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Overview

BC Public Service
Core Competency Development Resource Guide

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

Overview

Table of Contents
OVERVIEW..................................................................................................4 BC PUBLIC SERVICE COMPETENCY MODELS.....................................8 CORE COMPETENCIES AND DICTIONARY LIST ..................................9 RESULTS ORIENTATION........................................................................14
Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................16 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................16 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................17 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................17 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................18 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................18 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................20 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................20 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................22 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................22 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................23 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................23 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................24 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................24 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................25 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................26

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

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Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................26 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................27 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................27 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................32

SERVICE ORIENTATION.........................................................................36
Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................37 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................37 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................38 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................38 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................38 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................40 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................40 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................41 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................41 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................41 Reflection Tips:...............................................................................................................................42 Reflection Tips:...............................................................................................................................45

TEAMWORK AND CO-OPERATION.......................................................52


Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................56 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................56 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................57 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................58 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................59 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................59 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................61 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................61 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................61

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

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Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................62 Reflection Tip:................................................................................................................................62

These materials have been created solely for the internal use of the BC Public Service and cannot be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the expressed written consent of Hay Group Limited. Hay Group Limited, 2002

Overview
What is Competency Development The Core Competency Development Resource Guide has been designed to help support your personal development. It contains development activities for the three BC Public Service Core Competencies: Results Focus Service Orientation Teamwork and Cooperation

The competency development activities can be applied to a wide range of jobs across different branches/ministries. The activities are organized according to the levels in each competency scale, starting with the more junior level activities, followed by mid-range levels, and finally higher levels for a given competency. This guide will help you generate ideas and provide direction as you create and implement a personal learning plan for the competencies you have chosen as your focus.

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

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There is also a comprehensive Competency Resource Development Guide that includes all competencies in the BC Public Service Competency Dictionary and is available at: http://gww.bcpublicservice.gov.bc.ca/competencies/index.htm

How do you use this guide

This guide provides suggestions for on and off the job and self-directed activities for developing competencies. You will develop new behaviours through: Planned on-the-job and off-the-job experiences Readings, videos, audios Training

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Prioritize your competency opportunities, identifying those competencies that will be most beneficial to your personal growth and development. Start with one or two competencies only. Refer to competency dictionary for the behavioural descriptions of each of the competencies. Review the developmental activities for the selected competency and select one or two that you feel will help you. Several options are provided for developing each competency: on-the-job development activities provide powerful learning experiences; readings provide useful background information. These are just suggestions. Different people have different ways of learning. Some learn by observing, some by doing, some by reading or a combination of these. There is no one-way which is better than another. The important factor is to determine what works best

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

Overview
for you. Feel free to tailor them or build on the activities suggested, to better fit with your job. Although you are concentrating on one specific competency, these activities will support the development of a number of the competencies that are linked. If you are having trouble identifying a development action for a specific competency, talk to others who are also involved in this process to get ideas that are working for them. Stick with it! Behaviour change requires practice and perseverance.

Personal Action

Keep a log of your progress with brief written notes indicating where you are in your development. Having this concrete reminder of your efforts will help to motivate you if you reach a development plateau and will prove very helpful in your next performance appraisal session. The guide is not intended to be an exhaustive list of possibilities but rather a starting point for your own individual development plan. Use this document as a resource to help your self-development; dont think of it as a list of activities that must all be accomplished. Developing a competency is a partnership between you and your manager. The primary responsibility for development, however, rests with you. Your manager is a support and resource for you to rely on as you work through the suggestions and activities provided in this document.

Keep in mind as you develop a competency

As you develop a competency you should move through the following steps: Step 1. Recognizing and Understanding the Competency look for the competency in other people, in books, in films study the competency target level descriptions and the developmental suggestions in this guide

Step 2. Seeing the Relevance to your Job think of examples when you have demonstrated the competency in the past, think about what you have done and what you could have done differently ask your manager or other experienced people how you could apply the competency

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

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get feedback on your own performance

Step 3. Planning & Experimentation plan ahead: think of opportunities where you can practice the competency, if necessary look outside your usual role/responsibilities for opportunities consider if there is any knowledge or skill you need to gain or modify to deliver successfully on your current accountabilities

Step 4. Skill Practice competencies are acquired through practice and perseverance, so be patient with yourself and practice

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

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BC Public Service Competency Models


The B.C. Public Service has identified Public Service and Leadership Competencies that are important to success in the public service. Public Service Core Competencies Public Service Core Competencies are behaviours important to every public service employee, regardless of role or function. Results Focus Service Orientation Teamwork and Cooperation

Public Service Leadership Competencies

The Leadership Competencies are behaviours important to leaders/managers/supervisors. They are comprised of both the core public service and leadership competencies. Core Public Service Results Focus Service Orientation Teamwork and Cooperation Leadership Leading Others Strategic Orientation Innovation and Change Empowerment Developing Others (The Public Service core and leadership competency model descriptions and titles have been tailored to meet the unique needs of the BC Public Service. The competency dictionary, resource guide and tools may not reflect some of the changes in wording that have been made.)

Competency Dictionary

In addition to the BC Public Service Competency Model, there is a dictionary of further competencies that may apply to employees depending on the nature of their roles. Detailed information about each competency in the dictionary can be found at the competency resource centre site at: http://gww.bcpublicservice.gov.bc.ca/competencies/

BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

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Core Competencies and Dictionary List


Results Focus

Results Focus is taking action to achieve challenging goals or high


standards. It is focusing on the desired outcomes, setting challenging goals, and taking action to meet or exceed them. 1. Takes Action to Meet Performance Standards: Takes initiative to do the job well. Accepts responsibility for the outcomes of own work. Follows through on assignments to ensure successful completion. 2. Strives to Meet and Exceed Expectations: Strives to meet or exceed performance goals or standards set. Makes every effort to meet goals and deadlines. Takes action before being forced to by events. 3. Improves Performance: Identifies new or better ways of meeting goals. Has a strong sense of urgency about solving problems and getting work done. Maintains commitment to goals in the face of obstacles and frustrations. 4. Delivers to Meet Challenging Goals: Develops challenging but achievable goals and delivers to meet them. Identifies ways to measure performance against goals. Shows persistence in overcoming obstacles. 5. Focuses Resources to Achieve Results: Demonstrates decision-making and priority setting to achieve desired outcomes. Effectively deploys resources to achieve results, including midcourse changes when necessary. Monitors performance and is accountable for commitments. Promotes a culture of performance excellence within the team or group. 6. Takes Calculated Risks to Achieve Challenging Goals: Leads organization in achieving challenging goals. Takes calculated risks to achieve results.

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Accepts responsibility for organization successes and failures. Sets and communicates key performance indicators to measure organizational results and success.

Service Orientation

Service Orientation is understanding the service needs of a


client/customer (internal or external) and actively focusing on anticipating, meeting and exceeding the needs in a timely and appropriate manner. 1. Follows Up: Understands who the clients are in their area. Follows through on client inquiries, requests, and complaints in a timely manner. Advises clients about status of issue or progress of projects. 2. Maintains Clear Communication: Maintains clear communication with clients regarding mutual expectations and monitors client satisfaction. Distributes helpful information to clients. Ensures professional and courteous service. 3. Takes Personal Responsibility: Takes personal responsibility for providing excellent service quality Makes clients and their needs a primary focus of actions. Corrects problems promptly, without being defensive. 4. Encourages Customer/Client Focus: Supports others to take personal responsibility to deliver excellent customer service. Effectively represents the needs and interests of the client. Understands the clients issues and seeks information about their current and future requirements. Is accessible and models prompt, attentive service. 5. Expresses a Vision for Customer/Client Focus: Defines a client service vision and how it strategically fits within the organization. Sets the climate and creates a culture to attain client focused outcomes, (i.e. performance management, resource allocation etc.). Takes specific and sustained action to implement the client service vision.

