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Geology and the Flood of Noah

Geology and the Flood of Noah


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Geology and the Flood of Noah

By Chris Ashcraft 1 Peter 3:15 Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have.

Northwest Creation Network http://nwcreation.net

Worldviews: Atheism vs. Theism
A 1998 report in Nature finds that, "among the top natural scientists, disbelief is greater than ever; almost total". The biologists in the National Academy of Science possess the lowest rate of belief of all the science disciplines, with only 5.5% believing in God.
Nature Vol. 394:6691 (1998)

Origin of the Fossil Record
• Geologists claim the fossil record was formed through the same natural processes occurring today, and interpret it as a history of life on earth over >600 million years. The Bible says there was a supernaturally-based global flood, and creation scientists interpret the fossil record as being the result of the flood of Noah.

Monument Valley, Utah

The Flood of Noah
Genesis 6
And God saw the earth, and behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. 13 And God said to Noah, "I have determined to make an end of all flesh; for the earth is filled with violence through them; behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 14 Make yourself an ark of gopher wood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and out with pitch. 15 This is how you are to make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits.

Noah’s Ark 450ft long / 75ft wide / 45ft high

The Flood of Noah
Genesis 6
But I will establish my covenant with you; and you shall come into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons' wives with you. 19 And of every living thing of all flesh, you shall bring two of every sort into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. 20 Of the birds according to their kinds, and of the animals according to their kinds, of every creeping thing of the ground according to its kind, two of every sort shall come in to you, to keep them alive.

Noah’s ark preserved two of every living kind of land animal.

The Flood of Noah
Genesis 7
And the waters prevailed so mightily upon the earth that all the high mountains under the whole heaven were covered; 20 the waters prevailed above the mountains, covering them fifteen cubits deep. 21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, birds, cattle, beasts, all swarming creatures that swarm upon the earth, and every man; 22 everything on the dry land in whose nostrils was the breath of life died..

The mountains were covered by 22.5 ft, and everything on land that breathed died.

Atheism vs. Theism Naturalists vs. Supernaturalists Could a naturalist correctly interpret a world with a supernatural history?

Geology and the Flood of Noah
• Biblical Testimony • Catastrophism vs. Uniformitarianism
– Bias Against Catastrophism

• Fossil Record
– Fossiliferous Rock – Geological Column – Fossil Sorting

• Mechanisms / Examples
– – – – – – Strata Formation Widespread Deposits Canyons Fossilization Fossils Biblical Flood

Catastrophism vs Uniformitarianism
• Catastrophism - Prior to the 19th century it was largely assumed by geologists that catastrophes such as the Biblical flood were responsible for the majority of the earth’s fossiliferous rock. Uniformitarianism - Around 1850 the non-catastrophic view of earth’s geology began to develop, which suggested that gradual processes and uniform intensities were instead responsible.

Is the Grand Canyon evidence of a catastrophe or millions of years of erosion?

Bias Against Catastrophism

In the 1920s Harlen Bretz proposed that features in eastern Washington must have been formed by flooding of catastrophic proportion. Channeled Scablands

The Missoula Flood

Glacial Lake Missoula covered over 3,000 square miles of what is now western Montana, and was over 2,000 feet deep at the edge of the glacial dam.

Satellite Photo of Scablands
In about two days the waters of Lake Missoula destroyed and reshaped the US landscape from Montana to the Pacific Ocean. Flood waters were over 400 feet deep and traveling at over 90 miles per hour, and equal to ten times the discharge of all the Earth's rivers today.

Landsat Photo

Giant Ripples
Rolling hills west of Spokane are actually giant ripples up to 30 feet high and 250 feet apart.

Channeled Scablands

Harlen Bretz
The Seattle Times - 2/10/2003 Natural Wonders: Rock of Ages’ Roiling Tale
“Mystified by the forces that could have exposed such massive features, Bretz set out in the early 1920s to solve the riddle. He returned with a hypothesis that was dismissed as near lunacy: in a region that sees less moisture in a year than Seattle gets in a month, Bretz concluded the entire landscape was carved by water.” “Bretz, according to some reports, was quickly isolated as a crank, while his critics' theories continued to make it into textbooks. Fifty years later, Bretz was hailed as a hero, and in 1979, at age 96, given geology's highest honor — the Penrose Medal, which rewards one researcher each year for exceptional contributions to geology.” “Two years later, he passed away.”

