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Changes for version 1.1 included the insertion of a new chapter 5 for the 2007 specification and some minor mathematical corrections in chapters 2 and 4. Please note that these are not side-barred. Changes for version 1.2 include further corrections to chapter 4 and a correction to the numbering of the exercises in chapter 5. Changes for version 1.3 include mathematical corrections to exercises and answers.

GCE Mathematics (6360) Further Pure unit 2 (MFP2) Textbook

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Copyright © 2007 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Further Pure 2: Contents

Chapter 1: Complex numbers 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

4 5 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 21 22 22 24 27 28 31 32 33 38 39 40 45 48 53 54 56 60 69 71 74 77

Introduction The general complex number The modulus and argument of a complex number The polar form of a complex number Addition, subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers of the form x + iy 1.6 The conjugate of a complex number and the division of complex numbers of the form x +iy 1.7 Products and quotients of complex numbers in their polar form 1.8 Equating real and imaginary parts 1.9 Further consideration of |z2 – z1| and arg(z2 –z1) 1.10 Loci on Argand diagrams

Chapter 2: Roots of polynomial equations 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction Quadratic equations Cubic equations Relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients Cubic equations with related roots An important result Polynomial equations of degree n Complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients

Chapter 3: Summation of finite series 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Introduction Summation of series by the method of differences Summation of series by the method of induction Proof by induction extended to other areas of mathematics

Chapter 4: De Moivre’s theorem and its applications 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 De Moivre’s theorem Using de Moivre’s theorem to evaluate powers of complex numbers Application of de Moivre’s theorem in establishing trigonometric identities Exponential form of a complex number The cube roots of unity The nth roots of unity The roots of z n = α , where α is a non-real number

continued overleaf

2

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Further Pure 2: Contents (continued)

Chapter 5: Inverse trigonometrical functions 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

85 86 89 91 94 96 102 103 104 105 106 110 111 114 115 116 119 122 125 131 132 133 137 143

Introduction and revision The derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions Application to more complex differentiation Standard integrals integrating to inverse trigonometrical functions Applications to more complex integrals

Chapter 6: Hyperbolic functions 6.1 Definitions of hyperbolic functions 6.2 Numerical values of hyperbolic functions 6.3 Graphs of hyperbolic functions 6.4 Hyperbolic identities 6.5 Osborne’s rule 6.6 Differentiation of hyperbolic functions 6.7 Integration of hyperbolic functions 6.8 Inverse hyperbolic functions 6.9 Logarithmic form of inverse hyperbolic functions 6.10 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions 6.11 Integrals which integrate to inverse hyperbolic functions 6.12 Solving equations Chapter 7: Arc length and area of surface of revolution 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Arc length 7.3 Area of surface of revolution Answers to the exercises in Further Pure 2

3

9 1.5 1.1 1. subtract. know how to add. When you have completed it.10 Loci on Argand diagrams This chapter introduces the idea of a complex number. 4 .7 1.3 1. subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers of the form x + iy The conjugate of a complex number and the division of complex numbers of the form x + iy Products and quotients of complex numbers in their polar form Equating real and imaginary parts Further consideration of z2 − z1 and arg( z2 − z1 ) 1. know how to solve equations using real and imaginary parts. understand what an Argand diagram is.4 1. know how to sketch loci on Argand diagrams.8 1.6 Introduction The general complex number The modulus and argument of a complex number The polar form of a complex number Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Addition. you will: • • • • • • know what is meant by a complex number. know what is meant by the modulus and argument of a complex number.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 1: Complex Numbers 1. multiply and divide complex numbers.2 1.

if you use a calculator to evaluate −64 you get an error message. The set of real numbers. ! (with which you are familiar). both 2 + 3i and −1 − 4i are complex numbers. So. 1.2 The general complex number The most general number that can be written down has the form x + iy . where x and y are real numbers.1 Introduction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You will have discovered by now that some problems cannot be solved in terms of real numbers. The term x + iy is a complex number with x being the real part and iy the imaginary part. This is because squaring every real number gives a positive value. a symbol is used to denote it – the symbol used is i. both (+8) 2 and (−8) 2 are equal to 64. −1 = i It follows that i 2 = −1 −64 = 64 × −1 = 64 × −1 = 8i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. " . 5 . For example. This is because real numbers are actually numbers of the form x + 0i. As −1 cannot be evaluated. is really a subset of the set of complex numbers.

The point P(x. The argument of a complex number z is given y by arg z = θ . –π). y P(x. The modulus of a complex number z is given by z = x 2 + y 2 The argument of z. and hence z = x + iy. or both. Thus z = OP = r.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The modulus and argument of a complex number Just as real numbers can be represented by points on a number line. 6 . The diagram of points in Cartesian coordinates representing complex numbers is called an Argand diagram. are negative. complex numbers can be represented by points in a plane. y) in the plane of coordinates with axes Ox and Oy represents the complex number x + iy and the number is uniquely represented by that point. where tan θ = x You must be careful when x or y. y) r θ O x If the complex number x + iy is denoted by z. arg z. z (‘mod zed’) is defined as the distance from the origin O to the point P representing z. is defined as the angle between the line OP and the positive x-axis – usually in the range (π.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1.

Give your answers for arg z in radians to two decimal places. (b) 3 + 4 i . O −1 x 3 Note that when tan θ = − 3. Find the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers: (a) 1 − i. z = (−1) 2 + ( ) 3 = 2 and tan θ = 3 = − 3. arg z = 2π . This is why you need to be careful when evaluating the argument of a complex number. 2 ( 3) Exercise 1A 1. 2. 3 The point P representing this number. the sketch clearly shows 3 3 that θ lies in the second quadrant. θ −1 Therefore. Give your answers for arg z in radians to two decimal places. (d) − 3 − i .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 1. However. Find the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers: (a) −3 + i . θ could equal + 2π or − π . (b) 3i. z.3. (c) −4. 7 . Solution y P − 1.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the modulus and argument of the complex number −1 + 3i. is shown on the diagram. (c) −1 − 7 i .

x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ .4 The polar form of a complex number In the diagram alongside. in the form x + iy. This is called the polar. where z = r and arg z = θ For brevity. or modulus–argument. θ). y) r θ O x A complex number may be written in the form z = r (cosθ + i sin θ ). 3 3 ( ) 8 . 2. If P is the point representing the complex number z = x + iy.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y P(x. Write the complex numbers given in Exercise 1A in polar coordinate form. it follows that z may be written in the form r cos θ + ir sin θ . 4 4 ( ) (b) 4 cos − 2π + i sin − 2π . Find. the complex numbers given in polar coordinate form by: (a) z = 2 cos 3π + i sin 3π . Exercise 1B 1. r (cosθ + i sin θ ) can be written as (r. form of a complex number.

5 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Addition. (since i 2 = −1) In general. if z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2 . = 3 + 4i − 6i − 8i 2 = 3 − 2i + 8 = 11 − 2i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1.5. Find z1 + z2 and z1 z2 when: (a) z1 = 1 + 2i and z2 = 2 − i. z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2 ) + i(b1 + b2 ) z1 − z2 = (a1 − a2 ) + i(b1 − b2 ) z1 z2 = a1a2 − b1b2 + i(a2b1 + a1b2 ) Exercise 1C 1.1 Given that z1 = 3 + 4i and z2 = 1 − 2i. subtraction and multiplication of complex numbers of the form x + iy Complex numbers can be subjected to arithmetic operations. Solution (a) z1 + z2 = (3 + 4i) + (1 − 2i) = 4 + 2i. Example 1. (b) z1 − z2 and (c) z1 z2 . (c) z1 z2 = (3 + 4i)(1 − 2i) (b) z1 − z2 = (3 + 4i) − (1 − 2i) = 2 + 6i. (b) z1 = −2 + 6i and z2 = 1 + 2i. Consider the example below. 9 . find (a) z1 + z2 .

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. where z1 = 3 + 4i and z2 = 1 − 2i. 2 Solution 3 + 4i = (3 + 4i)(1 + 2i) 1 − 2i (1 − 2i)(1 + 2i) = 3 + 4i + 6i + 8i2 1 − 2i + 2i − 4i = −5 + 10i 5 = −1 + 2i. Example 1.1 z Simplify z1 . find z1 where 2 (a) z1 = 4 + 2i and z2 = 2 − i.e. the point representing the complex number z* is the reflection of the point representing z in the x-axis. Exercise 1D 2 z multiply the numerator and denominator of z1 by z2* . (b) z1 = −2 + 6i and z2 = 1 + 2i.6. i.6 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The conjugate of a complex number and the division of complex numbers of the form x + iy The conjugate of a complex number z = x + iy (usually denoted by z* or z ) is the complex number z* = x − iy. and that of 2 − i is 2 + i. the conjugate of −3 + 2i is −3 − 2i. On an Argand diagram. The most important property of z* is that the product z z* is real since z z* = ( x + iy )( x − iy ) = x 2 + ixy − ixy − i 2 y 2 = x2 + y 2 . For the sets of complex numbers z1 and z2 . (1 + 2i) 2 so that the product of the denominator becomes a real number z 1. Thus. 10 . z z* = z 2 Division of two complex numbers demands a little more care than their addition or multiplication – and usually requires the use of the complex conjugate.

6 6 3 3 Solution ( ) ( ) z1 z2 = 2 cos π + i sin π × 3 cos π − i sin π 3 3 6 6 ( ) ( ) = 6 ( cos π cos π + i sin π cos π − i sin π cos π − i sin π sin π ) 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 = 6 ⎡cos π cos π + sin π sin π + i ( sin π cos π − cos π sin π ) ⎤ ⎢ 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 = 6 ⎡cos π − π + i sin π − π ⎤ ⎢ 3 6 3 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 6 cos π + i sin π . Exercise 1E 1. and the argument of z1 z2 is the sum of the arguments of z1 and z2 . (a) Find z1 if z1 = 2 cos π + i sin π and z2 = 3 cos π − i sin π .7.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. it follows that the modulus of z1 z2 is the product of the modulus of 6 z1 and the modulus of z2 . Example 1. 6 6 ( ( ) ) ( ) Using the identities: cos( A − B ) ≡ cos A cos B + sin A sin B sin( A − B) ≡ sin A cos B − cos A sin B Noting that arg z2 is − π .1 Find z1 z 2 if z1 = 2 cos π + i sin π and z2 = 3 cos π − i sin π . 3 3 6 6 z2 z (b) What can you say about the modulus and argument of z1 ? 2 ( ) ( ) 11 .7 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Products and quotients of complex numbers in their polar form If two complex numbers are given in polar form they can be multiplied and divided without having to rewrite them in the form x + iy.

θ 2 ) then z1 = ⎜ r1 .7. Solution z1 z2 = r1 (cos θ1 + i sin θ1 ) r2 (cos θ 2 + i sin θ 2 ) = r1r2 ⎡ cos θ1 cosθ 2 + i( sin θ1 cos θ 2 + cosθ1 sin θ 2 ) + i 2 sin θ1 sin θ 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = r1r2 [ (cosθ1 cosθ 2 − sin θ1 sin θ 2 ) + i( sin θ1 cos θ 2 + cos θ1 sin θ 2 ) ] = r1r2 [ cos(θ1 + θ 2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ 2 ) ] .2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook If z1 = ( r1 . θ 2 ) then z1 z2 = (r1r2 . show that z1 z2 = r1r2 [ cos(θ1 + θ 2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ 2 ) ] .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 1. θ1 − θ 2 ⎟ – with the 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ same proviso regarding the size of the angle θ1 − θ 2 12 . θ 2 ) . θ1 ) and z2 = (r2 . If z1 = (r1 . θ1 ) and z2 = (r2 . θ1 + θ 2 ) – with the proviso that 2π may have to be added to. θ1 ) and z2 = ( r2 . z ⎛r ⎞ If z1 = (r1 . θ1 + θ 2 if θ1 + θ 2 is outside the permitted range for θ There is a corresponding result for division – you could try to prove it for yourself. or subtracted from.

6. Hence. c and d are real. Thus. then z* = (a − ib). a = 2 and b = 3. Then. . 13 (c) z + i = 2 z* − 1. where a. Equating real and imaginary parts. (b) ( z − i)(3 + i) = 7i + 11. 2π 3 (a) z1 z2 . in polar form. (3 − 4i)(a + ib) − (1 + i)(a − ib) = 13 + 2i. While this method is not as straightforward as the method used earlier. 2 3 + 4i .8. (d) z13 . b.6.8 Equating real and imaginary parts Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook z Going back to Example 1. It also illustrates the concept of equating real and imaginary parts. Solution Let z = (a + ib).1. z12 2. z = 2 + 3i. z1 can be simplified by another method. the complex numbers 2 z2 . giving −1 + 2i as the answer to a + ib as in Example 1.1. −5a + 4b = 2. so the real parts can be equated and the imaginary parts can also be equated: a + 2b = 3 and b − 2a = 4. Exercise 1F 1. If a + ib = c + id . Multiplying out. (e) (a) (1 + i) z = 2 + 3i. a and b are real and the complex number on the left hand side of the equation is equal to the complex number on the right hand side. If z1 = 3. − 6 ) .1 Find the complex number z satisfying the equation (3 − 4i) z − (1 + i) z* = 13 + 2i. Now. it is still a valid method. So. ( π ) and z = ( 2. 3a − 4ia + 3ib − 4i 2b − a − ia + ib + i 2b = 13 + 2i. 2a + 3b = 13. 2a + 3b + i(−5a + 4b) = 13 + 2i. then a = c and b = d Example 1. Suppose we let a + ib = Thus b = 2 and a = −1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 1. 1 − 2i (1 − 2i)(a + ib) = 3 + 4i ⇒ a + 2b + i(b − 2a) = 3 + 4i. Simplifying. find. 2 (c) z12 . Find the complex number satisfying each of these equations: z (b) z1 .

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

1.9

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Further consideration of z2 − z1 and arg( z2 − z1)

Section 1.5 considered simple cases of the sums and differences of complex numbers. Consider now the complex number z = z2 − z1 , where z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 . The points A and B represent z1 and z2 , respectively, on an Argand diagram.

y

A ( x1 , y1 )

B ( x2 , y 2 )

C

O

x

**Then z = z2 − z1 = ( x2 − x1 ) + i( y2 − y1 ) and is represented by the point C ( x2 − x1 , y2 − y1 ). This makes OABC a parallelogram. From this it follows that
**

z2 − z1 = OC = ⎡ ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 ⎤ , ⎣ ⎦

1 2

that is to say z2 − z1 is the length AB in the Argand diagram. Similarly arg( z2 − z1 ) is the angle between OC and the positive direction of the x-axis. This in turn is the angle between AB and the positive x direction. If the complex number z1 is represented by the point A, and the complex number z2 is represented by the point B in an Argand diagram, then

z2 − z1 = AB, and arg( z2 − z1 ) is the angle between AB and the positive

→

**direction of the x-axis
**

Exercise 1G

1. Find z2 − z1 and arg( z2 − z1 ) in (a) z1 = 2 + 3i, z2 = 7 + 5i, (b) z1 = 1 − 3i, z2 = 4 + i, (c) z1 = −1 + 2i, z2 = −4 − 5i.

14

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

1.10 Loci on Argand diagrams

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

A locus is a path traced out by a point subjected to certain restrictions. Paths can be traced out by points representing variable complex numbers on an Argand diagram just as they can in other coordinate systems. Consider the simplest case first, when the point P represents the complex number z such that z = k . This means that the distance of P from the origin O is constant and so P will trace out a circle.

z = k represents a circle with centre O and radius k

If instead z − z1 = k , where z1 is a fixed complex number represented by the point A on an Argand diagram, then (from Section 1.9) z − z1 represents the distance AP and is constant. It follows that P must lie on a circle with centre A and radius k.

z − z1 = k represents a circle with centre z1 and radius k

Note that if z − z1 ≤ k , then the point P representing z can not only lie on the circumference of the circle, but also anywhere inside the circle. The locus of P is therefore the region on and within the circle with centre A and radius k. Now consider the locus of a point P represented by the complex number z subject to the conditions z − z1 = z − z2 , where z1 and z2 are fixed complex numbers represented by the points A and B on an Argand diagram. Again, using the result of Section 1.9, it follows that AP = BP because z − z1 is the distance AP and z − z2 is the distance BP. Hence, the locus of P is a straight line.

z − z1 = z − z2 represents a straight line – the perpendicular

bisector of the line joining the points z1 and z2 Note also that if z − z1 ≤ z − z2 the locus of z is not only the perpendicular bisector of AB, but also the whole half plane, in which A lies, bounded by this bisector. y All the loci considered so far have been related to distances – there are also simple loci in Argand diagrams involving angles. O α The simplest case is the locus of P subject to the condition that arg z = α , where α is a fixed angle.

P

x

15

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

This condition implies that the angle between OP and Ox is fixed (α ) so that the locus of P is a straight line. arg z = α represents the half line through O inclined at an angle α to the positive direction of Ox Note that the locus of P is only a half line – the other half line, shown dotted in the diagram above, would have the equation arg z = π + α , possibly ±2π if π + α falls outside the specified range for arg z. In exactly the same way as before, the locus of a point P satisfying arg( z − z1 ) = α , where z1 is a fixed complex number represented by the point A, is a line through A. arg( z − z1 ) = α represents the half line through the point z1 inclined at an angle α to the positive direction of Ox

y P A O α

x

Note again that this locus is only a half line – the other half line would have the equation arg( z − z1 ) = π + α , possibly ±2π. Finally, consider the locus of any point P satisfying α ≤ arg( z − z1 ) ≤ β . This indicates that the angle between AP and the positive x-axis lies between α and β , so that P can lie on or within the two half lines as shown shaded in the diagram below.

y

A O

β

α

x

16

4 4. 4 2. Sketch on an Argand diagram the region satisfying both z − 1 − i ≤ 3 and 0 ≤ arg z ≤ π . 6 2 3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 1H Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. Sketch on Argand diagrams the locus of points satisfying: (a) z = 3. Sketch on Argand diagrams the regions where: (a) z − 3i ≤ 3. (b) π ≤ arg( z − 4 − 2i) ≤ 5π . Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of points satisfying both z − i = z + 1 + 2i and z + 3i ≤ 4. (b) arg( z − 1) = π . 17 . (c) z − 2 − i = 5.

where z* denotes the complex conjugate of z. (b) Mark the point P on C at which z is a minimum. The complex number z satisfies the equation zz* − 3z − 2 z* = 2i. By putting z = x + iy. Find this minimum value. (a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the circle C whose equation is z − 3 − i = 1. [NEAB March 1998] 3. (c) Find the values of z and z − z* . giving your answers in the form a + ib. Find this maximum value. Find the complex number which satisfies the equation 2 z + iz* = 4 − i. 2+i * denotes the complex conjugate of z. (a) Find z in the form a + ib. where a and b are real. [NEAB June 1998] 18 . Find the two possible values of z. (c) Mark the point Q on C at which arg z is a maximum. find the complex number z which satisfies the equation z + 2 z* = 1 + i .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. [AQA June 2001] 2. (b) Mark and label on an Argand diagram the points representing z and its conjugate. [AQA March 2000] 4. where z* denotes the complex conjugate of z. z * . where z [AQA Specimen] 5. The complex number z satisfies the equation 3 ( z − 1) = i ( z + 1) .

(i) Show that z2 = 4 and arg z2 = π . giving your answer for the argument in the form pπ where −1 < p ≤ 1. in surd form. (b) The complex number z1 has modulus 2 2 and argument − 7π . 1 respectively. 6 (ii) Mark on an Argand diagram the points P and P2 which represent z1 and z2 . the distance between P and P2 . (a) Sketch on a common Argand diagram (i) the locus of points for which z − 2 − 3i = 3. (ii) the locus of points for which arg z = 1 π. 1 [AQA June 2000] 19 . The complex number z is defined by z = 1 + 3i . 1 − 2i (a) (i) Express z in the form a + ib. (ii) Find the modulus and argument of z. 4 (b) Indicate. by shading.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. 4 [AQA June 2001] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 7. The complex number 12 z2 is defined by z2 = z z1. the region for which z − 2 − 3i < 3 and arg z < 1 π. (iii) Find.

respectively. P and Q in the complex plane represent the complex numbers 0 + 0i. Find the exact length of PQ and hence.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 8. (ii) Express z A in the form a + ib. 3−i Express each of z and w in the form a + ib. [AQA March 1999] 9. (c) At the point A defined in part (b)(ii). (a) The complex numbers z and w are such that z = ( 4 + 2i )( 3 − i ) and w = 4 + 2i . (a) Indicate on an Argand diagram the region of the complex plane in which 0 ≤ arg ( z + 1) ≤ 2π . (b) (i) Write down the modulus and argument of each of the complex numbers 4 + 2i and 3 − i. [AEB June 1997] 20 . z = z A . show that the triangle OPQ is right-angled. or otherwise. 4 + 2i and 3 − i. (ii) Mark on this diagram the point A belonging to R at which z has its least possible value. and ( ) 6 (i) Sketch another Argand diagram showing the region R in which z must lie. (ii) The points O. (i) Calculate the value of z A . 3 (b) The complex number z is such that 0 ≤ arg ( z + 1) ≤ 2π 3 π ≤ arg z + 3 ≤ π. where a and b are real. Give each modulus in an exact surd form and each argument in radians between − π and π.

know that complex conjugates are roots of polynomials with real coefficients.8 Introduction Quadratic equations Cubic equations Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 2: Roots of Polynomial Equations Relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients Cubic equations with related roots An important result Polynomial equations of degree n Complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients This chapter revises work already covered on roots of equations and extends those ideas.4 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. you will: • • • • • • know how to solve any quadratic equation. 21 .6 2. When you have completed it. be able to form cubic equations with related roots. know the relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients. know how to extend these results to polynomials of higher degree.5 2. know that there is a relationship between the number of real roots and form of a polynomial equation.7 2.1 2.3 2. and be able to sketch graphs.2 2.