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Implements client satisfaction feedback to ensure provision of quality service.

6. Inspires Others to Support Customer/Client Focus: Clearly articulates a ministry vision that supports a client focused workforce. Aligns the organizational structure and management processes to support the client vision. Demonstrates personal commitment to the client service vision through own actions and attitudes. Recognizes individuals and areas that are demonstrating behaviours and outcomes consistent with the client service vision. Teamwork and Cooperation

Teamwork and Co-operation is working co-operatively with diverse


teams, work groups and across the organization to achieve group and organizational goals. This includes communicating effectively and collaboratively with others. 1. Acts as an Effective Team Member: Participates willingly and actively in the team. Listens and responds constructively to other team members ideas. Helps and encourages team members. 2. Initiates Team Efforts: Works co-operatively and supportively with others. Openly shares information, knowledge and expertise with the team and co-workers. Expresses positive expectations of others and appropriately gives and receives feedback. 3. Promotes Team Co-operation: Involves key people needed to achieve results. Values others input and expertise and solicits ideas and opinions to help form specific decisions or plans. Promotes a spirit of co-operation and teamwork. 4. Facilitates Effective Team Outcomes: Facilitates and influences teams to achieve positive outcomes. Treats people with dignity and respect. Removes barriers to positive team effectiveness/performance. Publicly recognizes others who have performed well.

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5. Fosters Teamwork: Builds and empowers teams to achieve organizational goals. Encourages input, teamwork and co-operation from others. Models effective teamwork and holds people accountable for being good team players. Develops formal and informal relationships with a wide circle of people. 6. Champions Organizational Teamwork: Manages difficult and complex team and organizational interactions. Collaborates across internal and external organizational boundaries to meet common objectives. Develops and maintains win/win relationships and partnerships. Develops networks and builds alliances.

BC Public Service Competency Dictionary List

Thinking Capabilities Cluster Analytical Thinking Business Acumen Conceptual Thinking Decisive Insight Long Term Focus Managing Organizational Resources Planning, Organizing, Coordination Problem Solving/Judgement Strategic Orientation Leadership Effectiveness Cluster Change Leadership Change Management Developing Others Empowerment Holding People Accountable Leadership Self Management Cluster Building Partnerships with Stakeholders Commitment to Continuous Learning Concern for Order Continuous Development Expertise Flexibility Improving Operations Initiative

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Innovation Integrity Organizational Commitment Reflecting on Difficulties Results Orientation Self-Confidence Self-Control Social Awareness Cluster Concern for Image Impact Conflict Management Customer/Client Development Engaging External Partners Impact and Influence Information Seeking Listening, Responding, Understanding Organizational Awareness Partners with Stakeholders Relationship Building Service Orientation Teamwork and Cooperation

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Results Orientation

RESULTS ORIENTATION
Results Orientation is a concern for surpassing a standard of excellence. The standard may be ones own past performance (striving for improvement); an objective measure (results orientation); challenging goals one has set; or even improving or surpassing what has already been done (continuous improvement). Thus a unique accomplishment also indicates Results Orientation. This Means... looking for new and better ways of doing things that will improve performance setting your own high standards of quality work and working to improve your skills improving the performance efficiency of your branch/organization striving to continuously stay one step ahead of your competition within private sector, if applicable foreseeing and acting on potential obstacles that might get in the way of achieving your goal setting and reaching difficult but possible goals and leading your team to exceed business targets striving to beat project deadlines working to improve your This Doesnt Mean... working with current methods and accepting the old way of doing things as the best way relying on others to set the standards for you to work against and to push you to improve being satisfied with the current performance efficiency of your branch/ organization working to catch up whenever you see your competition doing something new looking at each obstacle as a separate or insurmountable problem getting so enthusiastic or focused on the need for improvement that you set goals that are too ambitious to be practical being satisfied if the project is only a little bit late being content with what
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This Means... skills This Doesnt Mean... you already know

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Results Orientation
Developmental Activities

Level (1-2) Activities


Determine if you are using your time effectively.
Create an estimate of what you should spend your time on each week, then keep a log of what you actually spend your time doing. Compare reality and your estimation. Determine ways of reallocating time from areas where time is saved to those where more time is required after gaps have been identified. Reflection Tip: Speak with peers to determine where they spend their time, and where they think they should spend their time.

Focus on results and be persistent.


Work smarter, not harder. Regularly review all your planned activities in light of the results you want to achieve. Ask yourself if theres a better way to achieve the results you want. Be persistent. Do what it takes to reach your goals. If one approach doesnt work, try another. Reflection Tip: Keep track of what works and what doesnt in a journal that is easy to refer to.

Take time to evaluate your criteria for success.


Consider the following criteria for success: branchs quality of services, employee development such as participation in particular projects, adherence to branch/division operations policies and procedures, development of programs to specifications in a timely and accurate manner.

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Write down any areas that are in need of improvement. Create and implement an action plan to improve these areas. Monitor the success of your actions against the above success criteria. Reflection Tip: Brainstorm other criteria for success. Speak with your peers about their thoughts on criteria for success. Create a list based on these discussions. Revise the list as necessary.

Find out if your personal goals are challenging yet attainable.


Meet with your manager/team leader and get feedback on whether your goals have enough stretch in them. Ask if some of your goals are too ambitious considering the time frame for accomplishing them as well as the level of risk involved.

Share your personal standards with others and ask for their feedback.
Identify people who work with you (partners, peers), and ask them for feedback on your performance. Compare their feedback with your own evaluation. Determine how accurate your self-assessment is. Use this information to modify, if necessary, your personal standards of success in order to more easily meet governmental requirements. Reflection Tip: Ask them for specific recommendations on areas where your assessment didnt match theirs.

Keep a diary of what you spend your time doing for a one week period.
Review the diary at the end of the week and see if actual time allocated to tasks matches their importance and priority. Develop and implement an action plan to allocate more time to important activities.
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Plan to minimize or eliminate low priority activities. For those routine activities that are necessary to perform, look at the way in which the task is done in order to determine ways to do it faster, cheaper, more effectively and less often. Your goals in this analysis are to improve the efficiency of routine activities to free time up for more challenging/higher pay-off activities. Involve a work group that you supervise in the above activity by asking them to participate in the analysis and improvement of processes. Ensure that your work group understands the purpose of the exercise. Clearly outline new or more interesting opportunities that may become available if time is saved on the routine tasks. Reflection Tip: Confirm task priorities and importance with your manager. Your goal in this analysis is to improve the efficiency of routine activities to free time up for more challenging/higher pay-off activities. Gather information from peers about how they improve the efficiency of their routine activities. Ensure that your work group understands the purpose of the exercise. Document their findings.

Look for ways to improve the quality of your work.


Identify the three to five most important quality measures for your own work. Use these measures to identify the area that is in greatest need of improvement. Develop an action plan to improve this area of quality over the next three months. Make sure your goal is SMART - specific, measurable, actionable, relevant, and timed. Use the quality measures to assess the effectiveness of your plan over those three months. Reflection Tip: Confirm with your manager that these are the most relevant measures to be addressed. Run the plan by your manager for additional input.
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BC Public Service - Core Competency Development Resource Guide 2004-2005 Hay Group, 2002

Results Orientation Track your projects.


Create a calendar on which you note your planned task completion dates in one colour and the actual completion dates in another colour. Review the calendar daily to see how you are doing. Have a sense of urgency toward your work, and strive to meet or exceed timing goals while meeting expectations with respect to quality.

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Results Orientation
Make it a habit to consider the impact that your task completion will have on the rest of your business units activities. Take pride in timeliness, and keep in mind the detrimental effect that missed deadlines may have on outside customer satisfaction. Reflection Tip: Review your calendar, and determine if there are any patterns to the missed completion dates. Can you think of any particular factors that regularly cause you to miss completion dates?