Bretz Dedication Placque

Dry Falls Visitor Center

Fossil Record
Fossils - A trace or remnant of preexisting life embedded and preserved in the earth’s crust. Fossil Record – A “recording” of history. – A record of the relative times of death of preexisting life.

Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rock typically forms when eroded particles settle out of fluid and solidify into a rock.
– Sandstone (mostly quartz) – Shale (fine silt and clay) – Limestone (calcite from shells) Arches National Monument

Sedimentary rock typically exists as distinct layers or strata.
• Superimposed - Oldest strata lies on the bottom with successively younger above Original Horizontality particles settle by gravity, so strata was originally horizontal. Lateral Continuity - originally extended in all directions until thinned or terminated.

• The Grand Canyon, Arizona

Geological Column
• The “Geological column” is the name for the cross section of rock layers that cover the earth. All of the layers of the geological column can be found on less than 1% of the earth’s surface.

Sedimentary Rock Extent

Exposed Rock Layers in the USA

Sedimentary Rock Depth
In most places sedimentary rock is hundreds of feet thick, and in other places there is kilometers of thickness. Limestone exists in such vast quantities it has been used in the construction of tremendous monuments such as the pyramids and the sphinx, which are made entirely of this sedimentary rock.

Limestone Monuments

Strata Correlation
The order of layers in the geological column was deduced by examining and correlating strata from various location. Exposed strata is examined for characteristics it contains, such as index fossils, and compared with layers visible in other locations. Layers similar to these in Bryce Canyon can be found elsewhere in Utah and other states such as Colorado. Bryce Canyon National Park

Correlating Sedimentary Rock Strata

Correlating Sedimentary Rock Strata

Fossil Sorting
Assumptions: 1) Fossil sorting is believed to represent the history of life on earth. 2) Fossils in the lowest layers are believed to have lived before those in upper layers. 3) The first appearance of a fossil is believe to be the time when it evolved. 4) The last appearance of a fossil is believe to be the time it went extinct. Geological Column

Out of Place Fossils
Assumption: The last appearance of a fossil is the time when it went extinct. ??? The Coelacanth was thought to have gone extinct with the dinosaurs 65 million years ago until it was discovered off the coast of Madagascar.

Coelacanth Living Fossil

Living Fossils
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Crocodiles - dates back 230 million years Army Ants - dates back 100 million years Cockroaches - dates back 350 million years Coelacanth - dates back 400 million years Crinoid or Sea Lilly dates back 150 million years Cycads dates back 240 million years Dragonfly dates back 230 million years Ginkgo dates back 270 million years Horseshoe Crab - dates back 300 million years Nautilus - dates back 500 million years Neopilina molluscs - dates back 400 million years Salamanders dates back 150 million years Sturgeon dates back 250 million years Tuatara dates back 200 million years. Velvet Worm dates back 500 million years Wollemi Pine - dates back 150 million years

Marine Fossils Everywhere

Marine fossils are found on almost every mountain range in the world (Alps, Andes, etc.), and provide clear evidence that the oceans covered the continents.

Marine Fossils
Marine fossils are found in every layer of the geological column, and are so common, they are used as index fossils.

The Flood of Noah
Genesis 8 2 the fountains of the deep
and the windows of the heavens were closed, the rain from the heavens was restrained, 3 and the waters receded from the earth continually. At the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters had abated; 4 and in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest upon the mountains of Ar'arat. 5 And the waters continued to abate until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen.

Flooding continued for 150 days

Fossil Sorting
Sorting Order of Fossils: •Man •Warm blooded terrestrials •Cold blooded terrestrials •Free swimming •Bottom dwelling Factors Affecting Survival: •Habitat Elevation •Mobility vs. Sessile •Environmental Tolerance •Intelligence

They deliberately ignore this fact
2 Peter 3:3-6 First of all you must understand this, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own passions 4 and saying, "Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things have continued as they were from the beginning." 5 They deliberately ignore this fact, that by the word of God heavens existed long ago, and an earth formed out of water and by means of water, 6 through which the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished.