–8) The roots of this quadratic equation are those of ( x − 2)( x + 4) = 0. for example. Graphically. There are normally two ways of solving a quadratic equation – by factorizing and. the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are the points of intersection of the curve y = ax 2 + bx + c and the line y = 0 (i. one with x 4 as the highest power of x is called a quartic equation. a sketch of part of y = x 2 + 2 x − 8 is shown below. a polynomial equation of degree 3 has x 3 as the highest power of x and is called a cubic equation.e. For example. 22 . one with x 2 as the highest power of x.2 Quadratic equations You should be familiar with quadratic equations and their properties from your earlier studies of pure mathematics. y (–4. You will know. 0) (2. by the quadratic formula. In this chapter you are going to study the properties of the roots of these equations and investigate methods of solving them. Similarly. 2.1 Introduction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You should have already met the idea of a polynomial equation.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. A polynomial equation of degree 2. that quadratic equations of the type you have met have two roots (which may be coincident). 0) x (0. However. even if this section is familiar to you it provides a suitable base from which to move on to equations of higher degree. is called a quadratic equation. in cases where this is impossible. the x-axis). which are x = 2 and − 4.

Not all quadratic equations are as straightforward as the ones considered so far. You may also have observed that whether a quadratic equation has real or complex roots depends on the value of the discriminant b 2 − 4ac. In fact the two roots are complex conjugates. It follows that the equation x 2 − 4 x + 5 = 0 does have Chapter1. The equation x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 may be written as ( x − 2) 2 = 0 and x = 2. 5) (2. 0) x In this case. 4) O (2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook A sketch of part of the curve y = x 2 − 4 x + 4 is shown below. using ideas from 2 4 ± 2i or 2 ± i. has complex roots if b 2 − 4ac < 0 23 . but they are both complex numbers. this becomes 2 two roots. b and c are real. The quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . 1) O x This curve does not touch the x-axis so the equation x 2 − 4 x + 5 = 0 cannot have real roots. x 2 − 4 x + 5 will not factorize so the quadratic formula ⎜ x = −b ± b − 4ac ⎟ has to 2a ⎝ ⎠ be used to solve this equation. a repeated root. This leads to x = 4 ± 16 − 20 and. y (0. (0. 2 ⎛ ⎞ Certainly. where a. A sketch of part of the curve y = x 2 − 4 x + 5 is shown below. the curve touches the x-axis.

as x → ∞. (b) x 2 + 10 x + 26 = 0.3 Cubic equations As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter. equations of the form ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 are called cubic equations. 2. then ax3 → −∞ as x → ∞. and ax3 → ∞ as x → −∞ and this does not affect the result. If a < 0. Also. The reason for this is that cubic curves are continuous – they do not have asymptotes or any other form of discontinuity. the term ax3 becomes the dominant part of the expression and ax3 → ∞ (if a > 0) . Solve the equations (a) x 2 + 6 x + 10 = 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 2A Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. whilst ax3 → −∞ when x → −∞. Hence the curve must cross the line y = 0 at least once. All cubic equations have at least one real root – and this real root is not always easy to locate. 24 .

(b) 2 -5 0 0 5 x -2 25 . the curve crosses the line y = 0 just once. indicating just one real root.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook A typical cubic equation. ∴ f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = ( x − 1)( x + 3)( x + 1). –3 and –1. then f (1) = 1 + 3 − 1 − 3 = 0. The equation of this curve has three real roots because the curve crosses the line y = 0 at three points. can look like any of the sketches below. Hence the roots of f(x) = 0 are 1. O x y y O x O x In each of the two sketch graphs above. In both cases. Example 2. (b) Sketch a graph of y = x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3. the cubic equation will have two complex roots as well as the single real root. y = ax3 + bx 2 + cx + d with a > 0. Therefore x − 1 is a factor of f(x).3.1 (a) Find the roots of the cubic equation x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 = 0. Solution (a) y 4 If f ( x) = x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3.

Solve the equations (a) x3 − x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0. Hence the roots of f ( x) = 0 are 2 and −3 ± 2i. Exercise 2B 1.2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the roots of the cubic equation x3 + 4 x 2 + x − 26 = 0. (b) x3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0. (c) x3 + 2 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 2.3. Solution Let f ( x) = x3 + 4 x 2 + x − 26. Then f (2) = 8 + 16 + 2 − 26 = 0. The quadratic in this expression has no simple roots. Therefore x − 2 is a factor of f(x). 2 x = −b ± b − 4ac 2a = −6 ± 36 − 52 2 = −6 ± 4i 2 = −3 ± 2i. 26 . and f ( x) = ( x − 2)( x 2 + 6 x + 13). so using the quadratic formula on x 2 + 6 x + 13 = 0.

β and γ . (b) 3x 3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x + 2 = 0. αβγ = − d a Note that ∑ α means the sum of all the roots. The two sides are identical so the coefficients of x 2 and x can be compared. ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d ≡ a ( x − α )( x − β )( x − γ ) ≡ ax 3 − a(α + β + γ ) x 2 + a (αβ + βγ + γα ) x − a αβγ . ∑ αβ = 7 and αβγ = −5. which may be real or complex. so making the equations identical. and also the number terms. it may be written as a( x − α )( x − β )( x − γ ) = 0. b = −a(α + β + γ ) c = a(αβ + βγ + γα ) d = −a αβγ . 27 . c ∑ αβ = a . Thus.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. β and γ . on expanding the right hand side of the identity. and that ∑ αβ means the sum of all the possible products of roots taken two at a time. If ∑ α = 3. Exercise 2C 1. The roots of a cubic equation are α . state 2 the cubic equation. If the cubic equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 has roots α . 2. Find ∑ α . ∑ αβ and αβγ for the following cubic equations: (a) x3 − 7 x 2 + 12 x + 5 = 0.4 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Relationship between the roots of a cubic equation and its coefficients As a cubic equation has three roots. β and γ . it follows that if the general cubic equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 has roots α . then b ∑α = − a . Note that the factor a is required to ensure that the coefficients of x 3 are the same.

(a) Hence ∑ 2α = 2∑ α = 6 ∑ 2α ⋅ 2 β = 4∑ αβ = 0 2α ⋅ 2 β ⋅ 2γ = 8αβγ = −32. 28 . (b) roots α − 2. (b) ∑ (α − 2) = ( ∑ α ) − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 ∑ (α − 2)( β − 2) = ∑ αβ − 2∑ α − 2∑ β + (4 × 3) = ∑ αβ − 4∑ α + 12 = 0 − 12 + 12 = 0. (α − 2)( β − 2)(γ − 2) = αβγ − 2∑ αβ + 4∑ α − 8 = −4 − 0 + 12 − 8 = 0. Two methods are given. Hence the equation of the cubic must be x3 + 3x 2 = 0. α β γ Solution: method 1 From the given equation. From which the equation of the cubic must be x3 − 6 x 2 + 0 x + 32 = 0 or x 3 − 6 x 2 + 32 = 0.5. 1 and 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2.5 Cubic equations with related roots Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The example below shows how you can find equations whose roots are related to the roots of a given equation without having to find the actual roots.1 The cubic equation x3 − 3 x 2 + 4 = 0 has roots α . 2 β and 2γ . β and γ . (c) roots 1 . β − 2 and γ − 2. Example 2. ∑α = 3 ∑ αβ = 0 αβγ = −4. Find the cubic equations with: (a) roots 2α .

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) (c) 1 1 1 1 ∑α = α + β + γ ∑αβ = Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook αβγ = 0 = 0. 1 and 1 is α β γ or x3 − 0 x 2 − 3 x + 1 = 0 4 4 3 4 x − 3 x + 1 = 0. −4 1⋅1 = 1 + 1 + 1 ∑ α β αβ βγ γα = αβγ ∑α = 3 = − 3. 29 . α β γ −4 4 So that the cubic equation with roots 1 . 4 −4 1 ⋅ 1 ⋅1 = 1 = −1.

As the equation in x is x3 − 3x 2 + 4 = 0. β + 1 and γ + 1. Repeat Questions 1 and 2 above for the cubic equation 2 x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 = 0. α β γ 2. For x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 = 0 this gives x X 3 2 1 − 3 1 + 4 = 0. Repeat Question 1 above using the second method described above. β and γ . X X 3 On multiplying by X . if X = 2 x. it follows that. 3β and 3γ . 30 . (a) As the roots are to be 2α . if you substitute x = X the equation in X becomes 2 3 2 X − 3 X + 4 = 0. It is not always possible to use this second method. X = x − 2 gives x = X + 2 and substituting into x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 = 0 gives ( X + 2)3 − 3( X + 2) 2 + 4 = 0 which reduces to X 3 + 3 X 2 = 0. ( ) ( ) Exercise 2D 1. then any root of an equation in X must be 2 less than the corresponding root of the cubic in x.5. 3. 2 and 2 . The cubic equation x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 7 = 0 has roots α . 2 2 3 or X − 6 X 2 + 32 = 0 as before. (c) 2 . Now. (c) In this case you use the substitution X = 1 or x = 1 . this gives 1− 3X + 4 X 3 = 0 or 4 X 3 − 3X +1 = 0 as before.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Solution: method 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The second method of finding the cubic equations in Example 2. (b) α + 1. but when you can it is much quicker than the first. if you put X = x − 2 in x3 − 3 x 2 + 4 = 0. ( ) ( ) (b) In this case.1 is shown below. then a cubic equation in X must have roots which are twice the roots of the cubic equation in x. 2 β and 2γ . Using the first method described above. find the cubic equations whose roots are (a) 3α .

β 2 and γ 2 . 31 . Hence the cubic equation is x3 − 13x 2 + 46 x − 1 = 0. αβ ⋅ βγ ⋅ γα = α 2 β 2γ 2 = (−1) 2 = +1. α 2 β 2γ 2 = (−1)2 = 1.6.1 The cubic equation x3 − 5 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 0 has roots α . β and γ This result is well worth remembering – it is frequently needed in questions involving the symmetric properties of roots of a cubic equation.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. So. β and γ . (b) roots α 2 . Hence the cubic equation is x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x − 1 = 0. Thus ∑ α 2 β 2 = ( ∑ αβ ) − 2∑ αβ 2γ 2 2 = ( ∑ αβ ) − 2αβγ ∑ α = 36 − (2 × −1× 5) = 46. ( ∑α ) 2 = ∑ α 2 + 2∑ αβ . Example 2. 2 ∑ α 2 β 2 = ( ∑ αβ ) − 2∑ αβ . Find the cubic equations with (a) roots βγ .βγ using the same result but replacing α with αβ .6 An important result If you square α + β + γ you get (α + β + γ ) 2 = (α + β + γ )(α + β + γ ) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook = α 2 + αβ + αγ + βα + β 2 + βγ + γα + γβ + γ 2 = α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 + 2αβ + 2 βγ + 2γα .] Solution (a) ∑α = 5 ∑ αβ = 6 αβγ = −1 ∑ αβ ⋅ βγ = ∑ αβ 2γ = αβγ ∑ β = αβγ ∑ α = −1× 5 = −5. and γ with γα . γα and αβ . [Note that the direct approach illustrated below is the most straightforward way of solving this type of problem. (b) ∑ α 2 = ( ∑ α ) − 2∑ αβ = 52 − ( 2 × 6 ) = 13. 2 β with βγ . or 2 ∑ α 2 = ( ∑ α ) − 2∑ αβ for three numbers α .

7. ∑ αβγ is the sum of the products of all possible combinations of roots taken three at a time. a Remember that ∑ αβ is the sum of the products of all possible pairs of roots. 2 2 2 (c) Now ( ∑ α ) = (α + β + γ + δ ) (a) = α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 + δ 2 + 2(αβ + βγ + γδ + δα + αγ + βδ ) = ∑ α 2 + 2∑ αβ .7 Polynomial equations of degree n Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The ideas covered so far on quadratic and cubic equations can be extended to equations of any degree.6 can be extended to any number of letters. β . finally. γ . This shows that the ‘important result’ in Section 2. the product of the n roots αβγ … = . you are unlikely to meet equations of degree higher than 4 so this section concludes with an example using a quartic equation. Example 2. γ and δ . (−1) n k until.1 The quartic equation 2 x 4 + 4 x3 − 6 x 2 + x − 1 = 0 has roots α . (b) ∑ αβ . (c) Hence find ∑ α . In practice. An equation of degree 2 has two roots. 2 Solution −4 ∑ α = α + β + γ + δ = 2 = −2.… then b ∑α = − a . c ∑ αβ = a . (b) ∑ αβ = αβ + βγ + γδ + δα + αγ + βδ = −6 = −3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 2. Write down (a) ∑ α . one of degree 3 has three roots – so an equation of degree n has n roots. β . and so on. 32 . d ∑ αβγ = − a . Suppose the equation ax n + bx n −1 + cx n −2 + dx n −3 … + k = 0 has n roots α . Hence ∑ α 2 = ( ∑ α ) − 2∑ αβ 2 = (−2) 2 − 2(−3) = 10.

and odd powers of i comprise the imaginary part of f ( p − iq ). the imaginary part of f ( p − iq ) is −1 times the imaginary part of f ( p + iq ). Now if p + iq is a root of f ( x) = 0. u − iv = 0 making f ( p − iq ) = 0 and p − iq a root of f ( x) = 0.8 Complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients Consider the polynomial equation f ( x) = ax n + bx n −1 + cx n − 2 … + k . 2. But −i raised to an odd power is the same as +i raised to an odd power multiplied by −1 . β . p − iq. Using the ideas from Chapter 1. β γ (a) Find the equation with roots α . making the real part of f ( p − iq ) the same as the real part of f ( p + iq). if p and q are real. 33 . where u and v are real. If f ( x) = 0 has complex coefficients. Thus. 2 2 2 2 2 (b) Find ∑ α . where p and q are real. The quartic equation 2 x 4 − 3x 2 + 5 x − 8 = 0 has roots α . γ and δ . is also a root of the equation It is very important to note that the coefficients in f ( x) = 0 must be real. f ( p + iq) = a( p + iq) n + b( p + iq ) n −1 + … + k = u + iv . is a root of the polynomial. n f ( p − iq ) = a ( p − iq ) + b( p − iq )n −1 + … + k Now.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 2E Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. and δ . it follows that u + iv = 0 and so u = 0 and v = 0. then its complex conjugate. this result does not apply. . = u − iv since −i raised to an even power is real and is the same as +i raised to an even power. Hence. If a polynomial equation has real coefficients and if p + iq.

Solution As the coefficients of the cubic equation are real. 2= a−2 a = 4. [ x − (1 + 2i)][ x − (1 − 2i)] = x 2 − x(1 + 2i) − x(1 − 2i) + (1 + 2i)(1 − 2i) = x 2 − 2 x + 5. To find k. it follows that 1 − 2i is also a root. Solution As the coefficients of the quartic are real. Now.8. has one root equal to 2 − i. 15 = 3b b = 5. if γ is the third root. Hence [ x − (1 + 2i) ][ x − (1 − 2i) ] is a quadratic factor of the quartic.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The cubic equation x3 − 3 x 2 + x + k = 0. (2 − i) + (2 + i) + γ = − −3 = 3. Find the other three roots. Hence x 2 − 2 x + 5 is a factor of x 4 + 2 x 3 + 14 x + 15.2 The quartic equation x 4 + 2 x3 + 14 x + 15 = 0 has one root equal to 1 + 2i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 2. 1 − 2i.8. k = 5. Considering the sum of the roots of the equation. 1 γ = −1. Hence the quartic equation may be written as ( x 2 − 2 x + 5)( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x 2 − 2 x + 5)( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0. it follows that 2 + i is also a root. where k is real. − k = αβγ = (2 − i )(2 + i )(−1) = −5. Find the other two roots and the value of k. and the four roots are 1 + 2i. Considering the number terms. Comparing the coefficients of x3. 34 . − 3 and − 1. Example 2. Therefore x 4 + 2 x 3 + 14 x + 15 = ( x 2 − 2 x + 5)( x 2 + ax + b).

Find the other two roots. 3. The cubic equation x3 − 2 x 2 + 9 x − 18 = 0 has one root equal to 3i. One root is 2 and another is 1 + i. Find the other three roots. A cubic equation has real coefficients. 35 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 2F Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. Find the cubic equation in the form x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0. 2. The quartic equation 4 x 4 − 8 x3 + 9 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = 0 has one root equal to 1 − i.

or determine. The roots of the equation are α . q and r are real. q and r. (ii) Calculate the product of the three roots. [AQA March 2000] 4. (b) Find the cubic equation. β and γ . αβ + βγ + γα and αβγ . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook where p is a constant. obtain β and γ . [AQA Specimen] 36 . α and α + β . 7 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 23x + 30 = 0 (a) Write down the value of α + β + γ . and (a) Show that α + β + γ = 0. [NEAB June 1998] 2. having roots αβ . the values of p. 2 x3 + 3x + 4 = 0 (a) Write down the values of α + β + γ . (b) The numbers α .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 2 1. [AQA June 200] 3. The roots of the cubic equation are α . (b) Given that 1 + 2i is a root of the equation. (a) Find the values of α and β . βγ and γα . β and γ are also the roots of the equation x3 + px 2 + qx + r − 0. (i) Given that α = 3 + 4i and that γ is real. find the other two roots. β and γ satisfy the equations α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 = 22 αβ + βγ + γα = −11. (b) Find the value of p. β and γ . The equation x 3 − 3x 2 + px + 4 = 0. has roots α − β . where p. with integer coefficients. where β > 0. (iii) Write down. The numbers α .

the remainder is f ( a ) . (ii) explain why the equation must have two non-real roots and one real root. When g ( x ) is divided by x − i. β and γ . where i = −1. (ii) Show that when g ( x ) is divided by 2 x − i. the remainder is −6i. (a) Prove that when a polynomial f ( x ) is divided by x − a. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook where p. (a) Given that α + β + γ = 3. (b) Given also that α 2 + β 2 + γ 2 = −5. [AQA March 1999] 6. (i) Find the values of p and q. (b) The polynomial g ( x ) is defined by g ( x ) = 16 x 5 + px 3 + qx 2 − 12 x − 1. (c) One of the two non-real roots of the cubic equation is 3 − 4i. The roots of the cubic equation x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0. (i) Find the real root. write down the value of p. [AQA June 1999] 37 . (i) find the value of q. q and r are real. the remainder is 3. are α . where p and q are real constants.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. (ii) Find the value of r.

you will: • • • • know new methods of summing series. to other kinds of series. 38 . with which you are familiar from earlier studies. understand an important method known as the method of induction.3 3. When you have completed it.2 3. know which method is appropriate for the summation of a particular series.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3.4 Introduction Summation of series by the method of differences Summation of series by the method of induction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 3: Summation of Finite Series Proof by induction extended to other areas of mathematics This chapter extends the idea of summation of simple series. be able to apply the method of induction in circumstances other than in the summation of series.1 3.

with common ratio 3. The two series above are examples of finite series. Thus. 2 + 5 + 8 + 11 + 14 is a series of 5 terms. Instead of adding a fixed number to find the next consecutive number in the series. 39 . in geometric progression. In this case each term is bigger than the preceeding term by a constant number – this constant number is usually called the common difference. with common difference 3. the sum of a number of terms where the terms follow a definite pattern. A finite series is a series with a finite number of terms. 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + 162 + 486 is a series of 6 terms. That is. in arithmetic progression.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. For instance.1 Introduction Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You should already be familiar with the idea of a series – a series is the sum of the terms of a sequence. the sum of an arithmetic progression is a series. Thus. you multiply by a fixed number (called the common ratio). The sum of a geometric progression is also a series.