Level (3-4) Activities


Develop an action plan for each of your key initiatives.
Prioritize your initiatives based on the following criteria: Important to the governments strategic objectives Realistic or achievable in the expected time frame Challenging, innovative and of moderate risk Identify the performance measures that you will use for each initiative. Write down the specific goals that you want to accomplish for each initiative and the date by which you want them accomplished. Develop an action plan to support each of your goals. Identify resources required, time frames and plans for overcoming anticipated obstacles. Share these action plans with your employees and make sure they understand their role in implementing these action plans. Regularly monitor progress against goals for yourself, the department and individual employees. Recognize appropriate progress made toward goals and do what is necessary to ensure that goals are met. Reflection Tip: Get your managers input on the prioritization. Speak with peers in other business units about how they prioritize initiatives. Document this plan.
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Check to ensure that employees feel these plans are reasonable, and achievable.

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Results Orientation Take time to debrief each project.


At the end of each project (or at key project milestones), review your actions to determine how you could have streamlined steps or made other changes to enhance efficiency. Map out the work/design process to identify any steps that are unnecessarily performed twice or any lags that have no logical rationale. Discuss your observations with your colleagues and try to identify inefficiencies that seem to occur most frequently. Reflection Tip: Keep a log of particularly successful projects, outlining the components that lead to success. Do this for unsuccessful projects, outlining the particular problem areas. Take time to review this log occasionally to see if any patterns or trends are present.

Review the performance measures currently used in your branch.


Review the criteria for how the measures were established and how long ago they were set. Consider the strategic measures and process changes that have taken place in your business unit and at the corporate level. Determine performance measures that need to be revised, eliminated, and created in order to better align with these changes. Communicate any potential changes to the responsible and discuss the issue(s) as a team. groups

Develop an action plan to make the necessary changes to existing performance measures. Reflection Tip:

Consider performance measures used within and outside government.

Compare your success rate with your peers or other ministries.


Consider each type of product/service your branch offers. Who is having the most success? What approach do they use?
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Incorporate their successful methods into your own in order to fill any performance gaps your area demonstrates. Monitor the success of these new methods in your area. Reflection Tip: Are there any reasons why their approach wouldnt work for you? Would all parts of their approach be appropriate for your branch/organization? Consult with peers or your manager, if necessary, to confirm.

Develop a clear picture of your own personal standards of excellence in your job.
Follow these guidelines to help you develop high standards of performance in your job: Describe three or four major areas of responsibility for your job, e.g., focusing on customers, developing yourself, and developing the team. Think of someone who is truly outstanding. What does he or she actually do? Describe three or four characteristics of performance that are not acceptable for each area of responsibility. Use these extremes and your existing target set by your manager/team to establish personal standards of excellence for each area of responsibility. Ensure the standards you choose are challenging but realistic and attainable. Compare your performance to the standards you have set in each area on a regular basis, e.g., weekly or monthly. Reward yourself when you reach a goal or meet a standard. Take the time accomplishment. Reflection Tip: Share your personal standards with others who can give you an accurate assessment of your performance. Compare their feedback with your own evaluation and determine how accurate your self-assessment is. to enjoy the feeling of personal

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Results Orientation Measure each accomplishment versus your goals.


Each month, review what you have achieved relative to your goals. Take into account changing priorities. It will not always be simple to assess what you have accomplished versus your goals when the goals change. However, do not use this as an excuse to avoid self-assessment. Consider what you intended to accomplish over the months and ask yourself how satisfied you are with what you actually achieved. List any obstacles that are getting in the way of achieving your objectives. Identify strategies for overcoming the obstacles. Based on this review, take action. Reflection Tip: Get input from your manager about how challenging your goals were. Reflect on this yourself, considering the time frame and level of risk involved. Talk to peers to find out how they deal with these types of obstacles.

Challenge yourself by taking part in a strategic project that goes beyond your usual areas of responsibility/expertise.
Volunteer for a project that will give you a chance to achieve something significant outside of your usual role/area of expertise. Reflect on how these new experiences may benefit your performance and consider ways of incorporating these experiences into your regular activities. Commit to testing new techniques learned from the project experience into your regular business unit activities. Reflection Tip: Before becoming involved in the project, is there anything you can do to prepare for your new role? Once involved in the project, keep a log of particular experiences that you could use as a resource when you return to your usual role.

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Results Orientation

Level (5-6) Activities


Analyze the effectiveness of your branch/organization to determine if the structure and processes facilitate or hinder getting work done.
With your team members, review and analyze the operations and processes performed by each functional area. Identify the major operations and goals of each function. Examine each operations current structure and identify the major roles and accountabilities for each area. Ask the following questions: How did the current structure develop the way it is? Are there any roles and/or functions that no longer serve any purpose? What is currently working well and why? Where are the bottlenecks, duplication of effort, and potential service problems? Brainstorm methods of overcoming the problems listed above. Evaluate each method and prioritize them. Take measures to implement the best methods to increase business effectiveness. Reflection Tip: Also gather information from other sources within and outside government.

Create a task force to come up with new ways of increasing productivity, quality, etc.
Select a cross-functional group of people who have demonstrated the ability to think outside of the box. Challenge them to develop new alternatives to existing work methods that will improve current performance. When one or more alternatives has been developed, compare them to the existing methods and strategic objectives of your business unit.

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Results Orientation
Determine the alternative or components thereof that can be incorporated into existing work methods to improve performance. Develop an action plan for implementation. Reflection Tip: Ask your manager to recommend some people to participate on the task force. Use unstructured brainstorming to come up with alternatives. Get input from the people you originally consulted with, as to their thoughts on the stages of implementation. Ask them specifically about particular difficulties they anticipate for each of those stages.

Take a calculated approach to evaluating possible initiatives and anticipating potential obstacles.
Select a new initiative, project or activity that you are considering for the coming year. List the costs and benefits, quantifying the benefits as much as possible. Dont forget the more intangible costs and benefits, though, such as the degree to which others will resist the initiative or the opportunity for exposure to new people and experiences. Consider the potential obstacles that may arise and how you can address them. Use this information to create a business case for the initiative that will have the highest payoff. Reflection Tip: Resist the urge to make quick decisions without fully exploring the options. Make sure you consider unique facts about the situation before making a final decision. Ensure that youve considered both short and long-term effects.

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Results Orientation Schedule a planning session with your management team to develop challenging goals in key success areas and develop a plan to realize the goals.
Analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats affecting your area from both internal and external perspectives. Some external factors to consider include: competition, market share, key customers, legislation, international/global issues, technological developments, social trends. Some internal factors to consider include: customer satisfaction, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. Determine the critical success factors that will define improvement related to the issues identified in your analysis and set goals. Develop specific strategies and a formal plan to realize the goals. Include responsibilities, time frames and progress reviews in the plan. Reflection Tip: Speak with peers in other branches, and peers outside of the Organization but still within government about the factors that they consider in this type of analysis.

Set a long-term strategic goal and outline a business plan to achieve it.
Set an ambitious long-term strategic goal that you believe in strongly. (For example, balancing the branchs resources to minimize costs and maximize productivity and opportunities). Outline what you need to achieve this goal. For example, ways to measure employee productivity, commitment to the goal from your management team. Plan interim actions that will move you towards achieving this goal (for example, start researching other ministries, productivity standards, start tracking measures of individual/team results). Reflection Tip:

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Work with your manager to ensure that youve considered all relevant factors. Consider both long and short-term factors. Review these plans with peers to ensure that youve accounted for all factors when establishing the plan.

