of drinking water daily. Experts have always said that eight glasses (8 ounces) per day is enough but I would say it can be more for athletes and for those living in warmer environments to compensate for the bigger loss of water they had through perspiration as well as the regulation of body temperature. So, I would say that the best rule would be to drink one cup of water for every 20 pounds of body weig ht. If you exercise or work in hot climates, it can be more. The color of your urine is a good indication. If it comes out pale yellow it‟s an indication that you drink enough water [6].

4. Water for Human Welfare
Use of water for human welfare may be broadly classified into three categories: agricultural, industrial and domestic. Water is used for many purposes, including growing crops, producing copper, generating electricity, watering lawns, keeping clean, drinking and recreation. Balancing the water budget comes down to increasing the supply and/or decreasing the demand. There are three major groups of water users: homes and businesses, agricultural interests, and industry (including mining). Agriculture has historically consumed the largest share of water of any sector in India. 4.1 Municipal Water Use Municipal water use is directly related to the quantity of water withdrawn by populations in cities, towns, housing estates, domestic and public service enterprises. The public supply also includes water for industry that provides directly for the needs of urban populations and this demand also consumes high quality water from the city water supply system. In many cities, a considerable quantity of water is used in market gardening and for watering vegetable gardens and domestic garden plots. The volume of public water use depends on the size of an urban population and the services and utilities provided, such as the extent of pipe networks for supply and sewerage, or centralized hot-water supply where available. Also, much depends on climate conditions. In many large cities, present water withdrawal amounts to 300-600 liters per day per person [7]. 4.2 Water in Industry Water in industry is used for cooling, transportation and washing, as a solvent, and also sometimes entering the composition of the finished product. Thermal and atomic power generation lead the list of major users. It requires a great amount of water to cool assemblies.
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In addition to thermal power, the other principal industrial water users are chemical and petroleum plants, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, the wood pulp and paper industry, and machinery manufacture. The extent of industrial water consumption is usually an insignificant fraction of actual intake. In thermal power generation it may be only about 0.5 to 3% but up to 30-40% for some specific industrial processes. In summary, total water consumption by thermal power engineering was assumed to be 1-4% and for other industries it was taken as 10-40% of water intake, depending on the development level, the availability of water supply systems and climatic conditions [8]. 4.3 Water for Agriculture Land irrigation has been practiced for millennia through the necessity to maximize food supply for humanity but the dramatic expansion in irrigated land has mainly taken place during the 20th century, with irrigation becoming the principal water use in many countries. Indeed, agriculture is now reckoned to be the largest consumer of water, accounting for some 80% of total water use. At present, agriculture receives 67% of total water withdrawal and accounts for 86% of consumption. The global irrigated area was 254 million ha in 1995. By 2010 it is expected to grow to about 290 million ha and by 2025 up to 330 million ha. [9].

5. Forecasting Global Water Use
There are several basic factors that determine the quantitative characteristics of water use in the world: the level of socio-economic development, population numbers, physiographic (including climatic) features, and the area of the territory served. Their combination determines the volume and structure of water use, its dynamics and development patterns for the future. In accordance with the UNIDO scenario, water demand is expected to increase 1.4-2.9 times for developed countries and by 3-10 times for developing countries. Agriculture is expected to increase demands by 1.3, industry by 1.5 and global public supply by 1.8 times. Additional evaporation from reservoirs contributes greatly to water losses; it is more than the total of industrial and potable supply put together [10]. Fig 2 shows the global availability of per capita water.

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Fig 2 - Global per capita water Availability (2025) [11]

6. Economic Value of Water
The economic value of water comes from the many uses to which water can be put in satisfying people‟s needs. Water can have a very high economic value because it is scarce and because it is capable of being applied to many different uses. As a consumer good in ordinary households, water is needed first to drink, then for cooking, then for toilets and bathing, then for cleaning things like clothes and dishes, next for washing cars and driveways, and finally, in dry regions, for landscape irrigation. In the summertime in dry regions, by far the largest use of water in households is for outdoor irrigation. The economic value of water is defined as the amount that a rational user of a publicly or Privately supplied water resource is willing to pay for it. Willingness to pay for water reflects the water user‟s willingness to forego other consumption and is measured by a demand schedule relating the quantity of water used at each of a series of different prices. For any potential quantity that could be supplied, demand is limited. So the economic value of an added unit of water supplied decreases as greater quantities are offered to water users. For example, people will only use water for irrigating their lawns or for low-valued crops if the price of water is suitably cheap. At a high water price, neither of these uses produces a high enough economic value to make it affordable [12].
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7. Conclusion and Discussion
Water should be given greater prominence in both research and teaching. We should always be alert to the central role that water plays in the rich diversity of biological processes. Global Freshwater reserves are rapidly depleting and this is expected to significantly impact many densely populated areas of the world. Low to middle income developing regions as well as highly developed countries will face water stress in the future, unless existing water reserves are managed effectively. By 2025, India, China and select countries in Europe and Africa will face water scarcity if adequate and sustainable water management initiatives are not implemented. Traditionally, India has been well endowed with large Freshwater reserves, but the increasing population and overexploitation of surface and groundwater over the past few decades has resulted in water scarcity in some regions. Increased urbanization is driving an increase in per capita water consumption in towns and cities. Urbanization is also driving a change in consumption patterns and increased demand for water intensive agricultural crops and industrial products. Water resource problems at regional and global scales fall within the sphere of activities of many international governmental and non-governmental organizations such as UNESCO, WMO, UNEP, FAO, IAHS, IWAR and others, all of whom have sponsored numerous scientific conferences and symposia to focus on these problems. Overall we have seen the importance of water in our daily life and its significance on our health. In concluding remarks one can easily understand the significance of water and its conservation. Even having such a great importance in human life water always get neglected due to lack of knowledge of its importance. Hopefully this paper will let people re-understands its prominent status in our life and will act on same.