On the right 40 . In other words. ur is = f (1) − f ( 3) . If this idea is extended to the whole series.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 n ( n + 1) Some problems require you to find the sum of a given series. it can be seen that setting r = 1 and then r = 2 gives u1 + u2 = f (1) − f ( 2 ) + f ( 2 ) − f ( 3) above). n hand side. as the difference of two expressions in r of the same form.2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Summation of series by the method of differences 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 . adding these terms gives u1 + u2 + u3 + … + un −1 + un = f (1) − f ( 2 ) +f ( 2 ) − f ( 3) +f ( 3) − f ( 4 ) +f ( 4 ) … + f ( n − 1) − f ( n ) +f ( n ) − f ( n + 1) . f ( 4 ) . where f ( r ) is some function of r. then r =1 r=2 r =3 u1 = f (1) − f (1) u2 = f ( 2 ) − f ( 3 ) u3 = f ( 3) − f ( 4 ) $ r = n −1 r=n $ un −1 = f ( n − 1) − f ( n ) un = f ( n ) − f ( n + 1) Now. of a series u1 + u2 + u3 + … + un n where the terms follow a certain pattern. nearly all the terms cancel out: f ( 2 ) . If you can express ur in this way. or possibly f ( r + 1) − f ( r ) . An example of this kind of problem is 1 = 1− 1 . … . show that 1 + 1 + 1 + … + 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 n +1 n ( n + 1) The method of differences is usually used when the sum of the series is not given. The left hand side of this expression is the required sum of the series. for example sum the series In others you have to show that the sum of a series is a specific number or a given expression. Suppose you want to find the sum. f (1) − f ( n + 1) as the sum of the series. r =1 ∑ ur . f ( 3) . which will be a function of r (just as r ( r + 1) expressed as f ( r ) − f ( r + 1) . f ( n ) all cancel leaving just r =1 ∑ ur . The aim in the method of differences is to express 1 is the r th term of the first series the r th term.

is given by r r ( r + 1) 1 in partial fractions. A = 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 3. Nor is the answer given. Comparing the constant terms. r =1 r=2 r =3 $ r = n −1 r=n 1 =1− 1 =1− 1 1× 2 1 1 + 1 1 2 1 =1− 1 = 1−1 2× 3 2 2 +1 2 3 1 =1− 1 =1−1 3× 4 3 3 +1 3 4 $ $ $ 1 1 = 1 − = 1 −1 (n − 1)n n − 1 (n − 1) + 1 n − 1 n 1 =1− 1 n(n + 1) n n +1 Adding the columns. in this case the f ( r ) mentioned previously would be 1 . Comparing the coefficients of r. Hence B = −1 and 1 ur = =1− 1 . n 1 1 ∑ r (r + 1) = 1 − n + 1 r =1 (n + 1) − 1 n +1 n . such as an arithmetic or geometric series.1 Find the sum of the series 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 . terms 2 3 cancel. 1 . with f ( r + 1) = 1 . 1 = A(r + 1) + Br. = n +1 = 41 . So it seems that the method of differences can be applied. r ( r + 1) r r + 1 Hence. ur . A + B = 0. The only As above. Now. n 1 Because the 1 . We need to try to split up u . the left hand side becomes r =1 ∑ r (r + 1) . 1 . r ( r + 1) r r + 1 Then. 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 n ( n + 1) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution Clearly. the r th term. writing down the series term by term. namely the first left hand side term and the last r n +1 right hand side term. this is not a familiar standard series. etc. the right hand side becomes 1 − 1 . Suppose sensible way to do this is to express r ( r + 1) 1 = A+ B .2. and so r r +1 on. Hence.

if f (r ) = ( r − 1) r 2 . 2 2 2 2 r 2 ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r 2 ≡ r 2 ⎡( r + 1) − ( r − 1) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2⎡ 2 2 = r r + 2 r + 1 − r − 2r + 1 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = r 2 ⎡ r 2 + 2r + 1 − r 2 + 2r − 1⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) = r 2 ( 4r ) = 4r 3 . r =1 r=2 r =3 $ r = ( n − 1) r=n 4 ×13 4 × 23 4 × 33 $ 3 ( ) ( ) = ( 2 × 3 ) − (1 × 2 ) = (3 × 4 ) − ( 2 × 3 ) = 12 × 22 − 02 ×12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 $ 2 2 2 4 × ( n − 1) = ( n − 1) n 2 − ( n − 2 ) ( n − 1) 4 × n3 = n 2 ( n + 1) − ( n − 1) n 2 .2. as required.2. Hence find 2 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook r =1 ∑ r 3. 2 2 Adding the columns. r 2 .2 Show that r 2 ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r 2 ≡ 4r 3 . Hence. so the sum is n 2 ( n + 1) − 02 × 12 . 2 so that 4r 3 is of the form f ( r + 1) − f (r ). r =1 2 ) ( n ) ( ) ) n Summing the right hand side. 42 . all the terms cancel out except those shaded in the scheme above. n Solution The left hand side of the identity has a common factor. Now.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 3. 2 Hence. as in Example 3.1. it can be seen that the left hand side is ( 4 × 13 + 4 × 23 + 4 × 33 + % + 4n3 = 4 ∑ n3 . Listing the terms in columns. r =1 ∑ r 3 = 4 n2 ( n + 1) n 1 2 . then 2 f (r + 1) = ( r + 1 − 1) ( r + 1) 2 2 = r 2 ( r + 1) . 4 ∑ r 3 = n 2 ( n + 1) − 02 ×12 2 r =1 ( ( ) = n 2 ( n + 1) .

one term on each line cancelled out with a term on the next line when the addition was done. ( 2r − 1)( 2r + 3) Multiplying both sides by ( 2r − 1)( 2r + 3) . Example 3.1 and 3. 1 = 3 A − B.2. Hence A = 1 and B = − 1 . 4 4 ( 2r − 1)( 2r + 3) Now substitute r = 1. Comparing the constant terms.3 1 Sum the series 1 + 1 + 1 + … + .1.2. =1 4 2r − 1 4 2r + 3 ( ) ( ) 1 =1 1 −1 1 1× 5 4 1 4 5 1 =1 1 −1 1 r=2 3× 7 4 3 4 7 [note that nothing will cancel at this stage] r =1 r =3 () () () () () () () ( ) [note that 1 1 will cancel on the first row and the third row] 4 5 1 =1 1 −1 1 r=4 7 × 11 4 7 4 11 $ $ $ r = ( n − 2) r = ( n − 1) r=n () 1 5×9 =1 1 −1 1 4 5 4 9 ( 2n − 5)( 2n − 1) ( 2n − 3)( 2n + 1) ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) 43 1 1 1 ( ) ( ) = 1( 1 )− 1( 1 ) 4 2n − 3 4 2n + 1 = 1 ( 1 ) − 1 ( 1 ). 2 A + 2 B = 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In both Examples 3. Thus. 2. the way forward is to express ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) 1 in partial fractions.2.2. 1× 5 3 × 7 5 × 9 ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) Solution As in Example 3. 4 2n − 1 4 2n + 3 1 1 −1 =1 4 2n − 5 4 2n − 1 . 3. Let 1 = A + B . so A = − B.2. 2r − 1 2r + 3 1 ≡ A ( 2r + 3) + B ( 2r − 1) . Some series may be such that a term in one line cancels with a term on a line two rows below it. Comparing the coefficients of r.% 1 1 −1 1 .

1 1 and 1 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook There will be two terms left at the beginning of the series when the columns are added. n 44 . 3 3 (b) Deduce r =1 ∑ r 2. (b) Use your result to obtain r =1 ∑ r. (a) Simplify r ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r. Likewise. = 1 −⎜ 3 ⎝ ( 2n + 1)( 2n + 3) ⎟ ⎠ Exercise 3A 1. Therefore. there will be two terms left at the end of the series – the right 4 1 4 3 hand part of the r = n − 1 and r = n rows. addition gives () () 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 1 −1 1 =1 1 +1 1 −1 1× 5 3 × 7 5 × 9 ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 3) 4 1 4 3 4 2n − 1 4 2n + 3 () () ( ) ( = 1 ⎡1 + 1 − ( 1 + 1 ) ⎤ 4 ⎢ 3 2n + 1 2 n + 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ) ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ = 1 ⎢ 4 − ⎜ 2n + 3 + 2n + 1 ⎟ ⎥ 4 ⎢ 3 ⎝ ( 2n + 1)( 2n + 3) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ 4 ( n + 1) = 1 ⎢4 −⎜ ⎟⎥ 4 ⎢ 3 ⎝ ( 2n + 1)( 2n + 3) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ ⎞ n +1 . n 2. (a) Show that ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) = 6r 2 + 2. r =1 n 1 3. r (r + 1)(r + 2) (r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3) r (r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3) (b) Hence sum the series ∑ r(r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3) . (a) Show that 1 1 3 − = .

it can be said that the summation result is true for all positive integers n. 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 k ( k + 1) k + 1 Adding the next term to both sides. and Statement 1 shows that by putting k = 2 the result must be true for n = 3. the examples worked in Section 3. the sum has exactly the same form as S(n) but with n replaced by k + 1. namely n = k . say.3. and comparison. Suppose you have to show that the sum of n terms of a series is S(n). and so on. where k < n. Example 3. For convenience. You then use this assumption to prove that the sum of the series to k + 1 terms is S ( k + 1) – that is to say that by adding one extra term. the result must be true for n = 2. Finally.1 Show that r =1 ∑r n 1 = n . To summarise: 1 Assume that the result of the summation is true for n = k and prove that it is true for n = k + 1 2 Prove that the result is true for n = 1 Statement 1 shows that.2 are used again here. By building up the result.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Summation of a series by the method of induction The method of induction is a method of summing a series of. it is demonstrated that the result is true for n = 1. There is a formal way of writing out the method of induction which is shown in the examples below.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 1 1 . + = k + 1× 2 2 × 3 3 × 4 k ( k + 1) ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) k + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) Then k +1 1 k 1 ∑ r r +1 = k +1 + k +1 k + 2 ( ) ( )( ) r =1 = k ( k + 2) + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) 2 = k + 2k + 1 ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) 45 . If you assume that the summation is true for one particular integer. n terms when the sum is given in terms of n. the next term in the series. by putting k = 1 (which is known to be true from Statement 2). ( r + 1) n + 1 Solution Assume that the result is true for n = k . say k. that is to say 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 = k . You may think that this rather begs the question but it must be understood that the result is assumed to be true for only one value of n. then you are assuming that the sum of the first k terms is S(k).

But it is true for k = 1 because the left hand side is 13 = 1. ( k + 1) + 1 which is of the same form but with k + 1 replacing k. and the right hand side is 1 ×12 × 22 = 1. it is true for n = k + 1. ⎣ ⎦ 4 which is of the same form but with k + 1 replacing k.2 4 ∑ r 3 = 1 k 2 ( k + 1) 4 2 k Then. But it is true for n = 1 because the left hand side is 1 = 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) = Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( k + 1)( k + 1) ( k + 1)( k + 2 ) = k +1 k +2 = k +1 . adding the next term to both sides k +1 r =1 + ( k + 1) 3 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ⎡ k 2 + 4 ( k + 1) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ⎡ k 2 + 4k + 4 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ( k + 2 ) 4 2 2 = 1 ( k + 1) ⎡( k + 1) + 1⎤ .2 Show that r =1 ∑ r 3 = 4 n 2 ( n + 1) n 1 2 . if the result is true for n = k . it is true for n = k + 1. right hand side is 1+1 2 Example 3. Solution Assume that the result is true for n = k .3. that is to say r =1 ∑ r 3 = 1 k 2 ( k + 1) . Hence. Therefore the result is true for all positive integers by induction. if the result is true for n = k . Therefore the result is true for all positive integers by induction. Hence. 4 46 . and the 1× 2 2 1 = 1 .

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Exercise 3B

1. Prove the following results by the method of induction:

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

(a) (1× 2 ) + ( 2 × 3) + ( 3 × 4 ) + … + n ( n + 1) = 1 n ( n + 1)( n + 2 ) . 3 (b) 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n 2 = 1 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 1) . 6 (c) (d)

r =1 n

∑ r ( r + 2 ) = 6 n ( n + 1)( 2n + 7 ). ∑ r × r ! = ( n + 1)!− 1.

n

1

r =1

47

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

3.4

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Proof by induction extended to other areas of mathematics

The method of induction is certainly useful in the summation of series but it is not confined to this area of mathematics. This chapter concludes with a look at its use in three other connections – sequences, divisibility and de Moivre’s theorem for positive integers.

**Example 3.4.1 – application to sequences
**

A sequence u1 , u2 , u3 , … is defined by u1 = 3

n +1 Prove by induction that for all n ≥ 1, un = 2 n − 1 . 2 −1

un +1 = 3 − 2 un

( n ≥ 1) .

Solution

Assume that the result is true for n = k , that is to say

k +1 uk = 2 k − 1 . 2 −1

**Then, using the relationship given, uk +1 = 3 − 2 uk = 3− 2 −1 2k − 1
**

k +1

2

= 3− =

=

2 2k − 1

(

) )

3 2k +1 − 1 − 2 2k − 1

(

2k +1 − 1

) (

(

2k +1 − 1 3 × 2k +1 − 3 − 2k +1 + 2

)

( 2 × 2 ) −1 =

k +1

2k +1 − 1

2k +1 − 1 k +2 = 2 k +1 − 1 2 −1

k +1 +1

( ) = 2 k +1 − 1 . 2 −1

**which is of the same form as uk but with k + 1 replacing k. Hence, if the result is true for
**

1+1 n = k , it is true for n = k + 1. But when k = 1, u1 = 2 1 − 1 = 3 as given. Therefore the 2 −1 result is true for all positive integers n ≥ 1 by induction.

48

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Example 3.4.2 – application to divisibility

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Prove by induction that if n is a positive integer, 32 n + 7 is divisible by 8.

Solution

The best approach is a little different to that used so far. Assume that the result is true for n = k , in other words that

2 k +1 2 k +1 When n = k + 1 the expression is 3 ( ) + 7. Consider 3 ( ) + 7 − 32 k + 7 , the difference

32 n + 7 is divisible by 8.

(

)

between the values when n = k and n = k + 1. This expression is equal to 32( k +1) − 32 k = 32 k + 2 − 32 k = 32 k × 32 − 32 k = 32 k 32 − 1 = 8 × 32 k . Thus, if 32 k + 7 is divisible by 8, and clearly 8 × 32 k is divisible by 8, it follows that 2 k +1 3 ( ) + 7 is also divisible by 8. In other words, if the result is true for n = k , it is true for

n = k + 1. But for n = 1, 32 + 7 = 16 and is divisible by 8. Hence, 32 n + 7 is divisible by 8 for all positive integers n by induction.

(

(

)

)

**Example 3.4.3 – application to de Moivre’s theorem for positive integers.
**

Prove by induction that for integers n ≥ 1, ( cosθ + i sin θ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ .

n

Solution

Assume that the result is true for n = k , that is to say

( cosθ + i sin θ )

k

k

= cos kθ + i sin kθ .

Multiplying both sides by cosθ + i sin θ ,

( cosθ + i sin θ ) ( cosθ + i sin θ ) = ( cos kθ + i sin kθ )( cosθ + i sin θ ) k +1 ( cosθ + i sin θ ) = cos kθ cosθ + i sin kθ cosθ + i sin θ cos kθ + i2 sin kθ sin θ = ( cos kθ cos θ − sin kθ sin θ ) + i ( sin kθ cos θ + cos kθ sin θ ) = cos ( k + 1)θ + i sin ( k + 1)θ ,

which is of the same form but with k + 1 replacing k. Hence, if the result is true for n = k it is true for n = k + 1. But when k = 1,

⎡i 2 = −1⎤ ⎣ ⎦

( cosθ + i sin θ )

1

= cos θ + i sin θ . Therefore the result is

true for all positive integers n by induction. 49

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Exercise 3C

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

1. Prove the following results by the method of induction – in all examples n is a positive integer: (a) n3 − n is divisible by 6. (b) 12n + 2 × 5n−1 is divisible by 7. [Hint: consider f ( n + 1) − 5f ( n ) where f ( n ) = 12n + 2 × 5n−1 ] (c) d x n = nx n −1. [Hint: use the formula for differentiating a product] dx (d) x n − 1 is divisible by x − 1.

( )

50

(a) Use the identity to show that 4r 3 = r 2 ( r + 1) − ( r − 1) r 2 2 ∑ 4r r =1 n r =1 n 3 = n 2 ( n + 1) .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 3 1. Prove by induction that ∑ r =1 n n r × 3r −1 = 1 + 3 ( 2n − 1) . Use mathematical induction to prove that ∑ ( r −1)(3r − 2) = n ( n −1) 2 n r =1 for all positive integers n. 7 n + 2 is divisible by 3. + r =1 n 2. or otherwise. 2 (b) Hence find ∑ 2r ( 2r + 1) . r =1 n [NEAB June 1998] 5. [AEB June 1997] 51 . Prove by induction that for all integers n ≥ 0. [AQA June 2000] 3. Prove by induction. 2 giving your answer as a product of three factors in terms of n. 4 4 [AQA March 1999] 4. [AQA Specimen] 6. Use the identity to show that [AQA June 1999] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1 =1− 1 r ( r + 1) r r + 1 ∑ r ( r1+ 1) = n n 1. that ∑ ( r × r !) = ( n + 1)!−1.

For some value of the constant A. r =1 n (a) By setting n = 1. un = n + 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. 3 − ∑ r ( r +r1)( r2 + 2) = A − ( n +31n)(+n2+ 2). Verify the identity 2r − 1 − 2 r + 1 ≡ 2 . (a) Verify that f ( r ) − f ( r − 1) = Ar for some integer A. n [AQA June 1999] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook n ≥ 1. 8. % is defined by u1 = 2. determine the value of A. u3 . (c) Deduce the sum of the infinite series 1 + 4 + 7 +% + 3n − 2 +% . un Prove by induction that for all n ≥ 1. 2 2 r =1 n [AEB January 2000] 10. using the method of differences. prove that ∑ r = 1 ( n + n ). un +1 = 2 − 1 . or otherwise. n +1 r =2 n [AEB January 1998] 9. (b) Use mathematical induction to prove the result for all positive integers n. 1× 2 × 3 2 × 3 × 4 3 × 4 × 5 n ( n + 1)( n + 2 ) [AEB June 2000] 52 . r ( r − 1) r ( r + 1) ( r − 1)( r + 1) Hence. (b) Hence. using the method of differences. stating the value of A. u2 . prove that 2 3 ∑ ( r −1)( r + 1) = 2 − n2(n + 1). A sequence u1 . The function f is defined for all non-negative integers r by f ( r ) = r 2 + r − 1.

the cube roots. where α is a non-real number This chapter introduces de Moivre’s theorem and many of its applications. you will: • • • • • • know the basic theorem. in particular. be able to solve certain types of polynomial equations. 53 .7 De Moivre’s theorem Using de Moivre’s theorem to evaluate powers of complex numbers Application of de Moivre’s theorem in establishing trigonometric identities Exponential form of a complex number The cube roots of unity The nth roots of unity The roots of z n = α .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 4: De Moivre’s Theorem and its Applications 4. know how to work out the nth roots of unity and.1 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.4 4. be able to find shorter ways of working out powers of complex numbers. know a new way of expressing complex numbers. When you have completed it. discover alternative methods for establishing some trigonometric identities.6 4.

Then k is a positive integer and ( cosθ + i sin θ )n = ( cosθ + i sin θ )− k = = 1 ( cosθ + i sin θ )k 1 . 1 1 = × cos kθ − i sin kθ cos kθ + i sin kθ cos kθ + i sin kθ cos kθ − i sin kθ cos kθ − i sin kθ = 2 cos kθ + i sin kθ cos kθ − i sin kθ cos kθ − i 2 sin 2 kθ = cos kθ − i sin2kθ cos 2 kθ + sin kθ = cos kθ − i sin kθ = cos ( − kθ ) + i sin ( − kθ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ . then q q p p ⎞ pθ pθ ⎛ ⎜ cos q θ + i sin q θ ⎟ = cos q q + i sin q q ⎝ ⎠ = cos pθ + i sin pθ .1 De Moivre’s theorem Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In Chapter 3 (section 3. De Moivre’s theorem holds not only when n is a positive integer. then ( cosθ + i sin θ ) n = cos nθ + i sin nθ . in this case cos kθ − i sin kθ . but also when it is negative and even when it is fractional.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. say p where p and q are integers. In order to remove i from the denominator of the expression above.4). you saw a very important result known as de Moivre’s theorem. p Taking the q th root of both sides. Let n be a negative integer and suppose n = − k . as required. if n is a positive integer. Thus. p p cos θ + i sin θ = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) q . cos kθ + i sin kθ Some of the results obtained in Chapter 1 can now be put to use. [q is an integer] But p is also an integer and so cos pθ + i sin pθ = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . It was proved by induction that. If n is a fraction. the numerator and denominator are multiplied by the complex conjugate of the denominator. q q p 54 .

6. and fractional values of n 55 . in fact. So i is only one value p ( cos π = −1 and sin π = 0 ) of ( cos π + i sin π ) 2 . then ( cos π + i sin π ) But ( cos π + i sin π ) = −1 1 1 2 1 2 = cos 1 π + i sin 1 π 2 2 = i. A simple example will illustrate this. p = 1 and q = 2. There are. q different values of ( cos π + i sin π ) q and this will be shown in section 4. and −1 = ± i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ( cosθ + i sin θ ) p q Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook p p It is important to point out at this stage that cos θ + i sin θ is just one value of q q . If θ = π. ( cosθ + i sin θ ) n = cos nθ + i sin nθ for positive and negative integers.