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Results Orientation Clarify your priorities in terms of the costs and the payoffs.
Make a laundry list of potential tasks that have come to your attention over the last month. Spend some time deciding how hard it would be to accomplish each of those tasks. Spend some time reflecting on what the payoff would be for each task, if it were accomplished. Sort each task into the grid below, based on the two factors youve just considered (ease of task and payoff).
DIFFICULTY OF TASK Low PAYOFF High Easy Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2 Hard Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4

Cross off the tasks in Quadrant 3 (hard tasks with a low payoff). They require a lot of time and effort for little return. Consider crossing off the tasks in Quadrant 1 (easy tasks, with a low payoff). Your team can probably complete them quickly but they are of minimal value. Focus your attention on the tasks in Quadrant 2 (easy tasks with a high payoff) and make sure they have top priority. They are easy to complete and will result in immediate payoff. Develop a plan to complete all the tasks in Quadrant 4 (hard tasks with a high payoff). They will require significant effort to complete but will provide significant payoff.

Evaluate the approaches.


relative

risks

of

number

of

Summarize the issues and the situation in point form. List the criteria you will use to evaluate each option down the left side of the accompanying chart. It may be helpful to think of all of the possible criteria and include only the most critical in this analysis.

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Identify several possible options to the problem. Write these across the top of the chart. (See the chart on the following page.)

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Results Orientation
Determine how well each option meets each criterion. Assign a weight for each option against each criterion using the scale below: 1 = Option does not meet criterion. 2 = Option minimally meets criterion. 3 = Option somewhat meets criterion. 4 = Option fully meets criterion. 5 = Option exceeds criterion. Total the weight scores for each option at the bottom of the chart. If you are using only the most critical, you may rule out any option which you have scored as 1 or 2. This decision is based on priorities and is more philosophical than quantitative in nature. Determine the pros and cons of each option on the chart. Select the option that best meets your most important criteria and your risk tolerance level. Option 1 1 Option 2 2 Option 3 3

Criteria Resource costs (e.g., time, people, capital) must not exceed $xx. Profitability (e.g., 15%) Vulnerability/Exposure (i.e., litigation, public relations, etc.) minimized. Balance between Client and BU needs TOTALS: Pros/Cons

3 3

4 2

4 1

Continually look for ways to change and improve processes to create sustained system improvements.
Develop ways to actively encourage change. Where appropriate, make public statements that encourage your employees to feel empowered to innovate.

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Results Orientation
Work with your employees to understand the criteria for evaluating ideas: help them through the process of defining benefits (greater efficiency and quality) and costs (time as well as materials). Encourage your employees to share ideas that they are not authorized to implement on their own by developing a system for submitting suggestions. Treat input seriously. Look at your branch/organization from a different perspective and examine your strategic objectives, processes, people capabilities and technology in light of this new perspective. Reflection Tip: Follow-up your words with support for initiatives that your employees put forth. Encourage others to do the same, and then share your ideas.


Books and Videos

Goal Setting, by Association, 1994).

Susan

Wilson

(American

Management

Workbook on setting goals, looking at potential obstacles and strategies to reach short-term and long-term goals. It deals with setting priorities, planning and time management. Maximum Achievement, by Brian Tracy (Simon & Schuster, 1993). This book presents ideas, concepts, and methods used by high-achieving people to meet challenging goals. The author discusses how people can unlock their individual potential for personal success and the potential of their manager/team. Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, by Stephen R. Covey (Distican, 1990). This book provides thought provoking ideas on clarifying your personal values and how to translate them into your daily and weekly activities. The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations, by James M. Kouzes & Barry Z. Posner (Jossey-Bass, 1995). This book uses case studies of 500 middle and senior managers at their personal best to demonstrate how ordinary managers can lead others to extraordinary accomplishments.
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The authors take the view that leadership is an observable, learnable set of practices that virtually anyone can master. Beyond Ambition, by Robert E. Kaplan (Jossey-Bass, 1991). This book is about hard driving executives wanting to achieve results effectively. The Effective Executive, by Peter F. Drucker (Harper & Row, New York, 1985). Drucker identifies five practices essential to business effectiveness that can, and must, be learned: management of time; choosing what to contribute to the particular organization; knowing where and how to mobilize strength for best effect; setting up the right priorities; and knitting them all together with effective decision-making.

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Results Orientation
The Achieving Society, by David C. McClelland (Van Nostrand: 1961). This book describes the thinking patterns of the concept of Achievement and shows its influence on cultures and economies. Purpose At the Heart of Management, by Harvard Business Review, (May, 1992). This is the case study of successful entrepreneur, Key Anderson. The Ten Natural Laws of Successful Time and Life Management, by Hyrum Smith (Warner Books, 1995). The topics in this book are relevant to this competency. Swim With the Sharks, Without Being Eaten Alive, by Harvey Mackay (N.Y. Books, 1989). This easy reading straight-from-the-hip handbook by selfmade millionaire Harvey MacKay provides the reader with real-life examples of goal-orientation. Written in a style of quick parables and lessons of life, Mackay shares his experiences in the business world. Recommended for all levels in an organization. A Passion for Excellence, by Tom Peters & Nancy Austin (Random House, 1985). [Also available on audiocassette.] The book provides principles excellence in the organization. and ideas for achieving

Paradoxical Thinking, by Jerry Fletcher & Kelle Olwyler (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. San Francisco, 1997). The book takes the mystery and unpredictability out of performing at your peak by providing an easy-to-learn method of understanding and maximizing your personal success. Gives practical advice for sorting out tough choices and taking action to resolve them. The video Goal Setting (Reid Publishing, 1-800-446-4797). This 20 minute training film is based on a book written by consultant Laurie Rouillard and takes you through the steps for setting attainable goals. The video Do Right (International Tele-Film). This film speaks to the need for goal-setting, combined with a deep regard for the rights of others.
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The video Targeting For Performance, (International TeleFilm, 1-800-561-4300). By following the progress of a younger manager, this drama reveals how vital it is to have targets that are: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and timebound. The video The Goal: The Dramatic Story, (International Tele-Film, 1-800-561-4300). [50 minutes] Based on the best-selling business book by Eli Goldratt, stimulate ongoing improvement and increased productivity through better and faster methods of decision-making. Training Reasons or Results - You Choose (CHIPS Code: 008922) This course is designed to help you improve or surpass your current standard of excellence. The course will also provide you with practical tools to make sense of your current situation and help you determine your preferred future. You will learn ways to achieve higher levels of performance, satisfaction and results.

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Service Orientation

SERVICE ORIENTATION
Service Orientation implies a desire to identify and serve customers/clients, who may include the public, colleagues, partners (e.g., educational institutes, non-government organizations, etc.), co-workers, peers, branches, ministries/agencies and other government organizations. It means focusing ones efforts on discovering and meeting the needs of the customer/client needs. This Means... questioning the clients to better understand their needs and their concerns using your knowledge to think through what would be best for a client as well as the government, and acting accordingly understanding the viewpoint and objectives of different clients and why these can, at times, conflict with the interest of the government making a conscious effort to understand differences and establish common interests with clients working hard to build and maintain long-term relationships with clients knowing when to take a long-term perspective in addressing a client issue This Doesnt Mean... saying as little as possible so that you can move on to the next priority/issue doing what is faster and easiest for you

steering clear of trying to deal with the sometimes conflicting needs and viewpoints of different people making contact with clients only when you need to solve a problem or get information focusing on short-term interactions with a client without considering the long-term implications responding to a client situation that addresses their immediate need but may not be needed over the long-term

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Developmental Activities

Level 1-3 Activities


Think of something extra you can do for a client. Do it.

This could be making a special effort to help someone overcome a difficult problem, such as taking some extra time to explain the reasons for a certain procedure or resolution.

Keep a personal customer service time log for one week.


Make daily notes of how much time you actually spend providing services to your customers. At the end of the week, calculate the percentage of your time that is spent servicing customers versus administrative and other non-service activities. Set a goal for yourself to increase the amount of time you spend in service related activities. Monitor your progress through your customer service time log the following week, and set a new goal for the next week. Reflection Tip:

Brainstorm ideas about how to make sure this actually happens. Create a plan for implementation.

