David Glover & Cora Kaplan


READING Public To an audience Reading out loud Private By him/her self Silent .

confined to some elite Reading out loud 17th .18th Reading in private Literacy era Reading as gendered activity The absence of social support for woman writer 19th .READING 15th – 16th Reading as an exceptional accomplishment.

3. Characteristics of public sphere: Participants are equal Open to anyone Debate as exercise to one‟s reason . 2. The emergence of a new zone free and open discussion in the late of 17th century.PUBLIC SPHERE   1. so to speak “public sphere”.

PUBLIC SPHERE   But. a device that vastly extended the operations of the public sphere accross time and space . typically men. the 18th century public sphere was confined to relatively small minority of privileged people. Men also wrote reader‟s letter. in practice.

. However discussion might take place at home. or at the grandest level. salons or receptions devoted to literature and the arts which organized by wealthy and influential women.PUBLIC SPHERE    What of women readers? Some key institutions like the coffee house were closed to women.

Male writing display ideas capable of having an impact upon the mind. feminine writing indicated fatal weakness.LITERARY PUBLIC SPHERE    19th century was a key phase in the development of the literary public sphere. while women novels were associated with ordinary feelings and trivia of . Manly writing denoted good writing.

Reading regards as an act that occurs within a community of readers using the same interpretive strategies .INTERPRETIVE COMMUNITIES   Janice Radway‟s Reading the Romance (1984) shifts the focus away from the formal properties of literary narratives and on to the meanings that women readers „find‟ there.


their appetites and desire.S P E C T AT E U R . . S P E C TAT R I C E   Film and television occupy the space that once belonged to the literary public sphere. a setting that allows women to reveal their troubling otherness. It provided access to a new experience. Cinema appears as a potential site of transgression.

S P E C TAT R I C E Staiger Marxism: dominant & marginal reading Mulvey Male gaze: woman is to be looked at Neale Masculinity: man is to be tested not displayed Penley Fandom: interpreting and reconfiguring pop narrative .S P E C T AT E U R .