( cos π + i sin π 6 6 ) = cos 3π + i sin 3π 6 6 3 = cos π + i sin π 2 2 = 0+i = i. 6 6 ( ) 3 Solution It would. The method for doing this will be illustrated through examples.1 Simplify cos π + i sin π . Example 4.2 n Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Using de Moivre’s theorem to evaluate powers of complex numbers One very important application of de Moivre’s theorem is in the addition of complex numbers of the form ( a + ib ) . of course.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. but this would 6 6 be laborious and time consuming – even more so had the power been greater than 3. Instead.2. 56 . be possible to multiply cos π + i sin π by itself three times.

A technique introduced in Chapter 1 (section 1.2 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( 3 +i ) 10 in the form a + ib.4) can be used to express it in polar form. ( ( ) ) x 10 [ note that 2 is raised to the power 10 as well] ) ( ) 57 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 6 3 3 + i = 2 cos π + i sin π 6 6 r θ O 3 1 ( 3 +i ) 10 = 210 cos π + i sin π 6 6 = 210 cos 10π + i sin 10π 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ = 1024 ⎜ 1 − i 3 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 = 512 1 − i 3 . r = ( 3. Solution Clearly it would not be practical to multiply ( 3 + i by itself ten times.1 .2.# y On an Argand diagram. 3 + i is represented by the point whose Cartesian coordinates are Now. De Moivre’s ) theorem could provide an alternative method but it can be used only for complex numbers in the form cosθ + i sin θ . ) 3+i ( 3) ( 2 Thus. and 3 + i is not in this form. and + 12 = 2 and tan θ = 1 so that θ = π .

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. It is very n important to realise that this is a deduction from de Moivre’s theorem and it must not be quoted as the theorem. 6 6 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) 3 Solution De Moivre’s theorem applies only to expressions in the form cosθ + i sin θ and not cosθ − i sin θ .2. Note that it is apparent from this example that ( cosθ − i sin θ ) = cos nθ − i sin nθ . so the expression to be simplified must be written in the form cos − π + i sin − π .3 Simplify cos π − i sin π . 6 6 ( ) ( ) π π π (cos π − i sin 6 ) = ⎡⎢⎣cos ( − 6 ) + i sin ( − 6 )⎤⎥⎦ 6 = cos ( − 3π ) + i sin ( − 3π ) 6 6 = cos ( − π ) + i sin ( − π ) 2 2 3 3 = cos π − i sin π 2 2 = −i. 58 .

64 ( ( ) ) −3 ( ) Exercise 4A 1. and tan θ = − tan α = − 2 3 so that θ = 2π . Thus 2 3 3 ( −2 + 2 3 i ) = −2 + 2 3 i ( ) −3 = ⎡ 4 cos 2π + i sin 2π ⎤ ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 4−3 ⎡cos −3 × 2π + i sin −3 × 2π ⎤ ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 1 ⎡cos ( −2π ) + i sin ( −2π ) ⎤ ⎦ 64 ⎣ = 1 (1 + 0 ) 64 = 1 . ( ) Hence. n 2.4 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( −2 + 2 3 i ) 1 3 in the form a + ib.2. 2 3 ) r α O θ x Solution The complex number −2 + 2 3 i is represented by the point whose Cartesian coordinates are −2. Express each of the following in the form a + ib : (a) ( cos 3θ + i sin 3θ ) 6 5 (b) (e) ( cos π + i sin π 5 5 4 ) 10 (d) (1 + i ) (g) ( 2 − 2i ) (c) cos π + i sin π 4 4 1 (f) ( ) 2 (1 + 3i ) 5 ( 3 + 3i ) 9 59 . r = ( −2 ) 2 + 2 3 1 ( ) 2 = 16 = 4. Prove that ( cosθ − i sin θ ) = cos nθ − i sin nθ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 2 3 on the Argand diagram shown here. y ( −2.

cos 3θ + i sin 3θ = ( cosθ + i sin θ ) 3 2 3 = cos3 θ + 3cos 2 θ ( i sin θ ) + 3cosθ ( i sin θ ) + ( i sin θ ) ⎡ using the binomial expansion of ( p + q )3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = cos3 θ + 3i cos 2 θ sin θ − 3cos θ sin 2 θ − i sin 3 θ ⎡ using i 2 = −1⎤ . the expansion of cos ( 2θ + θ ) can be used to give cos 3θ in terms of cos θ . Solution There are several ways of establishing this result. Example 4.3. ( ) ⎡since cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Note that this equation will also give sin 3θ by equating the imaginary parts of both sides of the equation. The same principles are used whichever identity is required.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Application of de Moivre’s theorem in establishing trigonometric identities One way of showing how these identities can be derived is to use examples. cos 3θ = cos3 θ − 3cos θ sin 2 θ = cos3 θ − 3cosθ 1 − cos 2 θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3cos θ . Using de Moivre’s theorem gives a straightforward alternative method.1 Show that cos 3θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3cos θ . 60 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. The expansion of cos ( A + B ) can be used to express cos 2θ in terms of cos θ setting A = θ and B = θ . and the real parts of both sides can be equated. ⎣ ⎦ Now cos 3θ is the real part of the left-hand side of the equation. Similarly.

3. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution tan 4θ = sin 4θ so expressions for sin 4θ and cos 4θ in terms of sin θ and cos θ must be cos 4θ established to start with. cos 4θ = cos 4 θ − 6 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ + sin 4 θ . cos 4θ + i sin 4θ = ( cosθ + i sin θ ) 4 2 3 4 = cos 4 θ + 4 cos3 θ ( i sin θ ) + 6 cos2 θ ( i sin θ ) + 4 cosθ ( i sin θ ) + ( i sin θ ) [ using the binomial expansion ] = cos 4 θ + 4i cos3 θ sin θ − 6 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ − 4i cosθ sin 3 θ + sin 4 θ ⎡ using i 2 = −1⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Equating the real parts on both sides of the equation. tan 4θ = sin 2 θ + sin 4 θ 1− 6 cos 2 θ cos 4 θ But tan θ = sin θ so cos θ 3 tan 4θ = 4 tan θ 2− 4 tan θ . 1 − 6 tan θ + tan 4 θ 61 . and equating the imaginary parts. tan 4θ = sin 4θ cos 4θ 3 3 = 4 cos θ sin θ2 − 4 cos θ sin θ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4.2 Express tan 4θ in terms of tan θ . cos 4 θ − 6 cos θ sin 2 θ + sin 4 θ Dividing every term by cos 4 θ gives 3 4 sin θ − 4 sin 3 θ cos θ cos θ . Now. sin 4θ = 4 cos3 θ sin θ − 4 cos θ sin 3 θ . Using de Moivre’s theorem.

Show that cos 6θ = cos6 θ − 3cos 4 θ + 3cos 2 θ − 1. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 62 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 4B 1. 2. Express sin 5θ in terms of sin θ . 3. 4. Express sin 3θ in terms of sin θ . Express tan 3θ in terms of tan θ .

= cos θ − i sin θ z = cosθ + i sin θ ( = z ). z 1 = 2i sin θ . z + 1 = 2 cos θ . z n = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ n z − n = 1 = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) z = cos ( − nθ ) + i sin ( − nθ ) −n = cos nθ − i sin nθ . z n + 1 = 2 cos nθ zn z n − 1 = 2i sin nθ zn A common mistake is to omit the i in 2i sin nθ . 1 = cosθ + i sin θ . 63 . zn If z = cos θ + i sin θ . First some important results must be established. Suppose z = cos θ + sin iθ . De Moivre’s theorem can be used to express powers of sin θ . Then −1 z −1 = 1 = ( cosθ + i sin θ ) z = cos ( −θ ) + i sin ( −θ ) So. z− z If z = cos θ + i sin θ z + 1 = 2 cos θ z z − 1 = 2i sin θ z Also. and subtracting. cos θ and tan θ in terms of sines. z Adding. so make a point of remembering this result carefully. Combining z n and 1 as before. zn z n + 1 = 2 cos nθ . cos θ and tan θ . zn z n − 1 = 2i sin nθ . cosines and tangents of multiple angles. cos nθ and tan nθ have been expressed in terms of sin θ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook So far sin nθ .

3. z5 z 3 + 1 = 2 cos 3θ . 64 . Example 4.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 16 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution Suppose Then and z = cos θ + i sin θ . z Hence 32 cos 5θ = 2 cos 5θ + 5 ( 2 cos 3θ ) + 10 ( 2 cos θ ) cos5 θ = 1 ( cos 5θ + 5cos 3θ + 10 cos θ ) . ∫ cos θ = ∫ 16 ( cos 5θ + 5cos 3θ + 10 cosθ ) 5 1 = 1 ⎡ sin 5θ + 5sin 3θ + 10sin θ ⎤ + c. ⎥ 16 ⎢ 5 3 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) where c is an arbitrary constant. 1 = 2 cos θ z+ z ( 2 cosθ ) 5 = z+1 z So () () () () = z + 5 z + 10 z + 10 ( 1 ) + 5 ( 1 ) + ( 1 ) . z ⎦ z ⎦ z ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎣ = z 5 + 5 z 4 1 + 10 z 3 1 z z 5 3 2 ( ) 5 () 5 + 10 z 2 1 z 3 3 + 5z 1 z 5 4 + 1 z 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 Using the results established earlier.3. One very useful application of the example above would be in integrating cos5 θ . z 5 + 1 = 2 cos 5θ .4 (a) Show that cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 1 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) 32 (b) Evaluate ∫ π 2 0 cos3 θ sin 3 θ dθ . z z z ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 32 cos θ = ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ + ⎢5z + 5 ( ) ⎥ + ⎢10 z + 10 ( ) ⎥ z ⎦ ⎣ z ⎦ ⎣ z ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 ⎤ 1 ⎤ ⎡ = ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ + 5 ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ + 10 ⎢ z + ( ) ⎥ . z3 z + 1 = 2 cos θ . 16 as required.3 Show that cos5 θ = 1 ( cos 5θ + 5cos 3θ + 10 cosθ ) .

z ( 2 cosθ ) 3 = z+1 z 3 3 3 Multiplying these. 32 3 12 ( ) This section concludes with an example which uses the ideas introduced here and extends into other areas of mathematics. Dividing both sides by −64i.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Solution (a) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) ( 2sin θ ) = ( z − 1 ) . (b) ∫ π 2 0 cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 1 32 ∫ π 2 0 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) dθ π 2 = 1 ⎡ − 3cos 2θ + cos 6θ ⎤ 32 ⎢ 2 6 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ = 1 ⎡3 − 1 − − 3 + 1 ⎤ 32 ⎢ 2 6 2 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 1 ×8 = 1 . 32 as required. z6 z Thus. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ z6 ⎠ ⎝ z2 ⎠ ⎝ Now z 6 − 1 = 2i sin 6θ and z 2 − 12 = 2i sin 2θ . cos3 θ sin 3 θ = − 1 sin 6θ + 3 sin 2θ 32 32 = 1 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) . 8cos3 θ 8i3 sin 3 θ = z + 1 z 3 3 ( )( ) −64i cos θ sin θ = ⎡( z + 1 )( z − 1 ) ⎤ ⎢ z z ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 z−1 z 3 3 = ⎛ z2 − 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ z2 ⎠ ⎝ = z 3 ( ) 2 3 −3 z ( ) 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ + 3 z2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎝z ⎠ ⎝z ⎠ ⎝z ⎠ ( ) 2 3 = z 6 − 3z 2 + 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞ − 1 ⎜ ⎟ 6 ⎝z ⎠ z = ⎛ z6 − 1 ⎞ − 3⎛ z2 − 1 ⎞. 65 . −64i cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 2i sin 6θ − 3 ( 2i sin 2θ ) = 2i sin 6θ − 6i sin 2θ .

3. cos 5θ + i sin 5θ = ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . the right-hand side of this equation becomes cos5 θ + 5cos4 θ ( i sin θ ) + 10 cos3 θ ( i sin θ ) + 10 cos2 θ ( i sin θ ) + 5cosθ ( i sin θ ) + ( i sin θ ) . 5 Using the binomial theorem for expansion. 2 3 4 5 Not every term of this expression has to be simplified. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) (b) Show that the roots of the equation 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 are cos rπ for r = 1.5 (a) Show that cos 5θ = cos θ 16 cos 4 θ − 20 cos 2 θ + 5 .3. it equates to the real part of the right-hand side.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. Thus. (c) Deduce that cos 2 10 10 16 Solution (a) Using the ideas introduced at the beginning of this section. 7 and 9. 10 π cos 2 3π = 5 . The real part of the right-hand side of the equation comprises those terms with even powers if i in them. since i 2 = −1 and is real. As cos 5θ is the real part of the left-hand side of the equation. ( ) 66 . cos 5θ = cos5 θ + 10 cos3 θ ( i sin θ ) + 5cos θ ( i sin θ ) 2 4 ( ) = cos θ + 10 cos θ ( −1 + cos θ ) + 5cos θ (1 − cos θ ) = cos5 θ + 10 cos3 θ − sin 2 θ + 5cos θ sin 4 θ 5 3 2 2 2 using cos θ + sin θ = 1 2 2 = cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ + 10 cos5 θ + 5cos θ − 10 cos3 θ + 5cos5 θ = 16 cos5 θ − 20 cos3 θ + 5cosθ = cosθ 16 cos 4 θ − 20 cos 2 θ + 5 .

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

(b) Now when cos 5θ = 0, either cos θ = 0 or 16 cos 4 θ − 20 cos 2 θ + 5 = 0. So, putting

x = cosθ , the roots of 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 are the values of cos θ for which cos 5θ = 0, provided cos θ ≠ 0. 5θ = π , 3π , 5π , 7π , 9π , 11π , 13π , % But if cos 5θ = 0, 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 so that θ = π , 3π , 5π , 7π , 9π , 11π , 13π , % . 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Also, cos 11π is the same as cos 9π , and cos 13π is the same as cos 7π , so that, 10 10 10 10 although there is an infinite number of values of θ , there are only five distinct values of cos θ and these are cos π , cos 3π , cos 5π , cos 7π and cos 9π . 10 10 10 10 10

Now cos 5π = cos π = 0 and π is, of course, a root of cosθ = 0, so that the roots of the 10 2 2 4 equation 16 x − 20 x + 5 = 0 are cos π , cos 3π , cos 5π , cos 7π and cos 9π . 10 10 10 10 10 The roots may be written in a slightly different way as cos 7π = cos π − 3π 10 10 = − cos 3π , 10 and cos 9π = cos π − 9π 10 10 = − cos π . 10

(

)

(

)

Thus the four roots of the quartic equation 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 can be written as ± cos π 10 3π . and ± cos 10

(c) From the ideas set out in Chapter 2 (section 2.7), the product of the roots of the quartic equation 16 x 4 − 20 x + 5 = 0 is 5 so that 16

cos π − cos π cos 3π − cos 3π = 5 . 10 10 10 10 16 And hence, cos 2 π cos 2 3π = 5 . 10 10 16

(

)

(

)

67

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

Exercise 4C

1. If z = cos θ + i sin θ write, in terms of z: (b) cos 7θ (c) sin 6θ (a) cos 4θ 2. Prove the following results: (a) cos 4θ = 8cos 4 θ − 8cos 2 θ + 1 (b) sin 5θ = 16sin 5 θ − 20sin 3 θ + 5sin θ (c) sin 6θ = sin θ 32 cos 5 θ − 32 cos3 θ + 6 cos θ (d) tan 3θ = 3 tan θ − tan θ 1 − 3 tan 2 θ

3

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

(d) sin 3θ

(

)

68

**klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370)
**

4.4 Exponential form of a complex number

Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook

Both cos θ and sin θ can be expressed as an infinite series in powers of θ , provided that θ is measured in radians. These are given by

cos θ = θ − θ + θ − θ + ...(−1) n −1 θ + ... 2! 4! 6! ( 2n − 2 ) !

2 4 6 2n−2

and

sin θ = θ − θ + θ − θ + ...(−1) n −1 θ + ... 3! 5! 7! ( 2n − 1)!

3 5 7

2 n −1

**There is also a series for e x given by
**

2 3 4 n −1 e x = 1 + x + x + x + x + ... + x + ... 2! 3! 4! ( n − 1)!

**If iθ is substituted for x in the series for e x , e
**

iθ

( iθ )2 + ( iθ )3 + ( iθ )4 + ... + ( iθ )n−1 + ... = 1 + iθ + 2! 3! 4! ( n − 1)!

= 1 + iθ − θ − iθ + θ + ... . 2! 3! 4!

2 3 4

Regrouping,

2 4 3 ⎛ ⎞ e iθ = 1 − θ + θ − % + i ⎜ θ − θ + % ⎟ , 2! 4! 3! ⎝ ⎠

**and, using the previous results for sin θ and cosθ ,
**

eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ .

It is also important to note that if z = cosθ + i sin θ , then

z n = ( cos θ + i sin θ )

= e niθ ,

n

= cos nθ + i sin nθ

and if z = r ( cosθ + i sin θ ) , then z = reiθ and z n = r n e niθ . If z = r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) , then z = reiθ and z n = r n e niθ 69

Adding these eiθ + e−iθ = ( cosθ + isin θ ) + ( cosθ − isin θ ) = 2cosθ . −2 ) Exercise 4D 1. iθ − iθ cosθ = e + e . Another result can be derived from the exponential form of a complex number: eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ .4. Express the following in the form reiθ : (a) 1 + i b) 3 − i (c) 3 + 3i (d) −2 3 + 2i 70 . −2 ) on an Argand diagram. Hence. 2i iθ − iθ cos θ = e + e 2 iθ − iθ sin θ = e − e 2i or Example 4. 2 or Subtracting gives eiθ − e−iθ = ( cosθ + isin θ ) − ( cosθ − isin θ ) = 2isin θ . 2 O r θ x 2 2 − 2i= 8 e ( 2. iθ − iθ sin θ = e − e . 2 y θ = − tan −1 2 =−π. e −iθ = cos ( −θ ) + isin ( −θ ) = cosθ − isin θ . 2 4 − πi 4. and so that r = 22 + ( −2 ) = 8. Solution The complex number 2 − 2i is represented by the point with the coordinates ( 2.1 Express 2 − 2i in the form reiθ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The form reiθ is known as the exponential form of a complex number and is clearly linked to the polar form very closely. So.

then w2 = −1 + i 3 . ( ) Now z 3 − 1 = 0 is a cubic equation and so has three roots. satisfy the equation z 3 − 1 = 0. where w3 = 1 1 + w + w2 = 0 and the non-real roots are −1 ± i 3 2 71 . z 3 − 1 = ( z − 1) z 2 + z + 1 = 0. as w3 = 1 since w is a solution of z 3 = 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. In other words. then w2 is also a root – in fact. It can also be shown that if w is a root of z 3 = 1. w can be expressed in the form a + ib by solving z 2 + z + 1 = 0 using the quadratic formula: −1 ± 12 − ( 4 ×1×1) 2 = −1 ± −3 2 = −1 ± i 3 . They must. Substituting w2 into the left-hand side of z 3 = 1 gives w2 ( ) 3 = w6 = w3 ( ) 2 = 12 = 1. 2 2 The cube roots of unity are 1. one of which is z = 1. If one of these is denoted by w.5 The cube roots of unity Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The cube roots of 1 are numbers such that when they are cubed their value is 1. one root of z 3 − 1 is z = 1 so that z − 1 must be a factor of z 3 − 1. 2 It doesn’t matter whether w is labelled as −1 + i 3 or as −1 − i 3 because each is the square 2 2 of the other. w and w2 . w and w2 . Of course. Thus the three cube roots of 1 are 1. the other root. Factorising. then w satisfies z 2 + z + 1 = 0 so that w2 + w + 1 = 0. The other two come from the quadratic equation z 2 + z + 1 = 0. 2 If w = −1 − i 3 . Clearly. where w and w2 are non-real. if w = −1 + i 3 then 2 z= ⎛ ⎞ w2 = ⎜ −1 + i 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 2 1 − 2i 3 + i 3 ( ) 2 4 = 1 − 2i 3 − 3 4 = −2 − 2i 3 4 = −1 − i 3 . therefore.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Both w and w2 can be expressed in exponential form. Thus. where w is a complex cube root of 1. 3 2 2 ) r α −1 2 y 3 2 θ O x ⎛ ⎞ From the diagram. 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 ∴ w7 + w8 = w + w2 = −1 ( because 1 + w + w2 = 0 ) .1 Simplify w7 + w8 . r = ⎜ 3 ⎟ + 1 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 () 2 = 1.5. 2π 3 2π 3 (1. 4πi ⎛ 2πi ⎞ The other root is w = ⎜ e 3 ⎟ = e 3 and can also be written as ⎝ ⎠ y Plotting the three cube roots of unity on an Argand diagram shows three points equally spaced (at intervals of 2π ) round a circle of 3 radius 1 as shown in the diagram alongside. 2 α = π . and θ = π − α . where tan α = 2 2 3 1 2 = 3. 72 . ⎝ ⎠ Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( −1. 2 ⎟ on an Argand diagram. 2πi 3 . = (w ) × w =1 × w = w . Solution w7 = w6 × w = w3 w8 = w6 × w2 ( ) × w = 1 × w = w ( because w = 1) .0 ) x Example 4. w can be represented 2 2 by the point whose Cartesian coordinates are ⎛ 1 3⎞ ⎜ − 2 . θ = 2π and w = e 3 3 e − 2πi 3 . Take w = − 1 + i 3 .