Geology and the Flood of Noah
• Biblical Testimony • Catastrophism vs. Uniformitarianism
– Bias Against Catastrophism

• Fossil Record
– Fossiliferous Rock – Geological Column – Fossil Sorting

• Mechanisms / Examples
– – – – – – Strata Formation Widespread Deposits Canyons Fossilization Fossils Biblical Flood

Sedimentary rock typically exists as distinct layers or strata. Law of Superposition - is a fundamental interpretation of Earth’s history, which states the oldest strata lies on the bottom with successively younger layers above.

Relative Age Dating
"A is older than B”. Most rock strata were named and assigned old ages before the first use of radioisotope dating methods.
• • Law of lateral continuity: layers extend laterally in all directions. Law of superposition: the oldest layer is at the bottom of the sequence and the youngest is at the top. Law of inclusions: any piece of rock that has become included in another rock or body of sediment must be older Law of cross-cutting: any feature that cuts across a rock or body of sediment must be younger.

Strata Formation

Bryce Canyon National Park Small Particles Medium Particles

Layers form anytime particles are suspended in fluid then allowed to settle.

Large Particles

Mechanisms of Rapid Strata Deposition
• • • • • Rivers Landslides Mudflows Turbidity currents Liquefaction

Several layers form simultaneously where sediments are flowing.

Simultaneous Strata Formation

Turbidity Currents
Turbidity currents in a laboratory flume

Underwater landslides driven by gravity, which pulls sediment rich water downward.

• Turbidites - Sandstone deposits resulting from turbidity current underwater landslides, which carry particles of widely different sizes. Turbidite Characteristics
– Graded Bedding coarse particles on the bottom and finer particles on top – Many thin layers

Deep Water Turbidites Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

Widespread Turbidites
Tapeats Sandstone
• Graded bed - Lowest layer possesses coarse-grained sandstone and large boulders. Thin layers formed by a series of underwater flows of sand. Total thickness 125 – 325 feet About 30% of all sedimentary rocks in the Grand Canyon are turbidites formed through deposition by turbidity currents.

• •

Grand Canyon, Arizona

Widespread Turbidites
Tapeats Sandstone
(light color) covers most of North America
– – – – – Shepherds Point, Utah Ventura Basin, CA Marathon, TX Grand Canyon, AZ Castle Point, New Zealand

Some geologists suggest that 50% of the world's sedimentary rocks might be turbidites. Turbidity Currents Across North America


Soils can become liquefied and form strata when saturated with water and disturbed by actions such as earthquakes.

Rapid Strata Formation
Touchet beds
Missoula Flood Slackwater Deposits

Burlingame Canyon

Near Walla Walla, WA there are up to 40 distinct rhythmite layers exposed in the Burlingame Canyon, that were formed during the Missoula Flood.

Mount St. Helens
The eruptions at Mt. St. Helens were an important geological event for creation science. Rapid deposition and erosion occurred providing a model of the type of activity taking place during the great Biblical flood of Noah.

Rapid Strata Formation at Mt. St. Helens

March 19, 1982

June 12, 1980

May 18, 1980
Toutle River, Mt. St. Helens Stratified layers up to 400 feet thick formed as a result of landslides, air fall tephra, pyroclastic flow, and mudflows, during the Mt. St. Helens eruptions.

Rapid Erosion at Mt. St. Helens

Little Grand Canyon Toutle River, Mt. St. Helens

On March 19, 1982 a small eruption melted the snow causing a mud flow, which eroded a canyon system up to 140 feet deep.

Rapid Erosion of Burlingame Canyon
In 1926 the Burlingame Canyon was observed to have formed in less than six days. It measures 1500 feet long, up to 120 feet deep, and 120 feet wide. Burlingame Canyon

Rapid Erosion at Mt. St. Helens
Loowit Falls Canyon Mt. St. Helens

“Spilling from the crater, Loowit Falls reshapes the north slope of the volcano. ‘You’d expect a hardrock canyon to be thousands, even hundreds of thousands of years old,’ says Peter Frenzen, monument scientist, ‘but this was cut in less than a decade.’” National Geographic, May 2000, p. 121.

100ft deep canyon in hard basaltic rock formed on Mt. St. Helens from avalanches.

The Grand Canyon

Secular geologists have taught that the Colorado river eroded the Grand Canyon over 3-5 million years based on uniformitarianism assumptions.

Grand Canyon Catastrophe
Creation scientists have taught for many years that the Grand Canyon was eroded rapidly when a dam on the northern end burst causing a massive catastrophic flood of water to cut through the Colorado plateau rapidly.