References
1. Water health, Viewed 8th December 2011, <http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/watereducation/water-health.htm> 2. Water,-Viewed-8-December-2011, <http://www.dae.gov.in/publ/betrlife/water/water.pdf> 3. Definition of fresh water resources, Viewed 8 December 2011,

<http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/publications/waterway/webpc/definition.html> 4. Water and public health, WHO seminar pack for drinking-water quality
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5. Get

healthier

heart

with

water,

Viewed

8

December

2011,

<http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_health/health1/1-get-healthier-heart-with water.htm> 6. Benefits of drinking water daily, Viewed 8 December 2011, <http://www.jlslky.net/>

7. Municipal
8. Water in

Water

Use,

Viewed

8

December

2011,

<http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/publications/waterway/webpc/pag17.html> industries, Viewed 8 December 2011 ,

<http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/publications/waterway/webpc/pag18.html> 9. Water for agriculture, Viewed 9 December 2011 ,

<http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/publications/waterway/webpc/pag19.html> 10. Forecasting global water use,, Viewed 9 December 2011 ,

<http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/publications/waterway/webpc/pag22.html> 11. WaterThe India Story, Grail Research, (Viewed 9 December 2011,

<http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Water-The_India_Story.pdf> ) 12. Frank A. Ward and Ari Michelsen, 2002,‟ The economic value of water in agriculture: concepts and policy applications‟, Water Policy, issue-4, pg 423–446.

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A Study of Water literacy Awareness programme among the Trainee teachers of SNDT Women college of Education Prashant Pagare, Chetna P. Sonkamble Department of Education, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S) Pbpagare@rediffmail.com, Kadambari6@rediffmail.com Abstract Environmental Education is the teaching about the Natural and built environment which provide a real world contest for learning by linking the classroom to the student community ,Students are engaged in activities learning that increase that knowledge and awareness about environment because Literacy leads to education and results in empowerment with the acquisition of the essential knowledge and skills, which enable one to engage in activities required for effective functioning of the individual in his group and community and use these skills towards his own and his community development and ultimately aims at developing a world population that is aware of an concern about the total environment and its associated problem. The Present study was an attempt to make a study of Water literacy awareness among SNDT Women B. Ed College. A sample of 100 women teacher trainees was selected by making use of purposive sampling technique. They were tested by pre-test and feed-back form .The result show that the main emphasis of the study was to find out the water literacy awareness among the women teacher trainees and it was found after statistical analysis that there is no significant difference between pre-test and post-test of the literacy programme helped teacher trainees to enrich their knowledge ,positive attitude towards awareness about water literacy Environmental Education is the teaching about the Natural and built environment which provide a real world contest for learning by linking the classroom to the student community ,Students are engaged in activities learning that increase that knowledge and awareness about environment because environment education encourages enquiry and Investigation ,student develop critical thinking ,problem solving ,and effective decision making skills. Environmental Education is a process aimed at developing a world population that is aware of an concern about the total environment and its associated problem. Environmental Education should be an integral part of the Educational process, aim at practical problem of Interdisciplinary character, built a sense of values and contribute to public well-being (1975-Belgrade) . Development of Literacy is not the simple reading of words or a set of associated symbols and sounds, but an act of critical understanding of the situation in the world. Literacy is not an end in itself but a means of extending individual efforts towards education, involving overall interdisciplinary responses to his problems. Literacy leads to education and results in empowerment with the acquisition of the
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essential knowledge and skills, which enable one to engage in activities required for effective functioning of the individual in his group and community and use these skills towards his own and his community development. Literacy is the ability to read and write and use numeracy skills. There is no clear agreement on the skill level to be acquired before we can term a person „literate‟ but we generally assume a learner to be literate when he/she has sufficient reading, writing and numeracy skills to continue to learn alone without the continuing guidance of a teacher. Water Literacy means knowing where your water comes from and how you use it ,It‟s a simple concept but information about how all your water is supplied can be very complex. First, bringing water to you is not just delivering flow to the tap and toilet. Every item in your house required water to be created, so you are surrounded by their embedded water cost. Food, clothes, furniture and electronics – everything costs water to produce. Education however, the relationship between education and development is not as simple as it appears to be. In fact, the impact of education on development depends basically on what we teach and how much the learners learn. In simple words, it is the education contents and the teaching methods that make the difference. Equally important is the interaction of education with other social and economic factors. You may argue that education can only be useful and meaningful when it brings about positive changes in one‟s life and empowers a person to face day-to-day challenges. This study mainly emphasizes on water literacy awareness programme among the SNDT women B. Ed college . The main objectives of study as follows: Objectives of Study: 1) To study the awareness about water literacy among the teacher trainees of SNDT Women B. Ed college 2) 3) To prepare water literacy programme for SNDT Women B.Ed college To study the impact of Water literacy programme

Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between Pre-Test score of the teacher trainees Significance: The purpose of the study belongs to the Experimental method as it measures the awareness programme. The sample was drawn from SNDT Women Teacher trainees were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Tool used : In this study questionnaire ,feed-back form, questionnaire used for pre-test and posttest ,a questionnaire containing relevant questions was prepared and got valid and relevant question the suggestions were incorporated and irrelevant items were withdrawn from the questionnaire, the questionnaire were admitted to the sample. Procedure of the study:
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Step-I Water literacy content development a. b. c. Difference between literate and illiterate Water literacy education Awareness about water literacy

Step-II Complete water literacy programme was developed a. b. Concept of water literacy Role of women in developing water literacy

House-hold chores: Cooking ,Cleaning, Washing ,Child Care, Child bearing ,Food production, Sanitation needs ,Education c. d. Relationship between water literacy and development Group –work strategies

Step-III Programme Organisation Strategies a. b. c. d. e. Dicussion Brain Storming Group work Sharing Experiences Question-Answer Sessions

Step-IV – Administered Process a. In this test provision was made to check the knowledge ,application and awareness about water literacy Step-V – The programme task used to develop awareness about water literacy Step –VI –Post-test and feed-back was administered to find out the impact of the awareness programme Data collection:

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The data was collected from Teacher trainees using Questionnaire at the end of water literacy programme the data was gathered through pre-test and feed-back form. Statistical Analysis: The collected data were computed analyzed. The statistical measure like percentage, mean, S. D. and t-test were computed .There is no significant difference between pre-post test scores of Teacher trainees. The difference between the pre-test and post –test was found. In the pre-test the maximum individual score was 12/30.In the post-test the highest individual score was 28/30

Table :-Pre-test and Post –Test score on Teacher Training Score Pre-test Post-test Nos. 100 100 Mean 15.67 18.37 SD 7.35 7.98 &Value 4.58 Significant at 0.01 level Significant

This table indicates significant difference between Pre-test and Post-test score of the Teacher trainees the „t‟ value is 4.58 and it is significant hence the Hypothesis is rejected .The increase in the score is not incidental but it is due to the water literacy programme conducted for the Teacher trainees and from the analysis of the feed-back form. The teacher trainees appreciated water literacy programme. It is very useful to know and to execute the Concept, Methods and awareness 100%.Teacher trainees understood the cry for the water literacy awareness with the help of the programme. Conclusions: The water literacy programme helped the SNDT Women teacher trainees to enrich their knowledge, attitude regarding water literacy awareness. The Teacher trainees interact and participated in Discussion and open-forums to explain proper water literacy through its management, concept and process and positive attitude towards the water literacy. Educational Implications: This Study contributes a new Teaching learning in the form of assessing the level of Knowledge and attitude towards water literacy awareness in the classroom instruction

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This Study is very much essential for the development of learners knowledge, attitude ,motivation towards the water literacy awareness More Information should be made available to educate learners about water literacy