− w −1 −w Multiplying the first term of this expression by w in the numerator and denominator.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 1 + w 1 + w2 w + w2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution 1 + w + w2 = 0 so 1 + w = − w2 .2 Show that 1 + 1 + 1 = 0. find the value of (a) w10 + w11 (b) (1 + 3w ) 1 + 3w2 ( ) (c) 1 + 3w + w2 ( ) 3 73 . and the second term by w2 similarly gives w + w2 − 1 − w3 − w3 = − w − w2 − 1 ( as w3 = 1) =0 ( as 1 + w + w 2 =0 ). If w is a complex cube root of 1.5. and so on. So the denominators of the left-hand side of the equation can be replaced to simplify to 1 2 + 1 + 1 . Exercise 4E 1.

2. most of which (if not all) are complex. 1 = e2πi because e 2πi = cos 2π + i sin 2π = 1 + i0 = 1. 1. Similarly. All the roots lie on the circle z = 1 because the modulus of every root is 1. In fact. 6π . but it actually has many more. The n roots of z = 1 can be illustrated on an Argand diagram. Substituting the right-hand side of the equation z n = 1 by this term gives z n = e2 kπi . z = e 2 kπi n = cos 2 ( n − 1) π 2 ( n − 1) π + i sin . 0 ) – the point representing the real root z = 1. Different integer values of k will give rise to different roots. n − 1 gives the n distinct roots of the equation z n = 1. n 2( n +1) πi e n 2 nπi e n 2πi ×e n =e = 2πi en which is 4πi n e 6πi n e e 2π n 2 πi n 2π n 2π n 2π n e 0 e 2 ( n −1) πi n The equation z n = 1 has roots z=e 2 kπi n k = 0. the n n n n roots are represented by n points equally spaced around the unit circle at angles of 2π starting at n (1. ( n − 1) 74 . % . 2.6 The nth roots of unity Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The equation z n = 1 clearly has at least one root. % . n n 2( n −1) πi n k = 2 gives e and so on until k = n − 1 gives e Thus. 1. e which is the same root as that given by k = 0. = the same root as that given by k = 1. Also. the amplitudes of the complex numbers representing the roots are 2π . 1 = e0 because e0 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = 1 + i0 = 1. n n 2 nπi n n = 0. But also. as shown below. but if n is even z = −1 is also a real root because −1 raised to an even power is +1. if n is odd z = 1 is the only real root. Indeed 1 = e2 kπi where k is any integer. 4π .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. = e 2πi = cos 2π + i sin 2π = 1. n n = cos 4π + i sin 4π . To find the remaining roots. and so on. if k is set equal to n + 1. k = 0 gives e0 = 1. In other words. % . 2 kπi k = 1 gives e 2πi n 4πi n = cos 2π + i sin 2π . 2 ( n − 1) π . namely z = 1. the right-hand side of the equation z n = 1 has to be examined. In exponential form. Taking the nth root of both sides gives z = e n . 2πi 2πi ×e n 2πi = 1× e n There are no more roots because if k is set equal to n.

k = 5. 2.1 had concerned z 6 = 64. the six roots are z = ±1. e3 –1 1 x 4πi 3 e e 5πi 3 Two further points are worth noting. you may need to give the arguments of the roots between − π and + π instead of between 0 and 2π. ± 2. if example 4. 1. 3.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find. 5 and the only difference would be that the modulus of each root would be 2 instead of 1. a given equation may not involve unity – for example. Hence the roots are k = 0. the solution would have been written z 6 = 64 z 6 = 26 e 2 kπi z = 2e 6 k = 0. the roots would be given as z = e kπi 3 for k = 0. Secondly. the roots of the equation z 6 = 1 and illustrate these roots on an Argand diagram.6. Firstly.6.1. 4. k = 4. z = ± 1 ± i 3 and these are illustrated on 2 2 the Argand diagram alongside. z =1 z = e 3 = cos π + i sin π = 1 + i 3 3 3 2 2 = cos 2π + i sin 2π = − 1 + i 3 3 3 2 2 z = e πi = cos π + i sin π = −1 z=e z=e z=e 4πi 3 5πi 3 2πi 3 πi = cos 4π + i sin 4π = − 1 − i 3 3 3 2 2 = cos 5π + i sin 5π = 1 − i 3 3 3 2 2 e 2πi 3 y πi To summarise. with the consequence that the six roots of z 6 = 64 would lie on the circle z = 2 instead of z = 1. 2. Solution z 6 = 1 = e 2 kπi Therefore z=e =e 2 kπi 6 kπi 3 k = 1. 4.6. 5. ± 1. in the form a + ib. k = 3. 2 kπi 75 . k = 1. k = 2. In example 4.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. 3. 3.

3.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Of course. when written in the form a + ib. it becomes more straightforward. So the roots of z −1 1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 = 0 are z = ± 1 ± i 3 and − 1. For example. in the form a + ib. Solve the equation z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = 0. 2. 6 1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 = z 5 − 1 = 0. 2 2 Exercise 4F 1. Summing the left-hand side of the equation. Write. z −1 2 3 4 5 so that the five roots of 1 + z + z + z + z = 0 are five of the roots of z 6 − 1 = 0. show that cos 2π + cos 4π + cos 6π + cos 8π = −1. By considering the roots of z 5 = 1. you may need to find the roots of the equation 1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 = 0. 4. In each case. there are variations on the above results. the roots of: (a) z 4 = 1 (b) z 5 = 32 (c) z10 = 1. 5 5 5 5 76 . The root to 6 be excluded is the root z = 1 because z − 1 is indeterminate when z = 1. Solve the equation 1 − 2 z + 4 z 2 + 8 z 3 = 0. show the roots on an Argand diagram. This looks daunting but if you can recognise the left-hand side as a geometric progression with common ratio z.

% . where r is real and θ lies in an interval of 2π (usually from 0 to 2π or from − π to + π).klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4. 1. has roots z = 1 i(θ + 2 kπ ) r ne n k = 0. ( n − 1) 77 . ( n − 1) . All lie on the circle z = r n and are equally spaced around the circle at 1 iθ 2π . z n = α = reiθ + 2 kπi and. where α = reiθ . 2. n 1 2π n 2π n 1 iπ n n r e The equation z n = α . 1 (θ + 2 π ) n n r e These roots can be illustrated on an Argand diagram as before. taking the nth root of both sides. 2. %. Suppose that α = r e iθ . 2πi ) ) eiθ + 2 kπi = eiθ × e2 kπi = eiθ also. z = r ne 1 ( iθ + 2 kπi ) n 1 i(θ + 2 kπ ) = r ne n k = 0.7 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The roots of zn=α where α is a non-real number Every complex number of the form a + ib can be written in the form reiθ .1. z = r n e n and this intervals of n could be taken as the starting point for the intervals of 2π . So. When k = 0. Now eiθ + 2πi = eiθ × e 2πi = eiθ Similarly ( using e ( because e p+q = e p × eq =1 . 3.

4 r θ πi ( 2. 78 . 2. 2 ) x So.7. 5 Solution At first sight. tan θ = 1.2 Solve the equation ( z + 1) = z 5 giving your answers in the form a + ib. 2 + 2i = 8 e 4 . k = 2. Instead. and so on. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution First. k = 1. ⎜ or 2 e ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 cos π + i sin π when k = 0. 12 12 17πi ( ) This chapter closes with one further example of the use of the principles discussed. the equation can be written as ( z + 1) 5 = e 2 kπi z 5 . Taking the cube root of each side. 2 + 2i must be expressed in exponential form. z3 = 8 e ( π + 2 kπi 4 ). ( πi +2kπi ) 4 3 (1+8k ) πi 12 k = 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 4. πi z = 2 e12 z = 2 e 12 9πi z = 2 e 12 The roots can also be written − 7πi ⎞ ⎛ 12 .1 Find the three roots of the equation z 3 = 2 + 2i. it is tempting to use the binomial expansion on ( z + 1) but this generates a 5 quartic equation (the terms in z 5 cancel) which would be difficult to solve. y From the diagram alongside. Hence. r = 22 + 22 = 8. and θ = π . Example 4.7. because e2 kπi = 1. 1. z= 2e = 2e So the roots are k = 0.

3. − kπi 5 2 kπi (for reasons which z= e 1 2 kπi 5 −1 e . 3. 4. −e − kπi 5 = 2i sin kπ and so. 3. 2. 2 kπi 1 = z ⎛ e 5 − 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 . 2. So z= − kπi 5 πi πi ⎛ e 2 kπi e − k5 ⎞ − e − k5 ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = e iθ − iθ But e − e = sin θ so that e 2i kπi 5 e − kπi 5 − kπi 5 −e − kπi 5 . 4 or The next step is new to this section and is well worth remembering.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Taking the fifth root of each side. Thus. 2. The numerator 5 5 and denominator of the right-hand side of the equation can then be multiplied by p − iq to remove i from the denominator. and in any case as the equation is really a quartic equation it will have only four roots. As p would then equal cos 2kπ − 1 and q would equal 5 2kπ . the numerator and sin 5 denominator of the right-hand side of the equation are multiplied by e will be apparent later). 2 kπi Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook z +1 = e 5 z k = 1. The term e 5 can be written as cos 2kπ + i sin 2kπ making the denominator have the form p + iq. Solving the equation for z. this would be a rather cumbersome method. z = 2 kπi e 5 −1 k = 1. 4 as required 79 . 5 z= e − kπi 5 cos − kπ + i sin − kπ 5 5 = 2i sin kπ 5 ( ) 2i sin kπ 5 ( ) ( ) = − 1 − 1 i cot ( kπ ) 2 2 5 = 1 cot kπ − 1 2i 5 2 k = 1. Instead. Note that k = 0 is excluded because this would give z + 1 = z.

Solve the following equations: (b) z 3 = 1 − i (a) z 4 = 16i (d) z 2 = −1 (e) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (c) z 8 = 1 − 3 i (f) ( z + 1) 3 = 8i ( z − 1) 5 = z5 80 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 4G 1.

[AQA January 2002] ( ) 81 . (b) Using your answers to part (a). with the aid of a diagram. (b) Hence solve the equation z 4 + 64 = 0 giving your answers in the form r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . that the points in the complex plane which represent them form the vertices of a square. (a) By considering z = cos θ + i sin θ and using de Moivre’s theorem. where a and b are real numbers to be determined to two decimal places. [AEB June 1996] 2. (c) Deduce the exact values of sin π and sin 2π .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 4 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. explaining clearly the reasons for your 5 5 answers. (c) Express each of these four roots in the form a + ib and show. where r > 0 and − π < θ ≤ π. where r > 0 and − π < θ ≤ π. (i) show that (ii) solve the equation ( 3 −i ) 5 (1 + i ) 10 = − 1 + 3 i. 2 2 z 3 = (1 + i ) ( 3 −i ) giving your answers in the form a + ib. (b) Find the exact values of the solutions of the equation 16 x 4 − 20 x 2 + 5 = 0. [AQA June 2001] 3. (a) Write down the modulus and argument of the complex number −64. (a) Express each of the complex numbers 1+ i and 3 −i in the form r ( cos θ + i sin θ ) . show that sin 5θ ≡ sin θ 16sin 4 θ − 20sin 2 θ + 5 .

(d) By considering the Argand diagram. and state the centre and radius of the circle. whose roots are p and q. 82 . where a and b are integers to be determined. (ii) Write down the quadratic equation. with integer coefficients. b [AQA Specimen] 6. (iii) Express p and q as integer multiples of cos 2π and cos 4π . w2 . respectively. Find the possible values of a. (ii) z1 in the form a cos π . 5 5 [NEAB June 1998] 2πi 5 . (a) Show that the non-real cube roots of unity satisfy the equation (b) The real number a satisfies the equation 1 1 + = 1. Show that these roots lie on a circle. (c) Mark on an Argand diagram the points corresponding to the five roots of the equation. w3 and w4 . where w = e (i) Show that p + q = −1 and pq = −1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) z 2 + z + 1 = 0. 5 5 (iv) Hence obtain the values of cos 2π and cos 4π in surd form. (ii) Show that the other fifth roots of unity are 1. find (i) arg z1 in terms of π. [AQA June 2000] 5. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 4. (a) Verify that is a root of the equation z1 = 1 + e 5 πi ( z − 1) 5 = −1. (b) Let p = w + w4 and q = w2 + w3 . (b) Find the other four roots of the equation. (a) (i) Show that w = 2πi e5 is one of the fifth roots of unity. 2 2 2 a −ω +ω a +ω −ω where ω is one of the non-real cube roots of unity.

[AQA March 2000] 83 . or otherwise. (iii) Show that the non-real roots are 1 . z2 . z+1 z 3 z−1 z 3 6 2 6 2 where A and B are numbers to be determined. show that 1 = − 1 − i cot θ . then z n + 1 = 2 cos nθ . z1 − 1 1 . (a) (i) Use de Moivre’s theorem to show that if z = cos θ + i sin θ . z3 and z4 are the non-real roots of the equation z 6 = 1. z2 − 1 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 7. iθ 2 2 2 e −1 ( e θ ≠ 1) . (ii) By substituting z = cos θ + i sin θ in the above identity. (ii) Find the real root. (c) The equation ( ) =1 w +1 w 6 ( *) has one real root and four non-real roots. (i) Explain why the equation has only five roots in all. (a) (i) Express e 2 − e iθ − iθ 2 in terms of sin θ . for the four non-real roots of the equation z 6 = 1. deduce that cos3 θ sin 3 θ = 1 ( 3sin 2θ − sin 6θ ) . 32 [AQA June 2000] 8. zn (ii) Write down the corresponding result for z n − 1 . 2 (ii) Hence. (iv) Deduce that the points in an Argand diagram that represents the roots of equation (*) lie on a straight line. i (b) Derive expressions. z3 − 1 1 . in the form eiθ where − π < θ ≤ π. zn (b) (i) Show that ( ) ( ) = A ⎛⎜⎝ z − z1 ⎞⎟⎠ + B ⎛⎜⎝ z − z1 ⎞⎟⎠ . z4 − 1 where z1 .

(c) Indicate on an Argand diagram points A. β and γ the complex numbers represented by P. B and C. (a) Express the complex number 2 + 2i in the form reiθ . and find the other two roots giving your answers in the form reiθ . Denoting by w. B and C. A. (d) Find the area of the triangle ABC. show that πi ( w − α )2 + ( w − β )2 + ( w − γ ) 2 [AQA June 1999] = 6. where r > 0 and − π < θ ≤ π. 84 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) (b) Show that one of the roots of the equation z 3 = 2 + 2i Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 9. respectively. (e) The point P lies on the circle through A. where r is a surd and − π < θ ≤ π. giving your answer in surd form. B and C corresponding to the three roots found in part (b). α . is 2 e12 .

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 5: Inverse Trigonometrical Functions 5.5 Introduction and revision The derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions Applications to more complex differentiation Standard integrals integrating to inverse trigonometrical functions Applications to more complex integrals This chapter revises and extends work on inverse trigonometrical functions. be able to extend techniques already familiar to you to differentiate more complicated expressions.2 5. be able to recognise algebraic expressions which integrate to standard integrals.1 5.3 5. you will: • • • • be able to recognise the derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions. be able to rewrite more complicated expressions in a form that can be reduced to standard integrals. 85 . When you have studied it.4 5.

The use of the superscript -1 is merely the convention we use to denote an inverse in the same way as we say that f −1 is the inverse of the function f . is the reflection of y = sin x in the line y = x and a sketch of it is as shown.1 Introduction and revision Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You should have already met the inverse trigonometrical functions when you were studying the A2 specification module Core 3. In order to overcome this obstacle. in order to present a clear picture. we restrict the range of y to − π ≤ y ≤ π so that the 2 2 −1 sketch of y = sin x becomes the sketch shown.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. 86 . for a given value of x . we write x = sin −1 y (or arc sin y ) . y = sin −1 x has infinitely many values. but if we wish to describe sin −1 x as a function. However. For any given value of x there is only one corresponding value of y . but for any given value of y there are infinitely many values of x . and for the sake of completeness some revision is included in this section. The graph of y = sin −1 x being the inverse. As it stands. Note that sin −1 y is not cosec y which would normally be written as (sin y ) −1 when expressed in terms of sine. The sketch of y = sin x will be familiar to you and is shown below. If y = sin x . we must make sure that the function has precisely one value.

We can define cos −1 x in a similar way but with an important difference. 2 2 Notice that the gradient of y = sin −1 x is always greater than zero. 87 . This value is usually called the principal value. The sketches of y = cos x and y = cos −1 x are shown below. sin −1 x is the angle between − 1 π and 1 π inclusive whose sine is x. we ensure that for any given value of x there is a unique value of y for which y = sin −1 x .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook By doing this.

2 2 tan −1 x is the angle between − π and + π inclusive whose tangent is x. cos −1 x is the angle between 0 and π inclusive whose cosine is x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In this case. Express in terms of π the values of: (a) tan −1 1 (d) cos −1 0 (b) cos −1 3 2 ⎛ ⎞ (e) tan −1 ⎜ − 1 ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ (c) sin −1 − 1 2 ( ) (f) cos −1 (−1) 88 . 2 2 The sketch of y = tan −1 x is shown below. When it comes to tan −1 x we can restrict the range to − π and π . it would not be sensible to restrict y to values between − π and π since for 2 2 every value of x ≥ 0 there would be two values of y and for values of x < 0 there would be no value of y. Instead we choose the range 0 ≤ x ≤ π and the sketch is as shown. Exercise 5A 1.

this time choosing dx 1 − x2 the negative sign of the square root as the graph of y = cos −1 x always has a gradient less than zero.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. cos y dy =1 dx Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The derivatives of standard inverse trigonometrical functions y = sin −1 x sin y = x thus dy = 1 dx cos y 1 = 1 − sin 2 y 1 = 1 − x2 using cos 2 y + sin 2 y = 1 Note that we choose the positive square root. If y = sin −1 x dy 1 = dx 1 − x2 For y = cos −1 x using similar working we would arrive at dy = − 1 . This is due to the fact that the gradient of the graph of y = sin −1 x is always greater than zero as was shown earlier.2 Suppose then and. If y = cos −1 x dy =− 1 dx 1 − x2 89 . differentiating implicitly.

dx 1 − x2 90 . sec2 y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y = tan −1 x tan y = x . differentiating implicitly.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) If then we write and. Prove that if y = cos −1 x then dy =− 1 . or dy =1 dx dy = 12 dx sec y 1 = 1 + tan 2 y using sec 2 y = 1 + tan 2 y dy = 1 dx 1 + x 2 If y = tan −1 x dy = 1 dx 1 + x 2 Exercise 5B 1.

3.3. dy dy du 2 = × = dx d u d x 1− u2 2 = 1 − (2 x − 1) 2 (using the function of a function rule). Set u = e x and let y = sin −1 e x so that y = sin −1 u dy 1 du = e x = dx du 1− u2 and using the function of a function rule. find dy . These would include the function of a function rule. We will complete this section by using the rules with functions involving inverse trigonometrical functions.1 If y = sin −1 (2 x − 1) . dy dy du = × = ex × 1 dx du d x 1− u2 x = e 1 − e2 x 91 . Example 5.2 Differentiate sin −1 e x . and the product and quotient rules. 2 = 4 x − 4 x2 2 = 2 x − x2 1 = x − x2 Example 5.3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Applications to more complex differentiation Some methods of differentiation you should already be familiar with.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. dx Solution Set u = 2 x − 1 then y = sin −1 u 1 du = 2 and dy = dx du 1− u2 Thus.

4 −1 Differentiate cos x 1 − x2 −1 If y = cos x 1 − x2 Then. dx Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook This time we need to use the product rule and the function of a function rule. find dy . using the quotient rule.3 If y = x 2 tan −1 2 x .3. y = x 2 tan −1 2 x dy = 2 x tan −1 2 x + x 2 d tan −1 2 x dx dx ( ) For d tan −1 2 x .3. 3 1− x 2 2 1− x ( ) 92 . dx 1 + 4x Example 5. ⎛ 1 − x2 ⎜ − 1 ⎜ 2 dy ⎝ 1− x = dx ⎞ 1 2 −1 ⎟ − cos x × 2 1 − x ⎟ ⎠ 1 − x2 ( ) −1 2 × ( −2 x ) ( ) −1 = −1 2 + x cos x .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 5. set u = 2 x then d tan −1 2 x = d tan −1 u × du dx dx du dx = 1 ×2 1+ u2 = 2 2 1 + 4x ( ) ( ) ( ) Thus 2 dy = 2 x tan −1 2 x + 2 x 2 .