Grand Canyon, Monument to Catastrophe by Steven A. Austin, ed.: 1994, Institute for Creation Research, Santee, Calif. ISBN # 0-932766-33-1

Grand Canyon; Grand and Young
Secular geologists now believe that a massive flash floods have occurred, which resulted from breached lava dams. As much as a third of the canyon's depth may have been cut in the blink of a geologic eye. They found evidence of a 400,000 cfs flow that occurred about 4,000 years ago.

Grand Canyon; Grand and Young University of Arizona - 2003


according to uniformitarianism
After death, the ammonite slowly sinks to the sea floor. Scavengers feed on the fleshy body of the creature, and after only several weeks all that remains is the shell.


according to uniformitarianism
Several months after death the shell gradually becomes covered with silt and sand. These layers continue to build, providing a shield around the shell and protecting it from damage. Time continues to pass and more and more layers are deposited. After a few hundred years the shell is several feet beneath the surface.


according to uniformitarianism
Gradually the chemicals in the shell undergo a series of changes. As the shell slowly decays, water infused with minerals passes through it, replacing the chemicals in the shell with rock-like minerals (Calcite, Iron or Silica). Over millions of years the original shell is completely replaced by the minerals and what remains is a rock-like copy of the original shell. The fossil has the same shape as the original object, but is actually rock.


Evidence of Rapid Burial
Geologists claim that fossilization requires millions of years to occur. However, many fossils have been found with fully articulated skeletons, hair, scales, feathers, and soft fleshy parts such as skin, cartilage, unborn fetuses and stomachs containing the animals' last meal.

From the marrow cavity of a fossilized Tyrannosaurus rex thighbone, scientists have extracted soft tissue. The flexible tissue can be stretched (see arrow) and returns to its original form. March 2005.

Dinosaur Found in Stomach of Mammal Jan 2005

Fossil Fish Fleshy parts fossilized. Did this
fish survive decomposition for millions of years?

Fossilized Leaves

Carbonized plant Thinnfeldia feistmanteli, Australia. Source: Museum Victoria. http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/image_html/mr007225.html

Fossilized Horse

Source: Messel Pit Fossil Site http://www.unesco-welterbe.de/en/

Petrified Wood
Wood decomposes extremely fast because it is made of pure sugar (cellulose), which is the preferred food for decomposers. Wood and bone will only become fossilized if buried or submerged rapidly following death in a high salt solution where carbonates are precipitating.
US Patent for Petrified Wood Patent No. 4,612,050
“A mineralized sodium silicate solution for the application to wood has a composition causing it to penetrate the wood and jell within the wood so as to give the wood the nonburning characteristics of petrified wood.”

Petrified Forest, Utah

Rapid Oil Formation
Geologists have claimed that petroleum formation from plant and animal remains requires more than 100 millions of years, but recent experiments have shown that oil can be produced under the right conditions in a matter of minutes. “Experiments by the U.S. Bureau of mines showed that petroleum (oil) can be produced from organic material in only 20 minutes.” Hayden R. Appell, Y.C. Fu, Sam Friedman, et al, “Converting Organic Wastes to Oil,” RL-7560 (Washington, D.C., United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1971.) " British scientists claimed to have invented a way to turn household garbage into oil suitable for home heating or power plant use. 'We are doing in 10 minutes what it has taken nature 150 million years to do', said Noel McAuliffe of Manchester University..." Sentinel Star, 2/26/1982

Rapid Oil Formation
• DISCOVER Vol. 24 No. 5 (May 2003) • Changing World Technologies in Philadelphia has constructed a plant that can change almost any carbon based matter into oil. The process requires: – super-hydration – modestly high temperatures – modestly high pressures – 15 minutes cooking time • "The chief difference in our process is that we make water a friend rather than an enemy," he says. "The other processes all tried to drive out water. We drive it in, inside this tank, with heat and pressure. We super-hydrate the material.”.. Brian
Appel CEO

Thermal Depolymerization Plant in Philadelphia

Rapid Coal Formation
Researchers have shown that plant matter can be turned into coal in a matter of hours.
"A rather startling and serendipitous discovery resulted....These observations suggest that in their formation, high rank coals,....were probably subjected to high temperature at some stage in their history. A possible mechanism for formation of these high rank coals could have been a short time, rapid heating event." [Six Hours], GEORGE R. HILL (Dean of College of Mines & Mineral Industries at the University of Utah), Chemical Technology, May, 1972, pp. 292-296.