Varied programmes of water literacy awareness should be organized in schools, colleges and various institutes. References: Agarwal, Anil (1999), Making Water Management Everybody's Business: Water Harvesting and Rural Development in India Alina Ratto Salazar (1985), "Women's Role in Water "in Pilipino . P. Kabalikat (ed), Women's Issues in Water and Sanitation. Attempts to address an Age-old Challenge. IDRC,Canada. Athukorale, K (1996), The need for Gender Analysis in Strategic Planning for Effective Water Management in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Water Management. Bruce, M and D. Shrubsole, (1994). Canadian Water Management: Visions for Sustainability. Cambridge, ON: Canadian Water Resources Association Fernando Vijita (1996), Energy, and Environment Technology Source books: Water Supply. International Technology Publications Ltd, in association with the UNIFEM and IRC, London. Green Cathy et al (1994), Water Resources Management: A Macro Level Analysis from a Gender Perspective Government of Uganda (1998), Vision 2025: A strategic Framework for National Development, MFPED, Kampala Government of Uganda, (2000), Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture: Eradicating Poverty in Uganda, MAAIF and MFPED, Kampala. Koppen. V. Barbara et al (1996), Women and Water Pumps in Bangladesh; International Technology Publications Ltd, London. Olfat El-sebaire (1985), "Role of Women in Having Safe Water and Promoting Sanitation
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in Pilipino . P. Kabalikat (ed), Women's Issues in Water and Sanitation. Attempts to address an Age-old Challenge. IDRC,Canada. Rachel, E., E. Rathgeber, and D. Brooks (1996), Water Management in Africa and Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities. Ottawa, ON: International Development Research Centre Rosegrant M.W. (1997). Water Resources in the Twenty-first Century: Challenges and Implications for Action. Food, Agriculture and the environment Discussion Paper no.2 Schiller, E.J, (1992), Sustainable Water Resources Management in Arid Countries: Middle East and North Africa. Canadian Journal of Development Studies Special Issue. Segreldin, I, (1995), Towards Sustainable Management of Water Resources. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Shrubsole, D. and M. Bruce (eds) (1997). Practising Sustainable Water Management: Soedjarwo Christine (1985), Women and Water and Sanitation: The Diana Desa Experience in Indonesia, " in Pilipino . P. Kabalikat (ed), Women's Issues in Water and Sanitation. Venkateswaran, S. (1995), Environment, Development and the Gender Gap. New Delhi : Sage Publishers Abu-Zeid, M.A. (1998). Water and sustainable development: the vision for world water, life and the environment. Wat. Pol. Biswas, A.K. (1981). Integrated water management: Some international dimensions. J. Hydrol Born, S.M. and Sonzogni, W.C. (1995). Integrated environmental management: strengthening the conceptualization. Env. Man. Cortner, H. and Moote, M. (1994). Trends and issues in land and water resources: Setting the agenda for change. Env. Man. Creighton, S.C. (1999). Learning to plan for integrated water resources management in British Columbia. Durham, B., Rinck-Pfeiffer, S. and Guendert, D. (2002). Integrated Water Resource Management through reuse and aquifer recharge. Desal Geldof, G.D. (1995). Adaptive water management: integrated water management on the edge of chaos. Wat.Sci. Tech.
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GWP-TAC (Global Water Partnership – Technical Advisory Committee) (2000). Integrated Water Resources Management. TAC Background Papers No. 4, GWP, Stockholm, Sweden. Hatcher, K. (1981). A system‟s view of integrated water resources management. In Symposium Proceedings: ICWE (1992). The Dublin statement and report of the conference. International Conference on Water and the Environment Singh, Mahip (2008) Environmental Education Delhi: DPS Publishing House (CEE)Centre for Environmental Education status report (2007) Environmental Education in the Indian School System New Delhi. (CEE)Centre for Environmental Education status report (2007) Environmental Education A resource book for teacher Educator Level 2 New Delhi. (CEE)Centre for Environmental Education status report (2007) Environmental Education A resource book for teacher Educator Level 3New Delhi. Sundar , Teaching and Learning Methods in Environmental Education(2010),Sarup Book Publishers PVT. LTD, Delhi. Dr. V.B Singh, Environmental Education Merut Publication ,U. P. Bhandarkar, K.M.(2006) Environmental Education.Pune:Nutan publication Yakio,H.,Singh,R.B.,Kanda,F., Hinson,J.(2010) Glocal Environmental Education Jaipur:rawat publications Webliography: 1. www.greenlivingtips.com 2. www.environmental-expert.com 3. www.ricoh.com 4. www.ezinearticles.com 5. www.24dunia.com(Hindi articles)

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HEALTH IMPACTS OF WATER POLLUTION
Dr.Savita Sukte, Dr. Ravi Sawant*, Dr.Uttam Salve** Dept. of Botany, Balbhim College, Beed. (M.S.), *Dept. of Botany, Mukttanand College, Gangapur. (M.S.) **Dept. of Botany, Saw.Sawvarkar Mahavidayalya, Beed. (M.S.)