93 . (a) sin 3 3x x Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) cos −1 ( 3 x − 1) (b) e x cos −1 2 x tan −1 3 x 2 + 1 1+ x 2 (c) sin −1 2x (c) x 2 sin −1 ( 2 x − 3) (b) ( ) 4. (a) tan −1 3x 2. (a) x tan −1 x −1 3. (a) sin −1 ( ax + b ) (b) tan −1 ( ax + b ) where a and b are positive numbers.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 5C Differentiate the following: 1.

as you have been taught. However. ∫ a 2 + x 2 = a tan The second integral is dx 1 −1 x +c a ∫ dx a − x2 2 This interval also requires a substitution Let x = a sin θ Then ∫ dx a −x 2 2 = dx = a cos θ dθ a cos θ dθ ∫ = ∫ a cos θ d θ a cos θ =θ +c = sin −1 x + c a a 2 − a 2 sin 2 θ () ∫ dx a −x 2 2 = sin −1 x + c a () 94 . The first one is ∫ a 2 + x2 Let x = a tan θ so that dx = a sec2 θ dθ Then dx = a sec 2 θ dθ ∫ a 2 + x 2 ∫ a 2 + a 2 tan 2 θ 2 = ∫ a sec θ2dθ a 2 sec θ = ∫ 1 dθ a 1θ +c = a 1 tan −1 x + c = a a dx This integral requires a substitution. this does not preclude a question requiring a proof of a result from this booklet being set. formulae from the Formulae and Statistical Tables Booklet supplied for each AS and A2 module apart from MPC1 can be quoted without proof. There are two standard results.4 Standard integrals integrating to inverse trigonometrical functions Generally speaking. the proofs of which are given here and the methods for these proofs should be committed to memory.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 5.

∫1 3 2dx 1 + x2 2.2 Evaluate ∫ 3 2 0 dx 9 − x2 We have ∫ 3 2 0 = 9 − x2 ⎛3⎞ −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin −1 0 ⎜3⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = sin −1 1 − sin −1 0 2 π −0 = 6 =π 6 dx ⎡sin −1 x ⎤ 2 ⎢ 3 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ () 3 Exercise 5D Integrate the following.1 Evaluate ∫0 2 dx 4 + x2 We have dx −1 x ⎤ ⎡1 ∫ 0 4 + x 2 = ⎢ 2 tan 2 ⎥ 0 ⎣ ⎦ = 1 tan −1 1 − 1 tan −1 0 2 2 1× π −0 = 2 4 =π 8 2 2 Example 5. ∫− 1 3 3 95 . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Example 5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) We now give two examples of definite integrals. dx ∫1 2 1 3dx 1− x 2 3.4. leaving your answers in terms of π . dx x +1 2 ∫ −3 4 dx 25 − x 2 4. 1. ∫ 0 1 + x2 1 5.4.

1 tan −1 2 2 2 2 Example 5. The result is ∫ 4 x2 + 4 x + 2 2 dx We write 4 x 2 + 4 x + 2 = ( 2 x + 1) + 1 so that we have ∫ ( 2 x + 1)2 + 1 .2 Find ∫ u2 + 4 du a standard form. Example 5. a method you will no doubt have used many times before in other contexts.1 Find ∫ x2 + 4 x + 8 . standard integrals. therefore 1 tan −1 u + c or expressing it in terms of x . We will begin by using examples of integrals which in whole or part reduce to dx ∫ a2 + x2 . 2 dx Now x 2 + 4 x + 8 = ( x + 2 ) + 4 on completing the square so that ∫ x 2 + 4 x + 8 = ∫ ( x + 2 )2 + 4 The substitution u = x + 2 gives du = dx and becomes dx dx ( x + 2) + c . dx The substitution u = 2 x + 1 gives du = 2dx and the integral becomes 1 du ∫ u22 + 1 = 1 tan −1 u + c 2 = 1 tan −1 ( 2 x + 1) + c or substituting back 2 96 . Most will involve completing the square of a quadratic expression.5 Applications to more complex integrals Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook In this section we will show you by means of examples how unfamiliar integrals can often be reduced to one or perhaps two.5.5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 5. So to start evaluating this integral we have to note that the derivative of x 2 + 6 x + 12 is 2 x + 6 and we rewrite the numerator of the integral as 1 ( 2 x + 6 ) + 2 so that the integral becomes 2 ∫ 1 2x + 6 + 2 ( ) 2 dx x 2 + 6 x + 12 and separating it into two halves we write it again as ∫ 1 2 x + 6 dx ( ) 2 + ∫ 2 2dx 2 x + 6 x + 12 x + 6 x + 12 97 .3 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ x4 + 9 xdx Here the substitution u = x 2 transforms the given integral into standard form for if u = x 2 1 du du = 2 xdx and we have ∫ 2 u2 + 9 = 1 × 1 tan −1 u + c 2 3 3 2 = 1 tan −1 x + c 6 3 Finally we give a slightly harder example of an integral which uses ∫ a2 + x2 dx in its solution. x+5 Integrals of this type where the numerator is a linear expression in x and the denominator is a quadratic in x usually integrate to ln p ( x) + tan −1 q ( x) where p ( x) and q ( x) are functions of f ' ( x ) dx x.4 Find ∫ x 2 + 6 x + 12 dx .5. You should have been taught this result when studying the module Core 3. In order to tackle this integral you need to remember that integrals of the form ∫ f ( x) integrate to ln f ( x ) + c . Example 5.5.

a 2 − x2 Example 5.5. This will be done by means of examples.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ( ) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The first integral integrates to 1 ln x 2 + 6 x + 12 whilst in the second we complete the square 2 in the denominator and write it as ∫ ( x + 3)2 + 3 The substitution u = x + 3 leads to 2dx ∫ u2 + 3 = 2 tan −1 u 3 3 ⎛ ⎞ = 2 tan −1 ⎜ x + 3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ So that 2du ∫ x 2 + 6 x + 12 dx ∫ x+5 = 1 ln x 2 + 6 x + 12 + 2 tan −1 ⎛ x + 3 ⎞ + c ⎜ ⎟ 2 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ( ) The final part of this section will show you how integrals can sometimes be reduced to dx . and we write 4 x − x2 = 4 − ( x − 2) 2 So that the interval becomes ∫ dx 4 − ( x − 2) 2 98 . As in previous examples. we need to complete the square on 4x − x 2 .5 Find ∫ dx 4x − x 2 .

In order to complete the square in the denominator. du = f ' ( x ) dx ∫ du ].5.6 Find ∫ dx 1 + 6 x − 3x2 . ∫ dx 1 + 6 x − 3x 2 = ∫ dx 4 − 3 ( x − 1) 2 The substitution of u = 3 ( x − 1) reduces the integral to 3 4 − u2 = 1 sin −1 u + c 2 3 3 ( x − 1) = 1 sin −1 +c 2 3 One final example shows how more complicated expressions may be integrated using methods shown here and other results which you should have met studying earlier modules. In this particular context the result you will need is that ∫ du ∫ f ( x ) dx and the integral becomes f ' ( x) = 2 f ( x) + c [This result can be easily verified using the substitution u = f ( x ) . we write 6 x − 3x 2 = 3 2 x − x 2 = 1 + 3 1 − ( x − 1) = 4 − 3 ( x − 1) 2 ( ( 2 ) ) Thus.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ∫ du 4 − u2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The substitution u = x − 2 simplifies the result to the standard form = sin −1 u + c 2 = sin −1 ( x − 2) + c 2 Example 5. since then. u 99 .

whilst completing the square on the denominator of the second integral. ∫ xdx 7 − 6x − x 2 = − 7 − 6 x − x 2 − 3sin −1 x + 3 + c 4 ( ) 100 . Now the derivative of 7 − 6x − x 2 is −6 − 2x so we write x as − 1 ( 6 + 2 x ) + 3 and the integral 2 becomes − 1 (6 + 2x) + 3 dx −∫ 2 7 − 6 x − x2 or separating the integral into two parts − 1 (6 + 2x) −∫ 2 7 − 6 x − x2 The first integral is of the form f ' ( x) − ∫ 3dx 7 − 6 x − x2 ∫ f ( x ) dx apart from a scaler multiplier. we 3dx which integrates to 3sin −1 x + 3 using the substitution u = x + 3 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 5. and so integrates to 7 − 6x − x 2 .5. obtain ∫ 2 4 16 − ( x + 3) Hence.7 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ xdx 7 − 6x − x 2 .

Find (a) ∫ x + 1 dx 1 − x2 (b) ∫ 3x − 2 3 + 2 x − x2 dx (c) ∫ (1 − x ) 1 − x − x2 dx 101 . Integrate (a) 3. Integrate (a) 1 x + 4x + 5 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) 1 2x − 4x + 5 2 (c) 1 x −x+2 2 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 5E 1. Find (a) 2x x + 2x + 3 2 (b) x x + x +1 2 ∫ dx 7 + 6x − x 2 (b) ∫ dx 3 + 2x − x 2 (c) ∫ dx x (1 − 2 x ) 4.

have learned some hyperbolic identities.3 6. When you have completed it.11 Integrals which integrate to inverse hyperbolic functions 6. 102 .10 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions 6. be able to sketch them.8 6.9 Definitions of hyperbolic functions Numerical values of hyperbolic functions Graphs of hyperbolic functions Hyperbolic identities Osborne’s rule Differentiation of hyperbolic functions Integration of hyperbolic functions Inverse hyperbolic functions Logarithmic form of inverse hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6. be able to differentiate and integrate them.5 6.12 Solving equations This chapter introduces you to a wholly new concept. be able to sketch inverse hyperbolic functions.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 6: Hyperbolic Functions 6.2 6. be able to solve equations involving hyperbolic functions.1 6.7 6. understand what inverse hyperbolic functions are and how they can be expressed in alternative forms.6 6. be able to differentiate inverse hyperbolic functions and recognise integrals which integrate to them. you will: • • • • • • • • know what hyperbolic functions are.4 6.

cosech x = 1 sinh x 1 = x −x 1 2 e −e ( ) = 2 . e +1 Again. The definitions of sinh x and cosh x (often called hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine – pronounced ‘shine x’ and ‘cosh x’) are: sinh x = 1 e x − e − x 2 1 e x + e− x cosh x = 2 ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) There are four other hyperbolic functions derived from these. Hyperbolic 2i 2 functions are defined in a very similar way. on multiplying the numerator and denominator by e x . 2x tanh x = e2 x − 1 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. 103 . ‘than x’ ‘cosheck x’ ‘sheck x’ ‘coth x’ tanh x = sinh x cosh x = 1 2 1 2 (e (e x x − e− x + e− x ) ) x −x = e x − e− x . e +e or. e − e− x x Exponential forms for sech x and coth x can be found in a similar way. just as there are four trigonometric functions.1 Definitions of hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook It was shown in Chapter 4 that sin x = 1 eix − e −ix and cos x = 1 eix +e −ix . They are: tanh x = sinh x cosh x cosech x = 1 sinh x sech x = 1 cosh x coth x = 1 tanh x In terms of exponential functions.

(f) coth 4 104 . 2 2 Exercise 6B 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6A 1.3).3 : 2 −2 sinh 2 = e − e = 3. for example sin x.3 cosh1.1.2 Numerical values of hyperbolic functions When finding the value of trigonometric functions. There is no unit for x when evaluating. (e) cosh (– 0. (b) tanh 1. 2 −1. Express.63 (to two decimal places). Use a calculator to evaluate. (d) tanh (– 0. (b) coth x. 2 2 −0 0 cosh 0 = e + e = 1 + 1 = 1. sinh x. 2 You can work out these values on a calculator using the e x button. for example. 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (d) cosech 3x. the angle x must be given in degrees (or radians). However.3.6.3 = e + e = 1. It is worth remembering that 0 −0 sinh 0 = e − e = 1 − 1 = 0. It is quite in order to speak about sinh 2 or cosh1. 6. (c) sech 2. to two decimal places: (a) sinh 0. for convenience most scientific calculators have a ‘hyp’ button and sinh 2 can be obtained directly by pressing the ‘2’. ‘hyp’ and ‘sin’ buttons in the appropriate order. (c) tanh 1 x.97 (to two decimal places).6).3 1. in terms of exponentials: (a) sech x.

from which it can be deduced that tanh x < 1.3 Graphs of hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The graphs of hyperbolic functions can be sketched easily by plotting points. 1+ e −2 x As e > 0 for all values of x. ⎝ 1+ e ⎠ Now. y y y = sinh x 0 x y = cosh x 1 0 x The sketch of y = tanh x requires a little more consideration. 1 () Now. y = cosh x and y = tanh x to memory. tanh x = 1 − e −2 x . In Section 5. as e 2 x > 0 for all values of x. so tanh x → 1 as x → ∞. it was shown that tanh x could be written as 2x tanh x = e2 x − 1 e +1 2x ⎞ ⎛ = − ⎜ 1 − e2 x ⎟ . it follows that the numerator in the bracketed expression above is less than its denominator. as x → −∞. so that tanh x > −1. It can also be deduced that as e −2 x → 0 as x → ∞. Also. So the graph of y = tanh x has an asymptote at x = 1. It would also be worthwhile committing the general shapes of y = sinh x. if the numerator and denominator of tanh x are divided by e 2 x . e 2 x → 0 and tanh x → − 1 = −1. it follows that the numerator of this fraction is less than its denominator. So the graph of y = tanh x has an asymptote at y = −1. and has y = ±1 as asymptotes.1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. y = tanh x y −2 x 1 0 –1 x 105 . Some sketches are given below but it would be a good exercise to make a table of values and confirm the general shapes for yourself. Hence the curve y = tanh x lies between y = +1 and y = −1.

4 Hyperbolic identities Just as there are trigonometric identities such as cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1 and cos 2θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1. Sketch the graphs of (a) y = sech x. (c) y = coth x. by subtraction. 2 2 ( ) ) cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − 1 e2 x − 2 + e −2 x 4 4 = 1. it follows that cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 2 2 cosh x cosh x cosh 2 x 1 − tanh 2 x = sech 2 x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6C 1. sech 2 x = 1 − tanh 2 x Or again. dividing both sides by sinh 2 x instead. ⎛ x −x ⎞ cosh x = ⎜ e + e ⎟ = 1 e2 x + 2 + e−2 x . there are similar hyperbolic identities. cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 sinh 2 x sinh 2 x sinh 2 x coth 2 x − 1 = cosech 2 x. For example. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6. cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 ( ) ( Dividing both sides of this equation by cosh 2 x. cosech 2 x = coth 2 x − 1 106 . (b) y = cosech x. 2 ⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 2 ( ) ⎛ x −x ⎞ and sinh x = ⎜ e − e ⎟ = 1 e2 x − 2 + e −2 x 2 ⎠ 4 ⎝ from which.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ) In exactly the same way. and so on. (b) cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y. cosh ( x + y ) and cosh ( x − y ) can be worked out. cos 2 x. Show that (a) sinh ( x − y ) = sinh x cosh y − cosh x sinh y. You will probably remember that the basic trigonometric formulae for sin ( x + y ) and cos ( x + y ) can be used to find expressions for sin 2 x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) ( Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Now consider sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y = 1 e x − e− x 1 e y − e− y + 1 e x + e− x 1 e y − e− y 2 2 2 2 1 e x e y − e− x e y + e x e− y − e− x e− y + e x e y + e− x e y − e x e− y − e− x e− y = 4 = 1 2e x e y − 2e − x e − y 4 = 1 e x e y − e− x e− y 2 − x+ y = 1 ex+ y − e ( ) [using the laws of indices] 2 = sinh ( x + y ) . sinh ( x ± y ) = sinh x cosh y ± cosh x sinh y cosh ( x ± y ) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y Exercise 6D 1. The hyperbolic formulae given above help to find corresponding results for hyperbolic functions. expressions for sinh ( x − y ) . 107 .

Using cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1. cosh ( x + x ) = cosh x cosh x + sinh x sinh x. because sinh ( x + y ) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook or Using putting y = x. cosh 2 x = 1 + sinh 2 x + sinh 2 x or = 1 + 2sinh 2 x cosh 2 x = 2 cosh 2 x − 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) For example. or cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x. putting y = x. cosh ( x + y ) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y. 108 . sinh 2 x = 2sinh x cosh x cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x = 2 cosh 2 x − 1 = 1 + 2sinh 2 x Some examples will illustrate extensions of these results. sinh 2 x = 2sinh x cosh x. sinh ( x + x ) = sinh x cosh x + cosh x sinh x.

show that sinh 3 x = 3sinh x + 4sinh 3 x. 2.2 Show that cosh 3x = 4 cosh 3 x − 3cosh x. 2 cosh x + sinh x Dividing the numerator and denominator by cosh 2 x. = 1 + tanh 2 x Example 6.1 x Show that tanh 2 x = 2 tanh 2 . Solution cosh 3x = cosh ( 2 x + x ) = cosh 2 x cosh x + sinh 2 x sinh x = 2 cosh 2 x − 1 cosh x + 2sinh x cosh x sinh x = 2 cosh 3 x − cosh x + 2 cosh 2 x − 1 cosh x = 2 cosh 3 x − cosh x + 2 cosh 3 x − 2 cosh x = 4 cosh 3 x − 3cosh x.4. Using the expansion of sinh ( 2 x + x ) . 109 . ( ) ( ) [using cosh x − sinh x = 1] 2 2 Exercise 6E 1.4. Express cosh 4x in terms of cosh x. 2sinh x cosh x cosh 2 x tanh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x cosh 2 x 2sinh x = cosh x 2 1 + sinh 2 x cosh x 2 tanh x . 1 + tanh x Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution tanh 2 x = sinh 2 x cosh 2 x x = 2sinh x cosh 2 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6.

cos 2 x = 1 − 2sin 2 x cosh 2 x = 1 + 2sinh 2 x. where a product of two sines appears change the sign of the corresponding hyperbolic term For example. that cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1. The method shown in Section 5. In fact the only differences are those of sign – for example. There is a rule for obtaining the identities of hyperbolic functions from those for trigonometric functions – it is called Osborne’s rule. It is known that sec 2 x = 1 + tan 2 x but sech 2 x = 1 − tanh 2 x The reason that the sign has to be changed here is that a product of sines is implied because 2 tan 2 x = sin 2 x . because sin 2 x is a product of two sines. because then Note also that because then cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y − sin x sin y cosh ( x + y ) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y.4 must be used for that. However.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. the corresponding hyperbolic identity is cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1. To change a trigonometric function into its corresponding hyperbolic function. care must be exercised in using this rule. cos x It should be noted that Osborne’s rule is only an aid to memory.5 Osborne’s rule Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook It should be clear that the results and identities for hyperbolic functions bear a remarkable similarity to the corresponding ones for trigonometric functions. It must not be used in a proof – for example. whereas cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 1. as the next example shows. 110 .

d e kx = ke kx . dy 1 x − x = e +e dx 2 = cosh x. ( ) ) And if y = sinh kx = 1 e kx − e − kx .6 Differentiation of hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You will already have met the derivative of ekx . it follows that their differentiation is straightforward.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. For example. dx ( ) As hyperbolic functions can be expressed in terms of e. ( ( ) ) 111 . y = sinh x = 1 e x − e− x . Just to remind you. 2 ( then dy 1 = ke kx +ke − kx dx 2 = k 1 e kx +e − kx 2 = k cosh kx. 2 ( ) Therefore.

1 Differentiate sinh 1 x. except that whereas d ( cos x ) = − sin x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You can differentiate cosh x and cosh kx in exactly the same way. 2 Solution y = sinh 1 x 2 dy = cosh 1 x × 1 dx 2 2 = 1 cosh 1 x. d ( cosh x ) = + sinh x.6. The following results cosh x should be committed to memory: y = sinh x. 2 2 ( ) 112 . y = cosh x. y = tanh x. tanh x can be differentiated by treating it as the derivative of the quotient sinh x . dy = cosh x dx dy = sinh x dx dy = sech 2 x dx Generally: y = sinh kx. dx dx Example 6. y = cosh kx. y = tanh kx. dy = k cosh kx dx dy = k sinh kx dx dy = k sech 2 kx dx Note that the derivatives are very similar to the derivatives of trigonometric functions.