Human Artifacts in Coal
Sulfur Springs Arkansas Nov. 27 - 1948 “While I was working in the Municipal Electric Plant in Thomas, Okla. in 1912, I came upon a solid chuck of coal which was too large to use. I broke it with a sledge hammer. This iron pot fell from the center, leaving the impression, or mould of the pot in a piece of the coal. Jim Stull (an employee of the company) witnessed the breaking of the coal, and saw the pot fall out. Creation Evidences Museum, Glen Rose, Texas. I traced the source of the coal and found that it came from Wilburton, Oklahoma Mines.” Frank J. Kennord

Polystrate Tree in Sandstone and Coal

Evidence of Rapid Burial
Polystrate Fossils
Petrified tree trunks are found that frequently cross several strata proving the layers were deposited at the same time instead of over millions of years.

Yellowstone’s Petrified Forest

Yellowstone’s Petrified Forest

Across the valley rise the slopes of Specimen Ridge, but the forest you see there today is only the latest chapter in a remarkable story. Buried within the volcanic rocks that compose the mountain are twenty-seven distinct layers of fossil forests that flourished 50 million years ago.

Vertical Trees in Spirit Lake

Upright Floating Logs at Mt. St. Helens

Trees floating upright in Spirit Lake suggest a mechanisms for the formation of polystrate trees.

Mechanism for Polystrate Trees

Upright Floating Logs in Spirit Lake

It was found that these floating trees would sink to the bottom in an upright position and become rapidly buried in sediment.

Source of the Great Flood
Genesis 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened.

Source of the Great Flood

Mid Oceanic Ridge / Lithosphere Plates

The flood possibly began when the earth's crust was fractured releasing subterranean caverns of water and magma.

Source of the Great Flood
• During the flood of Noah subterranean fountains persisted for 150 days. (Gen 7:11-24) Spring water such as the famous Artesian Wells originate from ancient underground aquifers like the Ogallala aquifer, which spans 8 states in the US. These buried waters are possibly a remnants of the fountains of the great deep that bursts forth during the Biblical flood.

Fountains of the Deep

The Bible states there was a worldwide flood, and terrestrial organisms were saved from this event by supernatural intervention. A naturalist cannot correctly interpret the geological evidence from the Biblical global flood because supernatural intervention was involved. Although the world is covered in hundreds of feet of sedimentary rock, the presence of the organisms alive today are being explained naturalistically. To a naturalist, these layers of sediment must have accumulated at a rate the animals could survive naturally. Slow and gradual deposition over millions of years and repeated local floods are required to explain the existence of the geological column and the persistence of life through natural mechanisms.

Age Dating Techniques
C-14 Decay N-14


Decay Decay


Radiometric dating techniques measure the quantity of radioactive atomic isotopes within a sample, and determine its age based on the decay rate. • C-14 : Carbon life forms • Other Isotopes : Igneous rocks Assumptions • Amount of parent? • Amount of daughter isotope? • Constant rate of formation or decay? • Closed system - no adding or subtracting of materials?



Parent and Daughter Isotopes

C-14 Production and Use
Cosmic Rays (radiation)

Collision with atmospheric N forms C-14

C-14 combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2)

C-14 is produced in the atmosphere and assimilated into plants as carbon dioxide then passes through the food chain.

Problem with C-14 Dating
C-14 decays
Organisms are dated by measuring the radioactive emissions of C-14. Critical Assumption - The amount of C-14 produced in the atmosphere has been constant throughout history. Problem - It has been determined that the present production rate of C-14 exceeds the decay rate by as much as 25 percent.

Note: In an attempt to correct for the increase in C-14 levels in the atmosphere, the sample being dated is compared with emissions from a standardizing sample that lived early in the 19th century, before the industrial revolution which is thought to have caused increased C-14 atmospheric levels.

Excessive C-14 Dates
Conclusion - Our atmosphere has changed and may still be changing.
– Rainbow only after the flood – Ozone Hole – Global Warming

It is likely that there was less C-14 being produced in the atmosphere before the flood. Organisms are dated based on current C-14 levels and those with small amounts of C14 are believed to possess less due to decay and therefore calculated to be older than is probably correct.