Analyze your Customer Service style.


Listen to a recording of your calls and analyze your style. Is your tone of voice appropriate? Make notes on what is effective and what is not.

Reflection Tip:

Discuss this topic with your peers to gather additional information.

Ask your manager for customer/client service.


feedback

on

your

Ask for specific, behavioural feedback. When you are given feedback, do not respond defensively. View this as a learning activity.

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Modify those behaviours that were identified as lacking, deficient, or inappropriate. Reflection Tip: Are there patterns that emerge within the feedback areas of under or over-performance?

Identify someone who has received recognition for providing excellent client/customer service.
Ask questions. You want to understand what the thinking behind what he or she did and said in their customer interactions (e.g., ask him or her to identify the customers needs as they see them). Try to incorporate these behaviours in your own ways of dealing and interacting with customers. Do this with a number of peers and identify the effective behaviours that they have in common. Reflection Tip: Try to identify these behaviours in others. The first step in learning a new behaviour is being able to accurately identify it.

Ask your manager about a particularly challenging or difficult client problem he or she is currently involved with. Ask to work with him or her in helping to resolve the situation.
Prepare yourself by really learning about general and specific client issues. Get ideas from your colleagues, read about client issues, test your ideas with others. Apply your expertise to consider what will be best from the clients point of view. Working with your leader, act to ensure the client gets what they need. Reflection Tip: Make note of the specific actions that your manager takes. If youre not sure why a particular action was taken, make sure you ask.

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Service Orientation Improve your Customer/Client focus.


Use your knowledge to think through what would be best for a client and act accordingly. Conduct an interview with a customer to determine his or her needs and satisfaction with current services. Immediately inform a customer if problems in your area will impact on them. Take responsibility to resolve a customers problem if it goes beyond the normal demands of the job.

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Be patient and polite with others. Take ownership for a customers concerns. Reflection Tip: Be sure to focus on both internal and external customers.

Respond to customer responsive manner.


needs

in

timely,

Listen carefully to requests or complaints and probe for all relevant information. Test your understanding of the customer by summarizing what you heard. Address customer needs in a responsive manner. Inform the customer of the specific actions that you will take, and make clear when you will be back in touch with the customer to report your progress. Make a note of how the customer reacted. A useful way to respond to customer needs is to ask them to help you write these lists: things you should start to do; things you should stop doing; things you should continue to do. Reflection Tip:

Keep track of customer reactions in order to track which of your responses were most effective.

Compare successful and difficult interactions.


Review your activities for the past week and identify one successful and one difficult interaction. Discuss your observations with your manager and then make note of any advice he or she provides you with to improve the customer interaction next time. Take action to improve on your activities in future similar situations. In a similar situation with that customer make a point of testing your improvement tactics. Ask the customer for feedback as appropriate.

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Reflection Tip: To be aware of similar interactions that might be happening between your peers and their customers. Discuss with them their methods for handling in particular situation, and the reasons behind their actions.

Level 4-5 Activities


Try to understand your customers point of view.
After an interaction with a customer, put yourself in their shoes and try to imagine what they were feeling or thinking during your interaction with them. Think about how what you did influenced that person in either a positive or negative fashion. Write down what you would do differently next time to make the interaction more positive, and use that information to develop a plan for the next time you interact with that customer. Reflection Tip: Make an effect to collect some evidence that supports and reinforces your thoughts. Collecting evidence lets you know if you were correct about the impact you thought you had.

Design and conduct a focus group session with your colleagues.


Develop a list of questions for the following topic areas: Who are your key clients? What do your key clients expect from you? How well are we currently meeting client expectations? What would be the biggest complaint clients have? What gets in the way of focusing on the client? Generate solutions to improve Customer/Client Service Orientation. Transfer these solutions into an action plan. Reflection Tip: Use these ideas to begin to formulate a longer term plan that focuses on satisfied customers.

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Spend time thinking about what your customers want.


Make a list of all those people who rely on you and your work - they are your customers. Think about what is important to each kind of customer. Identify the expectations each group of customers has of you. What criteria do they use to determine if the product and/or service that you provide is acceptable to them? Verify your list of expectations with each customer and update your list on a regular basis (i.e. quarterly). Share your list of expectations with your peers and manager and ask for feedback. Determine whether it is feasible to reach your customers expectations while still following the rules of the organization, or with the current resources the organization provides you. Reflection Tips: Reflect on what should happen in order for that type of customer to become a satisfied customer. What criteria do they use to determine the produce and/or service that you provide is acceptable to them?

Get to know your customers and their underlying needs.


List all of the different groups of clients you currently have (e.g., the groups of individuals who receive service from you). Be sure to include both internal and external clients on your list (i.e., targeted public/private stakeholders, professional groups, other ministries, etc.). List the expectations each group of clients has of you. In other words, what criteria do they use to determine if the service that you provide is acceptable to them? Verify your list of expectations with each client group. Share your list of expectations and ask for feedback. How accurate was your original assessment? Meet with your most important customers (internal and external) to discuss their business with them. Ask them

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for suggestions on things you can do to better understand their needs and environment. This could include job shadowing - spending the day or part of the day accompanying them through their regular activities. Update your list of clients and client expectations on a regular (e.g., quarterly) basis.

Identify opportunities for collaboration with people from other divisions/ministries within the government on customer initiatives or programs.
Work with your manager to establish a task force which would be able to focus on these programs. As a group, explore potential opportunities that could benefit all areas. When discussing possible plans of action, try to come to a consensus on the following issues: Who are your key customers? What do your key customers expect from you? What would be the biggest complaint clients have? How well are we currently meeting customer expectations? What gets in the way of effective customer service? What suggestions do we have to improve customer service.

Level 6 Activities
Develop alternative ways of looking at customer service problems.
Describe the statement. customer service problem in a brief

Identify the key factors in the problem from your perspective. Pretend you are going to tell someone a story about the problem. What are the three or four key characteristics or details you would want to convey? Identify the key factors in the problem from the perspective of others. Ask yourself the following questions: How would upper management view this problem? What factors would they see at their level?

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How would managers in other areas view this problem? What factors would they see from their perspective? How does the customer view this problem? What are their most important issues? Prepare and present a summary of your findings. Identify any immediate steps you could take on your own to help resolve the problem. Take the first steps.

Evaluate your contribution to customers/clients.


Develop a matrix charting your external customers and your services to those customers. The field of this matrix should consist of the benefits derived from each program or service by each external customer group. Working with your team, use this matrix to help assess the effectiveness of each program or service to each customer group. Consider the following questions: what will be our customers future requirements? what priorities should we focus on? what will we need to do to develop new services? how should we communicate our strategy (internally and externally)? how can we test the strategy or policy with our customers before going ahead with the implementation?

Get to know your customers and their underlying needs from a long-term perspective.
List all of the different groups of customers you/your team are currently servicing (e.g., the groups of individuals who receive either a product and/or service from you/the team). Be sure to include both internal and external customers on your list. List the expectations each group of customers has of you. In other words, what criteria do they use to determine if the product and/or service provided is acceptable to them? Identify the criteria by which your customers judge your performance for them (e.g., timeliness, cost, participation in decision-making).