4 Using the product and chain rules for differentiation. ( ) Exercise 6F 1. (e) x tanh x. (f) sech x [hint: write sech x as ( cosh x ) ] . −1 113 . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution y = x cosh 2 x + cosh 4 3 x = x cosh 2 x + ( cosh 3x ) . x (g) cosech x. Differentiate the following expressions: (a) cosh 3 x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6.6. (d) cosh 2 x .2 Differentiate x cosh 2 x + cosh 4 3 x. (b) cosh 2 3x. dy 3 = (1× cosh 2 x ) + ( x sinh 2 x × 2 ) + 4 ( cosh 3x ) × sinh 3 x × 3 dx = cosh 2 x + 2 x sinh 2 x + 12sinh 3 x cosh 3 3 x. (c) x 2 cosh x.

du ∫ tanh x dx = ∫ u = ln u + c = ln cosh x + c. and as it is the reverse of differentiation. ∫ x sinh 2 x dx. it follows that their integration is straightforward. generally ∫ sinh kx = 1 cosh kx + c. k For the integration of tanh x. So that du = sinh x dx.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6.7 Integration of hyperbolic functions 1 kx kx ∫ e dx = k e . (b) (d) ∫ cosh ∫ tanh 2 x dx. a substitution is needed as follows: tanh x dx = sinh x dx. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook You will already have met the integral of e kx . As hyperbolic functions can be expressed in terms of e. 2 114 . x dx. ∫ tanh x dx = ln cosh x + c ∫ coth x dx = ln sinh x + c Exercise 6G 1. ∫ sinh x dx = cosh x + c ∫ cosh x dx = sinh x + c 2 ∫ sech x dx = tanh x + c Of course. Just to remind you. cosh x ∫ ∫ Putting u = cosh x. Evaluate the following integrals: (a) (c) ∫ cosh 3x dx.

sinh −1 2 using a calculator. then y = sinh −1 x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. However. you use it in the same way as you would if it was a trigonometric function (pressing the appropriate buttons for hyperbolic functions). Note that the curve y = tanh −1 x has asymptotes at x = ±1. so there are inverse hyperbolic functions. etc. 115 . These sketches are shown below. If you look at the graph of y = cosh x (in Section 5. To find the value of. if the domain of y = cosh x is restricted to x ≥ 0 there will be a one-to-one mapping.8 Inverse hyperbolic functions Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Just as there are inverse trigonometric functions sin −1 x. if x = sinh y. The sketches of y = sinh −1 x and y = tanh −1 x are the reflections of y = sinh x and y = tanh x. say. y = tanh y = sinh −1 ( ) y −1 x y x 0 x –1 0 1 x Note also that y = cosh x does not have an inverse. and likewise for the other five hyperbolic functions. and hence an inverse. This is because the mapping f : x → cosh x is not a one-to-one mapping. and the range for the inverse will be y ≥ 0. cos −1 x. They are defined in a similar way to inverse trigonometric functions – so. respectively. .3) you will see that for every value of y > 1 there are two values of x. in the line y = x.

2 xe y = e 2 y + 1 Multiplying by e y . x −1). This is a quadratic equation in e y and can be solved using the quadratic formula: 2 e y = 2x ± 4x − 4 2 = x ± x 2 − 1. y = ln x ± x 2 − 1 .9 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Logarithmic form of inverse hyperbolic functions The inverse hyperbolic functions cosh −1 x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 6. Now. 0 = e 2 y − 2 xe y + 1. sinh −1 x and tanh −1 x can be expressed as logarithms. 2 2 116 . Taking the logarithm of each side. For example. then x = cosh y y −y x = e +e 2 y 2 x = e + e− y . if y = cosh −1 x. ( ) ( x + x2 − 1 x − x2 − 1 = x2 − )( ) ( ) x2 − 1 ) 2 = x2 − x2 + 1 = 1. Thus x − x2 − 1 = (x + 1 x −1 2 . ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ and ⎛ ⎜ 1 ln x − x − 1 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ x + x −1 ⎝ ( 2 so that ( = − ln ( x + y = ± ln ( x + ) ) x −1) .

if y ≥ 0 then y = cosh −1 x = + ln x + x 2 − 1 . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) A similar result for y = sinh −1 x can be obtained by writing x = sinh y and then expressing sinh y in terms of e y . cosh y cosh −1 x = ln x + x 2 − 1 sinh −1 2 ( ) ( ) ( x = ln ( x + tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x 2 1− x ( ) ) x + 1) 117 . This gives y = ln x ± x 2 + 1 .8. It is straightforward to obtain the logarithmic form of y = tanh −1 x if. tanh y is written as .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) However. Thus sinh −1 x = ln x + x 2 + 1 . but as x − x 2 + 1 ≤ 0 the negative sign has to be rejected because the logarithm of a negative number is non-real. from Section 5. after writing sinh y tanh y = x.

Show that tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x . 3 12 ( ) ( ) 118 . Example 6. 2 1− x 3. 4 Solution 2 ⎛ ⎞ sinh −1 3 = ln ⎜ 3 + 3 + 1 ⎟ 4 4 ⎜4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ = ln ⎜ 3 + 9 + 1 ⎟ 16 ⎠ ⎝4 () ⎛ ⎞ = ln ⎜ 3 + 25 ⎟ 4 16 ⎠ ⎝ = ln 3 + 5 4 4 = ln 2. sinh −1 3 . 2.5. in logarithmic form. (b) tanh −1 1 .9.9.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6.1 Find. in logarithmic form. (c) sinh −1 5 . ( ) Exercise 6H 1. Express the following in logarithmic form: (a) cosh −1 1. 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution ⎛ 1+ 1 ⎞ 2 tanh −1 1 = 1 ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ 1− 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛3⎞ 2 = 1 ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 ⎜2⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 1 ln 3 2 = ln 3. tanh −1 1 . Show that sinh −1 x = ln x + x 2 + 1 .2 Find.

Differentiating with respect to x. dy = 1. () () Example 6. dx a dy 1 = dx a cosh y 1 = 2 a 1 + x2 a 1 = . if y = sinh −1 x . 2 a + x2 The derivatives of cosh −1 x and cosh −1 x . if y = sinh −1 then sinh y = x.10 Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions As already seen. and also tanh −1 x and tanh −1 x are obtained a a in exactly the same way. cosh y dx dy So that = 1 dx cosh y 1 ⎡using cosh 2 y − sinh 2 y = 1⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ 2 1+ x Again. a sinh y = x .10. ⎣ ⎦ 119 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6. dx ( ) Solution y = tanh −1 x tanh y = x sech 2 y dy =1 dx dy = 12 dx sech y = 1 2 1− x ⎡using sech 2 y + tanh 2 y = 1⎤ .1 Find the derivative of d tanh −1 x . a and Thus cosh y dy 1 = .

120 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y = sinh −1 x : y = cosh −1 x : y = tanh −1 x : Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook It is suggested that you work through the remaining results yourself. dy 1 = dx 1 + x2 dy 1 = dx x2 − 1 dy = 1 dx 1 − x 2 Generally.10. 3 Solution y = cosh −1 x 3 dy 1 = 2 dx x − 32 = 1 x2 − 9 . y = sinh −1 x : a y = cosh −1 x : a y = tanh −1 x : a dy 1 = 2 dx a + x2 dy 1 = 2 dx x − a2 dy = 1 dx a 2 − x 2 Example 6.2 Differentiate cosh −1 x .

giving your answer in the form a + b ln c. when x = 2 dy 1 = 4sinh −1 1 + 4 2 dx 2 + 22 = 4 ln 1 + 1 + 1 + 4 8 = 4 ln 1 + 2 + 4 8 8× 8 ( ( ) ) ( ) = 4 ln (1 + 2 ) + = 4 ln (1 + 2 ) + Exercise 6I = 4 ln 1 + 2 + 4 8 8 8 2 2. (d) e x sinh −1 x. (b) sinh −1 x . find (c) cosh −1 x . 3 3 (e) 1 cosh −1 x 2 . find when x = 2. 1. 2 dx 2 2 + x2 So.10. If y = x cosh −1 x. 2 y = x 2 sinh −1 x 2 dy 1 = 2 x sinh −1 x + x 2 . where a dx and b are irrational numbers. 2 dx Solution Differentiate x 2 sinh −1 x as a product .3 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook dy If y = x 2 sinh −1 x . 121 . 4 dy when x = 2. Differentiate the following: (a) tanh −1 x . giving your answer in the form a + ln b.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. x 2.

The examples which follow show how this can be done. 1 px + qx + r 2 In fact. 4 ∫ dx 2 () 122 . from the results in Section 6.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 6.11. Example 6. or .1 Find ∫ dx 16 + x 2 . where p > 0. in particular. these results can be used to integrate any expression of the form even sx + t px + qx + r 2 . help to widen the ability to integrate.11 Integrals which integrate to inverse hyperbolic functions Integration can be regarded as the reverse of differentiation so it follows. Solution ∫ dx 16 + x 2 = 4 + x2 = sinh −1 x + c. that: ∫ ∫ ∫ The integrals of 1 a +x 2 2 = sinh −1 x + c a a +x dx = cosh −1 x + c a x2 − a2 2 2 dx = 1 tanh −1 x + c a a a −x 2 2 dx and 1 x − a2 2 .10.

2 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ dx 6 + 2 x2 . Substituting z = x + 1. 2 ⎝ 3⎠ Example 6. 2 z −4 x + 2x − 3 = cosh −1 z + c 2 = cosh −1 x + 1 + c. gives dx = 2dz .11. Solution ∫ dx 6 + 2x 2 = ∫ 2 3 + x2 ( dx dx ) = 1 2 ∫ 3 + x2 ⎛ ⎞ = 1 sinh −1 ⎜ x ⎟ + c. Solution In order to evaluate this integral.11. x2 + 2 x − 3 = x2 + 2 x + 1 − 4 = ( x + 1) − 4. for which dz = dx.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. 2 ( ) Hence. ∫ ∫ dx x2 + 2 x − 3 = ∫ ∫ dx ( x + 1) − 4 2 . you must complete the square in the denominator. 2 () ( ) 123 .3 Find ∫ dx x + 2x − 3 2 .

dx The substitution u = x + 3 will give du = 1. completing the square in the denominator. 2 So that I2 = ∫ ( x + 3)2 + 1. then for I1 the substitution z = x 2 + 6 x + 10 gives dz = 2 x + 6 and consequently dx I1 = dz z ∫ ∫ = z 2 dz 2 = z1 1 −1 2 = 2 x 2 + 6 x + 10. dx ( ) But and 2x + 5 = 2x + 6 −1 ∫ 2x + 5 x + 6 x + 10 2 dx = x + 6 x + 10 = I1 − I 2 . Now. ∫ 2x + 6 2 dx − ∫ 1 x + 6 x + 10 2 dx. the integral is split into two by writing one integral with a numerator which is the derivative of x 2 + 6 x + 10. Solution In this case.11. dx du I = and 2 ∫ u2 +1 = sinh −1 u = sinh −1 ( x + 3) . For I 2 . Therefore. 124 . the complete integral is I1 − I 2 = 2 x 2 + 6 x + 10 − sinh −1 ( x + 3) + c.4 Find Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ 2x + 5 x + 6 x + 10 2 dx. Because the derivative of x 2 + 6 x + 10 is 2 x + 6. say. d x 2 + 6 x + 10 = 2 x + 6.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6. x 2 + 6 x + 10 = x 2 + 6 x + 9 + 1 = ( x + 3) + 1.

Multiplying throughout by e x . 2 2 x −x ⎞ x −x ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 7 ⎜ e − e ⎟ − 5 ⎜ e + e ⎟ = −1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 7e x − 7e − x − 5e x − 5e − x = −1 2 2 2 2 x e − 6e − x = −1. Solution x −x x −x Using the definitions sinh x = e − e and cosh x = e + e . The methods for solving them are quite different. The first type has the form a cosh x + b sinh x = c. x x 125 . (h) x − 2x − 2 . (d) ∫ ∫ 9 x + 49 dx 2 . or a similar linear combination of hyperbolic functions. Example 6. e = −3 or e = 2.12. e 2 x − 6 = −e x . (c) (f) ∫ ∫ dx 4 x + 25 dx 2 . The only solution possible is x = ln 2 because e x ≠ −3 since e x > 0 for all values of x. (e) ∫ ∫ ( x + 1) dx 2 2 +4 ( x − 2) 2 − 16 (g) x + 4x + 5 .1 Solve the equation 7 sinh x − 5cosh x = −1.12 Solving equations You are likely to meet two types of equations involving hyperbolic functions. Evaluate the following integrals: dx . (a) (b) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ x +9 dx 2 2 ∫ dx x − 16 dx 2 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6J 1. The correct method for solving this type of equation is to use the definitions of sinh x and cosh x to turn the equation into one involving e x (frequently a quadratic equation). This is a quadratic equation in e x and factorizes to (e x + 3 e x − 2 = 0. 6. )( ) Hence. . . or e 2 x + e x − 6 = 0.

Hence.2 – this would generate a quartic equation in e x which would be difficult to solve. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Solution The identity cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 is used here. the original equation is reduced to one involving sinh x only. x = 2.12. 126 . ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Note that it is not advisable to use the definitions of sinh x and cosh x when attempting to solve the equation in Example 5. and and sinh x = 5 or sinh x = −1 x = sinh −1 5 or x = sinh −1 − 1. ( ) ( ) ( ) Examples 6K 1. 1 + sinh 2 x = 4sinh x + 6 sinh 2 x − 4sinh x − 5 = 0.9: sinh −1 5 = ln 5 + 52 + 1 = ln 5 + 26 . The reason for this can be seen on substitution – instead of having an equation involving cosh x and sinh x. (e) tanh x = 7sech x + 3. using the results from Section 5.31 or x = −0. Solve the equations: (a) 4sinh x + 3e x = 9.12. The answers can also be expressed in terms of logarithms. This is a quadratic equation in sinh x which factorizes to ( sinh x − 5)( sinh x + 1) = 0. (d) cosh 2 x − 3cosh x = 4.2 Solve the equation cosh 2 x = 4sinh x + 6. 2 (b) 3sinh x + 4 cosh x = 4. 2 sinh −1 − 1 = ln ⎛ −1 + ( −1) + 1 ⎞ = ln 2 − 1 . (c) cosh 2 x − 3sinh x = 5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 6.88 (to two decimal places).

or otherwise. (a) Using the definitions prove that cosh x = 1 e x + e− x and sinh x = 1 e x − e − x . cosh x + sinh x 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 6 1. leaving your answer in terms of natural logarithms. (b) Hence solve the equation 14sinh x − 10 cosh x = 5. [AQA June 2001] 127 . ( ) ( ) (b) Hence. (b) Hence evaluate [AQA March 1999] Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∫ ∞ 0 1 dx. (a) Express cosh x + sinh x in terms of e x . solve the equation 8sinh x = 3sech x. giving your answer as a natural logarithm. leaving your answers in terms of natural logarithms. or otherwise. 2 2 2sinh x cosh x = sinh 2 x. [AEB January 1997] 3. (b) Solve the equation ( ) 2 cosh 2θ − 5sinh θ − 8 = 0. (a) By considering sinh y = x. (a) Show that the equation can be expressed as 14sinh x − 10 cosh x = 5 2e 2 x − 5e x − 12 = 0. prove that sinh −1 x = ln x + 1 + x 2 . [AEB January 1996] 4.

show that 2θ tanh θ = e2θ − 1 . or otherwise. (a) Using the definitions of sinh θ and cosh θ in terms of exponentials. Obtain this root. (a) By expressing tanh x in terms of sinh x and cosh x.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 4 cosh 3 t − 3cosh t = cosh 3t. [AQA March 1999] 6. ( ) [AEB June 1999] 7. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 5. into 4 (c) The above equation in x has only one real root. (a) Starting from the definition of cosh t in terms of et . 2 1− x where −1 < x < 1. show that (b) Hence show that the substitution x = cosh t transforms the equation 16 x3 − 12 x = 5 cosh 3t = 5 . giving your answer in the form 2 p + 2q . [AQA March 2000] 128 . e +1 (b) Hence prove that tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x . dx (b) (i) Find ∫ ( tanh x − tanh x ) dx. find tanh ∫ 3 3 x dx. (ii) Hence. show that (i) tanh 2 x = 1 − sech 2 x. where p and q are rational numbers to be found. (ii) d tanh x = sech 2 x.

or otherwise. (a) State the values of x for which cosh −1 x is defined. ( ) dx (b) Hence. 8 3 (i) express y in the form ln n. where n is an integer. prove that d tanh −1 x = 1 . [AQA March 2000] 9. (ii) show that one of the possible values of x + y is ln12 and find the other possible value in the form ln a. (a) Prove that d tanh x = sech 2 x. giving your answer in the form p − ln q. k = 1 and k > 1 are 0. dx 1 − x2 ( ) (c) By expressing 1 in partial fractions and integrating. [NEAB March 1998] 10.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 8. respectively. (i) Show that C has just one stationary point. by means of a sketch. 2 1− x ( ) (d) Show that ∫ [AQA June 1990] 1 2 0 tanh −1 x dx = a ln b 2 . (b) A curve C is defined for these values of x by the equation y = x − cosh −1 x. where a is to be determined. (ii) Evaluate y at the stationary point. show that 1 − x2 tanh −1 x = 1 ln 1 + x . 1 and 2. why the numbers of distinct values of x satisfying the equation cosh x = k in the cases k < 1. ( ) 1 − x2 where a and b are numbers to be determined. (b) Given that cosh x = 17 and sinh y = 4 . 129 . (a) Explain. where p and q are numbers to be determined.

3 (c) (i) Show that ∫ ln 3 0 sinh 2 x dx = 1 ⎡sinh ( ln 9 ) − ln 9 ⎤ . [NEAB June 1998] 130 . show that OB = ln 3. correct to three significant figures. the volume swept out when the region R is rotated through an angle of 2π radians about the x-axis. 2k B x (ii) Show that the area of the region R is 2 . the x-axis and the line AB which is perpendicular to the x-axis. The diagram shows a region R in the x–y plane bounded by the curve y = sinh x. 4 2 (b) (i) Show that cosh ( ln k ) = k + 1 . A R O (a) Given that AB = 3 . ⎦ 4⎣ (ii) Hence find.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 11.

131 . know a formula which can be used to evaluate the length of an arc when the equation of the curve is given in parametric form.3 Introduction Arc length Area of surface of revolution Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Chapter 7: Arc Length and Area of Surface of Revolution This chapter introduces formulae which allow calculations concerning curves. you will: • • • know a formula which can be used to evaluate the length of an arc when the equation of the curve is given in Cartesian form.2 7.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. know methods of evaluating a curved surface area of revolution when the equation of the curve is given in Cartesian or in parametric form. When you have completed it.1 7.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. ∫ b a πy 2 dx which gives the volume of the solid 132 . as with many problems. For example. trigonometric and hyperbolic functions – many of which have been introduced in earlier chapters. the area under the curve y = f ( x ) above the x-axis and between the lines x = a and x = b is given by A = Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y ∫a b y dx. You should also realise that.1 Introduction You will probably already be familiar with some formulae to do with the arc length of a curve and the area of surface of revolution. The formulae to be introduced in this chapter should be committed to memory. differentiation and manipulation of algebraic. the skills needed to solve them do not concern the formulae themselves but involve integration. O a b x You will also be familiar with the formula V = of revolution when that part of the curve between the lines x = a and x = b is rotated about the x-axis.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. 2 2 2 ( ) δs δx ds dx 2 ⎛δ y ⎞ ≈ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ . if P and Q are fairly close to each other then the arc length δ s must be quite short and PQN be approximately a right-angled triangle. it follows that PN = δ x and QN = δ y. Q has coordinates y P y O a δs δx Q δy N y b x ( x + δ x. y ) . s= 2 ∫ b a ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx. (δ s ) Dividing by (δ x ) . y + δ y ) and PN is parallel to the x-axis so that angle PNQ is 90º. the length of the arc of curve from the point where x = a to the point where x = b is given by s= ∫ b a ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 133 . If P has the coordinates ( x. δ s is the arc length between the points P and Q on the curve y = f ( x ) .2 Arc length Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook The arc length of a curve is the actual distance you would cover if you travelled along it. Now. In the diagram alongside. Using Pythagorus’ theorem. ⎜ dx ⎟ dx ⎝ ⎠ Thus. ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 If y = f ( x ) . ⎝δx⎠ ⎛ dy ⎞ = 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 In the limit as δ x → 0. ( ) 2 ds = 1 + ⎛ dy ⎞ . 2 2 ≈ (δ x ) + (δ y ) .

2 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook A corresponding formula for curves given in terms of a parameter can also be derived.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) (δ s ) Dividing by (δ t ) . Suppose that x and y are both functions of a parameter t. ⎝ δt ⎠ 2 2 2 2 2 2 t2 2 2 t1 where t1 and t2 are the values of the parameter at each end of the arc length being considered. The length of arc of a curve in terms of a parameter t is given by s= ∫ ( ) t2 t1 dx dt 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ dt. δs δt 2 ≈ δx δt 2 ⎛δ y⎞ +⎜ ⎟ . 134 . ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 where t1 and t2 are the values of the parameter at each end of the arc The use of these formulae will be demonstrated through some worked examples. 2 2 As δ x → 0. ≈ (δ x ) + (δ y ) . δ t → 0 and ( ) ( ) ( ddst ) = ( ddxt ) + ⎛⎜⎝ ddyt ⎞⎟⎠ ds = dx + ⎛ dy ⎞ ( dt ) ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠ dt ⎛ dy ⎞ dx s= ∫ ( dt ) + ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠ dt. As before.

⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ = 1 + sinh 2 x ⎝ dx ⎠ = cosh 2 x ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ = cosh x.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the length of the curve y = cosh x between the points where x = 0 and x = 2. s= ∫ = cosh x dx ∫ 0 2 0 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 = [sinh x ]0 2 = sinh 2 − sinh 0 = sinh 2.2. Solution y = cosh x dy = sinh x. ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 2 Now. 135 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 7. dx Therefore.