Igneous Isotope Age Dating
Radioactive isotopes - Used to date igneous rocks and thereby determine a minimum age of sedimentary strata associated with them. Sedimentary rocks can not be directly dated with isotopic dating techniques. Assumptions – Original amount of parent isotope? – Original amount of daughter? – Constant rates? – Closed system?

Igneous Dike

Basaltic rocks of Uinkaret Plateau
six K-Ar model ages five Rb-Sr model ages one Rb-Sr isochron age one Pb-Pb isochron age 0.01 to 17 million 1270 to 1390 million 1340 million 2600 million

Inconsistent Age Dating

Paleozoic Precambrian

Gardenas Basalt (Precambrian)
five K-Ar model ages six Rb-Sr model ages one K-Ar isochron age one Rb-Sr isochron age 791 to 853 million 980 to 1100 million 715 million 1070 million

Excessive Age Dating
• Lava flows at Mt. Ngaurhoe, New Zealand
– Potassium-argon: 275,000 – Reality: 1949, 1954, 1975

Mt. Etna basalt, Sicily

– Potassium-argon: 140,000 – 350,000 – Reality: 1972 – Potassium-argon: 1.4 – 22 million – Reality: AD 1801 – Potassium-argon: 200,000+ – Reality: AD 1065

Hualalai basalt, Hawaii

Sunset Crater, Northern Arizona

Mt. Etna, Sicily

Is Radiometric Dating Reliable?
Evolutionist William Stansfield, Ph.D. The Science of Evolution (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977), p. 84. "It is obvious that radiometric techniques may not be the absolute dating methods that they are claimed to be. Age estimates on a given geological stratum by different radiometric methods are often quite different (sometimes by hundreds of millions of years). There is no absolutely reliable long-term radiological 'clock'.”

Is Radiometric Dating Reliable?
Frederic B. Jueneman, "Secular Catastrophism," Industrial Research and Development, Vol. 24 (June 1982), p. 21. "The age of our globe is presently thought to be some 4.5 billion years, based on radio-decay rates of uranium and thorium. Such 'confirmation' may be shortlived, as nature is not to be discovered quite so easily. There has been in recent years the horrible realization that radio-decay rates are not as constant as previously thought, nor are they immune to environmental influences. And this could mean that the atomic clocks are reset during some global disaster, and events which brought the Mesozoic to a close may not be 65 million years ago, but rather, within the age and memory of man."

The fossil record is not evidence for evolution, but rather the Biblical global flood of Noah.

Under-the-Rim With the Hoodoos Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah

Rapid Oil Formation

Thermal Depolymerization Plant in Philadelphia

Was There a Global Flood?
BIBLICAL SUMMARY • The 450 ft long ark was bore up by the flood, and free floating for 7 months and 17 days, (Gen 6:15, 7:17, 8:4) The flood water covered the mountain by 15 cubits or 22.5 feet. (Gen 7: 19-20) The ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat 2.5 months before the tops of the mountains were seen. (Gen 8:4-5) Everything that breathed on dry land died. All birds, cattle, beasts, swarming creatures, and every human. (Gen 7:21-22)

Origin of Life
Natural or Supernatural?
Evolutionists claim that life on earth developed through purely natural processes. However, the Bible says God created many kind of organisms simultaneously, including humans. Today our ecosystem requires the simultaneous coexistence of both producers, consumers, and also decomposers. The extinction of any of these groups would mean the end of life on earth as we know it.

Living populations change through time by a process that allows them to adapt to their habitat or niche. Species become individually specialized for their specific local ecosystem. The Bible says many kinds of animals were saved from the flood as a single breeding pair or one species. Following their reintroduction from the ark, many more unique species have developed.

• James Hutton (1785) Anticatastrophism - uniformity of causes. The doctrine that sedimentary rocks are the result of cyclic processes of decay and rejuvenation. Charles Lyell (1875) Gradualism - uniformity of intensity. It was argued that the same gradual processes and intensities occurring today were largely responsible for geologic formations.

Charles Lyell

Index Fossils
• Particular layers in the geological column are identified by the unique fossil they contain. (index fossils) Index fossils must be widespread on earth, but restricted to a limit thickness of strata. Most index fossils are marine organisms such as the trilobite or ammonite.

Geological Column

Rainbow Bridge Lake Powell, Utah

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