Introduction: When Neil Armstrong saw the Earth from the Moon, it appeared Blue ! This is because water covers more than two- thired of the Earth‟s surface, But fresh water represents less than 0.5% of the total water on Earth. The rest is either in the form of sea water or locked up in ice caps or the soil. It is well known fact that clean water is absolutely essential for healthy clan living. Adequate supply of fresh water and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human in the Earth. Yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this. Theme : Fresh water resources all over the world are threanted not only by over exploitation and poor management but also be ecological degradation. The main source of freshwater pollution are discharge of untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent, and run-off from agriculture fields, industrial growth, urbanization and increasing use of synthetic organic substances have serious and adverse impacts on freshwater bodies. Now developing countries not only suffer from chemical discharge into water sources, mainly groundwater but also suffer from problems of agricultural run-off in water sources. Polluted water by chemicals causes health problems and causes diseases.

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Forms of Fresh Water: Water is found in three different forms - Liquid, Solid, Gases, depending on the temperature it constantly changes from one form to another. Liquid: water is usually encountered in the liquid state, because this is it‟s natural state when temperature are between 0oC to 100oC. „Fresh‟ or drinking water is found as ground water in underground aquifers and on the surface in ponds, lakes and rivers, seas and oceans account for 97% of all water on Earth‟s but their water contains dissolved salts which is unfit for drinking purposes. Ground water and its contamination: Ground water and surface water are now contaminated with heavy metals, POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), and nutrients which cause health problems. Water-borne diseases and problems are mainly due to improper management of water resources and of water. There has to be fair and equal distribution of water to all segments of society. Urban areas generally have a higher coverage of safe water than rural areas. In urban areas water gets contaminated in many different ways. Some of the most common reasons being leaky water pipe joints in areas where the water pipe and sweage line pass close together. Ground water can be contaminated by various sources like Pesticides : Run off from farms, backyards and golf courses contain pesticides such as DDT than that contaminate water. Leech ate from land fill sites is another major contaminating source. Its effects on the ecosystem and health ate endocrine and reproductive damage in wildlife. Sewage: Untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage is a major source of groundwater and surface water pollution. The organic material discharged with municipal waste in to water courses uses substantial oxygen for biological degradation and upsetting the ecological balance of rivers and lakes. Nutrients: Domestic waste water, agricultural run-off, manure from live stock operations, which increase the level of nutrients in water bodies and can cause eutrophication in lakes and rivers and continue on to the coastal areas can have serious health problems.

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Floride: Which is essential for protection against dental caries and weakening of the bones? Higher levels can have adverse effects on health. Arsenic: High concentration of this element was found in drinking water in six district of WBengal. A majority people in the area were found suffering from arsenic skin lesions. Lead, Petrochemical, heavy metals, chlorinate solvents, metal, plastic, effluents, fabric cleaning, electronic and aircraft are often discharged and contaminate groundwater. The nitrate comes mainly from the fertilizer added to the fields. Excessive use of fertilizers cause nitrate contamination of groundwater. Synthetic Organics: Many of the 100000 synthetic compounds in use are found in the aquatic environment and accumulate in the food chain. POPs (Persistent Organics Pollutants) are most harmful element for ecosystem and for human health. For example industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides. These chemical can accumulate in fish and cause serious damage to human health. Where pesticide is used on a large scale, ground water gets contaminated and leads to the chemical contamination of drinking water. Acidification: Acidification of surface water, mainly lakes and reservoirs, is one of the major environmental impacts of transport over long distance of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide from lower plants, steel plants, motor vehicles. Chemicals in drinking water: Chemicals in drinking water can be both naturally occuring or introduced by human influences. Water borne diseases: Water is chief medium for spread of these diseases and hence known as water borne diseases.

Cause 1) Bacterial Infection Typhoid,

Water borne diseases Cholera, Paratyphoid fever,

Bacillary dysentery.

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2) Viral Infection

Infectious hepatitis (jaundice) poliomyelitis

3) Protozonal Infections

Amoebic dysentery

Chemical Causing diseases:

Chemicals 1) Pesticides

Diseases Affects central nervous system

2) Fluoride

Yellowing of the teeth and damage to the spinal cord and other crippling diseases

3) Nitrates

Causes – Blue baby syndrome to infants

4) Petrochemicals

Cancer

5) Chlorinated Solvents

Reproduction disorders and cancers

6) Heavy Metals

Cause damage to the nervous system and kidney and other metabolic disruptions

7) Salts

It makes fresh water unusable and drinking water.