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Develop or identify measures to help to quantify your performance against the customers expectations and criteria. Rate your unit over a reasonable length of time on these measures. Get key customer feedback as appropriate to help you make an accurate rating of your units performance. Meet with your key customers (internal and external) to discuss their business with them. Ask them for suggestions on things you can do to better meet their needs, given their environment. Share two or three of the most applicable suggestions with your team. Update your list expectations/criteria/measures quarterly) basis. Reflection Tips: Share this list with your peers. Do they have any additional suggestions? Discuss this list of criteria with a couple of customers with whom you have a particularly strong relationship. Use this opportunity to communicate the purpose of the exercise, probe for additional criteria, and check for accuracy of the criteria you have chosen. You may want to consider putting some sort of ongoing feedback tool in place, in order to regularly gather feedback. Work with your team to develop a realistic action plan to implement the most relevant of the suggestions. of on clients a regular and (e.g.,

Publicly recognize individuals and groups who have clearly exceeded expectations for customer service.
Use real life examples of excellent customer service skills when giving an internal speech or presentation. Talk about the value of customer-oriented individuals to the organization.

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Describe how customer service makes a difference in keeping customers, and to the perceived value of government services. Participate in internal forums and discussions on the value of developing individuals with a customer service focus relative to the services provided by the government. Use customer service skills and strategies when dealing with internal and external clients.

Enlist the support within your organization to make a change.


Identify the people whose support you need to implement a new idea, project or plan, aimed at improving customer service. Find out what each of these people thinks about your proposal, and develop a plan to do what is necessary in each case to ensure the support you need. Take specific steps to learn more about individuals throughout the organization who provide important client support, or who can help you accomplish your goals. Monitor the success of your plan and modify it as you go along.

Books and Videos

Customers for Life: How to Turn That one-time Buyer Into a Lifetime Customers, by Carl Sewell and Paul Brown (Distican, 1991). A systematic approach to developing outstanding Customer Service Orientation and measuring your success. Service Edge: One Hundred and One Companies that Profit from Customer Care, by Ron Zemke and Dick Scheef (N.A.L. Dutton, 1990). This book reviews the Customer Focus strategies and success of companies who have achieved a competitive edge through superior Customer Focus. While this book is written for senior management, many people will find these ideas interesting.

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The Spirit of Service: How to Create a Customer Focused Culture, A Customer Service Strategy for the New Decade and Beyond, by T. Hinton (Kendall-Hunt, 1990). This book focuses on the culture and organizational processes needed to provide full customer service. Aftermarketing: Strategies to Keep Customers for Life, by Terry G. Vavra (Irwin, 1992). This book is particularly helpful for finding ways to stay with the customer for extended periods. Customer Intimacy: Pick Your Partners, Shape Your Culture, Win Together, by Fred Wiersema (Knowledge Exchange, 1996). This book reveals why the most successful businesses are those that build close win-win relationships with their customers - not just strong working relationships and good business relationships, but customer-intimate relationships. Customer intimacy is more than being customer-driven and sensitive to the customers every demand. These companies seek solutions that exceed immediate needs and demands. They push the traditional boundaries until they find and deliver the best total solution for each client. The Loyalty Effect, by Frederick F. Reichheld (of Bain & Co., Inc.) (Harvard Business School Press, 1996). This book illustrates the power of loyalty-based management as an effective approach to sustained value creation. The author reveals the secrets of successful companies that base their business strategies on the loyal relationships of customers, employees and investors. Reichhelds conclusions show however a small improvement in customer retention can dramatically increase profits. Customer-Centered Growth, by Richard Whiteley and Diane Hessan (Addison-Wesley Inc., 1996) [audio cassette version is also available]. The authors contend that the most successful companies bring the customer into the center of their organization. This book illustrates five proven strategies for building competitive advantage.

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The Quest for Loyalty - Creating Value Through Partnership, by Frederick F. Reichheld (HRB Press, 1996). Loyalty is not a fad, its the foundation of a powerful business system that is driving companies like Intuit, British Airways and MBNA to outstanding levels of growth and profits. The book features 14 articles from the leading scholars and practitioners of management, including Scott Cook, Peter Drucker, Charles Handy, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad, Michael Porter, Fred Reichheld and more. It will teach you why you need to renegotiate your partnerships with your customers, employees, and investors and how to do it in order to avoid the low-growth economics of disloyalty and perpetual churn. Service Wisdom: Creating and Maintaining the Customer Service Edge, by Ron Zemke and Chip R. Bell. This book brings together the latest, most thought-provoking articles on achieving and maintaining superior customer service written by the best thinkers on the subject. This volume offers ideas you can use to develop customer-service standards and inspire employees to deliver quality service for your company. Customer Intimacy: Pick Your Partners, Shape Your Culture, Win Together, by Fred Wiersema (Knowledge Exchange, 1996). This book reveals why the most successful businesses are those that build close win-win relationships with their customers -- not just strong working relationships and good business relationships, but customer-intimate relationships. Customer intimacy is more than being customer-driven and sensitive to the customers every demand. These companies seek solutions that exceed immediate needs and demands. They push the traditional boundaries until they find and deliver the best total solution for each. Keeping Customers: A Harvard Business Review Book, by John Sviolka and Benson P. Shapiro (McGraw-Hill, 1993). This book will assist in understanding how to manage a relationship with a customer. While most books on customer service focus on the retail customer, this book provides a useful point of view for everyone client.

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Customer Loyalty: How to Earn It, How to Keep It, by Jill Griffin (Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997). This pragmatic guide to achieving customer loyalty outlines a seven-step process for turning prospects into customers and customers into loyal advocates. Presenting detailed case studies, the author shares her trademarked Profit Generator System, a step-by-step approach to pricing, value, positioning, and targeting designed to systematically move customers up the loyalty ladder. Customer Satisfaction is Worthless, Customer Loyalty is Priceless: How to Make Customers Love You, Keep Them Coming Back and Tell Everyone They Know, by Jeffrey Gitomer (Bard Press, 1998). A nationally syndicated columnist and sales trainer shows how to convert "satisfied" customers into "loyal" customers. Includes real-world techniques, helpful checklists, inspiring stories, and thought-provoking self-tests. Best Practices in Customer Service, by Ron Zemke & John A. Woods (AMACOM, 1999). In this book, Ron Zemke teams up with quality-management specialist John A. Woods to combine 35 reflective yet pragmatic articles that clarify the connection between great customer service and superior organizational performance. The video Crosby on Quality: How To Run Your Company Successfully Forever, by Phil Crosby (BBC Training Videos). In this program, Phil Crosby provides the information to help managers tackle quality issues. The core message is that success in quality revolves around everyone in the organization having the same approach to quality. Consists of training notes and two videos. The video Focus on the Customer, (International Tele-Film, 1-800-561-4300). This training film shows how 3M Corporation meets and exceeds its clients expectations. The video An Invisible Man Meets the Mummy, (Owen Stewart Performance Resources Inc., 1-800-263-3399). Participants will learn that flexibility, policies and procedures are no good if they alienate your customer and their needs. They will learn about planning and attitude. Finally, they will

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learn about measurement-tracking effective tools for change. progress to provide

The video Creating a Customer-First Culture", (CareerTrack Publications, 1-800-334-6780). This video gets right to the heart of the service mentality people must adopt if their organization is to stay competitive in todays market. Short, lively training that focuses on key service concepts and gives a blueprint for implementing each of them. (7 volume Video Set). The video Creating World Class Customer (International Tele-Film, 1-800-561-4300). Service",

What do Southwest Airlines, Whole Foods Market and USAA Insurance have in common? They have all achieved worldclass customer service. In this video, front line employees, supervisors, mid-level and senior managers talk about the six core skills necessary for superior service. Learn skills for listening and responding to customers. The video "Exceptional Customer Service", (CareerTrack Publications, 1-800-334-6780). This video will teach you about the vital role every member of your organization plays in dealing with customers, and the results of poor teamwork. It will also help you use 11 creative techniques to improve your listening skills and how to diffuse irate customers and turn a potential disaster into something positive. (3 volume Video Set). The video "In The Customers Shoes", (International Tele-Film, 1-800-561-4300). Most organizations teach their people how to deal with customers, whether face to face or on the phone. But its no good going through the process unless they have the right attitude to go with it. This program is designed to change attitudes and offers a five step model for getting it right. The film The Force of Value (International Tele-Film). This training film shows how the ability to create value for customers is critical to the success of business today.