2 y = a (1 − cos θ ) between θ = 0 and θ = 2π is 8a.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 7. dθ Therefore. 2 s= 2 ∫ ( ) = 2a sin θ dθ ∫ 2 = ⎡ 2a −2cos θ ⎤ ⎣ ( 2)⎦ 2π 0 dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ dθ ⎝ dθ ⎠ 2 2π 0 2π = −4a cos π − ( −4a cos 0 ) = 8a. 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = 4a 2 sin 2 θ dθ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 2a sin θ . 0 136 . Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Show that the length of the curve (called a cycloid) given by the equations x = a (θ − sin θ ) .2. ( ) dx dθ 2 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 2 2 2 +⎜ ⎟ = a (1 − cos θ ) + a sin θ dθ ⎠ ⎝ 2 = a 2 1 − 2 cos θ + cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = a 2 (1 − 2 cos θ + 1) = a 2 ( 2 − 2 cos θ ) = 2a 2 (1 − cos θ ) = 2a 2 2sin 2 θ 2 ( ) 2 2 (using sin θ + cos θ = 1) (using 2 sin θ = 1 − cos 2θ ) 2 ( ) dx dθ Now. Solution dx = a 1 − cos θ ( ) dθ dy = a sin θ .

it follows that 2πyδ s < δ A < 2π ( y + δ y ) δ s 2πy < δ A < 2π ( y + δ y ) . This arc is rotated about the x-axis by 2π radians. it forms a surface. Suppose two closely spaced points. dA = 2πy ds A= = or. You can see from the diagram that the curved surface generated by the rotation is larger than that of the cylinder of width δs obtained by rotating the point P about the x-axis. y ) and y P y O a b δs δx y x Q δy ( x + δ x.2) The area of surface of revolution obtained by rotating an arc of the curve y = f ( x ) through 2π radians about the x-axis between the points where x = a and x = b is given by A= ∫ ⎛ dy ⎞ 2πy 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx a ⎝ dx ⎠ b 2 137 . Therefore. The area of this surface is known as the ‘curved surface area’ or ‘area of surface of revolution’. the area of the former is 2πyδ s and that of the latter is 2π ( y + δ y ) δ s. δ y → 0 and δ s → 0 so that the right-hand side of the inequality tends to 2πy. dividing by δs. P and Q. and the length of arc PQ is δs. Using the formula S = 2πrh for the area of the curved surface of a cylinder. If the actual area generated by the rotation of arc PQ about the x-axis is denoted by δA. The coordinates of P and Q are ( x. are taken on the curve y = f ( x ) . y + δ y ) .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 7. δs Now as δ x → 0. respectively.3 Area of surface of revolution Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook If an arc of a curve is rotated about an axis. ∫ ∫ b a 2πy ds 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 2πy 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx a ⎝ dx ⎠ b (from section 6. but smaller than the area of the cylinder width δs obtained by rotating the point Q about the same axis.

1 – from there ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ = cosh x.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Find the area of surface of revolution when the curve y = cosh x is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis.2. ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ Example 7. y = a (1 − cos θ ) is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis is 64 πa 2 .3. ⎝ dx ⎠ Hence.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Example 7.2 Show that the area of surface of revolution when the cycloid curve given by the equations x = a (θ − sin θ ) . 3 138 . Solution This was the curve used in example 6.3. A= 2 ∫ = ∫ ⎛ dy ⎞ 2πy 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx 0 ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 2 2π cosh x cosh x dx ∫ cosh x dx = 2π 1 (1 + cosh 2 x ) dx ∫2 = 2π 0 2 0 = π ⎡ x + sinh 2 x ⎤ ⎢ 2 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ 2 = π ⎡ 2 + 1 sinh 4 ⎤ − π ⎡0 + 1 sinh 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = π ⎡ 2 + 1 sinh 4 ⎤ .

∫ = 4πa 2 2 2π 2 0 2πa (1 − cos θ ) 2a sin θ dθ 2 θ θ (using cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x − 1) 0 2π 2 2 0 2π 2 0 Now.2. 3 139 . 2 cos3 θ 2 3 . consider du = − 1 sin θ dθ 2 2 and the integral becomes 3 u 2 ( −2du ) = − 2u 3 ∫ cos 2 θ sin θ dθ . The substitution u = cos θ gives 2 2 2 ∫ =− Integrating for A. 2π A = 8πa 2 ⎡ −2 cos θ + 2 cos3 θ ⎤ ⎢ 2 3 2 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ 3 ⎤⎫ ⎧ ⎡ = 8πa 2 ⎨ ⎡ −2 cos π + 2 cos3 π ⎤ − ⎢ −2 cos 0 + 2 cos 0 ⎥ ⎬ ⎥ ⎣ 3 3 ⎦⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩⎢ = 8πa 2 ⎡ 2 − 2 + 2 − 2 ⎤ ⎢ 3 3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 64 πa 2 . A= 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ θ +⎜ ⎟ = 2a sin 2 .2 – from there Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) dx dθ Now.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Solution This was the curve used in example 6. ⎝ dθ ⎠ 2 ∫ = ∫ 2π 0 2π 2πy ( ) dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ dθ ⎝ dθ ⎠ 2 ∫ {1 − ( 2 cos 2 −1)}sin 2 dθ θ θ θ = 4πa ∫ ( 2sin 2 − 2 cos 2 sin 2 ) dθ = 8πa (sin θ2 − cos θ2 sin θ2 ) dθ .

dθ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (ii) The length of arc C measured from the point ( 0. where α = ln 9 . is rotated through one full turn about the x-axis to form a surface of 4 revolution with area S. (b) The arc of the curve with equation y = cosh x. between the points where x = 0 and x = ln 9 . [AQA Specimen] 2. (i) Show that y = sechθ . for any point on curve. y = e − s . Show that S = π ln 9 + p 4 for some rational number p whose value you should state. ( ) dθ d = sechθ = −sechθ tanh θ .1) to a general point with parameter θ is s. (a) Using only the definitions of cosh x and sinh x in terms of exponentials. Find s in terms of θ and deduce that. ( ) dθ Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) A curve C is given parametrically by x = θ − tanh θ .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 7 1. θ ≥ 0. (a) Show that (i) (ii) d tan θ = sech 2θ . [AEB June 2000] ( ) 140 . (i) determine the exact values of cosh α and sinh α . 4 (ii) establish the identities cosh 2 x ≡ 2 cosh 2 2 x − 1 sinh 2 x ≡ 2sinh x cosh x. ( ) dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = tanh 2 θ .

(i) Show that y = tanh θ . 2 2 ( ) ( ) (ii) Deduce a relationship between sechθ and tanh θ . (a) Prove that dx dθ y = 1 + cos θ . 25 [AEB June 1997] 4. (b) A curve C has parametric representation x = sechθ . dθ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (ii) The arc of the curve between the points where θ = 0 and θ = ln 7 is rotated through one full turn about the x-axis. Show that the area of the surface generated is 36 π square units.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 3. The area of the surface generated is denoted by S. Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook cosh θ = 1 eθ + e−θ and sinh θ = 1 eθ − e −θ . 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. (a) (i) Using only the definitions prove the identity cosh 2 θ − sinh 2 θ = 1. between the points when θ = 0 and θ = π is rotated 2 about the x-axis through 2π radians. 141 . Determine the value of the constant k for which S =k [AEB June 1996] θ θ ∫ (1 − sin 2 ) cos 2 dθ . dθ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 (b) The arc of this curve. ( ) 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = 4 cos 2 θ . A curve has parametric representation x = θ + sin θ . π 2 2 0 and hence evaluate S exactly. ( ) dx dθ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ +⎜ = sech 2θ .

3 where t is a parameter. (a) Show that dx dt Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( ) 2 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ = t2 +1 . The length of the arc of curve between the points where x = 0 and x = 1 is denoted by L. Determine (i) the length of L.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) 5. (ii) the area of the surface generated when L is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis [AEB January 1998] 6. y = t 2 . 8 [AEB January 2000] 142 . a use differentiation to determine the value of the constant k for which dy = k a 2 + x2 . ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 ( ) (b) The arc of C between the points where t = 0 and t = 3 is denoted by L. The curve C is defined parametrically by the equations x = 1 t 3 − t. Show that L = 5ln 5 + 12 . (a) Given that a is a positive constant and that y = a 2 sinh −1 x + x a 2 + x 2 . dx () (b) A curve has the equation y = sinh −1 x + x 1 + x 2 .

− 14 + 2 i Exercise 1D 1. π (c) 7. 4 + 3i (b) −1 + 8i .07. (a) 1 ( 6 + 8i ) 5 (b) 2 + 2i Exercise 1E 1. (a) 2.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 1 Exercise 1A 1. (a) 2 cos − π + i sin − π 4 4 ( ) (c) 4 ( cos π + i sin π ) 2.71 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Answers to Exercises – Further Pure 2 (d) 2.82 (b) 5. 2.16. − π 4 (b) 3.93 Exercise 1B 1. 0. − 5π 6 2. (a) 3. (a) 3 + i . π 2 (c) 4. (a) 2 cos π + i sin π 3 2 2 ( ) (b) z z1 ⎛z ⎞ = 1 and arg ⎜ 1 ⎟ = arg z1 − arg z2 z2 z2 ⎝ z2 ⎠ 143 . (a) − 2 + 2 i (b) −2 − 2 3 i (b) 3 cos π + sin π 2 2 (d) 2 cos − 5π + i sin − 5π 6 6 ( ( ) ) Exercise 1C 1. –1.

5i (b) 4 + 2i (c) 1 − 1 i 3 Exercise 1G 1.0) Q The locus is the line PQ 144 . (a) y (b) ( 0. (a) y (b) y π 4 (c) y 3 ( 2.62.1) (1.1) 4.5 + 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 1F π 1.1) O x O (1. 0. ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3 5π ⎞ (b) ⎛ . (a) ⎛ 6 .0 ) x O x y 2. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 6 ⎠ −5 π ⎞ (e) ⎛ 2 .98 Exercise 1H 1. −2 ) x ( −3.39.38 (b) 5. (a) 2. 0 ) 2.93 (c) 7. O P ( 0. (a) 5. x ( −1. –1.2 ) O x y O x y 3. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9 6 ⎠ 4π ⎞ (c) ⎛ 9 . ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (d) ( 27 . 0. 3) ( 4.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 1 1. (a) y 2 2.1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook y (b) O z 4 − 2i z* ( ) x ( ) 4. 0. (a) 1 ( 4 + 3i ) 5 3. 3 − 2i 2.46 and 10. − 7π 12 ) x P2 (b) y A −1. 3π 4 (b)(ii) y O P1 7.− 3 5 5 (c) 1. (a) y Q 3.32 (ii) 10 145 . 0 x 9. 0 x −3. 1+i (b)(i) 20. 1 (1 − i ) 5 5. π 6 (iii) 2 10 ( 8. 0 x arg z = 1 π 4 z − 2 − 3i = 3 O 2. (a) 14 + 2i. 4. 0 x 2. − 0.3 5 5 4 . (a)(i) −1 + i (ii) ( ) 4. y 2.2 P (b) 3 (c) π 3 O 6. 0 −1. 1 − 2i. 3 3. 1.

± i 2 146 . 12. 1 + i. x3 − 4 x 2 + 6 x − 4 = 0 2. 1 ± i (c) 2. − 1. 2. 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 7 x + 10 = 0 Exercise 2D 1&2 (a) x3 − 3 x 2 − 36 x − 189 = 0 3. 3 (b) 1. −7 . (a) 16 x 4 − 6 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = 0 (b) 3 Exercise 2F 1. (a) −3 ± i (b) −5 ± i Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook Exercise 2B 1. (a) −1. −2 3 3 3 2. (a) 7.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 2 Exercise 2A 1. –3i 3. − 2 ± i Exercise 2C 1. (a) 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 162 = 0 (b) x3 − 4 x 2 + x − 5 = 0 (b) 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 12 x + 1 = 0 (c) 7 x3 + 8 x 2 + 4 x − 8 = 0 Exercise 2E 1. –5 (b) −4 .

150 3. (a) p = −3 (b) (i) q = 7 (ii) ∑α 2 < 0 (c) (i) – 3 (ii) 75 6. (a) 8 7 (b) 1 − 2i . −6 7 5. – 11. q = −4 147 . (a) Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ∑ α = 0 ∑ αβ = 3 2 αβγ = −2 (b) 2 x3 − 3 x 2 − 8 = 0 4. γ = −6 (ii) −150 (iii) 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 2 1. β = 5 (b) −2 2. (b) (i) β = 3 − 4i. (b) (i) p = 4. (a) α = 1.

(b) 1 − 18 3 ( n + 1)( n + 2 )( n + 3) 3. (b) 1 n ( n + 1)( n + 2 ) 6 Miscellaneous exercises 3 2. (a) 1 (c) 1 ( ) 148 . (a) 2r (b) 1 n ( n + 1) 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1 2. (a) 2 10.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter Chapter33 Exercise 3A 1. (b) n ( n + 1) n 2 + n + 1 9.

± i (b) 2 cos 2kπ + i sin 2kπ . 5 k = ±1. ± 2. 3sin θ − 4sin 3 θ 3 2. ± 4. ± 2 (c) cos kπ + i sin kπ . ± 3. (a) –1 (b) 7 (c) 8 Exercise 4F 1. (a) cos15θ + i sin15θ (e) −64 (b) 1 (f) − 1 64 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook ( 3 +i ) (c) i (g) −41472 3 (d) −8i Exercise 4B 1. cos 2kπ + i sin 2kπ . ± 1 i 2 2 149 . 16sin 5 θ − 20sin 3 θ + 5sin θ Exercise 4C 1. (a) 1 ⎛ z 4 + 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2⎜ z4 ⎠ ⎝ (b) 1 ⎛ z 7 + 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2⎜ z7 ⎠ ⎝ (c) 1 ⎛ z 6 − 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2i ⎜ z6 ⎠ ⎝ (d) 1 ⎛ z 3 − 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2i ⎜ z3 ⎠ ⎝ Exercise 4D 1. 5 5 k = 0 ± 1. 5 5 2. (a) ±1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 4 Exercise 4A 2. ± 2 ( ) k = 0 ± 1. 1 . 5 5 3. 3 tan θ − tan θ 1 − 3 tan 2 θ 3. (a) 2e 4 πi (b) 2e − πi 6 (c) 12e 6 π (d) 4e 6 5π Exercise 4E 1.

(a) 2e (c) 8 k = 0. ± 2 (c)(i) coefficients of w6 cancel 3πi 2e 4 .28i (c) 5− 5 . 8 5+ 5 8 y πi(1+2k ) 5 ( ) ( ) 3. (b) 1.12i. 1.41 + 0. − 7πi 2e 12 (ii) − 1 2 y 2 9. 2 cos − π + i sin − π 4 4 6 6 (c) ±2 (1 + i ) . (b) ± 5 ± 5 8 4. 2. (b)(ii) x 2 + x − 1 = 0 7. B = −3 (b) e kπi 3 (iv) −1 + 5 . 2 cos 4π 5 5 (b)(i) A = 1. (a)(i) 2sin θ 2 (iii) 2 cos 2π . ± 1. 2. 1. radius 1 1 x 6.16i. 2. − 0.81 + 1. (a) 64. 3 1 ( 6 k −1) πi 2 8 e 24 k = 1. 4 −1 − 5 4 k = ±1. ± 2 (1 − i ) ( ) ( 2. 2 Miscellaneous exercises 4 1. ± 2 (ii) 2 cos π 10 (c) centre z = 1. 8 (d) ± 1 ( i − 1) 2 (f) − 1 cot kπ − i 2 5 ( 4 k +1) πi (e) 2e 6 − 1 k = 0. (b) z = 1 + e (d)(i) π 10 k = ±1. % . 2 cos− π + i sin − π 4 4 6 6 (b)(ii) 1. 2 ( ) ) k = 0. +π (b) 2 2 cos π + i sin π .60 − 1. (a) 2 cos π + i sin π . 3 5. (b) (c) B A 2 (d) 3 3 2 x 2 C 2 150 . 3 (b) k = 1. (a)(ii) 2i sin nθ 8. − 0.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 4G (1+ 2 k ) πi 1 ( 8 k −1) πi 2 6 e 12 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 1. 3.

(a) 3 1 + 9x 2 x + tan −1 x 1 + x2 2e x 1 − 4 x2 2 x2 −8 + 12 x − 4 x 2 (b) −3 6x − 9x 2 (c) 2 1 − 4x 2 2. (a) π 4 (b) π 6 (c) − π 6 (d) π 2 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (e) − π 6 (f) π Exercise 5C 1. (a) a 1 − ( ax + b ) 2 (b) a 2 1 + ( ax + b ) 151 .klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 5 Exercise 5A 1. (a) (b) e x cos −1 2 x − (c) 2 x sin −1 ( 2 x − 3) + 3 3. (a) x3 −1 − 3sin 4 3 x x 1 − 9 x2 (b) ⎛ (1 + x ) ⎜1 + (3x ⎝ 2 6x 2 2 ⎞ +1 ⎟ ⎠ ) − 2 x tan −1 3 x 2 + 1 (1 + x ) 2 ( ) 2 4.

klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 5D 1. (a) sin −1 x − 1 − x 2 (b) −3 3 + 2 x − x 2 + sin −1 x − 1 2 (c) ( ) ⎛ ⎞ 1 − x − x 2 + 3 sin −1 ⎜ 2 x + 1 ⎟ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 152 . 2 5 5 2 4. (a) ln x 2 + 2 x + 3 − 2 tan −1 ⎜ x + 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ( ) ⎛ ⎞ (b) 1 ln x 2 + x + 1 − 1 tan −1 ⎜ 2 x + 1 ⎟ 2 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ( ) 3. π Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook 3. π 4 5. (a) tan −1 ( x + 2 ) (b) 1 tan −1 2 x − 1 ( ) 3 6 (c) 2 tan −1 2 x − 1 7 7 ⎛ ⎞ 2. (a) sin −1 x − 3 4 ( ) (b) sin −1 x − 1 2 ( ) (c) 1 sin −1 4 x − 1 ( ) 2 4. 5 right-angled triangle]. π 2 Exercise 5E 1. π [note that sin −1 4 + sin −1 3 = π by drawing a 3. π 6 2. 4.

05 (f) 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 6 Exercise 6A 1. (a) y y 1 O y x (b) O x (c) 1 O x –1 Exercise 6E 2. (a) 3sinh 3x (d) 2 x sinh 2 x2− cosh 2 x x (g) −cosech x coth x (b) 6sinh 3 x cosh 3 x (e) tanh x + x sech 2 x (c) 2 x cosh x + x 2 sinh x (f) −sech x tanh x 153 .24 (d) –0.54 (e) 1.64 (b) 0. (a) 2 x e + e− x 2x (b) e 2 x + 1 e −1 x (c) e x − 1 e +1 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (d) 2 e − e−3 x 3x Exercise 6B 1.86 (c) 0.00 Exercise 6C 1. 8cosh 4 x − 8cosh 2 x + 1 Exercise 6F 1. (a) 0.

− ln 7 (e) 0 (c) ln ( 2 − 1 . (a) 3 9 − x2 1 9+ x 2 (c) (e) 1 x − 16 2 − 1 cosh −1 x 2 2 4 x −1 x 2 (d) e x sinh −1 x + 1 + x2 2. ln 4 + 15 ) ( ) 154 . (a) ln 2 (d) ln 5 + 21 2 (b) 1. 2 3 + ln 2 + 3 3 ( ) (b) cosh −1 x + c 4 −1 x + 1 (e) sinh +c 2 (h) cosh −1 x − 1 + c 3 (c) 1 sinh −1 2 x + c 2 5 −1 x − 2 (f) cosh +c 4 Exercise 6J 1.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Exercise 6G 1.5 Exercise 6I 1. (a) 1 sinh 3 x + c 3 (c) 1 x cosh 2 x − 1 sinh 2 x + c 2 4 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) 1 x + 1 sinh 2 x + c 2 2 (d) x − tanh x ( ) Exercise 6H 3. (a) sinh −1 x + c 3 1 sinh −1 3 x + c (d) 3 7 (g) sinh −1 ( x + 2 ) + c Exercise 6K 1. (a) ln 1 3 + 5 2 ( ) (b) e x (b) 1 ln 2 2 (c) ln1.

(b) ln 4 5. (b) − ln 2. (c)(ii) 1. (d) 1 ( ln 3) 8 (b)(ii) 2 − ln ( 2 +1 ) 11. (a) e x 2. (b)(i) 1 tanh 2 x 2 8. (c) − 2 . 1 ln 2 2 3.76 155 . y Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (b) 1 ( ) (ii) ln cosh x − 1 tanh 2 x 2 (b)(i) ln 3 two roots one root no roots x (ii) ln 3 4 1 O 9. (a) x ≥ 0 2 10. ln 2 + 5 4.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Miscellaneous exercises 6 1. − 4 3 3 7.

5.klmGCE Further Mathematics (6370) Chapter 7 Miscellaneous exercises 7 1. 3. 72 65 72 (b) 6305 5184 Further Pure 2 (MFP2) Textbook (a)(ii) 1 − tanh 2 θ = sech 2θ (b) k = 8π. (b)(i) 12 (a) 2 20 2π 3 (ii) 576 π 5 156 . 4. 2. (b)(ii) s = ln cosh θ (a)(i) 97 . 6.

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