Preventive / Control Measures:
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Water borne epidemic and health hazards in the aquatic environment are mainly due to improper management of water resources. Proper management of water resources has become the need of the hour as this would ultimately lead to a cleaner and healthier environment. In order to prevent the spread of water borne diseases, people should take adequate precautions. The city water supply should be properly checked. Water pipe should be regularly checked for leaks and cracks. At home, the water should be boiled, filtered or other method and necessary steps. Taken to ensure that it is free from infection References : Plant Physiology Env. Biology Env. Study Environmental Science Env. Education Env.Education S.N. Pandey, B.K.Sinha P.S. Verma, V.K. Agarwal Prof. Suhas Peshve, Dr.Kulkarni, Prof. Dikshit C.B. Pawar, A.M.Dhere, D.A.Patil Dr.Prakash Sawant

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Water quality analysis for roof top water harvesting S. D. Vikhe* M. R. More** H.W. Awari***
*Department of Farm Structure, CAET, MKV, Parbhani-431 402 **Department of Soil and Water Conservation, CAET, MKV, Parbhani-431 402 ***Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering , CAET, MKV, Parbhani-431 402

Abstract:
In India, the water availability per capita is declining. The per capita availability of water at the national level is reduced from about 5,177 m3 in the year 1951 to the present level of 1,869 m3. The prominent reasons behind are the increasing demand for water due to the increasing population and extensive use of water by agricultural sector, which continues to be the single largest consumer of water.

Collected water samples from Rahati Village were tested for physical, chemical and bacteriological properties. Physical properties of ain water such as colour, odour and turbidity etc are found within permissible limit. Chemical properties of rain water such as pH , iron, fluoride , etc are found within permissible limit. But for bacteriological properties water is unsafe for drinking purpose because sample shows presence of coliform bacteria, but after treatment such as chlorination water was found suitable for drinking purpose. For family member of 10 person and water demand 20 liter per day, cost per liter for RWH scheme worked to be Rs.0.85 for first year. Key words: Roof water harvesting, water quality,

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INTRODUCTION:
Water is the most common or major substance on the earth, covering more than 70% of its surface. Out of the total volume of water available on the surface of the earth, only 2 percent (over 28,000,000 km3) is fresh water. The fresh water is used for the purpose of human use, industries and agriculture. The human civilization, entirely depend upon rivers, lakes and ground water to fulfill their water demands. However rain is the ultimate source that feeds all these sources. The implication of rainwater harvesting is to make optimum use of rainwater at the place where it falls i.e. to conserve it without allowing it to drain away. Rainwater harvesting is an ancient technique enjoying a revival in popularity due to the inherent quality of rainwater. Rainwater is valued for its purity and softness. It has a nearly neutral pH, and is free from impurities such as salts, minerals, and other natural and man-made contaminants. Archeological evidence attests to the capture of rainwater as far back as 4,000 years ago. The concept of rainwater harvesting in China is as old as 6,000 years. Ruins of cisterns built as early as 2000 B.C. for storing runoff from hillsides for agricultural and domestic purposes are still standing in Israel. Due to over population and higher usage levels of water in urban areas, water supply agencies are unable to cope up demand from available surface sources especially during summer seasons. This has led to digging of individual tube wells by house owners. Even water supply agencies have resorted to ground water sources by digging tube-wells in order to augment the water supply. Rooftop rainwater harvesting for household purpose only represent a small part of the total water balances. In areas with significant variations in the annual rainfall pattern, the matching of water supply and water demand may be difficult. However, in terms of economic and human welfare it has a crucial role to play. Rainwater in many cases is the easiest to access, most reliable, and least polluted source. It can be collected and controlled by the individual household or community as it is not open to abuse by other users. Therefore, the study on ‘Rooftop rain water harvesting in village Rahati Marathwada region’ was undertaken with objectives to study water quality and estimation of RWH system.

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MATERIAL AND METHODS
Survey regarding rooftop rain water harvesting structures in various village Rahati was carried out. In domestic Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Systems rainwater from the house roof is collected in a storage vessel or tank for use during the periods of scarcity. Usually these systems are designed to support the drinking and cooking needs of the family at the doorstep. Such a system usually comprises a roof, a storage tank and guttering to transport the water from the roof to the storage tank. In addition, a first flush system to divert the dirty water which contains roof debris collected on the roof during nonrainy periods and a filter unit to remove debris and contaminants before water enters the storage tank are also provided. . Odour is recognized as a quality factor affecting acceptability of drinking water and food prepared from it, tainting of fish and other aquatic organisms and aesthetics of recreational waters. Most organic and some inorganic chemicals contribute taste or odour. These chemicals may originate from municipal and industrial waste discharges, natural sources, such as decomposition of vegetable matter or from associated microbial activity. The turbidity in water is the reduction of transparency due to the presence of particulate matter such as clay or silt, finely divided organic matter, plankton or other microscopic organisms. These cause light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the sample. The colloidal material exerts turbidity provides adsorption sites for chemicals that may be harmful or cause undesirable tastes and odors. Desinfection of turbid water is difficult because of the adsorptive characteristics of some colloids and because the solids may partly shield organisms from desinfectant. In natural water bodies, turbidity may impart a brown or other colour to water and may interfere with light penetration and photosynthetic reaction in streams and lakes. The pH value is the logarithm of reciprocal of hydrogen ion activity in moles per liter. In water solution, variations in pH value from 7 are mainly due to hydrolysis of salts of strong bases and weak acids or vice versa. Dissolved gases such as carbon di oxide, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia also affect the pH of water. The overall pH range of natural water is generally between 6 and 8. Hardness of water is caused by the presence of multivalent metallic cations and is largely due to calcium, Ca++, and magnesium, Mg++ ions. Hardness is reported in terms of CaCO3. Hardness is the measure of capacity of water to react with soap, hard water requiring considerably www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 177