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The film Quality Customer Service (Reid Publishing). This 35 minute training film is based on a book written by William Martin, Ph.D. and focuses on the personal side of making customers happy. The movie Dangerous Minds. In the film, look for instances where the main character acts with the customers' best interests at heart, and bends organizational rules to do so. Training Creating Stellar Customer Relations (CHIPS Code: 008831) Creating Stellar Customer Relations: Series C, focuses on [4] modules, Reaching for Stellar Service, Healing Customer Relationships, Caring for Customers and Dazzling Customer Conversations. You will learn tried and true revolutionary classic concepts in this unique course that has been designed to provide you with a range of critical knowledge and skills about how to provide stellar customer / client service.

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Teamwork and Co-operation

TEAMWORK and CO-OPERATION


Teamwork and Co-operation is the ability to work cooperatively within diverse teams, work groups and across the organization to achieve group and organizational goals. This Means... soliciting and utilizing the skills, ideas and opinions of team members keeping others informed and up-to-date about any relevant or useful information when taking action, keeping in mind the concerns of other members as well as your own concerns supporting and encouraging team members; defending the teams reputation when others criticize speaking of team members in positive terms bringing group issues out in the open which may be personally threatening to you or difficult for you to deal with regularly soliciting input in team meetings or circulating reports for comments; then amending reports or actions as a result of the input defending the teams This Doesnt Mean... preferring to be left alone to get on with your own work attending team meetings without contributing

engaging in win-lose competition with other members of the team

playing blame or making judgments about other team members and keeping quiet or ignoring critical comments about your team members expressing negative expectations and opinions of team members only offering opinions on other group members' behaviour without being willing to examine your own short-comings going through the motions of soliciting input but never applying or synthesizing the gathered information

keeping quiet or ignoring

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This Means... reputation when others criticize encouraging the exchange of information and flow of ideas with others This Doesnt Mean... critical comments about your team members using excuses (e.g., time, cost) as ways to exclude others from discussion

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Developmental Activities

Level 1 Activities
Demonstrate others.

co-operation

in

working

with

Place emphasis on listening actively, drawing out the interest, concerns, needs and objectives of others. Demonstrate that you are listening and taking others seriously by restating what you are hearing and reflecting back your understanding of what others are communicating. Avoid taking control of the agenda, or being the first to make suggestions, instead try playing different roles within the group.

Seek feedback from your staff, leader, and peers on your teamwork and co-operation behaviours.

Ask a co-worker to help monitor your actions and give you feedback. Ask for his or her perceptions of when you were effectively participating as a team member to solve problems and when you have missed opportunities to do so. Take note of these observations. Take measures to improve upon those actions that are less effective when working in a team.

Keep a record of your contributions in committees, meetings, informal team gatherings, and other team settings for one month.

Determine your overall impact in each situation. Did you contribute a great deal or very little? Was the effect of your participation positive, negative, or neutral?

Write down why you think your participation turned out to be positive or negative. Think about your attitudes and behaviours in team situations and write down how your behaviour influences your effectiveness as a team member.

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Ask a co-worker to observe how you behave in team settings. Think about their comments and what you could do better. Develop an action plan to improve your teamwork.

Spontaneously offer to help someone.

Make a little time to help a team member, especially if there is someone new in your work unit.

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Reflection Tip:

By helping others, you will establish good will with your team members so that they will be willing to return the favour in the future.

Make an effort to participate on project that will require a high level of Teamwork and Cooperation.

Be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to improve your Teamwork and Co-operation skills. Prior to beginning the project, create a list of behaviours and actions that you believe a good tem member needs to demonstrate. Review your objectives with you team. Meet with members of you team during or after the project to discuss how you demonstrated Teamwork and Cooperation and whether you fulfilled your initial list of behaviours. Which behaviours were most difficult to achieve? Why do you think this was?

Reflection Tip:

Level 2 Activities
Avoid destructive messages such as:

Communication Shut-down - a statement or action that cuts off discussion with no plan to continue. You Should - statements like You should do this... which sound parental and insinuate that I know better than you. Discounting - minimizing another persons comments by inappropriate reassuring, distracting or humouring. Threatening - expressing an intention to do harm. Communicating Through Someone Else - a statement that expresses dissatisfaction indirectly to the person but through someone else.

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Mind Reading - assuming that your perception of a confusing message is right without clarifying or assuming the other person can read your mind. Silent Treatment - feeling resentment or anger toward another, but not addressing it directly with that person. Double Bind - sending a message where the words say one thing but the body language or attitude convey a different meaning. Judging/Blaming - placing blame or making judgments about another person; often involves finger pointing. Premature Advice - offering immediate advice to someone without showing concern for their feelings, listening, or helping them problem-solve. Share this list with a peer, and then ask them to evaluate your Teamwork and Co-operation skills.

Reflection Tip:

Conduct a self-audit.

Monitor the way in which you speak about your clients and members of your work group. Check yourself to ensure that you speak positively about the strengths and capabilities of others and refrain, whenever possible, from criticizing others in your conversations. Strive to deal directly with individuals with whom you are displeased rather than complaining to others. Refrain from engaging in conversations with others who do not follow these guidelines, withdrawing from discussions about the weaknesses of co-workers.

Listen during team meetings.


Dont answer your own questions, practice remaining silent for at least 10 seconds after you ask a question. If you disagree with someone in a team meeting, first acknowledge that persons point of view before offering your opinion.

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Summarize objectively differing points of view on issues and explicitly acknowledge that there is a difference of opinion. Ask for the groups help when there appears to be conflict in the group.

Level 3-4 Activities


Solicit opinions from all team members when making a decision that affects the team.

Hold regular information meetings with your team to keep them up to date on activities in your department, the larger organization and the community. Solicit input from team members regarding how your team can best realize the organizations goals and contribute to area/department goals. Consider all of the ideas and suggestions you receive. Allow this information to have an impact on your teams discussion of priorities, objectives and approaches. Ensure that the team can explain why certain suggestions are utilized. Avoid taking significant action or making an important decision until the opinions of all the team members have been heard and all members agree to support the decision. Observe the interaction of the group while they are discussing pieces of information. Is everyone participating?

Reflection Tip:

Emulate a role model.


Identify someone in the division who demonstrates a capacity to be an excellent team player. Observe this person in action and make note of what he/she does to encourage, facilitate and support teamwork and team morale. If the person is on the same team as you, ask him/her to observe you and give you feedback and suggestions about how you could improve your teamwork skills.

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Hold follow-up meetings for feedback and additional coaching at least quarterly to track your progress and maintain your motivation. Does the individual have specific developmental suggestions for you? Are you surprised by any of your areas that need development? Why?

Reflection Tip:

Ask questions that draw out the needs, interests, concerns, and objectives of other team members.

Demonstrate your interest in and understanding of what was said by restating it in your own words. Seek points of agreement between your positions, making an effort to point out the similarities, not just the differences. Make a list of all the concerns. Brainstorm an action plan with other team members so that as many concerns can be addressed as possible in achieving the group objective. Does this have an impact on the teams functioning?

Reflection Tip:

Lead open dialogue and information sharing among your team.

Encourage team members to identify what information resources they need to achieve individual and team objectives. Work to provide access to these resources. Circulate current organizational data regularly, including status reports, strategic documentation and any other information to help your team.

Show willingness to support team decisions.

Identify one of your ongoing projects which would particularly benefit from involving others working together as a team.