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more soap to produce a lather. It is not caused by single substance but by a variety of dissolved polyvalent metallic ions, predominantly calcium and magnesium cations. The low and high value of Hardness has advantages and disadvantages. Absolutely soft water are tasteless. On the other hand, hardness upto 600 mg/L can be relished if got acclimatized to. Moderately hard water is preferred to soft water for irrigation purposes. Absolutely soft water are corrosive and dissolve the metals. More cases of cardiovascular diseases are reported in soft water areas. Hard water is useful to growth of children due to presence of calcium. Chloride is one of the major inorganic anion in water. In potable water, the salty taste is produced by the chloride concentrations is variable and dependent on the chemical composition. There is no known evidence that chlorides constitute any human health hazard. For this reason, chlorides are generally limited to 250 mg/l in supplies intended for public use. In many areas of the world where water supplies are scarce, sources containing as much as 2000 mg/l are used for domestic purposes without the development of adverse effect, once the human system becomes adapted to the water. High chloride content may harm metallic pipes and structures as well as growing plants Colour in water may be due to the inorganic ions, such as iron and manganese, humus and peat materials, plankton, weeds and industrial wastes. The term colour is used to mean the true colour of water from which turbidity has been removed. The term apparent colour includes not only the colour due to substances in solution but also that due to suspended matter. Apparent colour is determined on the original sample without filtration or centrifugation. Total dissolved solids is the term applied to the residue remaining in a weighed dish after the sample has been passed through a standard fibre glass filter and dried to constant mass at 103 – 105o C or 179 – 181o C. Many dissolved substances are undesirable in water. Dissolved minerals, gases and organic constituents may produce aesthetically displeasing colour, taste and odor. Some dissolved organic chemicals may deplete the dissolved oxygen in the receiving waters and some may be inert to biological oxidation, yet others have been identified as carcinogens. Water with higher solids content often has a laxative and sometimes the reverse effect upon people whose bodies are not adjusted to them. High concentration of dissolved solids about 3000 mg/l may also produce distress in livestock. The major physiological effects resulting from the ingestion of large quantities of sulfate are catharsis, dehydration, and gastrointestinal irritation. Water containing magnesium sulfate at levels above 600 mg/l acts as a purgative in humans. The presence of sulfate in drinking water can also result

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in a noticeable taste, the lowest taste threshold concentration for sulfate is approximately 250 mg/l, as the sodium salt. Sulfate may also contribute to the corrosion of distribution systems. Nitrates generally occur in trace quantities in surface waters but may attain high levels in some ground waters. Nitrite in water is either due to oxidation of ammonium compounds or due to reduction of nitrate. It can be toxic to certain aquatic organisms even at concentration of 1 mg/l. In excessive limits, it contributes to the illness known as methenoglobinemia in infants. Alkalinity of water is its quantitative capacity to react with a strong acid to a designated pH. Highly alkaline waters are usually unpalatable. Excess alkalinity in water is harmful for irrigation which leads to soil damage and reduce crop yields. Alkalinity is significant in many uses and treatments of natural and wastewaters. Alkalinity measurements are used in the interpretation and control of water treatment processes. Commonly used standard parameter in bacteriological testing of water is to detect and enumerate the indicator organism i.e. the coliform group of bacteria which is a common group of gram negative bacteria. The principal species in this group are Escherichia coli and enterobacter. "Total Coliform" level is the criterion of sanitary quality of water for a number of reasons. First, many are native to the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals and man and enter water with faecal discharge. While relatively harmless, themselves, coliform organisms are found in the company of such enteric pathogens as those responsible for typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. Coliform is a useful indicator because they normally survive longer than their disease producing fellow travelers. Thus, once they have died off, the danger is normally past. Faecal Coliforms are positive indication of presence of harmful bacteria. It has become the custom to report the results of the coliform test as a Most Probable Number (MPN) index which denotes the number of coliform bacteria in water sample. To test bacteriological quality of drinking water needs a well equipped laboratory and services of expert microbiologist. Standard Coliforrn or Faecal coliform test takes longtime and also expensive. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 Physical properties of water sample Sr. No. 1 2 3 Physical appearance Odor Turbidity (as NTU) Tests Result Colourless , Clean Oderless 1.74NT 179

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LANGUAGES. VOLUME-I, ISSUE-I. In physical testing water sample to be clean, odorless and turbidity found to be 1.74 which is

within permissible limit specified by IS: 10500-1991.( Table 1)