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Identify which individuals are or will need to work together on this project. Organize a team meeting for the express purpose of deciding how the project will be conducted. Prior to the meeting, obtain two flipcharts or a room with a whiteboard. Ask the team, at the beginning of the meeting, to generate a list of the key decisions that need to be made and write this list on one of the flipcharts or on one side of the whiteboard. Make certain that you contribute your own views to this list but, in general, say as little as possible. Rather, focus your contribution on encouraging each member of the team to contribute to the discussion. Ask the team for their views on the best answers to each decision. Record their suggestions on the other flipchart or the other side of the whiteboard. Again, say as little as possible about yourself and encourage others to speak. Where you agree with the advice, say so and personally endorse the decision. Where you disagree, explain why and provide a more effective answer. Support your team decision even when it is different from your stated point of view, unless it has serious implications. In this instance, indicate that you will be requesting your Manager to participate in the decisionmaking process. Make a brief note of the decisions that were made and give a copy to everyone who was at the meeting.

Listen productively during team meetings.


Dont answer your own questions, practice remaining silent for at least 10 seconds after you ask a question. If you disagree with someone in a team meeting, first acknowledge that persons point of view before offering your opinion. Summarize objectively differing points of view on issues and explicitly acknowledge that there is a difference of opinion. Ask for the groups help when there appears to be conflict in the group.

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Reflection Tip:

Share these guidelines with the team before a meeting. Then take time at the end of the meeting to discuss the impact that they had.

Practice the following skills and behaviours when you have situations of potential conflict in your team.

Emphasize peoples common goals, and how everyone depends on each other. Treat each person and their opinions with respect. Practice good listening skills. Have the group develop its own rules of conduct (e.g., Voice facts not emotions). Help to define the problem by coaching others to be concise and stick to facts. Coach them to avoid repeating the same points over and over. Insist on true consensus within the team. When does conflict typically arise within your team? What could be put in place to help prevent the conflict from escalating?

Reflection Tip:

Look for opportunities to acknowledge team and individual success, formally or informally.

Recognize the contributions of team members in public forums, referencing specifically what individual members did well. Use formal communication channels successful team performance. to acknowledge

Let individual team members know your appreciation through personal memos or face-to-face communication. Encourage and support team celebrations at the completion of a new, difficult or challenging task or project.

Reflection Tip:

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Recognition does not only have to come from the team leader. Reflect on your opportunities to recognize the performance of your peers.

Make a list of the unique strengths contribution of each person on your team.

and

Review your list with your manager and ask for his or her input. Look for opportunities and plan projects to capitalize on the strengths of each individual. Seek your managers assistance to find opportunities to maximize team member strengths and to provide developmental opportunities for other team members to learn from the unique contributions of others. Consider what opportunities exist to match people so that the people on your team are learning from each other.

Reflection Tip:

Organize a team-building event.


Solicit advice from the team to ensure the event will appeal to everyone. Make the event fun for everyone and include elements that require people to co-operate and work as a team together. Encourage team members to assist you in organizing the event if they have time. Did the climate in your team improve during and after the event? Why or why not?

Reflection Tip:

Books and Videos

Effective Group Problem Solving, by William M. Fox (JosseyBass, 1987). This book discusses how to improve efficiency, minimize interpersonal problems, and produce results when working in groups.

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Team Players and Teamwork, by Stephen J. Frangos and Steven J. Bennett (Jossey-Bass: 1995). Departmental and cross-functional teams are the fast track to industry leadership in the 1990s. Learn how team players can achieve the greatest productivity. Why Teams Dont Work, by Harvey Robbins and Michael Finley (Petersons Guides, 1995). Many organizations turn to team structures and wait for magic which never comes. This book explains the problems that occur and how to fix them. Cross-Functional Teams: Working with Allies, Enemies and other Strangers, by Glenn M. Parker (Jossey-Bass, 1994). This top expert on teamwork provides tips on easing the interactions of cross-functional teams. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization, by Jon Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith (Harvard Business School Press, 1993). Use this practical approach to ensure success with your teams. Examine and learn why some team efforts fail. Learn what to expect as you study the team performance curve. Achieving Consensus, by Eileen Flanigan & Jon Scott (Crisp Publications, 1996). This easy-to-read book discusses the ability to work together, make decisions together, and implement them. It explains the importance of reaching group consensus and alignment, in order to help the team succeed. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, by Peter M. Senge (Doubleday/Currency, 1990). The secret of how to get teamwork in your teams. Its a learning process, with your people aiming high, then learning to create the results they desire. High Five! The Magic of Working, by Kenneth Blanchard & Sheldon Bowles (William Morrow & Co., 2000). This book combines the spellbinding charm of a timeless parable with cutting-edge information about why teams are important and what individuals and organizations can do to build successful ones.

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Team Effectiveness and Decision-Making in Organizations, by Richard Guzzo, Eduardo Salas & Irwin Goldstein (Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995). This book provides the latest research perspective on teams: their nature, function, effectiveness, decision making process, and ability to change the face of organizational life. Turning Team Performance Inside Out: Team Types and Temperament for High-Impact Results, by Susan Nash (Davis-Black, 1999). In this book, the author defines the five critical characteristics essential to team effectiveness: strategy; clear roles and responsibilities; open communication; rapid response to change; and effective leadership and details how each is influenced by the personality types and temperaments of the team members as individuals. The New Why Teams Dont Work: What Goes Wrong and How to Make it Right, by Harvey A. Robbins & Michael Finley (Berrett-Koehler, 2000). This updated book includes completely new material on team intelligence, team technology, collaboration vs. teamwork, team balance, teams at the top, the team of one, plus all new and updated examples. The video The Abilene Paradox (Owen Stewart Performance Resources Inc., 1-800-263-3399). This film will help you and your organization approach this worthwhile goal in a way that is both engaging and entertaining. Viewers will understand the tendency of groups to take actions that their individual members do not support, and see the consequences of mismanaged agreement. Viewers will learn to work toward consensual group decision making in which communication is open and the climate is supportive for everyone involved. The video Team Building (International Tele-Film, 1-800-5614300). This program describes the five characteristics of effective teams and what each team member must do to build the team.

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The video Groupthink (Performance Resources Inc., 1-800263-3399). This video explains why well-informed group members go along with the majority. Eight symptoms (rationalization, shares stereotypes, self-censorship, mind-guarding and direct pressure, illusions of morality, invulnerability and unanimity) are discussed. The video " How to Deal with Difficult People" (Career Track Publishing). This video is concerned with showing how to foster teamwork and co-operation. It illustrates powerful techniques for managing difficult people. The CD-ROM Teams That Work (Harvard Business School Publishing). This interactive CD-ROM program is designed to help employees work effectively, both with and within teams. Topics include understanding team dynamics, diagnosing problems that constrain team functions, and planning appropriate interventions to remedy problematic team dynamics. The movies The Mighty Ducks", "The Dirty Dozen", "Cool Runnings" or "The Great Escape. These are all films about Teamwork and Co-operation. Notice the importance of working toward a common goal. The movie Glory. This film is the story of the first black regiment recruited to fight in the Civil War. Notice how the regiment develops as a team. Training Effectively Working Through Team Issues and Problems (CHIPS Code: 008856) Learn to quickly identify common team problems and apply practical strategies that will solve these issues while maintaining the viability and integrity of the team. Effectiveness in Working with People (CHIPS Code: 008915) To support learners at all levels to master the art of effective interpersonal relationships.

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Integrating New Employees Into the Workplace (CHIPS Code: 007974) Change and transition management, leadership, building a productive team, effective communications, establishing a healthy work environment and meeting operational requirements. Team Effectiveness (CHIPS Code: 008832) This course prepares learners at all levels for the unique demands of team membership in diverse team environments by addressing the interpersonal challenges and complex work processes associated with co-operative teamwork. Building Workplace Trust (CHIPS Code: 008839 ) The main purpose of this one-day workshop is to provide employees with the communication skills and behaviours necessary to form effective teams. The course materials address the challenges facing public servants by offering practical, realistic solutions.

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