Table 2 Quality of water improved after chemical treatment

DRINKING WATER SL. NO. PARAMETE RS Colour Odour Turbidity pH value Total hardness (as CaCO3) Iron Chlorides Dissolved Solids Nitrate Fluoride Alkalinity UNITS IS: 10500 - 1991 DESIRABLE 1. 2. 3. 5. Hazen units NTU 5 Unobjectionable 5 6.5 to 8.5 MAXIMUM 25 10 No relaxation 600 1.0 1000 1000 No relaxation 1.5 600

TEST RESULTS

Colourless Oderless 1.74 8.34 40.00

6. 7. 8. 10. 15. 16. 31.

mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l

300 0.3 250 500 50 1.0 200

0.03 37.00 94.00 Nil 0.1 34.00

From the table 2 the pH of the sample water 8.34,Chloride is found to be37.00, Nitrates (as NO3) is 17.72 , the total hardness of the water is 14.00, total solid in that water is 94.00, Iron is found to be 0.03 , Alkalinity is found to be 34.00 and the Fluoride (as F) 0.1. Thus, values obtained are within permissible limit specified by IS Code 10500-1991 Table 3: Bacteriological test of water Sample collected on date – 16.11.2009 www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; Date of testing – 21.12.2009 180

October 1, 2012 ISSN-2319-7579 Sr. no.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LANGUAGES. VOLUME-I, ISSUE-I. Particulars Taste result bacterial count/100ml sample Coliform Thermo tolerant Remark

1

Roof top rain water collected without chlorine treatment (on 21.12.2009)

more than 16

0

Unsafe for drinking purpose

Roof top rain water collected with chlorine treatment 2 (on 25.11.2010)

Safe for drinking purpose

0

0

From the table 3 it was observed that coliform bacterial count in without chlorine treatment sample more than 16 and it was unsafe for drinking purpose and with chlorine treated sample it was zero. Also it was found that thermo torralent bacterial were absent in both sample, hence the sample which was treated with chlorine was safe for drinking purpose.

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Table 4 Model calculation for determination of Water demand & Water availability Sr. No. Component Description Units

a) Water Demand 1 2 3 4 5 Total Roof area Total family members Period of Water Scarcity Per capita water demand Size of Storage Tank 107 10 180 20 Litres Sq.mt Nos

Total family members x Period of Water Scarcity Litres x Per capita water demand 10x 180 x 20 = 36000 Litres

b) Water Available – RCC roof 1 Coefficient of roof G.I Sheet Asbestos Tiled roof Concrete 2 3 Annual rainfall Roof area Water Available from roof 0.90 0.80 0.75 0.70 677 107 Coefficient of roof x Annual rainfall x Roof area 0.70 x 677x 107 = 50707 mm Sq.mt Litres Litres

Cost Estimation This involves the consideration of cost of materials and its conveyance and labor. Table 5 shows the details of cost estimation made for 36000 lit capacity of storage tank.

Table 5 Model calculation for Cost Estimation of 36000 lits capacity Sr. No. Component Nos Unit cost Total Amount 182

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LANGUAGES. VOLUME-I, ISSUE-I. Rs. Rs. 10000.00 7395.00 2600.00 1500.00 3000.00 2200.00 555.00 27250.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Bricks Cement bags Sand Morter Labour cost Metal Metal plate opener Total A

4000 29 2 tractor 1 tractor 100 kg. 1

2.50 255.00 1300.00 1500.00 3000.00 2200.00 555.00

Total cost estimation for RWH 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pipe Elbows T PVC solution Clamps(half round) Reducer(2”-3”) Soak pit Filter unit Total B Grand total (A + B) Unit cost/liter CONCLUSIONS 4 18 3 3 5 2 1 1 280.00 35.00 40.00 50.00 10.00 40.00 400.00 800.00 1120.00 630.00 120.00 150.00 50.00 80.00 400.00 800.00 3350.00 30600.00 Rs. 0.85

1) Physical properties of rain water such as colour, odour and turbidity etc are found within permissible limit. 2) chemical properties of rain water such as turbidity, pH ,iron, fluoride , etc are found within permissible limit 3) Before treatment water is unsafe for drinking purpose because sample shows presence of coliform bacteria , but after chlorination water found suitable for drinking purpose 4) For family member of 10 person and water demand 20 liter per day, unit cost per liter is worked at Rs.0.85 for first year.

Literature cited:(References):
Babu, R. A. 2010. Roof top rain water harvesting system in Deccan plateu region , Andhra Pradesh, India. AFPRO, 2010.
Sharma, S.K. 2007. Roof top rain water harvesting technique in Urban area- A case study of India, GRI, Deharadun. www.ijcrsssl.org; www.modernit.org.in; 183

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